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Sample records for human cytokine synthesis

  1. Effects of verocytotoxin-1 on nonadherent human monocytes: binding characteristics, protein synthesis, and induction of cytokine release.

    PubMed

    van Setten, P A; Monnens, L A; Verstraten, R G; van den Heuvel, L P; van Hinsbergh, V W

    1996-07-01

    The epidemic form of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been associated with a verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli infection. Endothelial cell damage of glomeruli and arterioles of the kidney plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HUS. A number of observations in vivo and in vitro indicate that inflammatory mediators contribute to this process. In this study we investigated the binding of 125I-verocytotoxin-1 (VT-1) to freshly isolated human nonadherent monocytes as well as the nature of the ligand to which VT-1 binds on monocytes. On the average, freshly isolated monocytes have 0.07 x 10(5) specific binding sites for 125I-VT-1 per cell. Preincubation of nonadherent monocytes with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a 23- to 30-fold increase of specific binding sites for VT-1 as shown by Scatchard plot analysis. Thin-layer chromatography of extracted neutral glycolipids of the cells and subsequent binding of 125I-VT-1 showed that human monocytes bind VT-1 to a globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) species that is different from that found on endothelial cells, probably a short-chain fatty acyl Gb3 or an alpha-OH-Gb3. In addition, we evaluated the functional consequences of VT-1 binding to human monocytes by investigating the effects of VT-1 on the total protein synthesis and, specifically, the production of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, and IL-8. We observed that VT-1 did not inhibit overall protein synthesis, nor under basal conditions, neither after stimulation with LPS, in contrast to previous observations with endothelial cells. Furthermore, we found that VT-1 induces the synthesis of the cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 in nonstimulated monocytes by a LPS-independent cell activation. The increase in the production of cytokines was parallelled by an increase in mRNA, as was demonstrated for IL-6 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data suggest that

  2. Isolation and expression of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor cDNA clones: Homology to Epstein-Barr virus open reading frame BCRFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, P.; De Waal-Malefyt, R.; Dang, M.N.; Johnson, K.E.; Kastelein, R.; Fiorentino, D.F.; DeVries, J.E.; Roncarolo, M.G.; Mosmann, T.R.; Moore, K.W. )

    1991-02-15

    The authors demonstrated the existence of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (DSIF) (interleukin 10 (IL-10)). cDNA clones encoding human IL-10 (hIL-10) were isolated from a tetanus toxin-specific human T-cell clone. Like mouse IL-10, hIL-10 exhibits strong DNA and amino acid sequence homology to an open reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus, BDRFL. hIL-10 and the BCRFI product inhibit cytokine synthesis by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a mouse Th1 clone. Both hIL-10 and mouse IL-10 sustain the viability of a mouse mast cell line in culture, but BCRFI lacks comparable activity in this way, suggesting that BCRFI may have conserved only a subset of hIL-10 activities.

  3. Leptin enhances ICAM-1 expression, induces migration and cytokine synthesis, and prolongs survival of human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Maho; Koketsu, Rikiya; Baba, Shintaro; Igarashi, Sayaka; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masao; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi; Shoji, Shunsuke; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2015-10-15

    There is rising interest in how obesity affects respiratory diseases, since epidemiological findings indicate a strong relationship between the two conditions. Leptin is a potent adipokine produced mainly by adipocytes. It regulates energy storage and expenditure and also induces inflammation. Previous studies have shown that leptin is able to activate inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes and granulocytes, but little is known about its effect on lung structural cells. The present study investigated the effects of leptin on human airway epithelial cells by using human primary airway epithelial cells and a human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Flow cytometry showed enhanced ICAM-1 expression by both of those cells in response to leptin, and that effect was abrogated by dexamethasone or NF-κB inhibitor. Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR showed that airway epithelial cells expressed leptin receptor (Ob-R), whose expression level was downregulated by leptin itself. Multiplex cytokine analysis demonstrated enhanced production of CCL11, G-CSF, VEGF, and IL-6 by BEAS-2B cells stimulated with leptin. Furthermore, transfection of Ob-R small interference RNA decreased the effect of leptin on CCL11 production as assessed by quantitative PCR. Finally, leptin induced migration of primary airway epithelial cells toward leptin, suppressed BEAS-2B apoptosis induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ, and enhanced proliferation of primary airway epithelial cells. In summary, leptin was able to directly activate human airway epithelial cells by binding to Ob-R and by NF-κB activation, resulting in upregulation of ICAM-1 expression, induction of CCL11, VEGF, G-CSF, and IL-6 synthesis, induction of migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of proliferation.

  4. Leptin enhances ICAM-1 expression, induces migration and cytokine synthesis, and prolongs survival of human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Maho; Koketsu, Rikiya; Baba, Shintaro; Igarashi, Sayaka; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masao; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi; Shoji, Shunsuke; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2015-10-15

    There is rising interest in how obesity affects respiratory diseases, since epidemiological findings indicate a strong relationship between the two conditions. Leptin is a potent adipokine produced mainly by adipocytes. It regulates energy storage and expenditure and also induces inflammation. Previous studies have shown that leptin is able to activate inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes and granulocytes, but little is known about its effect on lung structural cells. The present study investigated the effects of leptin on human airway epithelial cells by using human primary airway epithelial cells and a human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Flow cytometry showed enhanced ICAM-1 expression by both of those cells in response to leptin, and that effect was abrogated by dexamethasone or NF-κB inhibitor. Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR showed that airway epithelial cells expressed leptin receptor (Ob-R), whose expression level was downregulated by leptin itself. Multiplex cytokine analysis demonstrated enhanced production of CCL11, G-CSF, VEGF, and IL-6 by BEAS-2B cells stimulated with leptin. Furthermore, transfection of Ob-R small interference RNA decreased the effect of leptin on CCL11 production as assessed by quantitative PCR. Finally, leptin induced migration of primary airway epithelial cells toward leptin, suppressed BEAS-2B apoptosis induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ, and enhanced proliferation of primary airway epithelial cells. In summary, leptin was able to directly activate human airway epithelial cells by binding to Ob-R and by NF-κB activation, resulting in upregulation of ICAM-1 expression, induction of CCL11, VEGF, G-CSF, and IL-6 synthesis, induction of migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of proliferation. PMID:26276826

  5. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to further explore the effects of space flight on cytokines and cytokine-directed immunological function.

  6. Human Bladder Uroepithelial Cells Synergize with Monocytes to Promote IL-10 Synthesis and Other Cytokine Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Duell, Benjamin L.; Carey, Alison J.; Dando, Samantha J.; Schembri, Mark A.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a major source of morbidity for women and the elderly, with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) being the most prevalent causative pathogen. Studies in recent years have defined a key anti-inflammatory role for Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in urinary tract infection mediated by UPEC and other uropathogens. We investigated the nature of the IL-10-producing interactions between UPEC and host cells by utilising a novel co-culture model that incorporated lymphocytes, mononuclear and uroepithelial cells in histotypic proportions. This co-culture model demonstrated synergistic IL-10 production effects between monocytes and uroepithelial cells following infection with UPEC. Membrane inserts were used to separate the monocyte and uroepithelial cell types during infection and revealed two synergistic IL-10 production effects based on contact-dependent and soluble interactions. Analysis of a comprehensive set of immunologically relevant biomarkers in monocyte-uroepithelial cell co-cultures highlighted that multiple cytokine, chemokine and signalling factors were also produced in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. These results demonstrate that IL-10 responses to UPEC occur via multiple interactions between several cells types, implying a complex role for infection-related IL-10 during UTI. Development and application of the co-culture model described in this study is thus useful to define the degree of contact dependency of biomarker production to UPEC, and highlights the relevance of histotypic co-cultures in studying complex host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24155979

  7. Human bladder uroepithelial cells synergize with monocytes to promote IL-10 synthesis and other cytokine responses to uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Duell, Benjamin L; Carey, Alison J; Dando, Samantha J; Schembri, Mark A; Ulett, Glen C

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a major source of morbidity for women and the elderly, with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) being the most prevalent causative pathogen. Studies in recent years have defined a key anti-inflammatory role for Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in urinary tract infection mediated by UPEC and other uropathogens. We investigated the nature of the IL-10-producing interactions between UPEC and host cells by utilising a novel co-culture model that incorporated lymphocytes, mononuclear and uroepithelial cells in histotypic proportions. This co-culture model demonstrated synergistic IL-10 production effects between monocytes and uroepithelial cells following infection with UPEC. Membrane inserts were used to separate the monocyte and uroepithelial cell types during infection and revealed two synergistic IL-10 production effects based on contact-dependent and soluble interactions. Analysis of a comprehensive set of immunologically relevant biomarkers in monocyte-uroepithelial cell co-cultures highlighted that multiple cytokine, chemokine and signalling factors were also produced in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. These results demonstrate that IL-10 responses to UPEC occur via multiple interactions between several cells types, implying a complex role for infection-related IL-10 during UTI. Development and application of the co-culture model described in this study is thus useful to define the degree of contact dependency of biomarker production to UPEC, and highlights the relevance of histotypic co-cultures in studying complex host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to explore further the effects of space flight on cyotokines and cytokine-directed immunological function. Among the tests carried out are interferon-alpha production, interferon-gamma production, interleukin-1 and -2 production, signal transduction in neutrophils, signal transduction in monocytes, and monocyte phagocytic activity. The experiments will be performed using peripheral blood obtained from human subjects. It is our intent to eventually carry out these experiments using astronauts as subjects to determine the effects of space flight on cytokine production and activity. However, these subjects are not currently available. Until they become available, we will carry out these experiments using subjects maintained in the bed-rest model for microgravity.

  9. PAI-1 synthesis in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 is increased by cytokines--evidence that the liver contributes to acute phase behaviour of PAI-1.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Abbink, J J; Brouwer, M C; Meijer, C; Roem, D; Voorn, G P; Lambers, J W; van Mourik, J A; Hack, C E

    1991-02-12

    The acute phase behaviour of the fast inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (PAI-1) in vivo has been attributed to increased synthesis by endothelial cells. However, most other acute phase proteins in vivo are synthesized in the liver, which process is regulated by cytokines and can be studied in the hepatoma derived cell line HepG2. In this study, we investigated whether the synthesis of PAI-1 by HepG2 cells is regulated by the cytokines recombinant IL-1, rIL-6 and rTNF. Recombinant IL-1 and rTNF each increased PAI-1 synthesis by HepG2 cells two to three fold, whereas rIL-6 hardly had an effect. Mixtures of rIL-1, rIL-6 and rTNF increased PAI-1 synthesis up to eleven fold. The effects observed were not due to non-specific effects on HepG2 cell metabolism, since synthesis of alpha-2-antiplasmin was not effected by any of those cytokines, whereas fibrinogen synthesis was increased three to four fold by rIL-6, but was unaffected by rIL-1. Thus, our results demonstrate that synthesis of PAI-1 by HepG2 cells is regulated by cytokines and implicate that the acute phase behaviour of PAI-1 in vivo at least in part may be due to an increased synthesis by the liver.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide induces the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocyte cell line U937 via the ERK-NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Liang; Ang, Abel Damien; Zhang, Huili; Moore, Philip K; Bhatia, Madhav

    2007-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now considered an endogenous, gaseous mediator, which has been demonstrated to be involved in many inflammatory states. However, the mechanism of its proinflammatory function remains unknown. In the present study, we used IFN-gamma-primed human monocytic cell line U937 to investigate the effects of H2S in vitro on monocytes. We found that treatment with the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide, led to significant increases in the mRNA expression and protein production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in U937 cells. H2S-triggered monocyte activation was confirmed further by the up-regulation of CD11b expression on the cell surface. We also observed that H2S could induce a rapid degradation of IkappaBalpha and subsequent activation of NF-kappaB p65, and this effect was attenuated by Bay 11-7082, a specific inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with Bay 11-7082 substantially inhibited the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 induced by H2S. We also found that H2S stimulated the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, but not of p38 MAPK and JNK, and pretreatment with PD98059, a selective MEK1 antagonist, could inhibit H2S-induced NF-kappaB activation markedly. Together, our findings suggest for the first time that H2S stimulates the activation of human monocytes with the generation of proinflammatory cytokines, and this response is, at least partially, through the ERK-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  11. Obligate Ordered Binding of Human Lactogenic Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jeffery L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 cytokines bind two receptors to create an active heterotrimeric complex. It has been argued that ligand binding to their receptors is an ordered process, but a structural mechanism describing this process has not been determined. We have previously described an obligate ordered binding mechanism for the human prolactin/prolactin receptor heterotrimeric complex. In this work we expand this conceptual understanding of ordered binding to include three human lactogenic hormones: prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. We independently blocked either of the two receptor binding sites of each hormone and used surface plasmon resonance to measure human prolactin receptor binding kinetics and stoichiometries to the remaining binding surface. When site 1 of any of the three hormones was blocked, site 2 could not bind the receptor. But blocking site 2 did not affect receptor binding at site 1, indicating a requirement for receptor binding to site 1 before site 2 binding. In addition we noted variable responses to the presence of zinc in hormone-receptor interaction. Finally, we performed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses where receptor binding at subsaturating stoichiometries induced changes in FRET signaling, indicative of binding-induced changes in hormone conformation, whereas at receptor:hormone ratios in excess of 2:1 no additional changes in FRET signaling were observed. These results strongly support a conformationally mediated obligate-ordered receptor binding for each of the three lactogenic hormones. PMID:20427283

  12. Inhibitory effects of bisbenzylisoquinolines on synthesis of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Seow, W. Kim; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Yukio; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Fairlie, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Synthesis of IL-1β and TNFα by human monocytesmacrophages was significantly inhibited by eleven bisbenzylisoquinolines and one half-molecule (benzylisoquinoline), with IC50 values in the μM range. The results indicate that these compounds may have value in the therapy of human diseases where these inflammatory cytokines have a central role in pathogenesis. PMID:18475522

  13. Cytokine-mediated PGE2 expression in human colonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, E C; Zhu, Y; Andersen, V; Sciaky, D; Cao, H J; Meekins, H; Smith, T J; Lance, P

    1998-10-01

    We investigated prostanoid biogenesis in human colonic fibroblasts (CCD-18Co and 5 primary fibroblast cultures) and epithelial cell lines (NCM460, T84, HT-29, and LS 174T) and the effect of PGE2 on fibroblast morphology. Cytokine-stimulated PGE2 production was measured. PGH synthase-1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and -2) protein and mRNA expression were evaluated. Basal PGE2 levels were low in all cell types (0.15-6.47 ng/mg protein). Treatment for 24 h with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta; 10 ng/ml) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (50 ng/ml), respectively, elicited maximal 25- and 6-fold inductions of PGE2 synthesis in CCD-18Co cultures and similar results in primary fibroblast cultures; maximal inductions with IL-1beta in colonic epithelial cell lines were from zero to fivefold. Treatment of CCD-18Co fibroblasts with IL-1beta caused maximal 21- and 53-fold increases, respectively, in PGHS-2 protein and mRNA levels without altering PGHS-1 expression. PGE2 (0.1 micromol/l) elicited a dramatic shape change in selected fibroblasts. Colonic fibroblasts are potentially important as cytokine targets and a source of and target for colonic prostanoids in vivo. PMID:9755052

  14. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  15. Cytokine disbalance in common human cancers.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, -4, and -8 levels have been elevated in most patients suffering from prostate, breast, or colon cancer. There is a large body of evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation is one of the etiologic factors in these tumors. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine which is known to influence proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in cancer. Its transcription factor STAT3 is known as an oncogene that is constitutively phosphorylated in these malignancies. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation may result in growth arrest. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer may yield either tumor cell proliferation or differentiation. Prolonged treatment with IL-6 results in generation of sublines which express a more malignant phenotype. Therapy options against IL-6 have been established and the antibody siltuximab has been applied in preclinical and clinical studies. Recently, investigations of the role of suppressors of cytokine signaling have been carried out. IL-4 and -8 are implicated in regulation of apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. All cytokines mentioned above regulate cellular events in stem cells. These cells could not be targeted by most conventional cancer therapies. PMID:21167870

  16. The Role of Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling in Human Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup K.; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signalling 1–7 (SOCS1–7) and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) are a group of intracellular proteins that are well known as JAK-STAT and several other signalling pathways negative feedback regulators. More recently several members have been identified as tumour suppressors and dysregulation of their biological roles in controlling cytokine and growth factor signalling may contribute to the development of many solid organ and haematological malignancies. This review explores their biological functions and their possible tumour suppressing role in human neoplasms. PMID:24757565

  17. Differential Cytokine Responses in Human and Mouse Lymphatic Endothelial Cells to Cytokines in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, G.V.; Franks, S.E.; Cromer, W.; Wells, S.R.; Bienkowska, M.; Jennings, M.H.; Ruddell, A.; Ando, T.; Wang, Y.; Gu, Y.; Sapp, M.; Mathis, J.M.; Jordan, P.A.; Minagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines dysregulate microvascular function, yet how cytokines affect lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) are unclear. Methods and Results We examined effects of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ on LEC proliferation, endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ECAM) expression, capillary formation, and barrier changes in murine (SV-LEC) and human LECs (HMEC-1a). Results All cytokines induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and E-selectin in SV-LECs; TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ induced ECAMs (but not MAdCAM-1) in HMEC-1a. IL-1β increased, while IFN-γ and TNF-α reduced SV-LEC proliferation. While TNF-α induced, IFN-γ decreased, and IL-1β did not show any effect on HMEC-1a proliferation. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ each reduced capillary formation in SV-LEC and in HMEC-1a. TNF-α and IL-1β reduced barrier in SV-LEC and HMEC-1a; IFN-γ did not affect SV-LEC barrier, but enhanced HMEC-1a barrier. Inflammatory cytokines alter LEC growth, activation and barrier function in vitro and may disturb lymphatic clearance increasing tissue edema in vivo. Conclusion Therapies that maintain or restore lymphatic function (including cytokines blockade), may represent important strategies for limiting inflammation. PMID:20863268

  18. Crystal structure of a human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase cytokine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Skene, Robert J; McRee, Duncan E; Schimmel, Paul

    2002-11-26

    The 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis and establish the rules of the genetic code through aminoacylation reactions. Biological fragments of two human enzymes, tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, connect protein synthesis to cell-signaling pathways including angiogenesis. Alternative splicing or proteolysis produces these fragments. The proangiogenic N-terminal fragment mini-TyrRS has IL-8-like cytokine activity that, like other CXC cytokines, depends on a Glu-Leu-Arg motif. Point mutations in this motif abolish cytokine activity. The full-length native TyrRS lacks cytokine activity. No structure has been available for any mammalian tRNA synthetase that, in turn, might give insight into why mini-TyrRS and not TyrRS has cytokine activities. Here, the structure of human mini-TyrRS, which contains both the catalytic and the anticodon recognition domain, is reported to a resolution of 1.18 A. The critical Glu-Leu-Arg motif is located on an internal alpha-helix of the catalytic domain, where the guanidino side chain of R is part of a hydrogen-bonding network tethering the anticodon-recognition domain back to the catalytic site. Whereas the catalytic domains of the human and bacterial enzymes superimpose, the spatial disposition of the anticodon recognition domain relative to the catalytic domain is unique in mini-TyrRS relative to the bacterial orthologs. This unique orientation of the anticodon-recognition domain can explain why the fragment mini-TyrRS, and not full-length native TyrRS, is active in cytokine-signaling pathways. PMID:12427973

  19. Multidimensional scaling of multiplex data: human milk cytokines.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; Beckstead, Jason W

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster-analytic techniques to examine how cytokine levels from a large multiplex assay of human milk samples covary. Milk samples were collected at 4-6 weeks postpartum from 57 women and were assayed by Luminex multiplex technology for 20 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. The MDS was applied to a proximity-score matrix based on these values. A three-dimensional (3D) space was sufficient to accommodate the configuration of relationships. Cytokines that covaried in their concentrations were assigned similar coordinates and plotted close together in 3D space. Several clusters of cytokines were identified. Since very little is known about the origins and functions of cytokines in milk, this approach may provide new clues that will guide future explorations of origins and functional relationships of the separate clusters. This analytical tool may provide a new approach to understanding the physiology of milk cytokines and may be generalizable to multiplex data in general.

  20. Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in

  1. Human placental trophoblasts express the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiting; Gao, Wenjuan; Ma, Chao; Sun, Jintang; Liu, Jia; Shao, Qianqian; Song, Bingfeng; Qu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    Studies of maternal-fetal tolerance focus on defining mechanisms for establishment of immunological privilege within the uterus during pregnancy. Fetal trophoblasts play a key role in maternal tolerance, in part through cytokines production. As a novel inhibitory cytokine, IL-35 is produced by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and mediates maximal suppression of Tregs. The purpose of the study is to analyze the expression of IL-35 in first-trimester human placental trophoblasts. IL-35 expression was detected at both protein and mRNA levels by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR method, respectively and secretion of IL-35 was measured by ELISA assay. Our results demonstrated that human trophoblasts constitutively expressed IL-35. Ebi3 and p35 (two subunits of IL-35) mRNA was shown to be co-expressed in trophoblast cells. Moreover, large amounts of secreted IL-35 were detected in the supernatants of trophoblast cells. But we did not detect the constitutive expression of IL-35 in decidual stromal cells. Our findings confirmed for the first time that first-trimester human trophoblast cells expressed and secreted IL-35, which might contribute to their suppressive capacity to maternal immune cells. Therefore, IL-35 may be an important factor of the cytokine network regulating local immune responses during human pregnancy.

  2. In situ expression of cytokines in human heart allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoffen, E.; Van Wichen, D.; Stuij, I.; De Jonge, N.; Klöpping, C.; Lahpor, J.; Van Den Tweel, J.; Gmelig-Meyling, F.; De Weger, R.

    1996-01-01

    Although allograft rejection, the major complication of human organ transplantation, has been extensively studied, little is known about the exact cellular localization of the cytokine expression inside the graft during rejection. Therefore, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to study local cytokine mRNA and protein expression in human heart allografts, in relation to the phenotypical characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. Clear expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-9, and IL-10 and weak expression for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was detected in biopsies exhibiting high rejection grades (grade 3A/B). Also at lower grades of rejection, mRNA for IL-6 and IL-9 was present. Some mRNA for IL-1 beta, TNF-beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma was detected in only a few biopsies. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 protein was detected in biopsies with high rejection grades, whereas few cells expressed IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-gamma. In biopsies with lower grades of rejection, a weaker expression of these cytokines was observed. IL-4 was hardly detected in any of the biopsies. The level of IL-12 expression was equal in all biopsies. Although mRNA expression of several cytokines was expressed at a low level compared with the protein level of those cytokines, there was a good correlation between localization of cytokine mRNA and protein. Expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma was mainly detected in lymphocytes. IL-3, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 were not detected or not only detected in lymphocytes but also in other stromal elements (eg, macrophages). Macrophage production of IL-3 and IL-12 was confirmed by immunofluorescent double labeling with CD68. We conclude that cardiac allograft rejection is not simply regulated by T helper cell cytokine production, but other intragraft elements contribute considerably to this process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8952534

  3. Human malarial disease: a consequence of inflammatory cytokine release

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A; Budd, Alison C; Alleva, Lisa M; Cowden, William B

    2006-01-01

    Malaria causes an acute systemic human disease that bears many similarities, both clinically and mechanistically, to those caused by bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses. Over the past few decades, a literature has emerged that argues for most of the pathology seen in all of these infectious diseases being explained by activation of the inflammatory system, with the balance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines being tipped towards the onset of systemic inflammation. Although not often expressed in energy terms, there is, when reduced to biochemical essentials, wide agreement that infection with falciparum malaria is often fatal because mitochondria are unable to generate enough ATP to maintain normal cellular function. Most, however, would contend that this largely occurs because sequestered parasitized red cells prevent sufficient oxygen getting to where it is needed. This review considers the evidence that an equally or more important way ATP deficency arises in malaria, as well as these other infectious diseases, is an inability of mitochondria, through the effects of inflammatory cytokines on their function, to utilise available oxygen. This activity of these cytokines, plus their capacity to control the pathways through which oxygen supply to mitochondria are restricted (particularly through directing sequestration and driving anaemia), combine to make falciparum malaria primarily an inflammatory cytokine-driven disease. PMID:17029647

  4. Titanium surface hydrophilicity modulates the human macrophage inflammatory cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Alfarsi, Mohammed A; Hamlet, Stephen M; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Increased titanium surface hydrophilicity has been shown to accelerate dental implant osseointegration. Macrophages are important in the early inflammatory response to surgical implant placement and influence the subsequent healing response. This study investigated the modulatory effect of a hydrophilic titanium surface on the inflammatory cytokine expression profile in a human macrophage cell line (THP-1). Genes for 84 cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors were analyzed following exposure to (1) polished (SMO), (2) micro-rough sand blasted, acid etched (SLA), and (3) hydrophilic-modified SLA (modSLA) titanium surfaces for 1 and 3 days. By day 3, the SLA surface elicited a pro-inflammatory response compared to the SMO surface with statistically significant up-regulation of 16 genes [Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Interleukin (IL)-1β, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-1, 2, 3, 4, 18, 19, and 20, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, 5, 8 and 12, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR)-7, Lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), and Leukotriene B4 receptor (LTB4R)]. This effect was countered by the modSLA surface, which down-regulated the expression of 10 genes (TNF, IL-1α and β, CCL-1, 3, 19 and 20, CXCL-1 and 8, and IL-1 receptor type 1), while two were up-regulated (osteopontin and CCR5) compared to the SLA surface. These cytokine gene expression changes were confirmed by decreased levels of corresponding protein secretion in response to modSLA compared to SLA. These results show that a hydrophilic titanium surface can modulate human macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and protein secretion. An attenuated pro-inflammatory response may be an important molecular mechanism for faster and/or improved wound healing.

  5. Synthesis Approaches to (-)-Cytoxazone, a Novel Cytokine Modulator, and Related Structures.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Izabel L; Lopes, Ítala K B; Diaz, Marisa A N; Diaz, Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Cytoxazone, originally isolated from cultures of a Streptomyces species has an oxazolidin-2-one 4,5-disubstituted ring. It is known that this natural product presents a cytokine modulator effect through the signaling pathway of Th2 cells (type 2 cytokines), which are involved in the process of growth and differentiation of cells. From this, the interest in the development of research aimed at the total synthesis of this molecule and its analogs has remained high, which can be confirmed by the large number of publications on the topic, more than 30 to date. This review focuses on the various creative methods for the synthesis of (-)-cytoxazone and its congeners. The assessment of the preparation of this oxazolidinone and related structures serves as a treatise on the efforts made in the synthesis of this important class of compound from its first total synthesis in 1999. PMID:27608004

  6. P-body formation limits proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in endotoxin tolerant monocytes and murine septic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Clara; Brudecki, Laura; Yao, Zhi Q.; McCall, Charles E.; Gazzar, Mohamed El

    2015-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory phenotype with pronounced immunosuppression develops during sepsis, during which time neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages limit their toll-like receptor 4 responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS/endotoxin). We previously reported that during this endotoxin tolerant state, distinct signaling pathways differentially repress transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. Sustained endotoxin tolerance contributes to sepsis mortality. While transcription repression requires chromatin modifications, a translational repressor complex of Ago2 and RBM4, which bind the 3’ UTR of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA, limits protein synthesis. Here, we show that Dcp1 supports the assembly of Ago2 and RBM4 repressor complex into cytoplasmic p-bodies in endotoxin-tolerant THP-1 human monocytes following stimulation with LPS, resulting in translational repression and limiting protein synthesis. Importantly, this translocation process is reversed by Dcp1 knockdown, which restores TNFα and IL-6 protein levels. We also find this translational repression mechanism in primary macrophages of septic mice. Because p-body formation is a critical step in mRNA translation repression, we conclude that Dcp1 is a major component of the translational repression machinery of endotoxin tolerance and may contribute to sepsis outcome. PMID:25998849

  7. The acute-phase response of cultured rat hepatocytes. System characterization and the effect of human cytokines.

    PubMed Central

    Koj, A; Gauldie, J; Regoeczi, E; Sauder, D N; Sweeney, G D

    1984-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from adult livers and cultured for periods of up to 5 days as monolayers at an initial density of 10(6) cells/10cm2 in Williams E medium containing insulin, dexamethasone and 5% foetal-calf serum. The daily production of 11 plasma proteins was measured by electroimmunoassay and compared with the concentrations of the same proteins in the plasma of normal rats and of those with experimental inflammation. Hepatocytes from normal rats synthesized proteins in relative amounts which were similar to the relative proportions of the same proteins in the plasma of turpentine-injected animals. The pattern changed only slowly during 5 days in culture, but it did so profoundly either when the medium was devoid of dexamethasone or when human cytokines (from endotoxin-stimulated monocytes or unstimulated human squamous-carcinoma cell line COLO-16) were added. The cytokines consistently increased the synthesis of alpha 2-macroglobulin and fibrinogen and depressed that of albumin; variable increases in the synthesis of alpha 1-acute-phase globulin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, and variable decreases in transferrin synthesis, were seen, whereas the synthesis of antithrombin III, alpha 1-macroglobulin and prothrombin remained virtually unaffected. The cytokine effects on protein synthesis required the presence of dexamethasone. The hepatocyte-stimulating activity derived from monocytes chromatographed on Sephadex G-100 corresponding to 30 000 Da, as opposed to the lymphocyte-activating factor, which was eluted as a molecule of approx. 15 000 Da. This suggests that both activities probably reside with distinct molecular species in the preparations of human cytokines. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6083778

  8. Cytosolic dsDNA triggers apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiquan; Liu, Dongyin; Ning, Weixuan; Xu, Aie

    2015-04-01

    Considerable evidence implicates that viral infection might be a participant factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, it is still unclear how viral infection leads to the melanocyte destruction. To elucidate the effects of viral dsDNA on the viability and cytokine synthesis of normal human melanocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms, primary cultured normal human melanocytes were transfected with poly(dA:dT). The results demonstrated that poly(dA:dT) triggered apoptosis instead of pyroptosis in melanocytes. Knocking down AIM2 or RIG-I by RNA interference partially reduced the poly(dA:dT)-induced LDH release, suggesting the involvement of both nucleic acid sensors in the process of melanocyte death. Poly(dA:dT) induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes including IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well, whereas the pro-inflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by RIG-I siRNA, but not by AIM2 siRNA. Poly(dA:dT) treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and NFκB. Accordingly, NFκB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the induction of the cytokine genes except IFN-β. The production of IL6 and IL8 was also suppressed by p38 inhibitor SB203580. On the contrary, the Poly(dA:dT)-induced melanocyte death was only decreased by SP600125. This study provides the possible mechanism of melanocyte destruction and immuno-stimulation in vitiligo by innate immune response following viral infection.

  9. Piperine inhibits cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Chuchawankul, S; Khorana, N; Poovorawan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Piperine, an amide isolated from Piper species (Piperaceae), has been reported to exhibit central nervous system depression, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activity of piperine has been demonstrated in mouse carcinomas. However, there is little information available concerning the effect of piperine on humans. We evaluated the immunopharmacological activity of this compound in human immune cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to piperine, and cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. Piperine significantly inhibited phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human PBMC proliferation after exposure for 72 h. This compound inhibited PBMC activity, with an IC(50) of 100.73 ± 11.16 μg/mL. Production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was measured using an ELISA assay and RT-PCR. Piperine inhibited IL-2 and IFN-γ production in the PBMCs. RT-PCR data indicated that IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in PBMCs is suppressed by piperine. This compound significantly inhibited the production of these two cytokines by activated PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, piperine appears to have potential as an immunomodulatory agent for immune system suppression. PMID:22535397

  10. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang; Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongsheng; Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui; Xu, Meiying

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  11. Glycosaminoglycan metabolism and cytokine release in normal and otosclerotic human bone cells interleukin-1 treated.

    PubMed

    Bodo, M; Carinci, P; Venti, G; Giammarioli, M; Donti, E; Stabellini, G; Paludetti, G; Becchetti, E

    1997-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), normal components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and the glycosidases, that degrade them, play a key role in the bone remodelling process. The effects of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) on GAG metabolism in normal and otosclerotic human bone cells as well as its capacity to modulate IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in both populations was analyzed. The amount of radiolabeled GAGs was lower in otosclerotic than in normal bone cells. IL-1 alpha reduced newly synthesized cellular and extracellular GAGs in normal cells, but only those of the cellular compartment in otosclerotic bone cells. It depressed heparan sulphate (HS) more in normal cells and chondroitin sulphate (CS) more in otosclerotic bone cells. The HA/total sulphated GAG ratio was shifted in favour of the latter in otosclerotic cells, whereas the opposite effect was seen after IL-1 alpha treatment. There was little difference in the beta-D-glucuronidase levels of the normal and pathological cells, while beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase was significantly increased in otosclerotic bone cells. As the activity of neither enzyme was modified by treatment with IL-1 alpha, the cytokine seems to exert its influences on GAG synthesis rather than on the degradation process. IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion was markedly higher in otosclerotic cells. IL-1 alpha modulated the secretion of each interleukin differently, thus resulting in a cytokine cascade that may act in autocrine/paracrine manner on target cells. The authors suggest that changes in the cytokine network may have a specific, yet still unknown, role during normal and pathological osteogenesis.

  12. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

    1996-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for

  13. Comparative sequence analysis of cytokine genes from human and nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Villinger, F.; Brar, S.S.; Mayne, A.

    1995-10-15

    Two major issues severely limit the studies of human recombinant cytokines/growth factors in nonhuman primates. First, assays and reagents specific for the detection and quantitation of human cytokines do not all function when utilized to detect/quantitate the nonhuman primate cytokines. Second, although most of the human cytokines appear to induce similar, if not identical, biologic function when used with cells from nonhuman primates in vitro or in vivo, they invariably induce Ab responses in vivo, precluding their repeated and/or continued use in vivo. Our laboratory has thus initiated studies to clone, sequence, and prepare recombinant cytokines from nonhuman primates and to define assays and reagents for their detection and quantitation at the nucleic acid and protein level. The data that were derived from such studies show that the nonhuman primate cytokines IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12{alpha}, IL-12{beta}, IL-15, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma}, and TNF-{alpha} share 93 to 99% homology at the nucleic acid and protein level with the human equivalents. The most prominent differences between human and nonhuman primate cytokine sequences were noted for IL-1{alpha}/{beta}, IL-2, IL-8, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma}, and IL-12{beta}. The aligned sequences of cytokines for human and several nonhuman primate species are provided herein, and a phylogenetic analysis of the published sequences of select cytokines from other species, along with those of the nonhuman primates, are described. In addition, comparative analysis of the relative bioactivity of our immunoaffinity-purified recombinant rhesus macaque IL-4, IL-15, and IFN-{gamma} with commercially available human recombinant cytokines is described herein. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effect of leptin on activation and cytokine synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of malnourished infected children

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, L; Graniel, J; Ortiz, R

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition compromises immune function, resulting in reduced resistance to infection. Recent animal and human studies have suggested that leptin is capable of modulating the immune response and that its levels, which are regulated by nutritional status, fall rapidly during starvation. Leptin deficiency is associated with impaired cell-mediated immunity, an increased incidence of infectious disease and an associated increase in mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of leptin on activation and cytokine production in peripheral blood T cells from malnourished children. The data obtained in the present study demonstrate that leptin produced an increase in the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ in 24-h cultures. Moreover, leptin decreased the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing IL-4 and IL-10, and enhanced activation of circulating T cells when co-stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA)–ionomycin. Leptin enhanced the expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 in both CD4+ and CD8+ cells after 5 h of stimulation. In conclusion, the results obtained show that leptin modulates CD4+ and CD8+ cell activation towards a T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype by stimulating the synthesis of IL-2 and IFN-γ. In contrast, leptin decreases IL-4 and IL-10 production. Moreover, leptin enhanced the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells after stimulation with PMA–ionomycin. PMID:17355247

  15. TGN1412 Induces Lymphopenia and Human Cytokine Release in a Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Weißmüller, Sabrina; Kronhart, Stefanie; Kreuz, Dorothea; Schnierle, Barbara; Kalinke, Ulrich; Kirberg, Jörg; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Waibler, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as the superagonistic, CD28-specific antibody TGN1412, or OKT3, an anti-CD3 mAb, can cause severe adverse events including cytokine release syndrome. A predictive model for mAb-mediated adverse effects, for which no previous knowledge on severe adverse events to be expected or on molecular mechanisms underlying is prerequisite, is not available yet. We used a humanized mouse model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD-RAG1-/-Aβ-/-HLADQ(tg+ or tg-)IL-2Rγc-/- mice to evaluate its predictive value for preclinical testing of mAbs. 2-6 hours after TGN1412 treatment, mice showed a loss of human CD45+ cells from the peripheral blood and loss of only human T cells after OKT3 injection, reminiscent of effects observed in mAb-treated humans. Moreover, upon OKT3 injection we detected selective CD3 downmodulation on T cells, a typical effect of OKT3. Importantly, we detected release of human cytokines in humanized mice upon both OKT3 and TGN1412 application. Finally, humanized mice showed severe signs of illness, a rapid drop of body temperature, and succumbed to antibody application 2-6 hours after administration. Hence, the humanized mouse model used here reproduces several effects and adverse events induced in humans upon application of the therapeutic mAbs OKT3 and TGN1412. PMID:26959227

  16. St. John's wort extract and hyperforin protect rat and human pancreatic islets against cytokine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; Menegazzi, Marta; De Tata, Vincenzo; Martino, Luisa; Sgarbossa, Anna; Porozov, Svetlana; Pippa, Anna; Masini, Matilde; Marchetti, Piero; Masiello, Pellegrino

    2014-02-01

    The extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort, SJW) and its component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and nuclear factor κB and prevent apoptosis in a cultured β-cell line. Objective of this study was to assess the protection exerted by SJW and HPF on isolated rat and human islets exposed to cytokines in vitro. Functional, ultrastructural, biomolecular and cell death evaluation studies were performed. In both rat and human islets, SJW and HPF counteracted cytokine-induced functional impairment and down-regulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory target genes, such as iNOS, CXCL9, CXCL10, COX2. Cytokine-induced NO production from cultured islets, evaluated by nitrites measurement in the medium, was significantly reduced in the presence of the vegetal compounds. Noteworthy, the increase in apoptosis and necrosis following 48-h exposure to cytokines was fully prevented by SJW and partially by HPF. Ultrastructural morphometric analysis in human islets exposed to cytokines for 20 h showed that SJW or HPF avoided early β-cell damage (e.g., mitochondrial alterations and loss of insulin granules). In conclusion, SJW compounds protect rat and human islets against cytokine effects by counteracting key mechanisms of cytokine-mediated β-cell injury and represent promising pharmacological tools for prevention or limitation of β-cell dysfunction and loss in type 1 diabetes.

  17. Food contaminant zearalenone and its metabolites affect cytokine synthesis and intestinal epithelial integrity of porcine cells.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniela E; Motiu, Monica; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10-100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). We demonstrated that both ZEN metabolites were more toxic for IPEC cells as resulted from the XTT test, while for doses lower than 10 µM, only β-ZOL showed a more pronounced cytotoxicity versus epithelial cells as resulted from neutral red assay. ZEN has no effect on TER values, while α-ZOL significantly decreased the TER values, starting with day 4 of treatment. β-ZOL had a dual effect, firstly it induced a significant increase of TER, and then, starting on day 6, it induced a dramatic decrease of TER values as compared with on day 0. Concerning the cytokine synthesis, our results showed that ZEN has a tendency to increase the synthesis of IL-8 and IL-10. By contrast, α- and β-ZOL decreased the expression of both IL-8 and IL-10, in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that ZEN and its metabolites differently affected porcine intestinal cell viability, transepithelial resistance and cytokine synthesis with important implication for gut health. PMID:26035492

  18. Food Contaminant Zearalenone and Its Metabolites Affect Cytokine Synthesis and Intestinal Epithelial Integrity of Porcine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Daniela E.; Motiu, Monica; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10–100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). We demonstrated that both ZEN metabolites were more toxic for IPEC cells as resulted from the XTT test, while for doses lower than 10 µM, only β-ZOL showed a more pronounced cytotoxicity versus epithelial cells as resulted from neutral red assay. ZEN has no effect on TER values, while α-ZOL significantly decreased the TER values, starting with day 4 of treatment. β-ZOL had a dual effect, firstly it induced a significant increase of TER, and then, starting on day 6, it induced a dramatic decrease of TER values as compared with on day 0. Concerning the cytokine synthesis, our results showed that ZEN has a tendency to increase the synthesis of IL-8 and IL-10. By contrast, α- and β-ZOL decreased the expression of both IL-8 and IL-10, in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that ZEN and its metabolites differently affected porcine intestinal cell viability, transepithelial resistance and cytokine synthesis with important implication for gut health. PMID:26035492

  19. Food contaminant zearalenone and its metabolites affect cytokine synthesis and intestinal epithelial integrity of porcine cells.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniela E; Motiu, Monica; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-05-29

    The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10-100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). We demonstrated that both ZEN metabolites were more toxic for IPEC cells as resulted from the XTT test, while for doses lower than 10 µM, only β-ZOL showed a more pronounced cytotoxicity versus epithelial cells as resulted from neutral red assay. ZEN has no effect on TER values, while α-ZOL significantly decreased the TER values, starting with day 4 of treatment. β-ZOL had a dual effect, firstly it induced a significant increase of TER, and then, starting on day 6, it induced a dramatic decrease of TER values as compared with on day 0. Concerning the cytokine synthesis, our results showed that ZEN has a tendency to increase the synthesis of IL-8 and IL-10. By contrast, α- and β-ZOL decreased the expression of both IL-8 and IL-10, in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that ZEN and its metabolites differently affected porcine intestinal cell viability, transepithelial resistance and cytokine synthesis with important implication for gut health.

  20. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Y; Kubota, T; Sasaguri, K; Sato, S; Suzuki, Y; Kumada, H; Umemoto, T

    1995-01-01

    The effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P-LPS) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (E-LPS) on the gene expression and production of inflammatory cytokines of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) were examined by a Northern (RNA blot) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. mRNAs for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) were detected in HPLF cells, but IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The expression of TGF-beta mRNA was not influenced by either LPS. P-LPS (1 to 10 micrograms/ml) and E-LPS (100 micrograms/ml) markedly stimulated the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs compared with the control. The synthesis of IL-6 and IL-8 was also stimulated by 10 and 100 micrograms of both LPSs per ml, but IL-8 synthesis was not stimulated with E-LPS at 1 microgram/ml. Secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 into the culture medium was detected at 6 and 3 h, respectively, after exposure to P-LPS (10 micrograms/ml). These findings suggested that P. gingivalis leads to periodontal tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption through IL-6 and IL-8 released from HPLF cells stimulated with its LPS. PMID:7642293

  1. Cytokine modulation of human blood viscosity from vivax malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Siqueira, Renan; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Braga, Érika Martins; Honório-França, Adenilda Cristina; França, Eduardo Luzía

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a major infectious disease in several countries and is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. In vivax malaria patients, inflammatory processes occur, as well as changes in cytokines and blood flow. The present study analyzed the cytokine modulation of blood viscosity from patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Blood samples were collected from 42 non-infected individuals (control group) and 37 individuals infected with P. vivax. The IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, TGF-β and IL-17 cytokine concentrations in the serum were assessed, and the blood rheological properties were determined. The analysis of blood viscosity for shear rates revealed that the blood viscosity of the infected patients was significantly greater than that of the non-infected individuals. The viscosity of the blood was greater in the infected individuals than in the non-infected subjects. The serum from individuals with P. vivax infections exhibited higher IFN-γ and IL-17 concentrations and lower TGF-β levels. Incubation of the blood from infected individuals with IL-17 or IL-17 associated with IFN-γ reduced the viscosity to rates equivalent to the blood from non-infected individuals. Independently of cytokine modulation, no correlation was found between the parasitemia and blood viscosity of the infected patients. These data suggest that the alterations of blood viscosity are relevant as an auxiliary tool for the clinical diagnosis of disease. In malaria, erythrocytes are more sensitive to osmotic shock, and the reduction of viscosity by IL-17 may be related to a possible immunomodulator agent during infection.

  2. Human Parainfluenza Virus Serotypes Differ in Their Kinetics of Replication and Cytokine Secretion in Human Tracheobronchial Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Liesman, Rachael; Bartlett, Emmalene J.; Scull, Margaret A.; Collins, Peter L.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) cause acute respiratory illness in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. PIV3 is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia, whereas PIV1 and 2 are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract illness and croup. To assess how PIV1, 2, and 3 differ with regard to replication and induction of type I interferons, interleukin-6, and relevant chemokines, we infected primary human airway epithelium (HAE) cultures from the same tissue donors and examined replication kinetics and cytokine secretion. PIV1 replicated to high titer yet did not induce cytokine secretion until late in infection, while PIV2 replicated less efficiently but induced an early cytokine peak. PIV3 replicated to high titer but induced a slower rise in cytokine secretion. The T cell chemoattractants CXCL10 and CXCL11 were the most abundant chemokines induced. Differences in replication and cytokine secretion might explain some of the differences in PIV serotype-specific pathogenesis and epidemiology. PMID:22959894

  3. Human blood mononuclear cell in vitro cytokine response before and after two different strenuous exercise bouts in the presence of bloodroot and Echinacea extracts.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Dias, Amila S; Perera, M Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary investigation was to characterize cytokine production by human blood mononuclear cells after 2 contrasting exercise bouts (a maximal graded oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] test and 90 min of cycling at 85% of ventilatory threshold [VT]) when stimulated in vitro with extracts from bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis), or solvent vehicle controls. Blood was sampled pre- and post-exercise. Production of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10 were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. In the VO(2)max test there was a main effect of exercise such that exercise increased cytokine synthesis and a main effect of stimulant such that bloodroot extracts significantly increased cytokine production compared to other stimulants or controls. In the 90-min bout, there was a main effect of exercise for TNF and IL-1beta (but not IL-10) such that exercise decreased cytokine synthesis and a main effect of stimulant such that bloodroot extracts significantly increased cytokine production compared to other stimulants or controls, with exercisexstimulant interactions for both IL-1beta and IL-10. A similar though weaker effect was seen with Echinacea extracts; subsequent biochemical analyses suggested this was related to alkamide decay during 3 years undisturbed storage at ultralow (-80 degrees C) temperature. In this study, the VO(2)max test was associated with enhanced cytokine production whereas the 90-min cycling at 85% VT was associated with suppressed cytokine production. Bloodroot extracts were able to increase cytokine production in both contexts. Herbal extracts purported to offset exercise-associated effects on immune activity warrant continued investigation.

  4. Human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive cell walls of normal intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Toivanen, P

    1999-01-01

    The normal microbiota plays an important role in the health of the host, but little is known of how the human immune system recognizes and responds to Gram-positive indigenous bacteria. We have investigated cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to Gram-positive cell walls (CW) derived from four common intestinal indigenous bacteria, Eubacterium aerofaciens (Eu.a.), Eubacterium limosum(Eu.l.), Lactobacillus casei(L.c.), and Lactobacillus fermentum (L.f.). Our results indicate that Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota can induce cytokine responses of the human PBMC. The profile, level and kinetics of these responses are similar to those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CW derived from a pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes (S.p.). Bacterial CW are capable of inducing production of a proinflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, but not that of IL-4 or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Monocytes are the main cell population in PBMC to produce TNF-α and IL-10. Induction of cytokine secretion is serum-dependent; both CD14-dependent and -independent pathways are involved. These findings suggest that the human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota are similar to those induced by LPS or Gram-positive CW of the pathogens. PMID:10540188

  5. Bacterial modulins: a novel class of virulence factors which cause host tissue pathology by inducing cytokine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, B; Poole, S; Wilson, M

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines are a diverse group of proteins and glycoproteins which have potent and wide-ranging effects on eukaryotic cell function and are now recognized as important mediators of tissue pathology in infectious diseases. It is increasingly recognized that for many bacterial species, cytokine induction is a major virulence mechanism. Until recent years, the only bacterial component known to stimulate cytokine synthesis was lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is only within the past decade that it has been clearly shown that many components associated with the bacterial cell wall, including proteins, glycoproteins, lipoproteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, have the capacity to stimulate mammalian cells to produce a diverse array of cytokines. It has been established that many of these cytokine-inducing molecules act by mechanisms distinct from that of LPS, and thus their activities are not due to LPS contamination. Bacteria produce a wide range of virulence factors which cause host tissue pathology, and these diverse factors have been grouped into four families: adhesins, aggressins, impedins, and invasins. We suggest that the array of bacterial cytokine-inducing molecules represents a new class of bacterial virulence factor, and, by analogy with the known virulence families, we suggest the term "modulin" to describe these molecules, because the action of cytokines is to modulate eukaryotic cell behavior. This review summarizes our current understanding of cytokine biology in relation to tissue homeostasis and disease and concisely reviews the current literature on the cytokine-inducing molecules produced by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with an emphasis on the cellular mechanisms responsible for cytokine induction. We propose that modulins, by controlling the host immune and inflammatory responses, maintain the large commensal flora that all multicellular organisms support. PMID:8801436

  6. Faithful expression of the human 5q31 cytokine cluster intransgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Dee A.; Wang, Zhi-En; Symula, Derek J.; McArthur, CliffordJ.; Rubin, Edward M.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Locksley, Richard M.

    1999-12-03

    ILs 4,5, and 13, cardinal cytokines produced by Th2 cells,are coordinately expressed and clustered in the 150-kb syntenic regions on mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5q31. We analyzed two sets of human yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice that contained the5931cytokines to assess whether conserved sequences required for their coordinate and cell-specific regulation are contained within the cytokine cluster itself. Human Il-4, IL-13, and Il-5 were expressed under Th2, but not Th1, conditions in vitro. Each of these cytokines was produced during infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a Th2 inducing stimulus, and human Il-4 was generated after activation of NK T cells in vivo.Consistently fewer cells produced the endogenous mouse cytokines in transgenic than in control mice, suggesting competition for stable expression between the mouse and human genes. These data imply the existence of both conserved trans-activating factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlie the coordinate expression and lineage specificity of the type 2 ctyokine genes in lymphocytes.

  7. Calcitriol inhibits TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Barrera, David; Hernández, Guillermo; Avila, Euclides; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Elevated placental proinflammatory cytokine release is associated with miscarriage, preterm labor and preeclampsia. Specifically, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cytokines may threaten pregnancy outcome. Since trophoblasts produce calcitriol, a hormone with strong immunosuppressive properties, we assessed the effects of this secosteroid on inflammatory cytokines induced in trophoblasts by challenge with TNF-alpha. The effects of calcitriol on synthesis of mRNAs encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and TNF-alpha were measured by real time RT-PCR. Secreted cytokines were quantified by ELISA. The effects of TNF-alpha on CYP24A1, chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) and P(450)-aromatase (CYP19) mRNA expression were also studied. TNF-alpha stimulated IL-6, IFN-gamma and its own expression more than 3-fold over controls (P<0.05). Calcitriol inhibited the expression profile of inflammatory cytokine genes in a dose-response manner (P<0.05). This effect was prevented by addition of the vitamin D receptor antagonist TEI-9647. TNF-alpha also significantly inhibited expression of hCG, HSD3B1 and CYP19 genes, and stimulated CYP24A1 gene expression. These data show that calcitriol prevents TNF-alpha induction of inflammatory cytokines through a process likely to be mediated by the vitamin D receptor. We conclude that TNF-alpha inhibits placental hormone synthesis and stimulates calcitriol catabolism by regulating enzymes involved in these processes.

  8. Interleukin-6: a multifunctional targetable cytokine in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran; Puhr, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Several cytokines are involved in regulation of cellular events in prostate cancer. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was frequently investigated in prostate cancer models because of its increased expression in cancer tissue at early stages of the disease. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, it is well-known that IL-6 levels increase in serum. High levels of IL-6 were measured in the supernatants of cells which do not respond to androgenic stimulation. IL-6 expression in prostate cancer increases due to enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta, and members of the activating protein-1 complex, and loss of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor (AR) may contribute to progression of a subgroup of prostate cancers. Results obtained with two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b, indicate that IL-6 activation of AR may cause either stimulatory or inhibitory responses on proliferation. Interestingly, prolonged treatment with IL-6 led to establishment of an IL-6 autocrine loop, suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. In several cell lines IL-6 acts as a survival molecule through activation of the signalling pathway of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase. Expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) has been studied in prostate cancer. SOCS-3 prevents phosphorylation of STAT3 and is an important anti-apoptotic factor in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Experimental therapy against IL-6 in prostate cancer is based on the use of the monoclonal antibody siltuximab which may be used for personalised therapy coming in the future. PMID:21664423

  9. Rapid flow cytometric measurement of cytokine-induced phosphorylation pathways [CIPP] in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Montag, David T; Lotze, Michael T

    2006-11-01

    Current strategies designed to assess cells in the peripheral blood are limited to evaluation of phenotype or delayed measurement [>6 h] of function, usually quantifying cytokine production, cytolytic activity, or response to antigens. We reasoned that measurable abnormalities in signaling pathways could reflect pathological environs that cells experience in the setting of inflammatory states/cancer and could be represented in the peripheral blood. Two major pathways regulating the immune response are the JAK/STAT and MAPK/ERK pathways. These pathways are initiated by ligand-receptor binding and are rapidly propagated by subsequent protein phosphorylation cascades. We evaluated the brief application of cytokines in vitro to interrogate the early phosphorylation events of these signaling pathways in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Individual cytokine doses and time intervals of treatment were assessed to identify conditions useful in a clinical laboratory and as an initial goal to induce maximal phosphorylation. Surprisingly, all of the STAT proteins assessed and ERK1/2 are maximally phosphorylated within 15 min in human PBMC simply following addition of cytokines without preactivation of the cells. At 2 h, cells typically return to their basal phosphorylation states. For most of the cytokines tested, increased phosphorylation directly correlated with increased concentrations of the individual cytokines. These strategies will enable robust development of simple blood analyses to identify normal levels as well as impairments in STAT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways associated with various human disease states including acute and chronic inflammatory conditions throughout clinical immunology.

  10. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  11. Suppressors of cytokine signalling-3 and -1 in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 and -1 has been investigated in various cancers. These proteins have been identified as endogenous controllers of activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription factors pathway factors under physiological conditions and in disease. SOCS-3 expression is lost in several cancers due to epigenetic mechanisms, mostly promoter methylation. In liver, lung, and squamous head and neck cancer, and several hematological malignancies SOCS-3 acts as a classic tumor suppressor. In prostate cancer, SOCS-3 effects are cell type-dependent. It prevents apoptosis in androgen receptor-negative cells. However, in androgen-sensitive cells, it could act as a negative feedback factor for androgenic regulation. Melanoma cells which overexpress SOCS-3 confer a growth advantage. SOCS-1 is in most cancers a tumor suppressor which may inhibit expression of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. In general, the mechanisms responsible for the different effects of SOCS in cancer cell lines have to be further investigated. The results discussed in the present review may have an impact on personalized approaches in cancer medicine. PMID:23277051

  12. Cytokines and macrophage function in humans - role of stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We have begun this study to commence the determination of the role of mild chronic stress in the effects of space flight on macrophage/monocyte function, a component of the immune response. Medical students undergoing regular periods of stress and relaxation have been shown to be an excellent model for determining the effects of stress on immune responses. We have begun using this model using the macrophage/monocyte as model leukocyte. The monocyte/macrophage plays a central role in immunoregulation. The studies to be included in this three year project are the effects of stress on: (1) interactions of monocytes with microbes, (2) monocyte production of cytokines, (3) monocyte phagocytosis and activity, and (4) monocyte expression of cell surface antigens important in immune responses. Stress hormone levels will also be carried out to determine if there is a correlation between stress effects on immune responses and hormonal levels. Psychological testing to insure subjects are actually stressed or relaxed at the time of testing will also be carried out. The results obtained from the proposed studies should be comparable with space flight studies with whole animals and isolated cell cultures. When complete this study should allow the commencement of the establishment of the role of stress as one compartment of the induction of immune alterations by space flight.

  13. Yeast Modulation of Human Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ida M.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications beyond the current

  14. Human cytokines activate JAK–STAT signaling pathway in porcine ocular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Barteneva, Natasha S; Ketterer, Sylvia; Wunderlich, Kerstin; Reschner, Anca; Nurzhanova, Asil; Flammer, Josef; Huwyler, Jörg; Meyer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The JAK/STAT (Janus Tyrosine Kinase, Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway is associated with cytokine or growth factor receptors and it is critical for growth control, developmental regulation and homeostasis. The use of porcine ocular cells as putative xenotransplants appears theoretically possible. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of various porcine ocular cells in vitro to human cytokines in regard to the activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Methods Porcine lens epithelial cells, pigmented iris epithelial cells and pigmented ciliary body cells were used in this study. These cells were isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes by enzymatic digestion. Cultured cells between passages 3–8 were used in all experiments. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA), proliferation assay, immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in these cells. Results JAK/STAT signaling pathways could be activated in porcine pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells, in pigmented iris epithelial cells and in lens epithelial cells in response to porcine and human interferons and cytokines. All cells showed very strong STAT1 activation upon stimulation with porcine interferon-gamma. Porcine ocular cells also respond to human cytokines; IFN-alpha induced strong activation of STAT1 in EMSA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence experiments whereas activation of STAT3 was less strong in EMSA, but strong in flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Human recombinant IL-6 activated STAT3 and human IL-4 activated STAT6. With the help of immunofluorescence assay and flow cytometry we observed nuclear localization of STAT proteins after activation of porcine ocular cells with cytokines and interferons. Human IFN-α had an inhibitory effect on porcine ocular cells in proliferation assays. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that some types of human cytokines and interferon activate

  15. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform

    EPA Science Inventory

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, m...

  16. Enhanced Ca(2+) response and stimulation of prostaglandin release by the bradykinin B2 receptor in human retinal pigment epithelial cells primed with proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Valenti, Claudio; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Giuliani, Sandro

    2015-09-15

    Kallikrein, kininogen and kinin receptors are present in human ocular tissues including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), suggesting a possible role of bradykinin (BK) in physiological and/or pathological conditions. To test this hypothesis, kinin receptors expression and function was investigated for the first time in human fetal RPE cells, a model close to native RPE, in both control conditions and after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines. Results showed that BK evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients in human RPE cells by activating the kinin B2 receptor. Pretreatment of the cells with TNF-α and/or IL-1β enhanced Ca(2+) response in a time- and concentration-dependent additive manner, whereas the potency of BK and that of the selective B2 receptor antagonist, fasitibant chloride, both in the nanomolar range, remained unaffected. Cytokines have no significant effect on cell number and viability and on the activity of other GPCRs such as the kinin B1, acetylcholine, ATP and thrombin receptors. Immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence studies revealed that cytokines treatment was associated with an increase in both kinin B2 receptor and COX-2 expression and with the secretion of prostaglandin E1 and E2 into the extracellular medium. BK, through activation of the kinin B2 receptor, potentiated the COX-2 mediated prostaglandin release in cytokines-primed RPE cells while new protein synthesis and prostaglandin production contribute to the potentiating effect of cytokines on BK-induced Ca(2+) response. In conclusion, overall data revealed a cross-talk between the kinin B2 receptor and cytokines in human RPE in promoting inflammation, a key feature in retinal pathologies including diabetic retinopathy and macular edema.

  17. Influenza Vaccination Generates Cytokine-Induced Memory-like NK Cells: Impact of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goodier, Martin R.; Rodriguez-Galan, Ana; Lusa, Chiara; Nielsen, Carolyn M.; Darboe, Alansana; Moldoveanu, Ana L.; White, Matthew J.; Behrens, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells are activated by cytokines, immune complexes, and signals transduced via activating ligands on other host cells. After vaccination, or during secondary infection, adaptive immune responses can enhance both cytokine-driven and Ab-dependent NK cell responses. However, induction of NK cells for enhanced function after in vitro exposure to innate inflammatory cytokines has also been reported and may synergize with adaptive signals to potentiate NK cell activity during infection or vaccination. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on NK cell function and phenotype in 52 previously unvaccinated individuals. Enhanced, IL-2–dependent, NK cell IFN-γ responses to Influenza A/California/7/2009 virus were detected up to 4 wk postvaccination and higher in human CMV (HCMV)-seronegative (HCMV−) individuals than in HCMV-seropositive (HCMV+) individuals. By comparison, robust NK cell degranulation responses were observed both before and after vaccination, due to high titers of naturally occurring anti-influenza Abs in human plasma, and did not differ between HCMV+ and HCMV− subjects. In addition to these IL-2–dependent and Ab-dependent responses, NK cell responses to innate cytokines were also enhanced after influenza vaccination; this was associated with proliferation of CD57− NK cells and was most evident in HCMV+ subjects. Similar enhancement of cytokine responsiveness was observed when NK cells were cocultured in vitro with Influenza A/California/7/2009 virus, and this was at least partially dependent upon IFN-αβR2. In summary, our data indicate that attenuated or live viral vaccines promote cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells and that this process is influenced by HCMV infection. PMID:27233958

  18. Influenza Vaccination Generates Cytokine-Induced Memory-like NK Cells: Impact of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Martin R; Rodriguez-Galan, Ana; Lusa, Chiara; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Darboe, Alansana; Moldoveanu, Ana L; White, Matthew J; Behrens, Ron; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-07-01

    Human NK cells are activated by cytokines, immune complexes, and signals transduced via activating ligands on other host cells. After vaccination, or during secondary infection, adaptive immune responses can enhance both cytokine-driven and Ab-dependent NK cell responses. However, induction of NK cells for enhanced function after in vitro exposure to innate inflammatory cytokines has also been reported and may synergize with adaptive signals to potentiate NK cell activity during infection or vaccination. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on NK cell function and phenotype in 52 previously unvaccinated individuals. Enhanced, IL-2-dependent, NK cell IFN-γ responses to Influenza A/California/7/2009 virus were detected up to 4 wk postvaccination and higher in human CMV (HCMV)-seronegative (HCMV(-)) individuals than in HCMV-seropositive (HCMV(+)) individuals. By comparison, robust NK cell degranulation responses were observed both before and after vaccination, due to high titers of naturally occurring anti-influenza Abs in human plasma, and did not differ between HCMV(+) and HCMV(-) subjects. In addition to these IL-2-dependent and Ab-dependent responses, NK cell responses to innate cytokines were also enhanced after influenza vaccination; this was associated with proliferation of CD57(-) NK cells and was most evident in HCMV(+) subjects. Similar enhancement of cytokine responsiveness was observed when NK cells were cocultured in vitro with Influenza A/California/7/2009 virus, and this was at least partially dependent upon IFN-αβR2. In summary, our data indicate that attenuated or live viral vaccines promote cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells and that this process is influenced by HCMV infection. PMID:27233958

  19. Developmentally regulated IL6-type cytokines signal to germ cells in the human fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Eddie, Sharon L; Childs, Andrew J; Jabbour, Henry N; Anderson, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Fetal ovarian development and primordial follicle formation are imperative for adult fertility in the female. Data suggest the interleukin (IL)6-type cytokines, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), IL6, oncostatin M (OSM) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), are able to regulate the survival, proliferation and differentiation of fetal murine germ cells (GCs) in vivo and in vitro. We postulated that these factors may play a similar role during early human GC development and primordial follicle formation. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the expression and regulation of IL6-type cytokines, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Expression of transcripts encoding OSM increased significantly across the gestational range examined (8-20 weeks), while expression of IL6 increased specifically between the first (8-11 weeks) and early second (12-16 weeks) trimesters, co-incident with the initiation of meiosis. LIF and CNTF expression remained unchanged. Expression of the genes encoding the LIF and IL6 receptors, and their common signalling subunit gp130, was also found to be developmentally regulated, with expression increasing significantly with increasing gestation. LIF receptor and gp130 proteins localized exclusively to GCs, including oocytes in primordial follicles, indicating this cell type to be the sole target of IL6-type cytokine signalling in the human fetal ovary. These data establish that IL6-type cytokines and their receptors are expressed in the human fetal ovary and may directly influence GC development at multiple stages of maturation. PMID:21965347

  20. Acute exposure to methamphetamine alters TLR9-mediated cytokine expression in human macrophage.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ariel; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies show that methamphetamine (Meth) use leads to higher susceptibility to and progression of infections, which suggests impairment of the immune system. The first line of defense against infections is the innate immune system and the macrophage is a key player in preventing and fighting infections. So we profiled cytokines over time in Meth treated THP-1 cells, as a human macrophage model, at a relevant concentration using high throughput screening to find a signaling target. We showed that after a single exposure, the effect of Meth on macrophage cytokine production was rapid and time dependent and shifted the balance of expression of cytokines to pro-inflammatory. Our results were analogous to previous reports in that Meth up-regulates TNF-α and IL-8 after two hours of exposure. However, global screening led to the novel identification of CXCL16, CXCL1 and many other up-regulated cytokines. We also showed CCL7 as the most down-regulated chemokine due to Meth exposure, which led us to hypothesize that Meth dysregulates the MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling pathway. In conclusion, altered cytokine expression in macrophages suggests it could lead to a suppressed innate immunity in people who use Meth.

  1. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV-1 synergistically enhance CXCL10 expression in human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rachel; Dhillon, Navneet K.; Hegde, Sonia T.; Yao, Honghong; Peng, Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Chebloune, Yahia; Davis, Randall L.; Buch, Shilpa J.

    2009-01-01

    HIV encephalitis (HIVE), the pathologic correlate of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is characterized by astrogliosis, cytokine/chemokine dysregulation and neuronal degeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation is actively involved in the pathogenesis of HAD. In fact, the severity of HAD/HIVE correlates more closely with the presence of activated glial cells than with the presence and amount of HIV-infected cells in the brain. Astrocytes, the most numerous cell type within the brain, provide an important reservoir for the generation of inflammatory mediators, including interferon-γ inducible peptide-10 (CXCL10), a neurotoxin and a chemoattractant, implicated in the pathophysiology of HAD. Additionally, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and TNF-α, are also markedly increased in CNS tissues during HIV-1 infection. In the present study we hypothesized that the interplay of host cytokines and HIV-1 could lead to enhanced expression of the toxic chemokine, CXCL10. Our findings demonstrate a synergistic induction of CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Signaling molecules, including JAK, STATs, MAPK (via activation of Erk1/2, AKT, and p38), and NF-κB were identified as instrumental in the synergistic induction of CXCL10. Understanding the mechanisms involved in HIV-1 and cytokine mediated up-regulation of CXCL10 could aid in the development of therapeutic modalities for HAD. PMID:18985732

  2. Human tear analysis with miniaturized multiplex cytokine assay on “wall-less” 96-well plate

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Joanne; Tong, Louis; Kim, Namyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tears are a particularly limited body fluid and commonly used in the diagnosis of patients who have ocular diseases. A popular method for analysis of ocular inflammation in tears uses Luminex® bead multiplex technology to generate valuable multiple cytokine profile outputs with 25–50 µl tear sample volume. We propose a method for measuring tear cytokines with 5 μl tear sample volume and 80% reduced Luminex reagents compared to previous protocols. Methods Using human tears pooled from 1,000 participants, the DA-Bead-based method running at 5–20 µl volume, using manual pipetting, in conjunction with a magnetic Luminex cytokine (four-plex) panel assay in a 96-well format was performed and validated for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Results Upon use of the DA-Bead method at the 5 μl volume with cytokine standards, the concentrations of each of the four cytokines were found to be linear over a range of 3.5–4 log pg/ml with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) ≤5%, inter-assay %CV ≤10%, and accuracy within the 70–130% range. Upon use of a 5 µl healthy pooled tear sample, cytokine concentrations were detected with a precision intra-assay %CV ˂ 20% for IL-6, IFN-γ, or TNF-α or 30.37% with IL-1β. The inter-assay %CV with tears was ≤20.84% for all cytokines. Tear volumes run at 5 μl on DA-Bead produced a similar cytokine expression profile at a 1-month interval and were highly correlated with the larger 10 μl–based tear sample volume cytokine profile with R2 = 0.98. Conclusions DA-Bead assay is highly sensitive and reproducible and has a performance profile that is potentially suitable for use in standard clinical scenarios. Considering the use of as little as 5 µl of assay beads and 5 µl sample, this is also likely to reduce the assay cost significantly and ease diagnosis of patients with ocular diseases. PMID:26539027

  3. Heterogeneity of cytokine and growth factor gene expression in human melanoma cells with different metastatic potentials.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Radinsky, R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mRNA expression level of multiple cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were isolated from several surgical specimens, adapted to growth in culture, characterized for their ability to produce experimental metastases in nude mice, and assessed for cytokine and growth factor steady-state gene expression. Highly metastatic in vivo- and in vitro-derived variants isolated from a single melanoma, A375, were also analyzed. Northern blot analyses revealed that all melanomas analyzed constitutively expressed steady-state mRNA transcripts for the growth and angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), which correlated with metastatic propensity. Only one highly metastatic melanoma, TXM-1, originally isolated from a lymph node metastasis, expressed mRNA transcripts specific for monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Similarly, of the nine melanomas examined, only TXM-1 expressed interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, important immunomodulatory cytokines. These data demonstrate the differential and heterogeneous expression of cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. PMID:7648437

  4. Biologic Response of Degenerative Living Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells to Treatment with Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Keung Nyun; Park, Jeong Yoon; Cho, Ki Hong; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the molecular responses of various genes and proteins related to disc degeneration upon treatment with cytokines that affect disc-cell proliferation and phenotype in living human intervertebral discs (IVDs). Responsiveness to these cytokines according to the degree of disc degeneration was also evaluated. Materials and Methods The disc specimens were classified into two groups: group 1 (6 patients) showed mild degeneration of IVDs and group 2 (6 patients) exhibited severe degeneration of IVDs. Gene expression was analyzed after treatment with four cytokines: recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Molecular responses were assessed after exposure of cells from the IVD specimens to these cytokines via real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Results mRNA gene expression was significantly greater for aggrecan, type I collagen, type II collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Sox9 in group 1 than mRNA gene expression in group 2, when the samples were not treated with cytokines. Analysis of mRNA levels for these molecules after morphogen treatment revealed significant increases in both groups, which were much higher in group 1 than in group 2. The average number of IVD cells that were immunofluorescence stained positive for alkaline phosphatase increased after treatment with rhBMP-2 and TGF-β in group 1. Conclusion The biologic responsiveness to treatment of rhBMP-2, TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the degenerative living human IVD can be different according to the degree of degeneration of the IVD. PMID:25510775

  5. Pro-inflammatory cytokines downregulate Hsp27 and cause apoptosis of human retinal capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Palmer, Allison; Roth, Katelyn E.; Fort, Patrice E.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of acellular capillaries in the retina, a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy, is caused by apoptosis of endothelial cells and pericytes. The biochemical mechanism of such apoptosis remains unclear. Small heat shock proteins play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. In the diabetic retina, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC). In HREC cultured in the presence of cytokine mixtures (CM), a significant downregulation of Hsp27 at the protein and mRNA level occurred, with no effect on HSF-1, the transcription factor for Hsp27. The presence of high glucose (25 mM) amplified the effects of cytokines on Hsp27. CM activated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and enhanced the production of kynurenine and ROS. An inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl tryptophan (MT), inhibited the effects of CM on Hsp27. CM also upregulated NOS2 and, consequently, nitric oxide (NO). A NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, and a ROS scavenger blocked the CM-mediated Hsp27 downregulation. While a NO donor in the culture medium did not decrease the Hsp27 content, a peroxynitrite donor and exogenous peroxynitrite did. The cytokines and high glucose-induced apoptosis of HREC were inhibited by MT and L-NAME. Downregulation of Hsp27 by a siRNA treatment promoted apoptosis in HREC. Together, these data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the formation of ROS and NO, which, through the formation of peroxynitrite, reduce the Hsp27 content and bring about apoptosis of retinal capillary endothelial cells. PMID:24252613

  6. Cross-Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Interleukin-10 and miR-155 in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Human Macrophages Prevents Cytokine Storm.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung; Hong, Yi-Ren; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Fan, Kan-Tang; Peng, Chi-Wen; Wu, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Li; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Chen, Li-Kuang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-07-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. Macrophages are host cells for its replication and clearance. Severe complications in patients are mainly caused by a cytokine storm resulting from overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for the occurrence remains obscure. Herein, we investigate the interactive regulation of cytokines and micro-RNA (miR) in human macrophages infected with low and high doses of O. tsutsugamushi. During low dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of IL-10 through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, which inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production and facilitates pathogen replication. Increasing levels of pathogen results in reduced levels of IL-10, and macrophages begin to generate high levels of proinflammatory cytokines through NF-κB activation. However, during a high dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of miR-155 to slow the proinflammatory response. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/IL-10 axis suppresses the NF-κB/tumor necrosis factor alpha axis via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Both IL-10 and miR-155 inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of miR-155. Patients susceptible to a cytokine storm, peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower IL-10 and miR-155 responses to O. tsutsugamushi challenge. Thus, IL-10 and miR-155 operate inhibitory mechanisms to achieve a proper defense mechanism and prevent a cytokine storm.

  7. Reconstitution of SCID mice with human lymphoid and myeloid cells after transplantation with human fetal bone marrow without the requirement for exogenous human cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, T R; Kim, A; Zhuang, X; Hachamovitch, M; Goldstein, H

    1994-08-16

    Investigation of human hematopoietic maturation has been hampered by the lack of in vivo models. Although engraftment of irradiated C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice with human progenitor cells occurred after infusion with human pediatric bone marrow cells, significant engraftment of the mouse bone marrow with human cells was dependent upon continuous treatment with exogenous human cytokines. Furthermore, despite cytokine treatment, only minimal peripheral engraftment of these mice with human cells was observed. In the present study, after infusion of irradiated SCID mice with pre-cultured human fetal bone marrow cells (BM-SCID-hu mice), their bone marrow became significantly engrafted with human precursor cells and their peripheral lymphoid compartment became populated with human B cells and monocytes independently of the administration of extraneous human cytokines. Examination of the bone marrow of the BM-SCID-hu mice for human cytokine mRNA gene expression demonstrated human leukemia inhibitory factor mRNA and interleukin 7 mRNA in nine of nine BM-SCID-hu mice and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor mRNA in seven of eight BM-SCID-hu mice. This was an intriguing observation because these cytokines regulate different stages of human hematopoiesis. Since engraftment occurs in the absence of exogenous cytokine treatment, the BM-SCID-hu mouse model described should provide a useful in vivo system for studying factors important in the maturation of human myeloid and lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and the behavior of the mature human cells after dissemination into the peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  8. Reconstitution of SCID mice with human lymphoid and myeloid cells after transplantation with human fetal bone marrow without the requirement for exogenous human cytokines.

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, T R; Kim, A; Zhuang, X; Hachamovitch, M; Goldstein, H

    1994-01-01

    Investigation of human hematopoietic maturation has been hampered by the lack of in vivo models. Although engraftment of irradiated C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice with human progenitor cells occurred after infusion with human pediatric bone marrow cells, significant engraftment of the mouse bone marrow with human cells was dependent upon continuous treatment with exogenous human cytokines. Furthermore, despite cytokine treatment, only minimal peripheral engraftment of these mice with human cells was observed. In the present study, after infusion of irradiated SCID mice with pre-cultured human fetal bone marrow cells (BM-SCID-hu mice), their bone marrow became significantly engrafted with human precursor cells and their peripheral lymphoid compartment became populated with human B cells and monocytes independently of the administration of extraneous human cytokines. Examination of the bone marrow of the BM-SCID-hu mice for human cytokine mRNA gene expression demonstrated human leukemia inhibitory factor mRNA and interleukin 7 mRNA in nine of nine BM-SCID-hu mice and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor mRNA in seven of eight BM-SCID-hu mice. This was an intriguing observation because these cytokines regulate different stages of human hematopoiesis. Since engraftment occurs in the absence of exogenous cytokine treatment, the BM-SCID-hu mouse model described should provide a useful in vivo system for studying factors important in the maturation of human myeloid and lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and the behavior of the mature human cells after dissemination into the peripheral lymphoid tissue. Images PMID:7914701

  9. A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael Thomas; Ong, David Eng Hui; Lim, Frances Sheau Huei; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; McGovern, Naomi; Narayanan, Sriram; Ho, Wen Qi; Cerny, Daniela; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Anicete, Rosslyn; Tan, Bien Keem; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Chan, Chung Yip; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng-Huat; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tan, Ern Yu; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Fink, Katja; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ginhoux, Florent; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria Alicia; Newell, Evan William

    2016-08-16

    Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body. PMID:27521270

  10. A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael Thomas; Ong, David Eng Hui; Lim, Frances Sheau Huei; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; McGovern, Naomi; Narayanan, Sriram; Ho, Wen Qi; Cerny, Daniela; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Anicete, Rosslyn; Tan, Bien Keem; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Chan, Chung Yip; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng-Huat; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tan, Ern Yu; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Fink, Katja; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ginhoux, Florent; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria Alicia; Newell, Evan William

    2016-08-16

    Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body.

  11. Chemically modified N-acylated hyaluronan fragments modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by stimulated human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30-214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on (1)H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule.

  12. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  13. The human carotid body releases acetylcholine, ATP and cytokines during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Nordlander, Britt; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Prabhakar, Nanduri; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2014-08-01

    Studies on experimental animals established that the carotid bodies are sensory organs for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and that the ensuing chemosensory reflex is a major regulator of cardiorespiratory functions during hypoxia. However, little information is available on the human carotid body responses to hypoxia. The present study was performed on human carotid bodies obtained from surgical patients undergoing elective head and neck cancer surgery. Our results show that exposing carotid body slices to hypoxia for a period as brief as 5 min markedly facilitates the release of ACh and ATP. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia for 1 h induces an increased release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that type 1 cells of the human carotid body express an array of cytokine receptors as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ACh and ATP are released from the human carotid body in response to hypoxia, suggesting that these neurotransmitters, as in several experimental animal models, play a role in hypoxic signalling also in the human carotid body. The finding that the human carotid body releases cytokines in response to hypoxia adds to the growing body of information suggesting that the carotid body may play a role in detecting inflammation, providing a link between the immune system and the nervous system.

  14. Human dendritic cell maturation and cytokine secretion upon stimulation with Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Dirix, Violette; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Alonso, Sylvie; Versheure, Virginie; Mascart, Françoise; Locht, Camille

    2014-07-01

    In addition to antibodies, Th1-type T cell responses are also important for long-lasting protection against pertussis. However, upon immunization with the current acellular vaccines, many children fail to induce Th1-type responses, potentially due to immunomodulatory effects of some vaccine antigens, such as filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). We therefore analysed the ability of FHA to modulate immune functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). FHA was purified from pertussis toxin (PTX)-deficient or from PTX- and adenylate cyclase-deficient Bordetella pertussis strains, and residual endotoxin was neutralized with polymyxin B. FHA from both strains induced phenotypic maturation of human MDDC and cytokine secretion (IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6). To identify the FHA domains responsible for MDDC immunomodulation, MDDC were stimulated with FHA containing a Gly→Ala substitution at its RGD site (FHA-RAD) or with an 80-kDa N-terminal moiety of FHA (Fha44), containing its heparin-binding site. Whereas FHA-RAD induced maturation and cytokine production comparable to those of FHA, Fha44 did not induce IL-10 production, but maturated MDDC at least partially. Nevertheless, Fha44 induced the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6 by MDDC, albeit at lower levels than FHA. Thus, FHA can modulate MDDC responses in multiple ways, and IL-10 induction can be dissociated from the induction of other cytokines.

  15. Relationship of plasma leptin to plasma cytokines and human survivalin sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Arnalich, F; López, J; Codoceo, R; Jim nez, M; Madero, R; Montiel, C

    1999-09-01

    Leptin production is increased in rodents by administration of endotoxin or cytokines. To investigate whether circulating leptin is related to cytokine release and survival in human sepsis, plasma concentrations of leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF receptor type I, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and the inflammatory modulator IL-10 were measured as soon as severe sepsis (n=28) or septic shock (n=14) developed and every 6 h for 24 h. Patients with sepsis or septic shock had leptin concentrations 2.3- and 4.2-fold greater, respectively, than the control group. There was an independent association for leptin with IL-1ra and IL-10 in both patient groups. By discriminant analysis, leptin and IL-6 were independent predictors of death. These findings suggest that increases in leptin levels may be a host defense mechanism during sepsis.

  16. LPS-induced cytokine production in human dendritic cells is regulated by sialidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Stamatos, Nicholas M.; Carubelli, Ivan; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Bonten, Erik J.; Papini, Nadia; Feng, Chiguang; Venerando, Bruno; d'Azzo, Alessandra; Cross, Alan S.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Gomatos, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Removal of sialic acid from glycoconjugates on the surface of monocytes enhances their response to bacterial LPS. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous sialidase activity creates a permissive state for LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocyte-derived DCs. Of the four genetically distinct sialidases (Neu1–4), Neu1, Neu3, and Neu4 are expressed in human monocytes, but only Neu1 and Neu3 are up-regulated as cells differentiate into DCs. Neu1 and Neu3 are present on the surface of monocytes and DCs and are also present intracellularly. DCs contain a greater amount of sialic acid than monocytes, but the amount of sialic acid/mg total protein declines during differentiation to DCs. This relative hyposialylation of cells does not occur in mature DCs grown in the presence of zanamivir, a pharmacologic inhibitor of Neu3 but not Neu1, or DANA, an inhibitor of Neu1 and Neu3. Inhibition of sialidase activity during differentiation to DCs causes no detectable change in cell viability or expression of DC surface markers. Differentiation of monocytes into DCs in the presence of zanamivir results in reduced LPS- induced expression of IL-6, IL-12p40, and TNF-α by mature DCs, demonstrating a role for Neu3 in cytokine production. A role for Neu3 is supported by inhibition of cytokine production by DANA in DCs from Neu1–/– and WT mice. We conclude that sialidase-mediated change in sialic acid content of specific cell surface glycoconjugates in DCs regulates LPS-induced cytokine production, thereby contributing to development of adaptive immune responses. PMID:20826611

  17. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates cigarette smoke-induced cytokine production by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Khalil; Sarir, Hadi; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Smit, Joost J; Hosseini, Hossein; De Kimpe, Sjef J; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Background The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking. Smoking causes activation of resident cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs, which leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic factors, oxygen radicals and proteases. In the present study evidence is found for a new cellular mechanism that refers to a link between smoking and inflammation in lungs. Methods Employing human monocyte-derived macrophages, different techniques including FACS analysis, Cytometric Bead Array Assay and ELISA were achieved to evaluate the effects of CS on pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion including IL-8. Then, Toll-like receptor neutralization was performed to study the involvement of Toll-like receptor-4 in IL-8 production. Finally, signaling pathways in macrophages after exposure to CS medium were investigated performing ELISA and Western analysis. Results We demonstrate that especially human monocytes are sensitive to produce IL-8 upon cigarette smoke stimulation compared to lymphocytes or neutrophils. Moreover, monocyte-derived macrophages produce high amounts of the cytokine. The IL-8 production is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation and LPS is not involved. Further research resolved the cellular mechanism by which cigarette smoke induces cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages. Cigarette smoke causes subsequently a concentration-dependent phosphorylation of IRAK and degradation of TRAF6. Moreover, IκBα was phosphorylated which suggests involvement of NF-κB. In addition, NFκB -inhibitor blocked cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 production. Conclusion These findings link cigarette smoke to inflammation and lead to new insights/therapeutic strategies in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema. PMID:16620395

  18. Regulation of the syncytin-1 promoter in human astrocytes by multiple sclerosis-related cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Mameli, Giuseppe . E-mail: viross@uniss.it; Astone, Vito; Khalili, Kamel; Serra, Caterina; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Dolei, Antonina

    2007-05-25

    Syncytin-1 has a physiological role during early pregnancy, as mediator of trophoblast fusion into the syncytiotrophoblast layer, hence allowing embryo implantation. In addition, its expression in nerve tissue has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Syncytin-1 is the env glycoprotein of the ERVWE1 component of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), located on chromosome 7q21-22, in a candidate region for genetic susceptibility to MS. The mechanisms of ERVWE1 regulation in nerve tissue remain to be identified. Since there are correlations between some cytokines and MS outcome, we examined the regulation of the syncytin-1 promoter by MS-related cytokines in human U-87MG astrocytic cells. Using transient transfection assays, we observed that the MS-detrimental cytokines TNF{alpha}, interferon-{gamma}, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 activate the ERVWE1 promoter, while the MS-protective interferon-{beta} is inhibitory. The effects of cytokines are reduced by the deletion of the cellular enhancer domain of the promoter that contains binding sites for several transcription factors. In particular, we found that TNF{alpha} had the ability to activate the ERVWE1 promoter through an NF-{kappa}B-responsive element located within the enhancer domain of the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and ChIP assays showed that TNF{alpha} enhances the binding of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B, to its cognate site within the promoter. The effect of TNF{alpha} is abolished by siRNA directed against p65. Taken together, these results illustrate a role for p65 in regulating the ERVWE1 promoter and in TNF{alpha}-mediated induction of syncytin-1 in multiple sclerosis.

  19. Expression patterns of cytokines and chemokines genes in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2002-10-01

    Various cytokines and chemokines play a role in carcinogenesis. However, no study has previously been undertaken to investigate comprehensively the expressions of cytokines and chemokines in hepatoma cells. In this study, we determined which cytokines and chemokines are expressed in hepatoma cells. Recently, it was reported that the expressions of several chemokines could be increased by Fas stimulus in many normal and cancer cells. Therefore, we also investigated whether chemokines expression is regulated by Fas ligation. To address this issue, we performed RNase protection assays upon 13 cytokines and 8 chemokines genes in 10 human hepatoma cell lines, comprising 8 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatoma cell lines. Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) was found to be expressed in 8 HBV-associated hepatoma cell lines, and to be potently expressed in 5 cell lines; however, the mRNA expressions of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) were not detected in any cell lines examined. Among the chemokines investigated in this study, IL-8 was expressed by 8 HBV- associated hepatoma cell lines, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by 7 HBV-associated hepatoma cell lines. However, the mRNA expressions of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha(MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), RANTES, lymphotactin and I-309 were either very weak or undetectable. Fas ligation did not increase chemokines expression in hepatoma cells. Conclusively, TGF-beta2, IL-8 and MCP-1 were overexpressed in HBV-associated hepatoma cells, and the expressions of chemokines were not increased by Fas ligation in human hepatoma cells.

  20. Proinflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide production by human macrophages stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ik-Hwan; Goo, Sung Young; Park, Soon-Jung; Hwang, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Seok; Yang, Michael Sungwoo; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2009-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis commonly causes vaginitis and perhaps cervicitis in women and urethritis in men and women. Macrophages are important immune cells in response to T. vaginalis infection. In this study, we investigated whether human macrophages could be involved in inflammation induced by T. vaginalis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) were co-cultured with T. vaginalis. Live, opsonized-live trichomonads, and T. vaginalis lysates increased proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 by HMDM. The involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in cytokine production induced by T. vaginalis was confirmed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB. In addition, stimulation with live T. vaginalis induced marked augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels in HMDM. However, trichomonad-induced NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha production in macrophages were significantly inhibited by inhibition of iNOS levels with L-NMMA (NO synthase inhibitor). Moreover, pretreatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors (PDTC or Bay11-7082) caused human macrophages to produce less TNF-alpha. These results suggest that T. vaginalis stimulates human macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and NO. In particular, we showed that T. vaginalis induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages through NO-dependent activation of NF-kappaB, which might be closely involved in inflammation caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:19724692

  1. Neutrophil-mediated damage to human vascular endothelium. Role of cytokine activation.

    PubMed Central

    Westlin, W. F.; Gimbrone, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Cytokine activation of cultured human vascular endothelial cells renders them hyperadhesive for blood leukocytes. Co-incubation of freshly isolated, unstimulated human blood neutrophils with confluent cytokine-activated human endothelial monolayers for 90 minutes results in extensive endothelial detachment and destruction of monolayer integrity. In contrast, unactivated endothelial monolayers remain intact. Using this in vitro model, we have explored the neutrophil-effector mechanisms involved in this injury. Coincubation in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or specific elastase inhibitors (Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethyl ketone or alpha-1-protease inhibitor) markedly diminished injury. In contrast, scavengers or inhibitors of oxygen-derived free radicals (superoxide dismutase, catalase, mannitol, or sodium azide) were not protective. Purified human neutrophil elastase mimicked the effect of the neutrophils suggesting a key role for elastase in the neutrophil-mediated injury in this model. Interfering with direct neutrophil-endothelial cell contact by interposing a microporous barrier insert prevented endothelial cell detachment. Furthermore, this neutrophil-mediated detachment could be inhibited with interleukin-8, an action correlated with a decrease in neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelial monolayers. By defining the role of endothelial activation in neutrophil-mediated injury, this in vitro model may provide useful insights into potential therapeutic interventions designed to prevent disruption of the endothelial barrier function. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 PMID:8424450

  2. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNFα by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases.

  3. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNFα by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases. PMID:25870561

  4. Erythropoietin stimulation of human adipose tissue for therapeutic refilling releases protective cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Bosetti, Michela; Borrone, Alessia; Moalem, Liah; Taveggia, Antonio; Verna, Giovanni; Cannas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis and inflammatory processes may be at the basis of reducing graft survival. Erythropoietin is a tissue-protective hormone with pleiotropic potential, and it interferes with the activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates healing following injury, preventing destruction of tissue surrounding the injury site. It may represent a useful tool to increase the autograft integration. Through the use of multipanel kit cytokine analysis we have detected the cytokines secreted by human tissue adipose mass seeded in culture following withdrawal by Coleman’s modified technique in three groups: control, after lipopolysaccharides stimulation and after erythropoietin stimulation. In the control group, we have observed expression of factors that may have a role in protecting the tissue homeostatic mechanism. But the same factors were secreted following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides combined with others factors that delineated the inflammatory state. Instead through erythropoietin stimulation, the factors known to exert tissue-protective action were secreted. Therefore, the use of a trophic factors such as erythropoietin may help to inhibit the potential inflammatory process development and stimulate the activation of reparative/regenerative process in the tissue graft. PMID:27738510

  5. Soluble mediators and cytokines produced by human CD3- leucocyte clones from decidualized endometrium.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Christmas, S E; Johnson, P M

    1996-01-01

    CD3- granulated leucocyte clones have been generated from human first-trimester decidualized endometrial tissue following culture in interleukin-2 (IL-2). Supernatants from both CD3- decidual granulated leucocyte (dGL) and CD3- peripheral blood natural killer (PBNK) cell clones inhibited the proliferation of choriocarcinoma cell lines. A panel of CD3- dGL clones, with or without phytohaemagglutinin stimulation, was assayed for cytokine secretion compared with CD3- PBNK clones and fresh tissue extracts. Levels of interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-10 produced by stimulated CD3-CD8- dGL clones were greater than those produced by stimulated CD3-CD8+ dGL clones. In contrast, CD8+ dGL clones were more effective in production of IL-6 than CD8- dGL clones. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) was undetectable in supernatants from CD3- dGL and PBNK clones. CD3- dGL clones generally produced higher levels of all cytokines than PBNK clones. Some unstimulated CD3- dGL and PBNK clones spontaneously produced these cytokines, but usually at a reduced level. Fresh extracts of first-trimester decidual tissue contained detectable GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-10,IL-6 and TGF-beta 2. Cytokine production by fresh CD3- dGL and CD3- dGL clones indicates that these cells could play an important role in the regulation of placental growth.

  6. T(H)2 cytokines modulate the IL-9R expression on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Stéphane; Takhar, Manrit Kaur; Shan, Lianyu; Hayglass, Kent T; Simons, F Estelle; Gounni, Abdelilah S

    2009-06-26

    Interleukin (IL)-9 is associated with key pathological features of asthma such as airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction and mucus production. Inflammatory responses mediated by IL-9 rely on the expression of the IL-9R which has been reported on lung epithelial cells, T lymphocytes and recently on airway granulocyte infiltrates. In this study, we assessed the regulatory and constitutive cell surface expression of the IL-9Ralpha in unfractionated and purified human neutrophils from atopic asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatics and healthy normal controls. We demonstrate that T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) up-regulated mRNA and cell surface expression levels of the IL-9Ralpha in primary human and HL-60 differentiated neutrophils. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB did not affect T(H)2-mediated IL-9Ralpha expression in human neutrophils although IFN-gamma and IL-10 down-regulated IL-9Ralpha expression when co-incubated with IL-4, IL-13 or GM-CSF. Collectively, our results reveal a regulatory function for IFN-gamma and IL-10 on modulating the inducible IL-9Ralpha expression levels on peripheral blood neutrophils by T(H)2 cytokines. PMID:19401191

  7. T(H)2 cytokines modulate the IL-9R expression on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Stéphane; Takhar, Manrit Kaur; Shan, Lianyu; Hayglass, Kent T; Simons, F Estelle; Gounni, Abdelilah S

    2009-06-26

    Interleukin (IL)-9 is associated with key pathological features of asthma such as airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction and mucus production. Inflammatory responses mediated by IL-9 rely on the expression of the IL-9R which has been reported on lung epithelial cells, T lymphocytes and recently on airway granulocyte infiltrates. In this study, we assessed the regulatory and constitutive cell surface expression of the IL-9Ralpha in unfractionated and purified human neutrophils from atopic asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatics and healthy normal controls. We demonstrate that T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) up-regulated mRNA and cell surface expression levels of the IL-9Ralpha in primary human and HL-60 differentiated neutrophils. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB did not affect T(H)2-mediated IL-9Ralpha expression in human neutrophils although IFN-gamma and IL-10 down-regulated IL-9Ralpha expression when co-incubated with IL-4, IL-13 or GM-CSF. Collectively, our results reveal a regulatory function for IFN-gamma and IL-10 on modulating the inducible IL-9Ralpha expression levels on peripheral blood neutrophils by T(H)2 cytokines.

  8. Chemoprotective effect of monoisoamyl 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinate (MiADMS) on cytokines expression in cadmium chloride treated human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Odewumi, Caroline O; Fils-Aime, Shiela; Badisa, Veera L D; Latinwo, Lekan M; Ruden, Michael L; Ikediobi, Christopher; Badisa, Ramesh B

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is commercially profitable element, but it causes toxicity in humans and animals leading to diseases in various organs. The main route of cadmium exposure to humans is through inhalation. Lungs respond to insult through secretion of cytokines. In this study, the chemoprotective effect of monoisoamyl 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinate (MiADMS) was evaluated on viability and cytokines expression in CdCl2 treated human lung A549 cells by cytokine array. Cells were treated with 0, 50, 75, and 100 µM CdCl2 alone, 300 µM MiADMS alone, and co-treated with 300 µM MiADMS and 75 µM CdCl2 for 24 h. The viability was measured by crystal violet dye. The level of cytokines in the cells' lysate and cell culture medium was measured using Ray Biotech's Human Cytokine Array 6 in control cells, 75 µM CdCl2 alone and MiADMS co-treated cells. Array results were validated by ELISA kit. The CdCl2 caused a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, while MiADMS co-treatment resulted in a significant increase in viability of CdCl2 treated cells. Morphology of the cells treated with CdCl2 was destroyed, while MiADMS restored the lost shape in CdCl2 treated cells. In addition, the cells co-treated with MiADMS and CdCl2 showed modulation of cytokines expression in comparison to the CdCl2 alone treated cells. The ELISA results showed the similar pattern of cytokine expression as Human Cytokine Array and validated the array results. These results clearly show the chemoprotective effect of MiADMS and suggest that MiADMS can be used as antidote at moderate dose against CdCl2 toxicity.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  11. Comparative cytokine gene expression: regulation and release by human mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, A; Henz, B M; Grützkau, A; Lippert, U; Aragane, Y; Schwarz, T; Krüger-Krasagakes, S

    1998-01-01

    Since data on the ability of human mast cells to produce various cytokines are scanty, we examined the mRNA expression, its modulation and the resulting protein expression of a number of well-characterized cytokines, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of cell extracts and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for analysis of cell supernatants. One million cells/ml of the human mast cell line HMC-1 were stimulated with 25 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), 5 x 10(-7) M calcium ionophore A 23187 (ionophore) or both stimuli combined for various time periods. Constitutive expression in unstimulated cells was found for interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) -3, -4, -8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Maximal mRNA up-regulation was observed by 2-4 hr, with a second peak for TNF-alpha at 24 hr. After a 4-hr stimulation, IL-13 expression was detectable as well, whereas for IL-12, only the p35 but not the p40 chain was found, and IL-2, -5, -7 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were not expressed at all. Large quantities of IL-8, TNF-alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-3 were secreted time-dependently over a 72-hr period, with lower levels of IL-1 beta, -6, -10 and TGF-beta and no detectable IL-2, -4 and IFN-gamma protein. When IL-6 and IL-8 expression was compared in more detail, IL-6 mRNA was found to be up-regulated only with ionophore but not PMA, whereas both stimuli alone or combined increased IL-8 mRNA expression. Preincubation with cycloheximide inhibited IL-6 but not IL-8 transcription, and incubation of stimulated cells with actinomycin D stabilized IL-8 and also IL-6 mRNA. These data suggest a selective regulation of distinct cytokines in human mast cells at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, the spectrum of cytokines produced by HMC-1 cells supports the well-recognized role of mast cells in immediate

  12. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  13. DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Elisia, Ingrid; Nakamura, Hisae; Lam, Vivian; Hofs, Elyse; Cederberg, Rachel; Cait, Jessica; Hughes, Michael R.; Lee, Leora; Jia, William; Adomat, Hans H.; Guns, Emma S.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Samudio, Ismael; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%– 2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential. PMID:27031833

  14. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  15. Antigen-specific activation and cytokine-facilitated expansion of naive, human CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wölfl, Matthias; Greenberg, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-specific priming of human, naïve T-cells has been difficult to assess. Due to the low initial frequency in the naïve cell pool of specific T-cell precursors, such an analysis has been obscured by the requirements for repeated stimulations and prolonged culture time. In this protocol, we describe how to rapidly evaluate antigen-specific priming of CD8+ -cells following a single stimulation. The assay provides reference conditions, which result in the expansion of a significant population of antigen-specific T-cells from the naïve repertoire. Various conditions and modifications during the priming process (e.g. testing new cytokines, costimulators, etc.) can now be directly compared to the reference conditions. Factors relevant to achieving effective priming include the dendritic cell preparation, the T-cell preparation, the cell ratio at the time of priming, the serum source used for the experiment, and the timing of addition and concentration of the cytokines used for expansion. This protocol is relevant for human immunology, vaccine biology and drug development. PMID:24675735

  16. Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2008-04-15

    TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-{beta}-gal, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}, p16{sup INK4a}, and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects.

  17. Cytokine regulation of human lung fibroblast hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) production. Evidence for cytokine-regulated hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) degradation and human lung fibroblast-derived hyaluronidase.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, P M; Rochester, C L; Freundlich, B; Elias, J A

    1992-01-01

    We characterized the mechanisms by which recombinant (r) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IFN-gamma, and IL-1, alone and in combination, regulate human lung fibroblast hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Each cytokine stimulated fibroblast HA production. The combination of rTNF and rIFN-gamma resulted in a synergistic increase in the production of high molecular weight HA. This was due to a synergistic increase in hyaluronate synthetase activity and a simultaneous decrease in HA degradation. In contrast, when rTNF and rIL-1 were combined, an additive increase in low molecular weight HA was noted. This was due to a synergistic increase in hyaluronate synthetase activity and a simultaneous increase in HA degradation. Human lung fibroblasts contained a hyaluronidase that, at pH 3.7, depolymerized high molecular weight HA to 10-40 kD end products of digestion. However, hyaluronidase activity did not correlate with fibroblast HA degradation. Instead, HA degradation correlated with fibroblast-HA binding, which was increased by rIL-1 plus rTNF and decreased by rIFN-gamma plus rTNF. Recombinant IL-1 and rTNF weakly stimulated and rIL-1 and rTNF in combination further augmented the levels of CD44 mRNA in lung fibroblasts. In contrast, rIFN-gamma did not significantly alter the levels of CD44 mRNA in unstimulated or rTNF stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that rIL-1, rTNF, and rIFN-gamma have complex effects on biosynthesis and degradation which alter the quantity and molecular weight of the HA produced by lung fibroblasts. They also show that fibroblast HA degradation is mediated by a previously unrecognized lysosomal-type hyaluronidase whose function may be regulated by altering fibroblast-HA binding. Lastly, they suggest that the CD44 HA receptor may be involved in this process. Images PMID:1401082

  18. Analysis of oxygen-dependent cytokine expression in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Lönne, Maren; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Kasper, Cornelia

    2013-07-01

    Efficient cell expansion is a basic requirement for obtaining clinically relevant numbers of mesenchymal stem cells designed for cell-based therapies or tissue-engineering application. Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) cultivated under reduced atmospheric oxygen concentrations (2.5% O2) possess enhanced proliferation potential and can maintain their differentiation properties. We have analyzed the oxygen-dependent cytokine expression of human MSC derived from umbilical cord and attempted to link the results to the proliferation and differentiation capacities of these cells. By quantitative reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction and by protein microarray, we measured the gene expression and intracellular protein concentration of several growth factors and growth factor receptors. Fibroblast growth factor-7, two growth factor receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and stem cell factor receptor), and two growth-factor-binding proteins (insulin-like growth-factor-binding proteins 3 and 6) were over-expressed under hypoxic conditions, indicating that their signaling pathways participate in cell proliferation. On the other hand, typical differentiation factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-4, endothelial growth factor, and tissue growth factor-β1 were absent in cells cultivated under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. The absolute concentration of some intracellular cytokines was also measured for the first time under hypoxia and normoxia. Our results in combination with previous findings indicate that enhanced proliferation potential and a maintained undifferentiated cell state can be ascribed to the oxygen-dependent expression of a set of cytokines. This knowledge might help in the understanding of MSC physiology and in the achievement of directed cell fate of MSC for clinical application.

  19. Inhibition of intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells by cytokine-activated human monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S L; Gootee, L; Bucher, C; Bullock, W E

    1991-01-01

    Human monocytes/macrophages (M psi) were infected with Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells, and intracellular growth was quantified after 24 h of incubation in medium alone or in medium containing cytokines. Yeast cells multiplied within freshly isolated monocytes, cultured M psi, and alveolar M psi with intracellular generation times of 14.2 +/- 1.4, 18.5 +/- 2.1, and 19.9 +/- 1.9 h (mean +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. Monocytes and M psi inhibited the intracellular growth of yeast cells in response to cytokine supernatant; maximum inhibition was obtained when cytokines were added to cell monolayers immediately after infection. Opsonization of yeast cells in normal serum or in H. capsulatum-immune serum did not affect the intracellular generation time of yeast cells in either control M psi or cytokine-activated M psi. PMID:1898916

  20. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airways. In mice, TSLP expression can be induced by application of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) analogue calcipotriol and results in the development of eczema-like lesions. The objective is to investigate the effect of VD3 (calcitriol) or calcipotriol on TSLP expression in normal human skin and skin from AD patients. Using multiple ex vivo experimental setups, the effects of calci(po)triol on TSLP expression by normal human skin, and skin from AD patients were investigated and compared to effects of calcipotriol on mouse and non-human primates (NHP) skin. No induction of TSLP expression (mRNA or protein) was observed in human keratinocytes, normal human skin, nonlesional AD skin, or NHP skin samples after stimulation with calcipotriol or topical application of calcitriol. The biological activity of calci(po)triol in human skin samples was demonstrated by the increased expression of the VD3-responsive Cyp24a1 gene. TSLP expression was induced by cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α) in skin samples from all three species. In contrast to the findings in human and NHP, a consistent increase in TSLP expression was confirmed in mouse skin biopsies after stimulation with calcipotriol. VD3 failed to induce expression of TSLP in human or monkey skin in contrast to mouse, implicating careful extrapolation of this often-used mouse model to AD patients. PMID:25866638

  1. Ozone effect on respiratory syncytial virus infectivity and cytokine production by human alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Soukup, J.; Koren, H.S.; Becker, S. )

    1993-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ozone (O3) exposure at 1 ppm for 2 hr on the susceptibility/resistance of adult human alveolar macrophages (AM) to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro and on RSV-induced cytokine production by the AM. AM were first exposed to O3 or to filtered air and then infected with RSV at multiplicities of infection (m.o.i.) of 0.1, 1.0, and 10. The percentage RSV-infected AM and the amount of infectious virus released by the cells were determined at Days 2 and 4 after infection. Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in the supernatants were determined on Day 2. No difference in the percentage infected AM or in the amount of infectious RSV produced was found between control and O3-exposed cultures. However, O3-exposed AM infected with RSV at m.o.i. 1 produced less IL-1 in response to RSV infection than control AM: 63.6 pg/ml compared with 98.5 pg/ml. No difference in IL-1 was seen with m.o.i. 10. IL-6 levels were also decreased, but only after infection with m.o.i. 0.1. At this level of infection 830 pg/ml was produced by control AM as compared to 468.2 pg/ml by O3-exposed AM. TNF production was unaffected by O3 at all multiplicities of infection. Statistical analysis of the O3 effect on AM cytokine production induced by the different multiplicities, however, revealed no significant effect of O3. Based on these observations it appears unlikely that O3 alters susceptibility of AM to infection with RSV, nor does O3 dramatically alter cytokine production in response to RSV since effects on IL-1 and IL-6 secretion were only found with the lowest levels of infection which induced cytokine release.

  2. Stroke-induced migration of human umbilical cord blood cells: time course and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Newman, Mary B; Willing, Alison E; Manresa, John J; Davis-Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul R

    2005-10-01

    The therapeutic window for treatment of individuals after stroke is narrow, regardless of the treatment regime; extension of this window would provide a major therapeutic advance. In prior reports, we demonstrated significant improvements in the behavioral defects of rats that received human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells 24 h after a middle cerebral arterial occlusion. These effects paralleled the recruitment of these cells to the site of tissue damage. While the administration of HUCB cells 24 h after stroke was effective, the optimal time to administer these cells after stroke has not been established. Here, we investigated the migration of HUCB cells to ischemic tissue extracts. After ischemic assault, brain tissue was homogenized, and the supernatants were assayed for their ability to attract HUCB mononuclear cells as well as for levels of several cytokines. We demonstrate increased migratory activity of HUCB cells toward the extracts harvested at 24-72 h after stroke. The extracts possessed increased levels of certain cytokines and chemokines, suggesting their participation in HUCB cell migration. The results from this study are promising in that the current 3-h therapeutic window for the treatment of stroke victims, using approved anticoagulant treatment, may be extended with the use of HUCB cell therapy 24-72 h post stroke. Last, the chemokines present in the supernatant provide a sound starting point to start examining the mechanisms responsible for the in vivo migration of HUCB cells after the induction of stroke. PMID:16305342

  3. Combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic mechanical strain in inhibiting osteogenicity in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaofan; Chen, Lijiao; Shi, Xinlian; Cao, Zhensheng; Hu, Bibo; Yu, Wenbin; Ren, Manman; Hu, Rongdang; Deng, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in bone formation and resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The mechanism has not been fully studied, and the process becomes complex with increased amounts of periodontal patients seeking orthodontic care. Our aims were to elucidate the combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic strain (ICS) on the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were exposed to proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β 5 ng/mL and tumor necrosis factor-α 10 ng/mL) for 1 and 5 days, and ICS (0.5 Hz, 12% elongation) was applied for 4 h per day. The autocrine of inflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and rabbit collagen type I was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The osteogenic capacity was also detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, and alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that ICS impaired the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells when incubated with proinflammatory cytokines, as evidenced by the low expression of ALP staining, low ALP activity, reduced alizarin red staining, and reduced osteoblast markers. These data, for the first time, suggest that ICS has a negative effect on the inductive inhibition of osteogenicity in human PDL cells mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27357508

  4. Effect of cadmium on the expression levels of interleukin-1α and interleukin-10 cytokines in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    ODEWUMI, CAROLINE; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; SINCLAIR, ANDRE; BADISA, VEERA L.D.; ABDULLAH, AHKINYALA; BADISA, RAMESH B.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmentally hazardous metal, which causes toxicity in humans. Inhalation of cigarette smoke and industrial fumes containing cadmium are sources of cadmium exposure. It is responsible for the malfunction of various organs, leading to disease particularly in the lungs, liver and kidneys. In the present study, the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on cell viability, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10 cytokines at various concentrations and incubation durations were assessed in MRC-9 human normal lung and A549 human lung cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of cadmium toxicity. Cell viability was measured using a crystal violet dye binding assay. The expression levels of the cytokines were measured by cytokine specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The viability assay results revealed higher sensitivity of the A549 lung cancer cells to CdCl2 compared with the normal MRC-9 lung cells. In the normal MRC-9 lung cells, higher expression levels of the cytokines were observed at the lowest CdCl2 concentration at a shorter exposure time compared with the lung cancer cells. Higher levels of the cytokines were observed in the A549 lung cancer cells at all other times and concentrations compared with the MRC-9 cells, indicating higher levels of inflammation. The cytokine levels were reduced at higher CdCl2 concentrations and longer exposure durations, demonstrating the toxic effect of cadmium. The results indicated that CdCl2 affected the expression levels of the cytokines and led to cytotoxicity in human lung cells, and suggested that compounds which reduce inflammation may prevent cadmium toxicity. PMID:26397147

  5. Production of hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines by erythroblast antigen+ and glycophorin A+ cells from human bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V; Injelevskaya, Tatyana V; Krysov, Sergey V; Silkov, Alexandr N; Kovinev, Igor B; Dyachkova, Natalya J; Zenkov, Anton N; Loseva, Mary I; Kozlov, Vladimir A

    2004-01-01

    Background Erythroid nuclear cells (ENC) of the bone marrow (BM) have not previously been considered as important producers of wide spectrum of haemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines. The aim of the current work was to confirm the production of the main hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines in human ENC from BM. Results We used native human BM ENC in our experiments. We for the first time have shown, that the unstimulated erythroblasts (Gl A+ or AG-EB+) produced a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory cytokines. Human BM ENC produce cytokines such as interleukn (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10. They can be sub-divided into glycophorin A positive (Gl A+) and erythroblast antigen positive (AG-EB+) cells. To study potential differences in cytokine expression between these subsets, ENC were isolated and purified using specific antibodies to Gl A and AG-EB and the separated cells were cultivated for 24 hours. The cytokine contents of the supernatant were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Quantitative differences in TGF-β1 and TNF-α production were found between Gl A+ and AG-EB+ BM ENC. Furthermore, in vitro addition of erythropoietin (EPO) reduced IFN-γ and IL-2 production specifically by the AG-EB+ ENC. Thus, Gl A+ and AG-EB+ ENC produce IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and TNF-α. Gl A+ ENC also produce IL-10. Conclusion Cytokine production by erythroid nuclear cells suggests that these cells might be involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic and immunocompetent cells in human BM. PMID:15488155

  6. Granzyme K synergistically potentiates LPS-induced cytokine responses in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Annette C; Kemp, Vera; Fermie, Job; García Laorden, M Isabel; van der Poll, Tom; Hack, C Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2014-04-22

    Granzymes are serine proteases released by cytotoxic lymphocytes to induce apoptosis in virus-infected cells and tumor cells. Evidence is emerging that granzymes also play a role in controlling inflammation. Granzyme serum levels are elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases and infections, including sepsis. However, the function of extracellular granzymes in inflammation largely remains unknown. Here, we show that granzyme K (GrK) binds to Gram-negative bacteria and their cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GrK synergistically enhances LPS-induced cytokine release in vitro from primary human monocytes and in vivo in a mouse model of LPS challenge. Intriguingly, these extracellular effects are independent of GrK catalytic activity. GrK disaggregates LPS from micelles and augments LPS-CD14 complex formation, thereby likely boosting monocyte activation by LPS. We conclude that extracellular GrK is an unexpected direct modulator of LPS-TLR4 signaling during the antimicrobial innate immune response.

  7. Biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria undergo lipopolysaccharide structural modifications and induce enhanced inflammatory cytokine response in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ciornei, Cristina D; Novikov, Alexey; Beloin, Christophe; Fitting, Catherine; Caroff, Martine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Adib-Conquy, Minou

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether growth of bacteria in biofilms triggers a specific immune response, we compared cytokine induction in human monocytes and mouse macrophages by planktonic and biofilm bacteria. We compared Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two bacteria often colonizing the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Planktonic and biofilm S. aureus induced equivalent amounts of cytokine in human monocytes. In contrast, biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa induced a higher production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 than their planktonic counterpart, both for clinical isolates and laboratory strains. This increased cytokine production was partly dependent on phagocytosis. In contrast, no difference in cytokine induction was observed with mouse macrophages. We investigated the structures of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of these Gram-negative bacteria in biofilm and planktonic cultures of P. aeruginosa. Switch between the two life-styles was shown to cause several reversible LPS structure modifications affecting the lipid A and polysaccharide moieties of both clinical isolates and laboratory strains. In addition, LPS isolated from biofilm-grown bacteria induced slightly more inflammatory cytokines than that extracted from its planktonic counterpart. Our results, therefore, show that P. aeruginosa biofilm LPS undergoes structural modifications that only partially contribute to an increased inflammatory response from human monocytes. PMID:19710099

  8. Expression of SOCS genes in normal and leukemic human leukocytes stimulated by prolactin, growth hormone and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dogusan, Z; Hooghe-Peters, E L; Berus, D; Velkeniers, B; Hooghe, R

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the possible role of the recently described family of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) factors in the human lympho-hemopoietic system, we have monitored SOCS factor expression, both constitutive and induced by either cytokines, prolactin (PRL) or growth hormone (GH), using polymerase chain reaction in normal and leukemic cells. CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein), SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 were constitutively expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. SOCS-3 expression was enhanced by PRL or by IFN-gamma. In bone marrow cells and granulocytes, CIS expression was induced and SOCS-2 enhanced by IFN-gamma and by PRL. In tonsillar cells, CIS expression was increased and SOCS-2 was induced by IL-1beta, IL-6, PRL and GH. SOCS-3 expression was enhanced by IL-1beta. The expression of SOCS-7 was increased by IL-6, PRL and GH. In Raji B-lymphoma cells, the expression of SOCS-2 and SOCS-7 was enhanced by IL-1beta. In THP-1 myeloid leukemia cells pretreated with TPA (to induce receptors for IFN-gamma), IFN-gamma induced SOCS-2. Jurkat cells expressed more SOCS-2 when exposed to PRL. Original observations in this work include the first report on SOCS-7 induction by cytokines. Also our data shed new light on the possible involvement of PRL and GH in the cytokine network. These hormones could modulate the transduction of signals originating from receptors for various cytokines.

  9. Benexate hydrochloride betadex modulates nitric oxide synthesis and cytokine expression in gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Lim, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoonjin; Kim, Ye Ji; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Sul, Donggeun; Hong, Junghwa; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated benexate hydrochloride betadex (BHB)-mediated ulcer healing, and changes to microcirculation modulated through nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and anti-inflammatory activity. A rat model of gastric mucosal injury was established through injection of a 60% acetic acid solution into the stomach. Following ulcer induction, the rats were administered BHB orally for 5 days at doses of 0, 100, 300 or 1,000 mg/kg. The highest dose of BHB was also administered with or without L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The area of gastric ulcers was determined by planimetry, and expression of cyclooxygenases (COX), cytokines and NOS in stomach tissues were measured using western blotting. Compared with the control group, gastric ulcer size was significantly decreased in the 1,000 mg/kg BHB-treated group (P<0.05). Administration of BHB led to a significant increase in endothelial (e)NOS expression (P<0.05). Although acetic acid co-treatment with L-NAME induced more severe mucosal damage, BHB decreased COX expression and tumor necrosis factor-α levels when administered with the nitric oxide inhibitor, L-NAME (P<0.05). BHB exhibited protective effects in a rat model of gastric ulcers, which were associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and the activation of eNOS. PMID:27446246

  10. Cytokine modulation (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) by human breast milk lipids on intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed

    Barrera, Girolamo J; Sánchez, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is the best form of nourishment for infants during the first year of life. It is composed by a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Breast milk provides nutrients and bioactive factors that themselves modulate maturation and development of the gastrointestinal tract. Many studies have shown that it provides protection against gastrointestinal tract inflammation. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of human breast milk lipids on epithelial intestinal cells (Caco-2) cytokine regulation and the fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) involved in this process. Caco-2 cells were cultivated and stimulated with different concentration of human milk lipids from healthy human mothers (18-30-year-olds) or single commercial lipids for 48 h. We measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines by immunoassay (ELISA) and quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, respectively. We observed a two to three times decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (p < 0.01) as well as an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in cells stimulated with increasing concentrations of breast milk lipids. These results suggest that human breast milk lipids could have an important role on the cytokine modulation in the newborn bowel.

  11. Fucoidan delays apoptosis and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan.

  12. Expression of ras oncogenes in cultured human cells alters the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of cytokine genes.

    PubMed Central

    Demetri, G D; Ernst, T J; Pratt, E S; Zenzie, B W; Rheinwald, J G; Griffin, J D

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous production of cytokines such as the hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), IL-1, or IL-6 has been demonstrated in numerous human and murine neoplasms, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of several paraneoplastic syndromes such as leukocytosis, fever, and hypercalcemia. Because of the high frequency with which mutations in ras protooncogenes have been detected in human tumors, as well as evidence linking ras gene products to activation of certain cellular functions, we investigated whether ras mutations might influence the regulation of cytokine genes. Normal human fibroblasts transfected with a mutant val12 H-ras oncogene expressed increased levels of mRNA transcripts encoding granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), and IL-1 beta compared with controls. Human mesothelioma cells transfected with a mutant asp12 N-ras oncogene exhibited similar alterations in cytokine gene expression. Estimates of transcriptional activity by nuclear run-on analysis revealed a selective increase in transcription only for the IL-1 gene. Analysis of mRNA half-life demonstrated a marked increase in the stability of numerous cytokine transcripts, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1, and IL-6. The addition of anti-IL-1 neutralizing antibody to cultures of cells expressing ras mutants did not block the expression of any of the cytokines examined, suggesting that the baseline expression of GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-6 was not a secondary event due to the increased transcription of IL-1. These results indicate that mutations in ras genes may alter expression of several cytokine genes through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Images PMID:2212010

  13. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Conclusion Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the

  14. Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mynster Kronborg, Thit; Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Ramhøj, Louise; Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is now banned, release from existing products will continue for many years. The PBDEs are assumed to be neurotoxic and toxic to endocrine organs at low concentrations. Their effect on the immune system has not been investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L). Material and Methods PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits. Results At non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01–10 μg/mL), DE-71 significantly enhanced secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and TNF-α (p<0.001–0.019; n = 6) from LPS-stimulated PBMCs. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F (p = <0.001–0.043; n = 6) secretion were enhanced from PHA-L-stimulated PBMCs as well. Secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-6 was not significantly affected by DE-71. Conclusions We demonstrate an enhancing effect of DE-71 on cytokine production by normal human PBMCs stimulated with LPS or PHA-L ex vivo. PMID:27128973

  15. Hormone levels are associated with clinical markers and cytokine levels in human localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Baccan, Gyselle Chrystina; Oliveira, Fabiano; Sousa, Adenilma Duranes; Cerqueira, Natali Alexandrino; Costa, Jackson Mauricio Lopes; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2011-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem in several parts of the world, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most frequent presentation of the tegumentary form of this disease cluster. Clinical presentations of leishmaniasis are influenced by both parasite and host factors, with emphasis on the host immune response. Alterations in plasma hormone levels have been described in many infections, and changes in hormone levels could be related to an imbalanced cytokine profile. In the present work, we evaluated a group of patients with LCL to determine changes in plasma hormone levels (cortisol, DHEA-S, estradiol, prolactin and testosterone) and their association with clinical markers of disease (lesion size, dose used to reach cure and time to cure) and with cytokines produced by PBMC stimulated by SLA (IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α). Individuals with LCL exhibited lower plasma levels of DHEA-S, prolactin and testosterone compared with sex-matched controls, whereas levels of cortisol and estradiol were similar between patients and controls. Plasma levels of cortisol, estradiol or prolactin positively correlated with at least one clinical parameter. Cortisol and prolactin levels exhibited a negative correlation with levels of IFN-γ, whereas no correlation was observed with IL-10 or TNF-α levels. A decrease in DHEA-S levels was observed in male LCL patients when compared to male healthy controls. No other differences between the sexes were observed. Our results indicate a role for neuroendocrine regulation that restricts Th1 responses in human LCL. It is possible that, although impairing parasite killing, such neuroimmunomodulation may contribute to limiting tissue damage.

  16. Effect of concomitant consumption of fish oil and vitamin E on production of inflammatory cytokines in healthy elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dayong; Han, Sung Nim; Meydani, Mohsen; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2004-12-01

    A beneficial effect of fish oil in reducing inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. This effect occurs in part through fish oil's inhibition of synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Epidemiologic studies have shown a link between increased intake of vitamin E in diet and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines have been indicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, the current study was designed to determine the effect of concomitant consumption of fish oil and vitamin E on interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Healthy elderly subjects consumed fish oil plus different doses of vitamin E for 3 months. The results indicated that, in general, fish oil inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vitamin E did not interfere with this effect of fish oil; rather its supplementation might further contribute to the fish oil-induced inhibition of these cytokines, in particular at the 200 mg/d dose.

  17. ADHESION AND POLLUTION PARTICLE-INDUCED OXIDANT GENERATION IS NEITHER NECESSARY NOR SUFFICIENT FOR CYTOKINE INDUCTION IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adhesion of human monocytes (MOs) results in the rapid transcriptional activation of cytokine genes that are dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Several pathways leading to activation of NF-kappaB have been described, including those involving reactive oxygen intermediates (...

  18. Endotoxin or cytokines attenuate ozone-induced DNA synthesis in rat nasal transitional epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R. )

    1992-06-01

    Pretreatment of rats with endotoxin (E), a potent inducer of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and interleukin 1 beta (IL 1), or a combination of TNF and IL1, has been shown to increase levels of lung antioxidant enzymes and protect against pulmonary toxicity associated with hyperoxia. Inhalation of ozone (O3) induces cell injury, followed by increased DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and secretory cell metaplasia in rat nasal transitional epithelium (NTE). This study was designed to test the effects of E, TNF, and IL1 pretreatment on acute O3-induced NTE cell injury as measured by changes in NTE cell DNA synthesis. Rats were exposed to either 0.8 ppm O3 or air for 6 hr in whole-body inhalation chambers. Immediately before exposure, rats in each group were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with either saline alone or saline containing E, TNF, IL1, or both TNF and IL1. Eighteen hours postexposure, rats were injected ip with bromodeoxyuridine to label cells undergoing DNA synthesis and were euthanized 2 hr later. NTE was processed for light microscopy and immunochemically stained to identify cells that had incorporated BrdU into nuclear DNA. The number of BrdU-labeled NTE nuclei per millimeter of basal lamina was quantitated. There were no significant differences in the number of BrdU-labeled NTE nuclei in air-exposed rats that were injected with E, TNF, IL1, or TNF/IL1 compared with those in saline-injected, air-exposed controls. Rats that were injected with saline and exposed to O3 had approximately 10 times the number of BrdU-labeled NTE nuclei than saline-injected, air-exposed control rats. O3 exposure also induced a significant increase in labeled nuclei in rats that were pretreated with TNF alone. In contrast, pretreatment with E, IL1, or TNF/IL1 attenuated the O3-induced increase in NTE DNA synthesis.

  19. In Vitro Effects of Propranolol on T Helper Type 1 Cytokine Profile in Human Leukemic T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajighasemi, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cytokines are a large group of proteins play a key role in inflammation. Down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has beneficial effect on heart function. Propranolol, as a non selective beta-adrenergic blocker, has been extensively used for treatment of many cardiovascular problems such as arrhythmias and heart malfunction. In addition anti-inflammatory effects of propranolol have been revealed. In this study the propranolol effect on T helper type 1 cytokine profile in human leukemic T cells has been assessed in vitro. Materials and methods: Human leukemic T cells (Molt-4 and Jurkat) were cultured in complete RPMI medium. The cells were then incubated with different concentrations of propranolol (0.03- 30 µM) in the presence or absence of PHA (10 µg/ml) for 48 hours. The supernatants of cell culture media were collected and used for cytokines assay. Results: Propranolol significantly decreased the T helper type 1 cytokine profile [Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interferon- γ (IFN-γ)] production in PHA stimulated Molt-4 and Jurkat cells, after 48 hour of incubation time, dose-dependently compared to untreated control cells. Conclusion: Our data showed a dose dependent inhibitory effect of propranolol on the IL-2 and IFN-γ production in human leukemic Molt-4 and Jurkat cells. The anti- inflammatory effect of propranolol reported by other investigators may be in part due to its suppressive effect on production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ. So, propranolol along with its chronic long-term usage in cardiovascular problems may have potential implication in treatment of inflammatory-based disorders. PMID:27252810

  20. Cytokine response by human monocytes to Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B.

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, W A; Müller, F; Däubener, W; Fischer, H G; Hadding, U; Northoff, H

    1991-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxins A and B isolated from strain VPI 10463 were tested for induction of cytokine release by human monocytes. Toxin B at 10(-12) M activated human monocytes as measured by release of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or IL-6. These effects of toxin B were heat labile (51 degrees C, 30 min). Toxin B was as effective as bacterial lipopolysaccharides in inducing IL-1 beta but less effective in inducing TNF or IL-6. Toxin B and lipopolysaccharides were synergistic in induction of IL-1 beta, TNF, and IL-6. The toxin A preparation used was 1,000-fold less active than toxin B. Apart from the difference in activity, the two toxins showed identical patterns of reaction and there was no synergism between them. A short pulse with toxin B was sufficient to trigger IL-1 release. Toxin B was also extremely toxic for monocytes. The toxicity and the induced proinflammatory monokines (IL-1 and TNF) may contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of C. difficile infection and pseudomembranous colitis. Images PMID:1910012

  1. Human MAIT-cell responses to Escherichia coli: activation, cytokine production, proliferation, and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Joana; Sobkowiak, Michał J.; Sandberg, Johan K.; Leeansyah, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T cells are a large and relatively recently described innate-like antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. These cells recognize riboflavin metabolites from a range of microbes presented by evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex, class I-related molecules. Given the innate-like characteristics of mucosa-associated invariant T cells and the novel type of antigens they recognize, new methodology must be developed and existing methods refined to allow comprehensive studies of their role in human immune defense against microbial infection. In this study, we established protocols to examine a range of mucosa-associated invariant T-cell functions as they respond to antigen produced by Escherichia coli. These improved and dose- and time-optimized experimental protocols allow detailed studies of MR1-dependent mucosa-associated invariant T-cell responses to Escherichia coli pulsed antigen-presenting cells, as assessed by expression of activation markers and cytokines, by proliferation, and by induction of apoptosis and death in major histocompatibility complex, class I-related–expressing target cells. The novel and optimized protocols establish a framework of methods and open new possibilities to study mucosa-associated invariant T-cell immunobiology, using Escherichia coli as a model antigen. Furthermore, we propose that these robust experimental systems can also be adapted to study mucosa-associated invariant T-cell responses to other microbes and types of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27034405

  2. Natural innate cytokine response to immunomodulators and adjuvants in human precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Switalla, S.; Lauenstein, L.; Prenzler, F.; Knothe, S.; Foerster, C.; Fieguth, H.-G.; Pfennig, O.; Schaumann, F.; Martin, C.; Guzman, C.A.; Ebensen, T.; Mueller, M.; Hohlfeld, J.M.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.; Sewald, K.

    2010-08-01

    Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has precluded therapeutic use. The bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 and its synthetic derivative BPPcysMPEG are better tolerated. We have compared the effects of LPS and BPPcysMPEG on the innate immune response in human precision-cut lung slices. Cytokine responses were quantified by ELISA, Luminex, and Meso Scale Discovery technology. The initial response to LPS and BPPcysMPEG was marked by coordinated and significant release of the mediators IL-1{beta}, MIP-1{beta}, and IL-10 in viable PCLS. Stimulation of lung tissue with BPPcysMPEG, however, induced a differential response. While LPS upregulated IFN-{gamma}, BPPcysMPEG did not. This traces back to their signaling pathways via TLR4 and TLR2/6. The calculated exposure doses selected for LPS covered ranges occurring in clinical studies with human beings. Correlation of obtained data with data from human BAL fluid after segmental provocation with endotoxin showed highly comparable effects, resulting in a coefficient of correlation > 0.9. Furthermore, we were interested in modulating the response to LPS. Using dexamethasone as an immunosuppressive drug for anti-inflammatory therapy, we found a significant reduction of GM-CSF, IL-1{beta}, and IFN-{gamma}. The PCLS-model offers the unique opportunity to test the efficacy and toxicity of biological agents intended for use by inhalation in a complex setting in humans.

  3. Pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a key inhibitory factor for lactose synthesis pathway in lactating mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken; Kuki, Chinatsu; Oyama, Shoko; Kumura, Haruto

    2016-01-15

    Lactose is a milk-specific carbohydrate synthesized by mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in mammary glands during lactation. Lactose synthesis is downregulated under conditions causing inflammation such as mastitis, in which MECs are exposed to high concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) directly influence the lactose synthesis pathway by using two types of murine MEC culture models: the monolayer culture of MECs to induce lactogenesis; and the three-dimensional culture of MECs surrounded by Matrigel to induce reconstitution of the alveolar structure in vitro. TNF-α caused severe down-regulation of lactose synthesis-related genes concurrently with the degradation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) from the basolateral membranes in MECs. IL-1β also caused degradation of GLUT1 along with a decrease in the expression level of β-1,4-galactosylransferase 3. IL-6 caused both up-regulation and down-regulation of the expression levels of lactose synthesis-related genes in MECs. These results indicate that TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 have different effects on the lactose synthesis pathway in MECs. Furthermore, TNF-α triggered activation of NFκB and inactivation of STAT5, suggesting that NFκB and STAT5 signaling pathways are involved in the multiple adverse effects of TNF-α on the lactose synthesis pathway.

  4. Cross-reactivity of anti-human, anti-porcine and anti-bovine cytokine antibodies with cetacean tissues.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Zafra, R; Herráez, P; Rodríguez, F; Arbelo, M; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Fernández, A

    2010-07-01

    The cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies specific for human, porcine and bovine cytokines was evaluated for three cetacean species: Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Formalin-fixed and snap-frozen tissue sections of lung, spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph node were evaluated. T and B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages were detected by use of anti-human CD3, IgG and lysozyme polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), respectively. These reagents were successfully applied to both fixed and frozen tissues. Anti-human interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and CD25, anti-porcine IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and anti-bovine IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma antibodies produced immunolabelling in cetacean snap-frozen lymph node sections similar to that obtained with tissue from the species of origin, but they did not react with formalin-fixed tissue sections. Anti-porcine IL-12 pAb did not react with snap-frozen cetacean tissue samples. Macrophages and lymphocytes were the most common cells immunolabelled with the anti-cytokine antibodies. This panel of anti-cytokine antibodies may be used to evaluate cytokine expression in snap-frozen tissue samples from the cetacean species tested. PMID:20163803

  5. Entamoeba lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Contains a Cytokine-Like Domain with Chemokine Activity towards Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sunghoon; Celada, Antonio; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    Immunological pressure encountered by protozoan parasites drives the selection of strategies to modulate or avoid the immune responses of their hosts. Here we show that the parasite Entamoeba histolytica has evolved a chemokine that mimics the sequence, structure, and function of the human cytokine HsEMAPII (Homo sapiens endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II). This Entamoeba EMAPII-like polypeptide (EELP) is translated as a domain attached to two different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) that are overexpressed when parasites are exposed to inflammatory signals. EELP is dispensable for the tRNA aminoacylation activity of the enzymes that harbor it, and it is cleaved from them by Entamoeba proteases to generate a standalone cytokine. Isolated EELP acts as a chemoattractant for human cells, but its cell specificity is different from that of HsEMAPII. We show that cell specificity differences between HsEMAPII and EELP can be swapped by site directed mutagenesis of only two residues in the cytokines' signal sequence. Thus, Entamoeba has evolved a functional mimic of an aaRS-associated human cytokine with modified cell specificity. PMID:22140588

  6. Expression of TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Relationship with other inflammatory cytokines in obesity.

    PubMed

    Chacón, M R; Richart, C; Gómez, J M; Megía, A; Vilarrasa, N; Fernández-Real, J M; García-España, A; Miranda, M; Masdevall, C; Ricard, W; Caubet, E; Soler, J; Vendrell, J

    2006-02-01

    TWEAK, a cytokine of the TNF family, has been found to be expressed under different inflammatory conditions but no data is available concerning the expression of this cytokine and its receptor (Fn14) in human obesity. In the present work we have evaluated the expression of many pro-inflammatory TNF system cytokines (TNF-alpha, TWEAK and their respective receptors, TNFR1, TNFR2 and Fn14) in human adipose tissue of 84 subjects some with different degree of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its relation with inflammation by also measuring the expression of macrophage marker CD68. We detected expression of TWEAK and Fn14 in isolated mature adipocytes and in the stromovascular fraction. Additionally, we found that LPS upregulates the expression of both genes on THP-1 human monocytic cell line. TWEAK was expressed in adipose tissue of all studied subjects with no differences between obesity group, and was associated with Fn14 expression in morbid obese, mainly in women with type 2 diabetes. The data obtained here also showed that TNF-alpha and TNFR2 mRNAs were significantly more expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue of subjects with morbid obesity compared to obese and non-obese subjects. In contrast, TNFR1 gene expression was negatively associated with BMI. Our results suggest that the expression of TNF-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in severe obesity, where macrophage infiltrate could modulate the inflammatory environment through activation of its receptors.

  7. Cross-reactivity of anti-human, anti-porcine and anti-bovine cytokine antibodies with cetacean tissues.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Zafra, R; Herráez, P; Rodríguez, F; Arbelo, M; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Fernández, A

    2010-07-01

    The cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies specific for human, porcine and bovine cytokines was evaluated for three cetacean species: Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Formalin-fixed and snap-frozen tissue sections of lung, spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph node were evaluated. T and B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages were detected by use of anti-human CD3, IgG and lysozyme polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), respectively. These reagents were successfully applied to both fixed and frozen tissues. Anti-human interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and CD25, anti-porcine IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and anti-bovine IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma antibodies produced immunolabelling in cetacean snap-frozen lymph node sections similar to that obtained with tissue from the species of origin, but they did not react with formalin-fixed tissue sections. Anti-porcine IL-12 pAb did not react with snap-frozen cetacean tissue samples. Macrophages and lymphocytes were the most common cells immunolabelled with the anti-cytokine antibodies. This panel of anti-cytokine antibodies may be used to evaluate cytokine expression in snap-frozen tissue samples from the cetacean species tested.

  8. [Profile of RNA cytokines in blood plasma under conditions of normal physiological state of human body].

    PubMed

    Turchaninova, M A; Rebrikov, D V

    2009-01-01

    The level of representation of extracellular RNA 14 cytokines in blood plasma in a group of apparently healthy subjects was analyzed. The level of representation of the transcripts of these cytokines in extracellular medium is characterized by specific profile different from the profile of expression of the genes in blood cells.

  9. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific. PMID:22619631

  10. Determination of the Absolute Number of Cytokine mRNA Molecules within Individual Activated Human T Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel J.; Marshall, Gwen; Hockett, Richard D.; Bucy, R. Pat; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A primary function of activated T cells is the expression and subsequent secretion of cytokines, which orchestrate the differentiation of other lymphocytes, modulate antigen presenting cell activity, and alter vascular endothelium to mediate an immune response. Since many features of immune regulation probably result from modest alterations of endogenous rates of multiple interacting processes, quantitative analysis of the frequency and specific activity of individual T cells is critically important. Using a coordinated set of quantitative methods, the absolute number of molecules of several key cytokine mRNA species in individual T cells has been determined. The frequency of human blood T cells activated in vitro by mitogens and recall protein antigens was determined by intracellular cytokine protein staining, in situ hybridization for cytokine mRNA, and by limiting dilution analysis for cytokine mRNA+ cells. The absolute number of mRNA molecules was simultaneously determined in both homogenates of the entire population of cells and in individual cells obtained by limiting dilution, using a quantitative, competitive RT-PCR assay. The absolute numbers of mRNA molecules in a population of cells divided by the frequency of individual positive cells, yielded essentially the same number of mRNA molecules per cell as direct analysis of individual cells by limiting dilution analysis. Mean numbers of mRNA per positive cell from both mitogen and antigen activated T cells, using these stimulation conditions, were 6000 for IL-2, 6300 for IFN-gamma, and 1600 for IL-4.

  11. Cytokines associated with amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease brain stimulate human glial and neuronal cell cultures to secrete early complement proteins, but not C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Veerhuis, R; Janssen, I; De Groot, C J; Van Muiswinkel, F L; Hack, C E; Eikelenboom, P

    1999-11-01

    Complement activation products C1q, C4c/d, and C3c/d in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease probably result from direct binding and activation of C1 by amyloid beta peptides. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies have shown that several complement factors are produced in the brain parenchyma. In the present study, cytokines that can be detected in amyloid plaques (i.e., interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were found to differentially stimulate the expression of C1 subcomponents, C1-Inhibitor (C1-Inh), C4, and C3, by astrocyte and microglial cell cultures derived from postmortem adult, human brain specimens and by neuroblastoma cell lines in culture. C1r and C1s were secreted at low levels by astrocytes and neuroblastoma cell lines. Exposure of cells to IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and to a far lesser extent IL-6, markedly upregulated C1r, C1s, and C3 production. C4 synthesis increased in response to interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-6, whereas that of C1-Inh could be stimulated only by IFN-gamma. Thus, C1-Inh production is refractory to stimulation by plaque-associated cytokines, whereas these cytokines do stimulate C1r, C1s, and also C4 and C3 secretion by astrocytes and neuronal cells in culture. In contrast to the amyloid plaque associated cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-1 alpha, and TNF-alpha, the amyloid peptide A beta 1-42 itself did not stimulate C1r and C1s synthesis by astrocytes, microglial cells, or neuroblastoma cell lines. Microglial cells were the only cell type that constitutively expressed C1q. The ability of C1q to reassociate with newly formed C1r and C1s upon activation of C1 and subsequent inactivation by C1-Inh, may enable ongoing complement activation at sites of amyloid deposition, especially when C1-Inh is consumed and not replaced.

  12. Cytokine-like effects of prolactin in human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dogusan, Z; Hooghe, R; Verdood, P; Hooghe-Peters, E L

    2001-11-01

    Some biochemical events following the binding of prolactin (PRL) to its receptor in normal human leukocytes were investigated. PRL enhanced JAK2 phosphorylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but not in granulocytes. PRL also induced phosphorylation of Stat-5 in PBMC and Stat-1 in granulocytes. Subsequent binding of Stat-5- and of Stat-1-like molecules to a GAS responsive element from the beta-casein promoter was detected by EMSA. p38 MAPK (but not p42/p44 MAPK) was activated by PRL in both leukocyte populations. PRL induced iNOS and CIS mRNA expression in granulocytes. Increased expression of IRF-1 and SOCS-2 was observed in granulocytes and of SOCS-3 and iNOS in PBMC. Similar effects were obtained with ovine and human PRL. Antiserum to PRL reduced iNOS and IRF-1 expression induced by PRL in granulocytes and reduced iNOS expression in PBMC. Also, pretreatment of granulocytes with a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB 203580) prevented in part PRL-induced iNOS and IRF-1 expression. In PBMC, the p38 inhibitor decreased PRL-induced iNOS gene expression. These results indicate that PRL-induced gene regulation in leukocytes requires the activation of at least two different pathways: the Stat and the MAP kinase pathways. Moreover, although PRL activates Stat in both leukocyte types, signal transduction is different in granulocytes and in PBMC. Most importantly, PRL modulates the expression of genes crucial to leukocyte function. The present findings reinforce the concept that PRL has "cytokine-like" activity in human leukocytes.

  13. Induction of human beta-defensin-2 expression in human astrocytes by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hao, H N; Zhao, J; Lotoczky, G; Grever, W E; Lyman, W D

    2001-05-01

    Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. They are members of a supergene family consisting of alpha and beta subtypes and each subtype is comprised of a number of different isoforms. For example, human alpha-defensin (HAD) has six isoforms, which are expressed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Paneth cells. In contrast, human beta-defensin (HBD) has two isoforms that are expressed by epithelial cells of the skin, gut, respiratory and urogenital tracts. Recently, HBD-1 was detected in human brain biopsy tissue. However, little is known about the expression of HBD-1 or HBD-2 in the CNS and whether neural cells can secrete these peptides. For the present study, human astrocyte, microglial, meningeal fibroblast and neuronal cultures were probed for the expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNA and protein. Each cell type was either maintained in tissue culture medium alone or in medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 microgram/mL, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) at 1-50 ng/mL, or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) at the same concentrations. The expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs was monitored by RT-PCR. The cDNA products were sequenced to characterize the gene product. HBD-2 protein was detected by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. Results of these studies showed that HBD-1 mRNA was detected in all cell cultures except in those enriched for neurons. In contrast, HBD-2 mRNA was detected only in astrocyte cultures that were treated with LPS, IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The detection of the respective proteins correlated positively with the mRNA results. As such, these data represent the first demonstration of HBD-2 expression by astrocytes and suggest that this peptide may play a role in host defense against bacterial CNS pathogenesis.

  14. Subfractions of enamel matrix derivative differentially influence cytokine secretion from human oral fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Oscar; Brookes, Steven J; Thiede, Bernd; Heijl, Lars; Lyngstadaas, Staale P

    2015-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative is used to promote periodontal regeneration during the corrective phase of the treatment of periodontal defects. Our main goal was to analyze the bioactivity of different molecular weight fractions of enamel matrix derivative. Enamel matrix derivative, a complex mixture of proteins, was separated into 13 fractions using size-exclusion chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were treated with either enamel matrix derivative or the different fractions. Proliferation and cytokine secretion to the cell culture medium were measured and compared to untreated cells. The liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the most abundant peptides were amelogenin and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide related. The fractions containing proteins above 20 kDa induced an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 secretion, whereas lower molecular weight fractions enhanced proliferation and secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduced interleukin-4 release. The various molecular components in the enamel matrix derivative formulation might contribute to reported effects on tissue regeneration through their influence on vascularization, the immune response, and chemotaxis. PMID:26090085

  15. Subfractions of enamel matrix derivative differentially influence cytokine secretion from human oral fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Villa, Oscar; Brookes, Steven J; Thiede, Bernd; Heijl, Lars; Lyngstadaas, Staale P; Reseland, Janne E

    2015-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative is used to promote periodontal regeneration during the corrective phase of the treatment of periodontal defects. Our main goal was to analyze the bioactivity of different molecular weight fractions of enamel matrix derivative. Enamel matrix derivative, a complex mixture of proteins, was separated into 13 fractions using size-exclusion chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were treated with either enamel matrix derivative or the different fractions. Proliferation and cytokine secretion to the cell culture medium were measured and compared to untreated cells. The liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the most abundant peptides were amelogenin and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide related. The fractions containing proteins above 20 kDa induced an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 secretion, whereas lower molecular weight fractions enhanced proliferation and secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduced interleukin-4 release. The various molecular components in the enamel matrix derivative formulation might contribute to reported effects on tissue regeneration through their influence on vascularization, the immune response, and chemotaxis. PMID:26090085

  16. Applications of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant cytokines for the treatment of human colorectal and other carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, J.W.; Smalley, R.V.; Borden, E.C.; Martin, E.W.; Guadagni, F.; Roselli, M.; Schlom, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which recognize a human tumor antigen, termed tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72), have successfully been used to localize primary as well as metastatic colorectal tumor lesions in patients. The localization of the anti-TAG-72 MAbs has also been exploited intraoperatively using a hand-held gamma probe. That procedure, termed radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), has identified occult tumors which were not detected using standard external imaging techniques. In another clinical trial, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was administered intraperitoneally to patients diagnosed with either gastrointestinal or ovarian carcinoma with secondary ascites. Analysis of the tumor cells isolated from the malignant ascites revealed a substantial increase in TAG-72 expression on the surface of tumor cells isolated from seven of eight patients. The results provide evidence that the combination of an anti-carcinoma MAb with the administration of a cytokine, such as IFN-gamma, may be an effective approach for the detection and subsequent treatment, of colorectal carcinoma. 15 references.

  17. Vitamin D attenuates cytokine-induced remodeling in human fetal airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Britt, Rodney D; Faksh, Arij; Vogel, Elizabeth R; Thompson, Michael A; Chu, Vivian; Pandya, Hitesh C; Amrani, Yassine; Martin, Richard J; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2015-06-01

    Asthma in the pediatric population remains a significant contributor to morbidity and increasing healthcare costs. Vitamin D3 insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with development of asthma. Recent studies in models of adult airway diseases suggest that the bioactive Vitamin D3 metabolite, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ; 1,25(OH)2 D3 ), modulates responses to inflammation; however, this concept has not been explored in developing airways in the context of pediatric asthma. We used human fetal airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells as a model of the early postnatal airway to explore how calcitriol modulates remodeling induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cells were pre-treated with calcitriol and then exposed to TNFα or TGFβ for up to 72 h. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, production of extracellular matrix (ECM), and cell proliferation were assessed. Calcitriol attenuated TNFα enhancement of MMP-9 expression and activity. Additionally, calcitriol attenuated TNFα and TGFβ-induced collagen III expression and deposition, and separately, inhibited proliferation of fetal ASM cells induced by either inflammatory mediator. Analysis of signaling pathways suggested that calcitriol effects in fetal ASM involve ERK signaling, but not other major inflammatory pathways. Overall, our data demonstrate that calcitriol can blunt multiple effects of TNFα and TGFβ in developing airway, and point to a potentially novel approach to alleviating structural changes in inflammatory airway diseases of childhood. PMID:25204635

  18. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Inflammatory Cytokines after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Machová Urdzíková, Lucia; Růžička, Jiří; LaBagnara, Michael; Kárová, Kristýna; Kubinová, Šárka; Jiráková, Klára; Murali, Raj; Syková, Eva; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Jendelová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improves functional recovery in experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not completely understood. We investigated the effect of intrathecal implantation of human MSC on functional recovery, astrogliosis and levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats using balloon-induced spinal cord compression lesions. Transplanted cells did not survive at the lesion site of the spinal cord; however, functional recovery was enhanced in the MSC-treated group as was confirmed by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) and the flat beam test. Morphometric analysis showed a significantly higher amount of remaining white matter in the cranial part of the lesioned spinal cords. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lesions indicated the rearrangement of the glial scar in MSC-treated animals. Real-time PCR analysis revealed an increased expression of Irf5, Mrc1, Fgf2, Gap43 and Gfap. Transplantation of MSCs into a lesioned spinal cord reduced TNFα, IL-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12 and increased the levels of MIP-1α and RANTES when compared to saline-treated controls. Intrathecal implantation of MSCs reduces the inflammatory reaction and apoptosis, improves functional recovery and modulates glial scar formation after SCI, regardless of cell survival. Therefore, repeated applications may prolong the beneficial effects induced by MSC application. PMID:24968269

  19. Uptake of 12-HETE by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC): effects on HBEC cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Gormand, F; Chabannes, B; Moliere, P; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Lagarde, M; Pacheco, Y

    1996-04-01

    12-HETE, the major lipoxygenase end-product of platelets and macrophages, may be released in contact of bronchial epithelium in inflammatory diseases of the lung. We have studied the outcome of 12-HETE in presence of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). When HBEC were incubated with [3H]12-HETE for 30 minutes, 27.5% of total radioactivity was found in HBEC and 72.5% in supernatants. Unesterified 12-HETE accounted for 22.4% of total radioactivity, 4.5% being recovered in phospholipids, preferentially in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. No incorporation in neutral lipids was detected. 72.9% of the incubated radioactivity was recovered in un identified metabolites. As 12-HETE has been shown to modulate the expression and production of various proteins, the consequence of the 12-HETE uptake on the release of GM-CSF and IL8 by HBEC was assessed. HBEC from control subjects were cultured for 24 hours with 12-HETE (10(-9) to 10(-7)M) in the presence or absence of TNF alpha. Detectable amounts of both cytokines were released in the supernatant in basal conditions at 24hr, and TNF alpha increased significantly the release of GM-CSF. 12-HETE at 10(-7)M weakly but significantly decreased the TNF-induced release of GM-CSF from HBEC. Thus the uptake of 12-HETE could affect the epithelial cell function in some situations.

  20. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  1. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  2. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  3. IL-1β/HMGB1 signalling promotes the inflammatory cytokines release via TLR signalling in human intervertebral disc cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and cytokines have been recognized to correlate with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD), via mediating the development of clinical signs and symptoms. However, the regulation mechanism remains unclear. We aimed at investigating the regulatory role of interleukin (IL)β and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the inflammatory response in human IVD cells, and then explored the signalling pathways mediating such regulatory effect. Firstly, the promotion to inflammatory cytokines in IVD cells was examined with ELISA method. And then western blot and real time quantitative PCR were performed to analyse the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and NF-κB signalling markers in the IL-1β- or (and) HMGB1-treated IVD cells. Results demonstrated that either IL-1β or HMGB1 promoted the release of the inflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in human IVD cells. And the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, -3 and -9 was also additively up-regulated by IL-1β and HMGB1. We also found such additive promotion to the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and RAGE, and the NF-κB signalling in intervertebral disc cells. In summary, our study demonstrated that IL-1β and HMGB1 additively promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of MMPs in human IVD cells. The TLRs and RAGE and the NF-κB signalling were also additively promoted by IL-1β and HMGB1. Our study implied that the additive promotion by IL-1β and HMGB1 to inflammatory cytokines and MMPs might aggravate the progression of IDD. PMID:27512095

  4. Flagella from Five Cronobacter Species Induce Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Macrophage Derivatives from Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rocha-Ramírez, Luz M.; Ochoa, Sara A.; Gónzalez-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Eslava, Carlos; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Sadowinski-Pine, Stanislaw; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Estrada-García, Iris; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas, Irma; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens linked to lie-threatening infections in neonates and contaminated powdered infant formula that has been epidemiologically associated with these cases. Clinical symptoms of Cronobacter include necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteremia, and meningitis. Flagella from C. sakazakii are involved in biofilm formation and its adhesion to epithelial cells. We investigated the role of flagella from C. sakazakii ST1 and ST4, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. dublinensis during the activation of cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10) in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes, which has not been extensively studied. The production and identity of flagella from the five Cronobacter species were visualized and recognized with anti-flagella antibodies by immunogold labeling through transmission electron microscopy. Purified flagella were dissociated into monomers in 12% SDS-PAGE Coomassie blue-stained gels showing a band of ∼28 kDa and, in addition, mass spectrometry revealed the presence of several peptides that correspond to flagellin. Flagella (100 ng) induced the release of IL-8 (3314–6025 pg/ml), TNF-α (39–359 pg/ml), and IL-10 (2–96 pg/ml), in macrophage isolates from human monocytes and similar results were obtained when flagella were dissociated into monomers. Inhibition assays using three dilutions of anti-flagella antibodies (1∶10, 1∶100, and 1∶200) suppressed the secretion of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 between 95–100% using 100 ng of protein. A transfection assay using 293-hTLR5 cells showed IL-8 release of 197 pg/ml and suppression in the secretion of IL-8 when anti-hTLR5-IgA antibodies were used at different concentrations. These observations suggest that flagella and flagellin are involved in an inflammatory response dependent on TLR5 recognition, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacteria. PMID:23284883

  5. Differential involvement of NF-kappaB and MAP kinase pathways in the generation of inflammatory cytokines by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Alexandre; Ear, Thornin; Blais-Charron, Emilie; Dubois, Claire M; McDonald, Patrick P

    2007-02-01

    The ability of human neutrophils to express a variety of genes encoding inflammatory mediators is well documented, and mounting evidence suggests that neutrophil-derived cytokines and chemokines contribute to the recruitment of discrete leukocyte populations at inflammatory sites. Despite this, our understanding of the signaling intermediates governing the generation of inflammatory cytokines by neutrophils remains fragmentary. Here, we report that inhibitors of the p38 MAPK and MEK pathways substantially diminish the release of (and in the case of p38 inhibitors, the gene expression of) several inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils stimulated with LPS or TNF. In addition, various NF-kappaB inhibitors were found to profoundly impede the inducible gene expression and release of inflammatory cytokines in these cells. The MAPK inhibitors did not affect NF-kappaB activation; instead, the transcriptional effects of the p38 MAPK inhibitor appear to involve transcriptional factor IID. Conversely, the NF-kappaB inhibitors failed to affect the activation of MAPKs. Finally, the MAPK inhibitors were found to prevent the activation a key component of the translational machinery, S6 ribosomal protein, in keeping with their post-transcriptional impact on cytokine generation. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first demonstration that in neutrophils, the inducible expression of proinflammatory cytokines by physiological stimuli largely reflects the ability of the latter to activate NF-kappaB and selected MAPK pathways. Our data also raise the possibility that NF-kappaB or MAPK inhibitors could be useful in the treatment of inflammatory disorders in which neutrophils predominate.

  6. 3D Human Motion Editing and Synthesis: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Qiudi; Wang, Wanliang

    2014-01-01

    The ways to compute the kinematics and dynamic quantities of human bodies in motion have been studied in many biomedical papers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 3D human motion editing and synthesis techniques. Firstly, four types of methods for 3D human motion synthesis are introduced and compared. Secondly, motion capture data representation, motion editing, and motion synthesis are reviewed successively. Finally, future research directions are suggested. PMID:25045395

  7. Robotics-based Synthesis of Human Motion

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, O.; Demircan, E.; De Sapio, V.; Sentis, L.; Besier, T.; Delp, S.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods. PMID:19665552

  8. Robotics-based synthesis of human motion.

    PubMed

    Khatib, O; Demircan, E; De Sapio, V; Sentis, L; Besier, T; Delp, S

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods. PMID:19665552

  9. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Walker Nonato; Ribeiro, Luís Eduardo; Schrieffer, Albert; Machado, Paulo; Carvalho, Edgar M; Bacellar, Olívia

    2014-04-01

    In tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, there is evidence that increased production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and absence of IL-10 is associated with strong inflammatory reaction and with tissue destruction and development of the lesions observed in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). We evaluate the role of regulatory cytokines and cytokine antagonists in the downregulation of immune response in L. braziliensis infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CL and ML were stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen in the presence or absence of regulatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-27 and TGF-β) or antagonists of cytokines (α-TNF-α and α-IFN-γ). Cytokines production (IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ) was measured by ELISA. IL-10 and TGF-β downmodulate TNF-α and IL-17 production, whereas IL-27 had no effect in the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 in these patients. Neutralization of TNF-α decreased IFN-γ level and the neutralization of IFN-γ decreased TNF-α level and increased IL-10 production. This study demonstrate that IL-10 and TGF-β are cytokines that appear to be more involved in modulation of immune response in CL and ML patients. IL-10 might have a protective role, since the neutralization of IFN-γ decreases the production of TNF-α in an IL-10-dependent manner.

  10. Multiplex Analysis of Serum Cytokines in Humans with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morzunov, Sergey P.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; St. Jeor, Stephen; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted primarily through inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols. Hantavirus infection of endothelial cells leads to increased vascular permeability without a visible cytopathic effect. For this reason, it has been suggested that the pathogenesis of HPS is indirect with immune responses, such as cytokine production, playing a dominant role. In order to investigate their potential contribution to HPS pathogenesis, we analyzed the serum of hantavirus-infected subjects and healthy controls for 68 different cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic, and growth factors. Our analysis identified differential expression of cytokines that promote tissue migration of mononuclear cells including T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Additionally, we observed a significant upregulation of cytokines known to regulate leukocyte migration and subsequent repair of lung tissue, as well as cytokines known to increase endothelial monolayer permeability and facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of cytokines associated with platelet numbers and function, consistent with the thrombocytopenia observed in subjects with HPS. This study corroborates clinical findings and extends our current knowledge regarding immunological and laboratory findings in subjects with HPS. PMID:26379668

  11. Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles

    PubMed Central

    Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Lochner, Katrin; Schulze, Christoph; Pohle, Diana; Pustlauk, Wera; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti-6Al-7Nb and Co-28Cr-6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP-1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant

  12. The intensity of T cell receptor engagement determines the cytokine pattern of human allergen-specific T helper cells.

    PubMed

    Carballido, J M; Faith, A; Carballido-Perrig, N; Blaser, K

    1997-02-01

    Enhanced production of T helper (Th)2 cytokines by allergen-specific Th cells plays a major role in the induction and maintenance of IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The mechanism that triggers this type of response in atopic individuals is not fully understood. Allergen-specific human Th cell clones produce interleukin (IL)-4 and low or undetectable levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma after stimulation with low concentrations of antigen. However, these Th cell clones are capable of generating significant amounts of IFN-gamma after optimal activation through their T cell receptor (TcR). Allergen-specific Th cell clones isolated from allergic individuals required higher doses of antigen to reach the plateau of proliferation and to generate Th0 cytokine responses than their counterparts isolated from nonallergic subjects. On the other hand, if allergen was replaced by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), both allergic and nonallergic Th cell clones attained the highest level of proliferation and significant IFN-gamma production in response to equivalent concentrations of anti-CD3 mAb. These results indicate that the strength of T cell ligation, which can be modulated by the availability of the TcR ligand, controls the balance of Thl/Th2 cytokines produced by memory Th cells in vitro. In the particular case of bee venom phospholipase A2, it is shown that the expression of allergen-specific surface Ig on antigen-presenting B cells has little influence on antigen uptake and therefore in determining the levels of T cell activation and cytokine production. Alternatively, the affinity of particular major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells for allergen-derived peptides might determine the amount of specific ligand presented to the Th cells and play a decisive role skewing the Th cell cytokine production towards Th1 or Th2 phenotypes. These findings, which are consistent with the changes in cytokine patterns observed following clinical

  13. Gallic Acid Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation in High Glucose-Induced Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wooje; Lee, Sang Yeol; Son, Young-Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to diabetes and several diabetes-related complications. Gallic acid is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound found in various natural products. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of gallic acid on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in high glucose-induced human monocytes (THP-1 cells). THP-1 cells were cultured under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, in the absence or presence of gallic acid. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, whereas gallic acid suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. It also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300, a NF-κB coactivator) gene expression, acetylation levels, and CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. In addition, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression was significantly induced. These results suggest that gallic acid inhibits hyperglycemic-induced cytokine production in monocytes through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. Therefore, gallic acid may have potential for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  14. Lung Infection by Human Bocavirus Induces the Release of Profibrotic Mediator Cytokines In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannidis, Christian; Bayh, Inga; Brockmann, Michael; Pieper, Monika; Windisch, Wolfram; Schildgen, Oliver; Schildgen, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Human Bocavirus subtype 1 (HBoV1) is associated with respiratory diseases and may contribute to chronic lung diseases by persisting in the infected host. Here the question was addressed if HBoV infections could contribute to fibrogenesis processes as suggested by previously published clinical observations. Cytokine profiles induced by HBoV infection in CuFi-8 air-liquid interphase cell cultures and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 20 HBoV-positive and 12 HBoV-negative patients were analysed by semi-quantitative Western spot blot analyses. Although lots of cytokines were regulated independently of HBoV status, several cytokines associated with lung fibrosis and tumour development, e.g., EGF, VEGF, TARC (CCL17), TNF-α, TNF-β, TIMP-1, were clearly upregulated in the HBoV-positive cohort. These findings suggest that the development of lung fibrosis might be triggered by HBoV induced cytokine expression. PMID:26807786

  15. Experimental endotoxemia in humans: analysis of cytokine release and coagulation, fibrinolytic, and complement pathways.

    PubMed

    van Deventer, S J; Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W; Aarden, L A; Hack, C E; Sturk, A

    1990-12-15

    Endotoxemia was evoked by bolus injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (2 ng/kg body weight) in six healthy subjects to investigate the early kinetics of cytokine release in relation to the development of clinical and hematologic abnormalities frequently seen in gram-negative septicemia. The plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increased markedly after 30 to 45 minutes, and reached a maximal level after 60 to 90 minutes. In each volunteer, the initial increase of plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations occurred 15 minutes after the initial TNF increase, and maximal IL-6 concentrations were reached at 120 to 150 minutes. A transient increase in body temperature and pulse rate occurred simultaneously with the initial TNF and IL-6 increases, whereas a significant decrease in blood pressure occurred after 120 minutes. These changes were proportional to the changes in TNF and IL-6 concentrations. Coagulation activation, as assessed by a rise of prothrombin fragments and thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, was noted after 120 minutes, in the absence of activation of the contact system. A two- to sixfold increase in the concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and von Willebrand factor antigen indicated endothelial cell activation. This increase started at 120 and 90 minutes, respectively. The release of t-PA coincided with activation of the fibrinolytic pathway, as measured by plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. The fibrinolytic activity of t-PA was subsequently offset by release of plasminogen activator inhibitor, observed 150 minutes after the endotoxin injection, and reaching a peak at 240 minutes. No complement activation was detected. These results show that in humans endotoxin induces an early, rapidly counteracted fibrinolytic response, and a more long-lasting activation of thrombin by a mechanism other than contact system activation. In addition, our data suggest that endotoxin-induced leukopenia and endothelial cell activation

  16. Ozone effect on respiratory syncytial virus infectivity and cytokine production by human alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Soukup, J.; Koren, H.S.; Becker, S.

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the effect of ozone (O3) exposure at 1 ppm for 2 hr on the susceptibility/resistance of adult human alveolar macrophages (AM) to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro and on RSV-induced cytokine production by the AM. AM were first exposed to O3 or to filtered air and then infected with RSV at multiplicities of infection (m.o.i.) of 0.1 1.0 and 10. The percentage RSV-infected AM and the amount of infectious virus released by the cells were determined at Days 2 and 4 after infection. Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in the supernatants were determined on Day 2. No difference in the percentage infected AM or in the amount of infectious RSV produced was found between control and O3-exposed cultures. However, O3-exposed AM infected with RSV at m.o.i. 1 produced less IL-1 in response to RSV infection than control AM:63.6 pg/ml compared with 98.5 pg/ml. No difference in IL-1 was seen with m.o.i. 10. IL-6 levels were also decreased, but only after infection with m.o.i. 0.1. At this level of infection 830 pg/ml was produced by control AM as compared to 468.2 pg/ml by O3-exposed AM. TNF production was unaffected by O3 at all multiplicities of infection. (Copyright (c) 1993 by Academic Press, Inc.)

  17. Human cord blood mononuclear cells decrease cytokines and inflammatory cells in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Shariff, Masood; Eadula, Ujwala; Alvarado, Felipe; Vasko, Mark; Sanberg, Paul R; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Delostia, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    We investigated whether human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells, can limit myocardial cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in acute myocardial infarction. We permanently ligated the left coronary artery of rats and injected into the myocardium either Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in Isolyte and measured myocardial cytokines with antibody arrays at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarction. We then measured with flow cytometry myocardial macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes at 12, 24, and 72 hours after infarctions in rats treated with either intramyocardial Isolyte or 4 x 10(6) HUCBC. In the Isolyte-treated hearts, between 2 and 12 hours after myocardial infarction, tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased from 6.7 +/- 0.9% to 52.3 +/- 4.7%, monocyte chemoattract protein increased from 9.5 +/- 1.2% to 39.8 +/- 2.1%, fractalkine increased from 11 +/- 1.5% to 28.1 +/- 1.3%, ciliary neurotrophic factor increased from 12.1 +/- 0.02% to 25.9 +/- 1.1%, macrophage inflammatory protein increased from 10.3 +/- 1.5% to 23.9.0 +/- 1.4%, interferon-gamma increased from 8.7 +/- 0.4% to 26.0 +/- 1.6%, interleukin-1beta increased from 6.1 +/- 0.04% to 19.0 +/- 1.2%, and IL-4 increased from 5.9 +/- 0.03% to 15 +/- 1.5% (all p < 0.001 compared with controls). The concentrations of fractalkine remained significantly increased at 72 hours after acute infarction. In contrast, the myocardial concentrations of these cytokines did not significantly change in HUCBC treated hearts at 2, 6, 12, 24, or 72 hours after infarction. The percentage of neutrophils increased from 0.04 +/- 0.2%/50,000 heart cells in the controls to 5.3 +/- 1.2%/50,000 heart cells 12 hours after infarction in Isolyte-treated hearts but averaged only 1.3 +/- 0.7%/50,000 heart cells in HUCBC treated hearts (p < 0.02). Thereafter, the percentages of neutrophils rapidly decreased at 24 and at 72 hours after infarction and

  18. Immunostimulatory Activity of the Cytokine-Based Biologic, IRX-2, on Human Papillomavirus-Exposed Langerhans Cells

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Diane M.; Woodham, Andrew W.; Naylor, Paul H.; Egan, James E.; Berinstein, Neil L.

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the antigen-presenting cells of the epithelial layer and are responsible for initiating immune responses against skin and mucosa-invading viruses. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated suppression of LC function is a crucial mechanism of HPV immune evasion, which can lead to persistent infection and development of several human cancers, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. The cell-derived cytokine-based biologic, IRX-2, consists of multiple well-defined cytokines and is broadly active on various immune cell subsets. In this study, we investigated primary human LC activation after exposure to HPV16, followed by treatment with IRX-2 in vitro, and evaluated their subsequent ability to induce HPV16-specific T cells. In contrast to its activity on dendritic cells, HPV16 alone is not sufficient to induce phenotypic and functional activation of LCs. However, IRX-2 induces a significant upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory molecules, T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokine release, and chemokine-directed migration of LCs pre-exposed to HPV16. Furthermore, LCs treated with IRX-2 after HPV16 exposure induced CD8+ T-cell responses against specific HLA-A*0201-binding HPV16 T-cell epitopes. The present study suggests that IRX-2 is an attractive immunomodulator for assisting the immune response in eradication of HPV-infected cells, thereby potentially preventing HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26653678

  19. [CYTOKINES DURING THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION TYPE 1(HIV-1)].

    PubMed

    Selimova, L M; Kalnina, L B; Serebrovskaya, L V; Ivanova, L A; Gulyaeva, A N; Nosik, D N

    2016-01-01

    In this work the proinflammatory (IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) plasma cytokine levels were evaluated in HIV-infected patients with or without antiretroviral treatment (ART). IFN-γ was detected in 94% samples with and without ART, TNF-α in 88% and IL-2 in 38% samples without ART, as well as in 12% and 30% samples with ART, respectively. Positive correlation was detected between viral RNA and IFN-γ levels (rs = 0.13) and negative correlation (rs = -0.242) in the patients without or with ART. Cosecretion of three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) was detected in 31% samples and two cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α) in 35% samples of persons without ART. Cosecretion of three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) was detected in 20% samples with ART; cosecretion of IFN-γ and IL-2 was detected in 10% samples. The higher percentage of the proinflammatory cytokines with cosecretion was detected in plasma HIV-infected patients without ART in the course of 6 and more years, which suggests that their immune system is able to provide disease control. PMID:27145600

  20. Combination of lipid metabolism alterations and their sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines in human lipin-1-deficient myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Michot, Caroline; Mamoune, Asmaa; Vamecq, Joseph; Viou, Mai Thao; Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Testet, Eric; Lainé, Jeanne; Hubert, Laurence; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Fontaine, Monique; Ottolenghi, Chris; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nadra, Karim; Blanc, Etienne; Bastin, Jean; Candon, Sophie; Pende, Mario; Munnich, Arnold; Smahi, Asma; Djouadi, Fatima; Carman, George M; Romero, Norma; de Keyzer, Yves; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    Lipin-1 deficiency is associated with massive rhabdomyolysis episodes in humans, precipitated by febrile illnesses. Despite well-known roles of lipin-1 in lipid biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to rhabdomyolysis remain unknown. Here we show that primary myoblasts from lipin-1-deficient patients exhibit a dramatic decrease in LPIN1 expression and phosphatidic acid phosphatase 1 activity, and a significant accumulation of lipid droplets (LD). The expression levels of LPIN1-target genes [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors delta and alpha (PPARδ, PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB and 2 (CPT1B and CPT2)] were not affected while lipin-2 protein level, a closely related member of the family, was increased. Microarray analysis of patients' myotubes identified 19 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated genes, indicating pleiotropic effects of lipin-1 deficiency. Special attention was paid to the up-regulated ACACB (acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta), a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis/oxidation balance. We demonstrated that overexpression of ACACB was associated with free fatty acid accumulation in patients' myoblasts whereas malonyl-carnitine (as a measure of malonyl-CoA) and CPT1 activity were in the normal range in basal conditions accordingly to the normal daily activity reported by the patients. Remarkably ACACB invalidation in patients' myoblasts decreased LD number and size while LPIN1 invalidation in controls induced LD accumulation. Further, pro-inflammatory treatments tumor necrosis factor alpha+Interleukin-1beta(TNF1α+IL-1ß) designed to mimic febrile illness, resulted in increased malonyl-carnitine levels, reduced CPT1 activity and enhanced LD accumulation, a phenomenon reversed by dexamethasone and TNFα or IL-1ß inhibitors. Our data suggest that the pathogenic mechanism

  1. Combination of lipid metabolism alterations and their sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines in human lipin-1-deficient myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Michot, Caroline; Mamoune, Asmaa; Vamecq, Joseph; Viou, Mai Thao; Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Testet, Eric; Lainé, Jeanne; Hubert, Laurence; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Fontaine, Monique; Ottolenghi, Chris; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nadra, Karim; Blanc, Etienne; Bastin, Jean; Candon, Sophie; Pende, Mario; Munnich, Arnold; Smahi, Asma; Djouadi, Fatima; Carman, George M; Romero, Norma; de Keyzer, Yves; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    Lipin-1 deficiency is associated with massive rhabdomyolysis episodes in humans, precipitated by febrile illnesses. Despite well-known roles of lipin-1 in lipid biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to rhabdomyolysis remain unknown. Here we show that primary myoblasts from lipin-1-deficient patients exhibit a dramatic decrease in LPIN1 expression and phosphatidic acid phosphatase 1 activity, and a significant accumulation of lipid droplets (LD). The expression levels of LPIN1-target genes [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors delta and alpha (PPARδ, PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB and 2 (CPT1B and CPT2)] were not affected while lipin-2 protein level, a closely related member of the family, was increased. Microarray analysis of patients' myotubes identified 19 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated genes, indicating pleiotropic effects of lipin-1 deficiency. Special attention was paid to the up-regulated ACACB (acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta), a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis/oxidation balance. We demonstrated that overexpression of ACACB was associated with free fatty acid accumulation in patients' myoblasts whereas malonyl-carnitine (as a measure of malonyl-CoA) and CPT1 activity were in the normal range in basal conditions accordingly to the normal daily activity reported by the patients. Remarkably ACACB invalidation in patients' myoblasts decreased LD number and size while LPIN1 invalidation in controls induced LD accumulation. Further, pro-inflammatory treatments tumor necrosis factor alpha+Interleukin-1beta(TNF1α+IL-1ß) designed to mimic febrile illness, resulted in increased malonyl-carnitine levels, reduced CPT1 activity and enhanced LD accumulation, a phenomenon reversed by dexamethasone and TNFα or IL-1ß inhibitors. Our data suggest that the pathogenic mechanism

  2. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C.; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26679997

  3. T Helper 1 and T Helper 2 Cytokines Differentially Modulate Expression of Filaggrin and its Processing Proteases in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Di, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Lei; Qi, Rui-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Huo, Wei; Zhang, Li; Lyu, Ya-Ni; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by defective skin barrier and imbalance in T helper 1/T helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine expression. Filaggrin (FLG) is the key protein to maintaining skin barrier function. Recent studies indicated that Th1/Th2 cytokines influence FLG expression in keratinocytes. However, the role of Th1/Th2 cytokines on FLG processing is not substantially documented. Our aim was to investigate the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokines on FLG processing. Methods: HaCaT cells and normal human keratinocytes were cultured in low and high calcium media and stimulated by either interleukin (IL)-4, 13 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). FLG, its major processing proteases and key protease inhibitor lymphoepithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) were measured by both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Their expression was also evaluated in acute and chronic AD lesions by immunohistochemistry. Results: IL-4/13 significantly reduced, while IFN-γ significantly up-regulated FLG expression. IL-4/13 significantly increased, whereas IFN-γ significantly decreased the expression of kallikreins 5 and 7, matriptase and channel-activating serine protease 1. On the contrary, IL-4/13 significantly decreased, while IFN-γ increased the expression of LEKTI and caspase-14. Similar trends were observed in AD lesions. Conclusions: Our results suggested that Th1/Th2 cytokines differentially regulated the expression of major FLG processing enzymes. The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 polarized immune response seems to extend to FLG homeostasis, through the network of FLG processing enzymes. PMID:26831231

  4. Reconfigurable microfluidic device with integrated antibody arrays for capture, multiplexed stimulation, and cytokine profiling of human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Tam; Rahimian, Ali; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Gao, Yandong; Kwa, Timothy; Van de Water, Judy; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes represent a class of immune cells that play a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response against infections. One mechanism employed by monocytes for sensing foreign antigens is via toll-like receptors (TLRs)—transmembrane proteins that distinguish classes of foreign pathogens, for example, bacteria (TLR4, 5, and 9) vs. fungi (TLR2) vs. viruses (TLR3, 7, and 8). Binding of antigens activates a signaling cascade through TLR receptors that culminate in secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Detection of these cytokines can provide valuable clinical data for drug developers and disease investigations, but this usually requires a large sample volume and can be technically inefficient with traditional techniques such as flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or luminex. This paper describes an approach whereby antibody arrays for capturing cells and secreted cytokines are encapsulated within a microfluidic device that can be reconfigured to operate in serial or parallel mode. In serial mode, the device represents one long channel that may be perfused with a small volume of minimally processed blood. Once monocytes are captured onto antibody spots imprinted into the floor of the device, the straight channel is reconfigured to form nine individually perfusable chambers. To prove this concept, the microfluidic platform was used to capture monocytes from minimally processed human blood in serial mode and then to stimulate monocytes with different TLR agonists in parallel mode. Three cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10, were detected using anti-cytokine antibody arrays integrated into each of the six chambers. We foresee further use of this device in applications such as pediatric immunology or drug/vaccine testing where it is important to balance small sample volume with the need for high information content. PMID:26339315

  5. Immune response in human visceral leishmaniasis: analysis of the correlation between innate immunity cytokine profile and disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Martins-Filho, O A; Prata, A; Silva, L de A; Rabello, A; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Figueiredo, R M; Guimarães-Carvalho, S F; Ferrari, T C A; Correa-Oliveira, R

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the cytokine profile of cells of the innate immune response and its association with active (ACT), asymptomatic (AS) and cured (CUR) human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as noninfected (NI) subjects. The frequency of cytokine-producing cells was determined after short-term in vitro incubation of whole peripheral blood samples with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). Our data demonstrated a predominant type 2 cytokine profile in NI and ACT. In NI, we observed an increase of IL-4+ neutrophils, IL-10+ eosinophils besides a decrease of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha+ eosinophils/monocytes. Yet in ACT, we observed an increase of IL-4+ neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells and IL-10+ monocytes, a reduced frequency of IL-12+ and IFN-gamma+ eosinophils and lower levels of TNF-alpha+ and IL-12+ monocytes. AS presented a mixed profile, characterized by an increase of IFN-gamma+ neutrophils/eosinophils and NK cells, of IL-12+ eosinophils/monocytes, as well as increase of IL-4+ neutrophils and NK cells and IL-10+ eosinophils/monocytes. In contrast, CUR was characterized by a type 1 response with an increase of IFN-gamma+ neutrophils/eosinophils and NK cells, associated with an increase in IL-12+ monocytes. In conclusion, we show a correlation between innate immune cytokine patterns and clinical status of VL, suggesting that these cells, in addition to other factors, may contribute to the cytokine microenvironment in which Leishmania-specific T cells are primed and to disease outcome.

  6. Interleukin-16 stimulates the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mathy, N L; Scheuer, W; Lanzendörfer, M; Honold, K; Ambrosius, D; Norley, S; Kurth, R

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16) acts as a chemoattractant for CD4+ cells, as a modulator of T-cell activation, and plays a key role in asthma. This report describes the cytokine-inducing effects of IL-16 on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and PBMC subpopulations. While CD4+ T lymphocytes did not secrete cytokines in response to rhIL-16, CD14+ CD4+ monocytes and maturing macrophages secrete IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) upon rhIL-16 stimulation. The mRNA species for these four cytokines were detected as early as 4 hr post-stimulation, with protein being secreted by 24 hr. Secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by total PBMC was dose dependent, with maximal secretion being observed using 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. However, for IL-15 or TNF-α maximal secretion by total PBMC occurred with all concentrations between 5 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml rhIL-16. Purified monocytes/macrophages secreted maximal concentrations of all four cytokines in the presence of 500 ng/ml rhIL-16, except for monocytes where maximal secretion of IL-15 was, interestingly, observed with only 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. The use of higher concentrations of rhIL-16 (1000 ng/ml) inhibited secretion of all four cytokines. While these IL-16-induced cytokines are likely to be involved in the immune system's response to antigen, the data suggest that IL-16 may play a key role in initiating and/or sustaining an inflammatory response. PMID:10809960

  7. Expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) in human bladder epithelial cells infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Isak; Säve, Susanne; Kruse, Robert; Persson, Katarina

    2013-02-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins inhibit pro-inflammatory signalling mediated by Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. To evade the immune response some pathogens appear to modify the host SOCS proteins. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are able to subvert the host response evoked by bladder epithelial cells, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UPEC can modify the host SOCS and STAT3 response. Real time RT-PCR studies demonstrated an increased SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in the isolated human bladder epithelial cell lines (RT-4 and 5637) in response to cytokines. UPEC strain IA2 increased SOCS3, but not SOCS1, mRNA levels with a peak at 6 h after infection. The increase of SOCS3 was confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting. The UPEC strain IA2 caused a time-dependent decrease in the phosphorylation of STAT3. This study demonstrates that UPEC are able to affect SOCS3 and STAT3 signalling in human uroepithelial cells. The finding that UPEC are able to induce mediators involved in suppression of host cytokine signalling may help to elucidate how UPEC may circumvent the host response during urinary tract infection.

  8. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  9. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor dose-dependently inhibits coagulation activation without influencing the fibrinolytic and cytokine response during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E; Dekkers, P E; Creasey, A A; Hack, C E; Paulson, S K; Karim, A; Kesecioglu, J; Levi, M; van Deventer, S J; van Der Poll, T

    2000-02-15

    Inhibition of the tissue factor pathway has been shown to attenuate the activation of coagulation and to prevent death in a gram-negative bacteremia primate model of sepsis. It has been suggested that tissue factor influences inflammatory cascades other than the coagulation system. The authors sought to determine the effects of 2 different doses of recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on endotoxin-induced coagulant, fibrinolytic, and cytokine responses in healthy humans. Two groups, each consisting of 8 healthy men, were studied in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were studied on 2 different occasions. They received a bolus intravenous injection of 4 ng/kg endotoxin, which was followed by a 6-hour continuous infusion of TFPI or placebo. Eight subjects received 0.05 mg/kg per hour TFPI after a bolus of 0.0125 mg/kg (low-dose group), and 8 subjects received 0.2 mg/kg per hour after a bolus of 0.05 mg/kg (high-dose group). Endotoxin injection induced the activation of coagulation, the activation and subsequent inhibition of fibrinolysis, and the release of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. TFPI infusion induced a dose-dependent attenuation of thrombin generation, as measured by plasma F1 + 2 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes, with a complete blockade of coagulation activation after high-dose TFPI. Endotoxin-induced changes in the fibrinolytic system and cytokine levels were not altered by either low-dose or high-dose TFPI. The authors concluded that TFPI effectively and dose-dependently attenuates the endotoxin-induced coagulation activation in humans without influencing the fibrinolytic and cytokine response. (Blood. 2000;95:1124-1129)

  10. Impact of elvitegravir on human adipocytes: Alterations in differentiation, gene expression and release of adipokines and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Moure, Ricardo; Domingo, Pere; Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Villarroya, Joan; Gutierrez, Maria Del Mar; Mateo, Maria G; Domingo, Joan C; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2016-08-01

    Elvitegravir is a recently developed integrase inhibitor used for antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection. Secondary effects, including disturbances in lipid metabolism and, ultimately, in adipose tissue distribution and function, are common concerns associated with antiretroviral treatments. Here, we provide the first study of the effects of elvitegravir (in comparison with efavirenz, a non-nucleoside analog inhibitor of reverse transcriptase; and raltegravir, another integrase inhibitor) on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression and secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Elvitegravir impaired adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism in human SGBS adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner (delaying acquisition of adipocyte morphology and reducing the expression of adipogenesis marker genes such as PPARγ, glucose transporter GLUT4, lipoprotein lipase, and the adipokines adiponectin and leptin). Compared with efavirenz, the effects of elvitegravir were similar but tended to occur at higher concentrations than those elicited by efavirenz, or were somewhat less intense than those caused by efavirenz at similar concentration. Elvitegravir tended to cause a more moderate induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines than efavirenz. Efavirenz induced a marked concentration-dependent increase in interleukin-8 expression and release whereas elvitregravir had little effect. Raltegravir had totally neutral actions of adipogenesis, adipocyte metabolism-related gene expression and release of adipokines and cytokines. In conclusion, elvitegravir alters adipocyte differentiation and function and promotes induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines similarly to efavirenz, but several effects were less intense. Further assessment of lipid metabolism and adipose tissue function in patients administered elvitegravir-based regimes is advisable considering that totally neutral effects of elvitegravir on lipid homeostasis cannot be anticipated from the current study in

  11. CXCL8 and CCL20 Enhance Osteoclastogenesis via Modulation of Cytokine Production by Human Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Janak L.; Bakker, Astrid D.; Verschueren, Patrick; Lems, Willem F.; Luyten, Frank P.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Generalized osteoporosis is common in patients with inflammatory diseases, possibly because of circulating inflammatory factors that affect osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity. Serum levels of the inflammatory factors CXCL8 and CCL20 are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, but whether these factors affect bone metabolism is unknown. We hypothesized that CXCL8 and CCL20 decrease osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and enhance osteoblast-mediated osteoclast formation and activity. Human primary osteoblasts were cultured with or without CXCL8 (2–200 pg/ml) or CCL20 (5–500 pg/ml) for 14 days. Osteoblast proliferation and gene expression of matrix proteins and cytokines were analyzed. Osteoclast precursors were cultured with CXCL8 (200 pg/ml) and CCL20 (500 pg/ml), or with conditioned medium (CM) from CXCL8 and CCL20-treated osteoblasts with or without IL-6 inhibitor. After 3 weeks osteoclast formation and activity were determined. CXCL8 (200 pg/ml) and CCL20 (500 pg/ml) enhanced mRNA expression of KI67 (2.5–2.7-fold), ALP (1.6–1.7-fold), and IL-6 protein production (1.3–1.6-fold) by osteoblasts. CXCL8-CM enhanced the number of osteoclasts with 3–5 nuclei (1.7-fold), and with >5 nuclei (3-fold). CCL20-CM enhanced the number of osteoclasts with 3–5 nuclei (1.3-fold), and with >5 nuclei (2.8-fold). IL-6 inhibition reduced the stimulatory effect of CXCL8-CM and CCL20-CM on formation of osteoclasts. In conclusion, CXCL8 and CCL20 did not decrease osteoblast proliferation or gene expression of matrix proteins. CXCL8 and CCL20 did not directly affect osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL8 and CCL20 enhanced osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis, partly via IL-6 production, suggesting that CXCL8 and CCL20 may contribute to osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis by affecting bone cell communication. PMID:26103626

  12. Pro-inflammatory cytokine dysregulation is associated with novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chihao; Qi, Xian; Ding, Meng; Sun, Xinlei; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Shuo; Zen, Ke; Li, Xihan

    2016-02-01

    Since March 2013, more than 500 laboratory-confirmed human H7N9 influenza A virus infection cases have been recorded, with a case fatality rate of more than 30%. Clinical research has shown that cytokine and chemokine dysregulation contributes to the pathogenicity of the H7N9 virus. Here, we investigated cytokine profiles in primary human macrophages infected with the novel H7N9 virus, using cytokine antibody arrays. The levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, were increased in H7N9-infected macrophages. Induction of the transcriptional and translational levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by H7N9 virus seemed to be intermediate between those induced by highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and pandemic human H1N1 viruses, which were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Additionally, compared with H5N1, the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines caused by H7N9 infection occurred rapidly but mildly. Our results identified the overall profiles of cytokine and chemokine induction by the H7N9 influenza virus in an in vitro cell-culture model, and could provide potential therapeutic targets for the control of severe human H7N9 disease.

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokine dysregulation is associated with novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chihao; Qi, Xian; Ding, Meng; Sun, Xinlei; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Shuo; Zen, Ke; Li, Xihan

    2016-02-01

    Since March 2013, more than 500 laboratory-confirmed human H7N9 influenza A virus infection cases have been recorded, with a case fatality rate of more than 30%. Clinical research has shown that cytokine and chemokine dysregulation contributes to the pathogenicity of the H7N9 virus. Here, we investigated cytokine profiles in primary human macrophages infected with the novel H7N9 virus, using cytokine antibody arrays. The levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, were increased in H7N9-infected macrophages. Induction of the transcriptional and translational levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by H7N9 virus seemed to be intermediate between those induced by highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and pandemic human H1N1 viruses, which were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Additionally, compared with H5N1, the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines caused by H7N9 infection occurred rapidly but mildly. Our results identified the overall profiles of cytokine and chemokine induction by the H7N9 influenza virus in an in vitro cell-culture model, and could provide potential therapeutic targets for the control of severe human H7N9 disease. PMID:26644088

  14. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  15. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in brominated diphenyl ether-47-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human extravillous trophoblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hae-Ryung Kamau, Patricia W.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 is one of the most prevalent PBDE congeners found in human breast milk, serum and placenta. Despite the presence of PBDEs in human placenta, effects of PBDEs on placental cell function are poorly understood. The present study investigated BDE-47-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and its role in BDE-47-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release in a first trimester human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 4 h to 20 μM BDE-47 increased ROS generation 1.7 fold as measured by the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay. Likewise, superoxide anion production increased approximately 5 fold at 10 and 15 μM and 9 fold at 20 μM BDE-47 with a 1-h exposure, as measured by cytochrome c reduction. BDE-47 (10, 15 and 20 μM) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential by 47–64.5% at 4, 8 and 24 h as assessed with the fluorescent probe Rh123. Treatment with 15 and 20 μM BDE-47 stimulated cellular release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-8 after 12 and 24-h exposures: the greatest increases were a 35-fold increased mRNA expression at 12 h and a 12-fold increased protein concentration at 24 h for IL-6. Antioxidant treatments (deferoxamine mesylate, (±)α-tocopherol, or tempol) suppressed BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release by 54.1%, 56.3% and 37.7%, respectively, implicating a role for ROS in the regulation of inflammatory pathways in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Solvent (DMSO) controls exhibited statistically significantly decreased responses compared with non-treated controls for IL-6 release and IL-8 mRNA expression, but these responses were not consistent across experiments and times. Nonetheless, it is possible that DMSO (used to dissolve BDE-47) may have attenuated the stimulatory actions of BDE-47 on cytokine responses. Because abnormal activation of proinflammatory responses can disrupt trophoblast functions

  16. Obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokines increase calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) protein expression in primary human adipocytes and LS14 human adipose cell line.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Mattar, Pamela; Tobar, Nicolas; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Rojas, Cecilia; Martínez, Jorge

    2010-08-15

    Obesity-associated health complications are thought to be in part due to the low-grade proinflammatory state that characterizes this disease. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed in human adipose cells, plays an important role in diseases involving inflammation. To assess the relevance of this protein in adipose pathophysiology, we evaluated its expression in adipocytes under obesity-related proinflammatory conditions. As in primary adipose cells, we established that LS14, a recently described human adipose cell line, expresses the CaSR. Differentiated LS14 and primary adipose cells were exposed overnight to cytokines typically involved in obesity-related inflammation (interleukin (IL)1beta, IL6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha). The cytokines increased CaSR abundance in differentiated adipocytes. We incubated LS14 cells with medium previously conditioned (CM) by adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). Cells exposed to CM from subjects of higher BMI underwent a greater increase in CaSR protein, likely resulting from the greater proinflammatory cytokines secreted from obese tissue. Our observations that proinflammatory factors increase CaSR levels in adipocytes, and the reported ability of CaSR to elevate cytokine levels, open new aspects in the study of obesity inflammatory state pathophysiology, providing a potential novel therapeutic prevention and treatment target.

  17. Enhanced production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Kunkel, S. L.; Pearce, W. H.; Shah, M. R.; Parikh, D.; Evanoff, H. L.; Haines, G. K.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory leukocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerotic disease, from early atherogenesis to the late stages of atherosclerosis, such as aneurysm formation. We have shown previously that human abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by the presence of numerous chronic inflammatory cells throughout the vessel wall (Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1199-1213). The signals that attract lymphocytes and monocytes into the aortic wall in aneurysmal disease remain to be precisely defined. We have studied the production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by aortic tissues obtained from 47 subjects. We compared the antigenic production of these cytokines by explants of: 1) human abdominal aneurysmal tissue, 2) occlusive (atherosclerotic) aortas, and 3) normal aortas. IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells was liberated in greater quantities by abdominal aortic aneurysms than by occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, macrophages, and to a lesser degree endothelial cells, were found to be positive for the expression of antigenic IL-8. Similarly, MCP-1, a potent chemotactic cytokine for monocytes/macrophages, was released by explants from abdominal aortic aneurysms in greater quantities than by explants from occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, the predominant MCP-1 antigen-positive cells were macrophages and to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that human abdominal aortic aneurysms produce IL-8 and MCP-1, both of which may serve to recruit additional inflammatory cells into the abdominal aortic wall, hence perpetuating the inflammatory reaction that may result in the pathology of vessel wall destruction and aortic aneurysm formation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8494046

  18. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-02-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration.

  19. Gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis elicit pro-inflammatory cytokines response in human PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Avishek, Kumar; Kaushal, Himanshu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ramesh, V; Negi, Narender Singh; Dubey, Uma S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects. Both parasites infected human macrophages, as effectively as the wild type parasites. Further, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) strongly stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 in the PBMCs obtained from individuals with a prior exposure to Leishmania (HVL and PKDL). There was no significant stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Induction of Th1 biased immune responses was supported by a remarkable increase in IFN-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and IL-17 secreting CD4(+) cells in PBMCs from HVL cases with no increase in IL-10 secreting T cells. Hence, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) are promising as live vaccine candidates against VL since they elicit strong protective immune response in human PBMCs from HVL, similar to the wild type parasite infection, mimicking a naturally acquired protection following cure. PMID:27624408

  20. Obesity and inflammation: reduced cytokine expression due to resveratrol in a human in vitro model of inflamed adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zagotta, Ivana; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Wabitsch, Martin; Kietzmann, Thomas; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an inflammatory status and linked with a number of pathophysiological complications among them cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or the metabolic syndrome. Resveratrol was proposed to improve obesity-related inflammatory problems, but the effect of resveratrol on cytokine expression in obesity is not completely understood. In this study, we used an in vitro model of human adipose tissue inflammation to examine the effects of resveratrol on the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). We found that resveratrol reduced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 levels in a concentration-dependent manner in adipocytes under inflammatory conditions. Further experiments showed that the action of resveratrol was mainly due to its NFκB inhibitory potential. Thus, our data support the concept that resveratrol can alleviate obesity-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines providing a new insight toward novel treatment options in obesity. PMID:25926797

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes from the phagosomes of infected human osteoclasts reprograms osteoclast development via dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mii, Shinji; Takahashi, Masahide; Mitarai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-02-01

    Spinal tuberculosis is a condition characterized by massive resorption of the spinal vertebrae due to the infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the pathogenesis of spinal tuberculosis has not been established because it was almost completely eradicated by the establishment of antibiotic treatment in the mid-20th century. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of human multinucleated osteoclasts infected with virulent Mtb strain. We found that the intracellular Mtb infection of multinuclear osteoclasts resulted in the rapid growth of Mtb and an osteolytic response, rather than inflammation. In response to Mtb infection, the mononuclear osteoclast precursors produced proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, an intrinsic characteristic they share with macrophages. In contrast, highly fused multinucleated osteoclasts incapacitated the production of these cytokines. Instead, the intracellular Mtb inside multinuclear osteoclasts escaped from the endosome/phagosome, leading to a different pattern of osteoclast activation, with the production of chemokines such as CCL5, CCL17, CCL20, CCL22, CCL24, and CCL25. Moreover, intracellular infection with an avirulent Mtb strain resulted in diminished production of these chemokines. These findings indicate that intracellular Mtb infection in multinuclear osteoclasts reprograms osteoclast development via the dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines.

  2. TAM receptor-dependent regulation of SOCS3 and MAPKs contributes to pro-inflammatory cytokine downregulation following chronic NOD2 stimulation of human macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shasha; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-induced cytokine regulation is critical to intestinal immune homeostasis. Acute stimulation of NOD2, the Crohn’s disease-associated sensor of bacterial peptidoglycan, induces cytokines. However, cytokines are attenuated after chronic NOD2 and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of macrophages; similar attenuation is observed in intestinal macrophages. The role of Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptors in regulating chronic PRR stimulation and NOD2-induced outcomes has not been examined. Moreover, TAM receptors have been relatively less investigated in human macrophages. Whereas TAM receptors did not downregulate acute NOD2-induced cytokines in primary human macrophages, they were essential for downregulating signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion after chronic NOD2 and TLR4 stimulation. Axl and Mer were similarly required in mice for cytokine downregulation after chronic NOD2 stimulation in vivo and in intestinal tissues. Consistently, TAM expression was increased in human intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Chronic NOD2 stimulation led to IL-10- and TGFβ-dependent TAM upregulation in human macrophages, which in turn, upregulated SOCS3 expression. Restoring SOCS3 expression under TAM knockdown conditions restored chronic NOD2-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine downregulation. In contrast to the upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, attenuated IL-10 secretion was maintained in TAM-deficient macrophages upon chronic NOD2 stimulation. The level of MAPK activation in TAM-deficient macrophages after chronic NOD2 stimulation was insufficient to upregulate IL-10 secretion; however, full restoration of MAPK activation under these conditions restored c-Fos, c-Jun, MAFK and PU.1 binding to the IL-10 promoter and IL-10 secretion. Therefore, TAM receptors are critical for downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines under the chronic NOD2 stimulation conditions observed in the intestinal environment. PMID:25567680

  3. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Marion; Quillay, Héloïse; Madec, Yoann; El Costa, Hicham; Cannou, Claude; Marlin, Romain; de Truchis, Claire; Rahmati, Mona; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Menu, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-γ, whereas only dMs released IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface. PMID:25071732

  4. Comprehensive analysis of serum cytokines/chemokines in febrile children with primary human herpes virus-6B infection.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Miwako; Morioka, Ichiro; Kawabata, Akiko; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Iwatani, Sota; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Ishida, Akihito; Iijima, Kazumoto; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-09-01

    Cytokines and chemokines induced by primary human herpes virus (HHV)-6B infection may play a critical role in the clinical manifestations of infection. In this study, we analyzed 40 cytokines/chemokines in febrile children with primary HHV-6B infection. Blood samples from 233 febrile and 36 afebrile patients 0-3 years of age were used for this study. In febrile patients, primary HHV-6B infection was determined by detection of HHV-6B DNA without anti-HHV-6 immunoglobulin G in the blood (HHV-6B group). Infection by other pathogens was assumed when HHV-6B DNA was not detected in the blood (non-HHV-6B group). Of the 233 febrile patients, 30 patients (13%) were diagnosed with primary HHV-6B infection. To analyze serum cytokines/chemokines, patients were randomly chosen from the HHV-6B (n = 25) and non-HHV-6B groups (n = 8). Sera from 25 afebrile patients were used as a control. When comparing the levels of 40 cytokines/chemokines between the HHV-6B and control groups, we found that four chemokines (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand [CXCL] 11, CXCL10, CXCL16, and chemokine [C-C motif] ligand [CCL] 2) were significantly upregulated in the HHV-6B group compared with those in the control. Of these, only CXCL11 levels were significantly higher in the HHV-6B group than in the non-HHV-6B group. Because the induction of CCL2 was already reported in an early study, we found, for the first time, the induction of three new chemokines, i.e., CXCL11, CXCL10, and CXCL16 in patients with primary HHV-6B infection. Importantly, we demonstrated that serum CXCL11 levels increased specifically in patients with HHV-6B infection. PMID:27346377

  5. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    PubMed

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-01

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations.

  6. [Cytokine profile of a human bone marrow cell culture under the influence of UHMW-PE wear particles].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Bartsch, I; Kratz, M; Jones, D; Endres, S

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) on the cytokine response in a modified in vitro model. UHMW-PE particles (psi < 7.5 microm) were suspended in soluble collagen type I and subsequently solidified in different concentrations (105,106 and 107 particles per well) on the bottom of the wells. Human bone marrow cells in a concentration of 3 x 106 cells per well were seeded on the collagen-particle substrata and maintained for up to 12 days. The cytokine response (IL-1_, IL-6 and TNF-_) of the cells to the particles were examined by ELISA compared to cells on control collagen surfaces without any particles. Assays for viability using LDH activity were done immediately. Light and scanning microscopic evaluation revealed that the UHMWPE particles, which have built large conglomerates (psi7.5_m), were mainly surrounded by the cells and less phagocytosed. The results of the cytokine release revealed significant differences in interleukin (IL)6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- _ and IL-1beta. The cell viability was not affected by the UHMW-PE particles. The results demonstrate that the particle induced cytokine response by UHMW-PE is mainly by the release of Interleukin 6 and TNF- _. Moreover the results confirm that the present method is useful to evaluate the in vitro effects of UHMW-PE wear particles with direct particle cell contact. PMID:16300048

  7. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Human Autoimmune Disease in the Era of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cytokine (receptor) genes have traditionally attracted great interest as plausible genetic risk factors for autoimmune disease. Since 2007, the implementation of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the robust identification of allelic variants in more than 35 cytokine loci as susceptibility factors for a wide variety of over 15 autoimmune disorders. In this review, we catalog the gene loci of interleukin, chemokine, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and ligands that have emerged as autoimmune risk factors. We examine recent progress made in the clarification of the functional mechanisms by which polymorphisms in the genes coding for interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL2RA), IL7R, and IL23R may alter risk for autoimmune disease, and discuss opposite autoimmune risk alleles found, among others, at the IL10 locus. PMID:22191464

  8. The cytokine profile of human NKT cells and PBMCs is dependent on donor sex and stimulus.

    PubMed

    Bernin, Hannah; Fehling, Helena; Marggraff, Claudia; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore

    2016-08-01

    Sex-related variations in natural killer T (NKT) cells may influence immunoregulation and outcome of infectious and autoimmune diseases. We analyzed sex-specific differences in peripheral blood NKTs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men and women and determined the frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations [CD4(+); CD8(+); double negative (DN)] and the levels of cytokine production following stimulation with the NKT cell ligands α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer) and Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidephosphoglycan (Lotter et al. in PLoS Pathog 5(5):e1000434, 2009). Total and DN NKT cells were more abundant in women than in men. In women, αGalCer induced higher production of intracellular IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF by CD4(+) and DN(+)NKT cells. Both ligands induced expression of multiple cytokines in PBMCs and influenced the ratio of NKT cell subpopulations during long-term culture. Although the sex-specific differences in frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations were marginal, the significant sex-specific differences in cytokine production might influence disease outcomes. PMID:26895635

  9. Dynamin inhibition interferes with inflammasome activation and cytokine gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes-infected human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, S; Mäkelä, S M; Miettinen, M; Charpentier, E; Julkunen, I

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we have analysed the ability of Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)] to activate the NACHT-domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome complex in human monocyte-derived macrophages and the molecules and signalling pathways involved in GAS-induced inflammatory responses. We focused upon analysing the impact of dynamin-dependent endocytosis and the role of major streptococcal virulence factors streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS) in the immune responses induced by GAS. These virulence factors are involved in immune evasion by forming pores in host cell membranes, and aid the bacteria to escape from the endosome–lysosome pathway. We analysed cytokine gene expression in human primary macrophages after stimulation with live or inactivated wild-type GAS as well as with live SLO and SLS defective bacteria. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-10 cytokines were produced after bacterial stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and no differences in cytokine levels were seen between live, inactivated or mutant bacteria. These data suggest that streptolysins or other secreted bacterial products are not required for the inflammatory responses induced by GAS. Our data indicate that inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in macrophages attenuates the induction of IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon (IFN)-β and CXCL-10 mRNAs. We also observed that pro-IL-1β protein was expressed and efficiently cleaved into mature-IL-1β via inflammasome activation after bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multiple signalling pathways are involved in GAS-stimulated inflammatory responses in human macrophages. PMID:25079511

  10. Modulation of human leukocyte antigen and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression in malignant and nonmalignant human thyroid cells by cytokines in the context of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Kraiem, Z; Sobel, E; Lider, O; Lahat, N

    2000-11-01

    Interactions between malignant cells and their environment are achieved via cell-surface receptors and adhesion molecules. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-bound cytokines modulate the expression of cell-surface molecules on target malignant cells, which may lead to changes in their susceptibility to cytolysis, in their ability to present antigens, and in the induction of local immune-cell activation and patrol. Eventually, these alterations may culminate in either the destruction, or escape and proliferation, of the tumor. We studied the effects of the ECM and its components in a "naive" form or following binding of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I, HLA class-II (HLA-DR), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on nonmalignant and malignant thyroid cells. The basal expression of HLA class-I molecules was not significantly changed either by naive ECM and its components or by ECM-bound cytokines. ECM synergized with IFNgamma and TNFalpha in inducing HLA-DR molecules on nonmalignant and malignant thyrocytes, with higher HLA-DR levels on the malignant cells. The laminin component, in particular, synergized with IFNgamma. Basal ICAM-1 expression on nonneoplastic cells was not significantly affected by the cytokines when grown in the absence of ECM, but was significantly upregulated when cells were cultured on ECM. In contrast, in malignant thyrocyte cultures, ECM significantly attenuated IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-mediated enhancement of ICAM-1 expression. We concluded that signals derived from ECM-embedded cytokines participate in the regulation of key thyroid cell surface molecules and, thus, may affect the final outcome of human thyroid malignancies. PMID:11128721

  11. Modulation in vitro of human natural cytotoxicity, lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens and cytokine production by essential fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Purasiri, P; Mckechnie, A; Heys, S D; Eremin, O

    1997-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) have been shown in animal studies to have a differential effect on various aspects of immune reactivity. However, there have been few studies in humans. Therefore, we elected to investigate the effects of a variety of EFA [gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in vitro on human blood lymphocyte reactivity, cytokine secretion and natural cytotoxicity. The proliferative response to polyclonal mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A), as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into newly synthesized lymphocytes, was inhibited (P < 0.05) by all EFAs tested, in a dose-dependent manner (3-15 micrograms/ml). The greatest inhibition of proliferation was caused by EPA and DHA. Similarly, EPA, DHA and GLA significantly reduced cytotoxic activity [expressed as lytic units, using 51 chromium-release assays natural killer (NK) (K562 cells) and lymphokine-activated (LAK) (Daudi cells) cells] (P < 0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner (5-50 micrograms/ml), without affecting cell viability. EPA and DHA exhibited greater suppression than GLA. Furthermore, the inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of natural cytotoxicity was associated with marked decrease in cytokine [interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] production in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that EFAs (GLA, EPA, DHA) have the potential to inhibit significantly various aspects of human lymphocyte cell-mediated and humoral immune reactivities. PMID:9415022

  12. Inflammatory Cytokines Induce Expression of Chemokines by Human Retinal Cells: Role in Chemokine Receptor Mediated Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Kommineni, Vijay K.; Ganjbaksh, Nader; Nagineni, Krishnasai K.; Hooks, John J.; Detrick, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine reeptor-3 (CCR-3) was shown to be associated with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a vision threatening retinal disease that affects the aging population world-wide. Retinal pigment epithelium and choroid in the posterior part of the retina are the key tissues targeted in the pathogenesis of CNV in AMD. We used human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) and choroidal fibroblast (HCHF) cells, prepared from aged adult human donor eyes, to evaluate the expression of major CCR-3 ligands, CCL-5, CCL -7, CCL-11,CCL-24 and CCL-26. Microarray analysis of gene expression in HRPE cells treated with inflammatory cytokine mix (ICM= IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-1β) revealed 75 and 23-fold increase in CCL-5 and CCL-7 respectively, but not CCL-11, CCL-24 and CCL-26. Chemokine secretion studies of the production of CCL5 and CCL7 by HRPE corroborated with the gene expression analysis data. When the HRPE cells were treated with either individual cytokines or the ICM, both CCL-5 and CCL-7 were produced in a dose dependent manner. Similar to the gene expression data, the ICM did not enhance HRPE production of CCL-11, CCL-24 and CCL-26. CCL-11 and CCL-26 were increased with IL-4 treatment and this HRPE production was augmented in the presence of TNF-α and IL1β. When HCHF cells were treated with either individual cytokines or the ICM, both CCL-5 and CCL-7 were produced in a dose dependent fashion. IL-4 induced low levels of CCL-11 and CCL-26 in HCHF and this production was significantly enhanced by TNF-α. Under these conditions, neither HRPE nor HCHF were demonstrated to produce CCL-24. These data demonstrate that chronic inflammation triggers CCL-5 and CCL-7 release by HRPE and HCHF and the subsequent interactions with CCR3 may participate in pathologic processes in AMD. PMID:26618046

  13. Curcumin Induces Pro-apoptotic Effects Against Human Melanoma Cells and Modulates The Cellular Response to Immunotherapeutic Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Matthew A.; Bakan, Courtney; Benson, Don M.; Fuchs, James; Young, Gregory; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin has potential as a chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic agent however its interactions with clinically relevant cytokines are poorly characterized. Since cytokine immunotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for malignant melanoma, we hypothesized that curcumin could modulate the cellular responsiveness to interferons and interleukins. As a single agent, curcumin induced a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis of human melanoma cell lines, which was most prominent at doses >10 µM. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that curcumin induced apoptosis and revealed caspase-3 processing, PARP cleavage, reduced Bcl-2 and decreased basal phosphorylated STAT3. Despite its pro-apoptotic effects, curcumin pre-treatment of human melanoma cell lines inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 protein and downstream gene transcription following IFN-α and IFN-γ as determined by immunoblot analysis and Real Time PCR, respectively. Pre-treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors with curcumin also inhibited the ability of IFN-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 to phosphorylate STAT proteins critical for their anti-tumor activity (STAT1 and STAT5, respectively) and their respective downstream gene expression as measured by Real Time PCR. Finally, stimulation of natural killer (NK) cells with curcumin reduced the level of IL-12-induced IFN-γ secretion, and production of granzyme b or IFN-γ upon co-culture with A375 melanoma cells or NK sensitive K562 cells as targets. These data demonstrate that although curcumin can induce apoptosis of melanoma cells, it can also adversely affect the responsiveness of immune effector cells to clinically relevant cytokines that possess anti-tumor properties. PMID:19723881

  14. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  15. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  16. Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules Expression in the Brain in Human Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Henry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Dodoo, Alfred Kofi; Adjei, Andrew Anthony; Tettey, Yao; Gyasi, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Although the role of systemic proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and their up-regulation of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin, in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is well established, the role of local cytokine release remain unclear. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to compare the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF- β at light microscopic level in cerebral, cerebellar and brainstem postmortem cryostat sections from 10 CM, 5 severe malarial anemia (SMA), 1 purulent bacterial meningitis (PBM), 2 non-central nervous system infections (NCNSI) and 3 non-infections (NI) deaths in Ghanaian children. Fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis showed significantly higher vascular expression of all 3 adhesion molecules, with highly significant co-localization with sequestration in the malaria cases. However, there was negligible difference between CM and SMA. TGF-β showed intravascular and perivascular distribution in all cases, but expression was most intense in the PBM case and CM group. TNF-α and IL-1β showed prominent brain parenchymal staining, in addition to intravascular and perivascular staining, in only the PBM case and CM group. The maximal expression of all 6 antigens studied was in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases. Endothelial activation is a feature of fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis, with adhesion molecule expression being highly correlated with sequestration. IL-1β and TNF-α are upregulated in only cases with neurodegenerative lesions, whilst TGF-β is present in all cases. Both cytokines and adhesion molecules were maximally upregulated in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases. PMID:16705810

  17. Altered cytokine production by specific human peripheral blood cell subsets immediately following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Cubbage, M. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, flow cytometry was used to positively identify the specific lymphocyte subsets exhibiting space flight-induced alterations in cytokine production. Whole blood samples were collected from 27 astronauts at three points (one preflight, two postflight) surrounding four space shuttle missions. Assays performed included serum/urine stress hormones, white blood cell (WBC) phenotyping, and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following space flight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated a decreased percentage of T cells, whereas percentages of B cells and natural killer (NK) cells remained unchanged after flight. Nearly all the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4/CD8 T cell ratio. Assessment of naive (CD45RA+) vs. memory (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was ambiguous, and subjects tended to group within specific missions. Although no significant trend was seen in absolute monocyte levels, a significant decrease in the percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocytes was seen following space flight in all subjects tested. T cell (CD3+) production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) was significantly decreased after space flight, as was IL-2 production by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered by space flight for the CD8+ cell subset, but there was a significant decrease in IFN-gamma production for the CD4+ T cell subset. Serum and urine stress hormone analysis indicated significant physiologic stresses in astronauts following space flight. Altered peripheral leukocyte subsets, altered serum and urine stress hormone levels, and altered T cell cytokine secretion profiles were all observed postflight. In addition, there appeared to be differential susceptibility to space flight regarding cytokine secretion by T cell subsets. These alterations may be the

  18. The innate defense antimicrobial peptides hBD3 and RNase7 are induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical inflammatory cytokines but not Th17 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Sakinc, Türkan; Rieg, Siegbert

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity. In this study we investigated whether endothelial cells actively contribute to innate defense mechanisms by expression of antimicrobial peptides. We therefore stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines, heat-inactivated bacteria, bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Stimulation with single cytokines induced discrete expression of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) by IFN-γ or IL-1β and of ribonuclease 7 (RNase7) by TNF-α without any effects on LL-37 gene expression. Stronger hBD3 and RNase7 induction was observed after combined stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ and was confirmed by high hBD3 and RNase7 peptide levels in cell culture supernatants. In contrast, Th17 cytokines or stimulation with LTA did not result in AMP production. Moreover, only BCM of an invasive S. aureus bacteremia isolate induced hBD3 in HUVEC. We conclude that endothelial cells actively contribute to prevent dissemination of pathogens at the blood-tissue-barrier by production of AMPs that exhibit microbicidal and immunomodulatory functions. Further investigations should focus on tissue-specific AMP induction in different endothelial cell types, on pathogen-specific induction patterns and potentially involved pattern-recognition receptors of endothelial cells.

  19. Suppression of human anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines IL-10 and IL-1RA with elevation of proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma during the isolation of the Antarctic winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Cron, Stanley G.; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Smith, E. O'Brian; Lugg, Desmond J.; Nickolls, Peter M.; Sharp, Robert M.; Rollings, Karl; Reuben, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Cellular immune function has been shown to be decreased and latent virus shedding to be increased in human beings isolated during the Antarctic winter, a model used for assessing some effects of space flight. However, the balance of proinflammatory (IFN-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IL-1RA) cytokines has not previously been evaluated. We therefore sought to determine whether isolation during the Antarctic winter would alter the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. Cytokine levels were measured with ELISA in monthly plasma samples from January through September 1999 in 21 study subjects in the Antarctic and 7 control subjects on Macquarie Island. There was a significant time-dependent increase in plasma IFN-gamma (P =.039) as well as decreases in IL-10 (P =.042) and IL-1RA (P =.053) in the study subjects compared with the control subjects. The study subjects also had significantly increased plasma IFN-gamma levels (P < or =.045) but decreased IL-10 and IL-1RA levels (P < or =.036) at individual time points of isolation. Isolation of human beings in the Antarctic appears to shift the plasma cytokine balance toward a proinflammatory profile. These observations are consistent with T-cell activation that might be due to activation of latent viruses, and they could hold importance for determining the risks of space flight.

  20. [Production of recombinant human interleukin-38 and its inhibitory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells].

    PubMed

    Yuan, X L; Li, Y; Pan, X H; Zhou, M; Gao, Q Y; Li, M C

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38 is the latest member of the IL-1 cytokine family. However, as a result of lacking efficient method to generate relatively large quantity of IL-38, its precise functions are poorly understood. In the present study, the cloning, expression, purification, and activity analysis of recombinant human IL-38 was described. Human IL-38 cDNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-44. The recombinant IL-38 containing a C-hexahistidine tag was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. IL-38 protein was largely found in the soluble fraction. The purified IL-38 appeared a single band on SDS-PAGE, the yield of IL-38 was 4 mg from 1 L of bacterial culture, and the purity was more than 98% with low endotoxin level (<0.1 EU/μg). Western blotting confirmed the identity of the purified protein. Activity analysis showed that IL-38 can inhibit effectively the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 cells. The production and characterization of biologically active IL-38 will be beneficial for its potential role in clinical applications. PMID:27414784

  1. Extrapituitary growth hormone synthesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram Pablo; Garza-Rodríguez, María de Lourdes; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The gene for pituitary growth hormone (GH-N) in man belongs to a multigene locus located at chromosome 17q24.2, which also harbors four additional genes: one for a placental variant of GH-N (named GH-V) and three of chorionic somatommamotropin (CSH) type. Their tandem arrangement from 5' to 3' is: GH-N, CSH-L, CSH-1, GH-V and CSH-2. GH-N is mainly expressed in the pituitary from birth throughout life, while the remaining genes are expressed in the placenta of pregnant women. Pituitary somatotrophs secrete GH into the bloodstream to act at receptor sites in most tissues. GH participates in the regulation of several complex physiological processes, including growth and metabolism. Recently, the presence of GH has been described in several extrapituitary sites, such as neural, ocular, reproductive, immune, cardiovascular, muscular, dermal and skeletal tissues. It has been proposed that GH has an autocrine action in these tissues. While the body of evidence for its presence is constantly growing, research of its possible function and implications lag behind. In this review we highlight the evidence of extrapituitary synthesis of GH in humans.

  2. Beryllium alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated intracellular phosphorylation and cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We found that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1beta is enhanced. In addition, not all lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate-treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1beta secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

  3. The impact of α-toxin on host cell plasma membrane permeability and cytokine expression during human blood infection by CA-MRSA USA300

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Tyler K.; Pallister, Kyler B.; Zurek, Oliwia W.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the influence of α-toxin (Hla) expression by CA-MRSA on host immune cell integrity and cytokine expression during infection of human blood. Flow cytometry analysis of human blood infected by Staphylococcus aureus PFGE type USA300 or a USA300Δhla demonstrated that Hla expression significantly increased plasma membrane permeability of human CD14+ monocytes. The increased susceptibility of human CD14+ monocytes to Hla toxicity paralleled the high cell-surface expression on these cell types of ADAM10. USA300 rapidly associated with PMNs and monocytes but not T cells following inoculation of human blood. Transcription analysis indicated a strong up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine transcription following infection of human blood by USA300 and USA300Δhla. CBAs and ELISAs determined that IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-4 are significantly up-regulated during the initial phases of human blood infection by USA300 relative to mock-infected blood but failed to distinguish any significant differences in secreted cytokine protein concentrations during infection by USA300Δhla relative to USA300. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that expression of Hla by USA300 has a significant impact on human CD14+ monocyte plasma membrane integrity but is not exclusively responsible for the proinflammatory cytokine profile induced by USA300 during the initial stages of human blood infection. PMID:24026286

  4. The impact of α-toxin on host cell plasma membrane permeability and cytokine expression during human blood infection by CA-MRSA USA300.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Tyler K; Pallister, Kyler B; Zurek, Oliwia W; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2013-11-01

    This investigation examines the influence of α-toxin (Hla) expression by CA-MRSA on host immune cell integrity and cytokine expression during infection of human blood. Flow cytometry analysis of human blood infected by Staphylococcus aureus PFGE type USA300 or a USA300Δhla demonstrated that Hla expression significantly increased plasma membrane permeability of human CD14(+) monocytes. The increased susceptibility of human CD14(+) monocytes to Hla toxicity paralleled the high cell-surface expression on these cell types of ADAM10. USA300 rapidly associated with PMNs and monocytes but not T cells following inoculation of human blood. Transcription analysis indicated a strong up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine transcription following infection of human blood by USA300 and USA300Δhla. CBAs and ELISAs determined that IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-4 are significantly up-regulated during the initial phases of human blood infection by USA300 relative to mock-infected blood but failed to distinguish any significant differences in secreted cytokine protein concentrations during infection by USA300Δhla relative to USA300. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that expression of Hla by USA300 has a significant impact on human CD14(+) monocyte plasma membrane integrity but is not exclusively responsible for the proinflammatory cytokine profile induced by USA300 during the initial stages of human blood infection.

  5. Gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis elicit pro-inflammatory cytokines response in human PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Avishek, Kumar; Kaushal, Himanshu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ramesh, V.; Negi, Narender Singh; Dubey, Uma S.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/−) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects. Both parasites infected human macrophages, as effectively as the wild type parasites. Further, LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− strongly stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 in the PBMCs obtained from individuals with a prior exposure to Leishmania (HVL and PKDL). There was no significant stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Induction of Th1 biased immune responses was supported by a remarkable increase in IFN-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and IL-17 secreting CD4+ cells in PBMCs from HVL cases with no increase in IL-10 secreting T cells. Hence, LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− are promising as live vaccine candidates against VL since they elicit strong protective immune response in human PBMCs from HVL, similar to the wild type parasite infection, mimicking a naturally acquired protection following cure. PMID:27624408

  6. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair.

  7. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  8. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Coral, Angela P; Bakker, Astrid D; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Forouzanfar, Tim; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  9. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p < 0.0001). In the same NAF samples we found significantly increased levels of protein oxidative carbonyls in cancer patients compared to healthy women (2.35 vs 0.41 nmol/mg prot, respectively; p < 0.0001). Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p < 0.0001). In cancer NAF samples (containing higher amounts of aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p < 0.0005), as well as pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1 cytokine (Y = 2026x-866, r(2) 0.9495, p < 0.0001). In addition to emerging evidence, our results support the possible involvement of aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells. PMID:23916117

  10. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p < 0.0001). In the same NAF samples we found significantly increased levels of protein oxidative carbonyls in cancer patients compared to healthy women (2.35 vs 0.41 nmol/mg prot, respectively; p < 0.0001). Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p < 0.0001). In cancer NAF samples (containing higher amounts of aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p < 0.0005), as well as pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1 cytokine (Y = 2026x-866, r(2) 0.9495, p < 0.0001). In addition to emerging evidence, our results support the possible involvement of aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells.

  11. TNF-alpha-independent IL-8 expression: alterations in bacterial challenge dose cause differential human monocytic cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Patrone, Julia B; Bish, Samuel E; Stein, Daniel C

    2006-07-15

    We examined the effects of different bacterial doses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the cytokine response of primary human monocytes. The data indicate that a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) challenge (MOI = 0.1) results in substantial production of IL-8 and other chemokines/cytokines, in the absence of significant TNF-alpha production. Positive control challenges (MOI = 10) induced levels of IL-8 that were comparable to the low MOI challenges, but now induced significant levels of TNF-alpha. Induction of IL-8 expression in low MOI challenges was not mediated by an autocrine response as pretreatment of monocytes with neutralizing Abs against TNF-alpha or IL-1beta had no effect on IL-8 expression. IL-8 induction resulting from gonococcal challenge was shown to require NF-kappaB activation, though this activation was limited by the inoculating dose. These data indicate that IL-8 induction results from direct contact between bacteria and monocytes. Analysis of the overall cytokine profile revealed patterns of expression for growth-regulated oncogene, MCP-1, and IL-6 that were similar to IL-8. Analysis of various MAPKs indicated that low MOI challenges were able to efficiently activate both the ERK and p38 pathways, but in contrast to positive control samples, failed to activate the JNK pathway. A lack of phosphorylated JNK leads to decreased production of AP-1 dimers, transcription factors that are critical for efficient transcription of TNF-alpha. Therefore, we propose a mechanism where a low MOI gonococcal challenge results in diminished AP-1 activity and TNF-alpha production while IL-8 levels remain constant. PMID:16818792

  12. Mycoplasma fermentans and TNF-β interact to amplify immune-modulating cytokines in human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Fabisiak, James P.; Gao, Fei; Thomson, Robyn G.; Strieter, Robert M.; Watkins, Simon C.; Dauber, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma can establish latent infections and are associated with arthritis, leukemia, and chronic lung disease. We developed an experimental model in which lung cells are deliberately infected with Mycoplasma fermentans. Human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were exposed to live M. fermentans and immune-modulating cytokine release was assessed with and without known inducers of cytokine production. M. fermentans increased IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, and Gro-α/CXCL1 production. M. fermentans interacted with TNF-β to release more IL-6, CXCL8, and CXCL1 than predicted by the responses to either stimulus alone. The effects of live infection were recapitulated by exposure to M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), a Toll-like receptor-2- and receptor-6-specific ligand. The synergistic effect of combined stimuli was more pronounced with prolonged incubations. Preexposure to TNF-β sensitized the cells to subsequent MALP-2 challenge, but preexposure to MALP-2 did not alter the IL-6 response to TNF-β. Exposure to M. fermentans or MALP-2 did not enhance nuclear localization, DNA binding, or transcriptional activity of NF-κB and did not modulate early NF-κB activation in response to TNF-β. Application of specific inhibitors of various MAPKs suggested that p38 and JNK/stress-activated protein kinase were involved in early IL-6 release after exposure to TNF-β and M. fermentans, respectively. The combined response to M. fermentans and TNF-β, however, was uniquely sensitive to delayed application of SP-600125, suggesting that JNK/stress-activated protein kinase contributes to the amplification of IL-6 release. Thus M. fermentans interacts with stimuli such as TNF-β to amplify lung cell production of immune-modulating cytokines. The mechanisms accounting for this interaction can now be dissected with the use of this in vitro model. PMID:16751226

  13. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses.

  14. A regulatory role of prolactin, growth hormone, and corticosteroids for human T-cell production of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, S; Lange, T; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    2004-07-01

    The release of the pituitary hormones, prolactin and growth hormone (GH), and of adrenal corticosteroids is subject to a profound regulation by sleep. In addition these hormones are known to be involved in the regulation of the immune response. Here, we examined their role for in vitro production of T-cell cytokines. Specifically, we hypothesized that increased concentrations of prolactin and GH as well as a decrease in cortisol, i.e., hormonal changes characterizing early nocturnal sleep, could be responsible for a shift towards T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines during this time. Whole blood was sampled from 15 healthy humans in the morning after regular sleep and was activated in vitro with ionomycin and two concentrations of phorbol myrestate acetate (PMA, 8 and 25 ng/ml) in the absence or presence of prolactin, prolactin antibody, GH, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-486, or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. Hormones were examined at physiological concentrations. Production of T-cell derived cytokines was measured at the single cell level using multiparametric flow cytometry. Generally, effects were more pronounced after stimulation with 8 rather than 25 ng/ml PMA. The following changes reached significance (p <.05): prolactin (versus prolactin antibody) increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing CD8+ cells. Compared with control, prolactin antibody decreased, whereas GH increased IFN-gamma+CD4+ cells. RU-486 increased TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Surprisingly strong effects were found after MR blocking with spironolactone which increased TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells. No effects on IL-4+CD4+ cells were observed, while the IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio shifted towards Th1 after spironolactone and after RU-486 plus GH. Results suggest that enhanced prolactin and GH

  15. Phloridzin derivatives inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in human cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Milani, R; Marcellini, A; Montagner, G; Baldisserotto, A; Manfredini, S; Gambari, R; Lampronti, I

    2015-10-12

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most diffuse autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting Caucasians. A persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of CF patients contributes to exacerbate the airway tissue damage, suggesting that modulation of chemokine expression may be an important target for the patient's well being thus the identification of innovative anti-inflammatory drugs is considered a longterm goal to prevent progressive tissue deterioration. Phloridzin, isolated from Malus domestica by a selective molecular imprinting extraction, and its structural analogues, Phloridzin heptapropionate (F1) and Phloridzin tetrapropionate (F2), were initially investigated because of their ability to reduce IL-6 and IL-8 expression in human CF bronchial epithelial cells (IB3-1) stimulated with TNF-α. Release of these cytokines by CF cells was shown to be controlled by the Transcription Factor (TF) NF-kB. The results of the present investigation show that of all the derivatives tested, Phloridzin tetrapropionate (F2) is the most interesting and has greatest potential as it demonstrates inhibitory effects on the expression and production of different cytokines involved in CF inflammation processes, including RANTES, VEGF, GM-CSF, IL-12, G-CSF, MIP-1b, IL-17, IL-10 and IP-10, without any correlated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. PMID:26209880

  16. Cytokine Profiles in Human Metapneumovirus Infected Children: Identification of Genes Involved in the Antiviral Response and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malmo, Jostein; Moe, Nina; Krokstad, Sidsel; Ryan, Liv; Loevenich, Simon; Johnsen, Ingvild B; Espevik, Terje; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Døllner, Henrik; Anthonsen, Marit W

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes severe airway infection in children that may be caused by an unfavorable immune response. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV in naturally occurring infections in children is largely undescribed, and it is unknown if inflammasome activation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. We examined nasopharynx aspirates and blood samples from hMPV-infected children without detectable co-infections. The expression of inflammatory and antiviral genes were measured in nasal airway secretions by relative mRNA quantification while blood plasma proteins were determined by a multiplex immunoassay. Several genes were significantly up-regulated at mRNA and protein level in the hMPV infected children. Most apparent was the expression of the chemokine IP-10, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in addition to the interferon inducible gene ISG54. Interestingly, children experiencing more severe disease, as indicated by a severity index, had significantly more often up-regulation of the inflammasome-associated genes IL-1β and NLRP3. Overall, our data point to cytokines, particularly inflammasome-associated, that might be important in hMPV mediated lung disease and the antiviral response in children with severe infection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that inflammasome components are associated with increased illness severity in hMPV-infected children. PMID:27171557

  17. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio; Sampaio, André Luiz Franco; Henriques, Maria das Graças Muller; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune etiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applied for dengue fever.

  18. Major role of HSP70 as a paracrine inducer of cytokine production in human oxidized LDL treated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Asea, Alexzander; Englund, Mikael C.O.; Bausero, Maria A.; Jernås, Margareta; Wiklund, Olov; Ohlsson, Bertil G.; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Carlsson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Lipid accumulation and inflammation are key hallmarks of the atherosclerotic plaque and macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is believed to drive these processes. Initial experiments show that supernatants from oxLDL treated macrophages could induce IL-1β production in naïve macrophages. To search for potential paracrine mediators that could mediate this effect a DNA microarray scan of oxLDL treated human macrophages was performed. This analysis revealed that oxLDL induced activation of heat shock protein (HSP) expression. HSPs have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, but the exact mechanisms for this is unclear. Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to elicit a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in monocytes and could therefore be a potential paracrine pro-inflammatory mediator. After 24 h of oxLDL treatment there was a significant increase of HSP70 concentrations in supernatants from oxLDL treated macrophages (oxLDLsup) compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05). OxLDLsup could induce both interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-12 secretion in naïve macrophages. We also demonstrate that the effect of oxLDLsup on cytokine production and release could be blocked by inhibition of HSP70 transcription or secretion or by the use of HSP70 neutralizing antibodies. This suggests that extracellular HSP70 can mediate pro-inflammatory changes in macrophages in response to oxLDL. PMID:15993884

  19. Cytokine Profiles in Human Metapneumovirus Infected Children: Identification of Genes Involved in the Antiviral Response and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malmo, Jostein; Moe, Nina; Krokstad, Sidsel; Ryan, Liv; Loevenich, Simon; Johnsen, Ingvild B.; Espevik, Terje; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Døllner, Henrik; Anthonsen, Marit W.

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes severe airway infection in children that may be caused by an unfavorable immune response. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV in naturally occurring infections in children is largely undescribed, and it is unknown if inflammasome activation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. We examined nasopharynx aspirates and blood samples from hMPV-infected children without detectable co-infections. The expression of inflammatory and antiviral genes were measured in nasal airway secretions by relative mRNA quantification while blood plasma proteins were determined by a multiplex immunoassay. Several genes were significantly up-regulated at mRNA and protein level in the hMPV infected children. Most apparent was the expression of the chemokine IP-10, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in addition to the interferon inducible gene ISG54. Interestingly, children experiencing more severe disease, as indicated by a severity index, had significantly more often up-regulation of the inflammasome-associated genes IL-1β and NLRP3. Overall, our data point to cytokines, particularly inflammasome-associated, that might be important in hMPV mediated lung disease and the antiviral response in children with severe infection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that inflammasome components are associated with increased illness severity in hMPV-infected children. PMID:27171557

  20. Phloridzin derivatives inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in human cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Milani, R; Marcellini, A; Montagner, G; Baldisserotto, A; Manfredini, S; Gambari, R; Lampronti, I

    2015-10-12

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most diffuse autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting Caucasians. A persistent recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchi of CF patients contributes to exacerbate the airway tissue damage, suggesting that modulation of chemokine expression may be an important target for the patient's well being thus the identification of innovative anti-inflammatory drugs is considered a longterm goal to prevent progressive tissue deterioration. Phloridzin, isolated from Malus domestica by a selective molecular imprinting extraction, and its structural analogues, Phloridzin heptapropionate (F1) and Phloridzin tetrapropionate (F2), were initially investigated because of their ability to reduce IL-6 and IL-8 expression in human CF bronchial epithelial cells (IB3-1) stimulated with TNF-α. Release of these cytokines by CF cells was shown to be controlled by the Transcription Factor (TF) NF-kB. The results of the present investigation show that of all the derivatives tested, Phloridzin tetrapropionate (F2) is the most interesting and has greatest potential as it demonstrates inhibitory effects on the expression and production of different cytokines involved in CF inflammation processes, including RANTES, VEGF, GM-CSF, IL-12, G-CSF, MIP-1b, IL-17, IL-10 and IP-10, without any correlated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

  1. Serum Cytokine Responses over the Entire Clinical-Immunological Spectrum of Human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Patrícia Karla; Carvalho, Karina Inácio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Lima, Luciana Vieira; Campos, Marliane Batista; Gomes, Claudia Maria C.; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The clinical-immunological spectrum of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil was recently reviewed based on clinical, DTH, and IFAT (IgG) evaluations that identified five profiles: three asymptomatic (asymptomatic infection, AI; subclinical resistant infection, SRI; and indeterminate initial infection, III) and two symptomatic (symptomatic infection, SI; American visceral leishmaniasis, AVL; and subclinical oligosymptomatic infection, SOI). TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 serum cytokines were analyzed using multiplexed Cytometric Bead Array in 161 samples from endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon: SI [AVL] (21 cases), III (49), SRI (19), SOI (12), AI (36), and a control group [CG] (24). The highest IL-6 serum levels were observed in the SI profile (AVL); higher IL-10 serum levels were observed in SI than in SOI or CG and in AI and III than in SOI; higher TNF-α serum levels were seen in SI than in CG. Positive correlations were found between IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels in the SI and III profiles and between IL-6 and TNF-α and between IL-4 and TNF-α in the III profile. These results provide strong evidence for associating IL-6 and IL-10 with the immunopathogenesis of AVL and help clarify the role of these cytokines in the infection spectrum. PMID:27051668

  2. Human bronchial epithelial cells injury and cytokine production induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Vera Lucia Silva; Kwasniewski, Fabio H; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Linhares, Ingrid Sestrem; da Silva, Joelmir Lucena Veiga; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-09-15

    Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion specie responsible for the majority of scorpion sting accidents in Brazil. Symptoms of envenomation by Tityus serrulatus range from local pain to severe systemic reactions such as cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. Thus, this study has evaluated the participation of bronchial epithelial cells in the pulmonary effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv). Human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were utilized as a model target and were incubated with Tsv (10 or 50 μg/mL) for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Effects on cellular response of venom-induce cytotoxicity were examined including cell viability, cell integrity, cell morphology, apoptosis/necrosis as well as cell activation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Tsv caused a decrease in cell viability at 10 and 50 μg/mL, which was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement. Flow cytometry analyses revealed necrosis as the main cell death pathway caused by Tsv. Furthermore, Tsv induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Tsv induces cytotoxic effects on bronchial epithelial cells, involving necrosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the pulmonary injury caused by Tsv. PMID:27452928

  3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype b-specific polysaccharide antigen stimulates production of chemotactic factors and inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, N; Yamashita, Y; Ikeda, D; Koga, T

    1996-01-01

    Serotype b-specific polysaccharide antigen (SPA) was extracted from whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 by autoclaving and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephacryl S-300. SPA induced the release of monocyte and leukocyte chemotactic factors by human monocytes. Polymyxin B had almost no effect on the release of monocyte chemotactic factor, but a monoclonal antibody against SPA markedly inhibited it. Human monocytes stimulated with SPA exhibited the increased mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and a neutrophil chemotactic factor, interleukin-8 (IL-8). On the other hand, SPA induced the release of IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and enhanced the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNAs. Human monocytes expressed MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNAs when stimulated by human recombinant IL-1alpha, I1-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, suggesting that these inflammatory cytokines induced by SPA might participate in the production of chemotactic factors in human monocytes. PMID:8698480

  4. Multiplex analysis inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with human health effects and health endpoints, yet most studies have focused on human populations that are already considered “unhealthy”.  As such, it is pertinent to measure inflammatory biomarkers in human biologica...

  5. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species in Brominated Diphenyl Ether-47-induced Inflammatory Cytokine Release from Human Extravillous Trophoblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Ryung; Kamau, Patricia W.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 is one of the most prevalent PBDE congeners found in human breast milk, serum and placenta. Despite the presence of PBDEs in human placenta, effects of PBDEs on placental cell function are poorly understood. The present study investigated BDE-47-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and its role in BDE-47-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release in a first trimester human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 4 h to 20 μM BDE-47 increased ROS generation 1.7 fold as measured by the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay. Likewise, superoxide anion production increased approximately 5 fold at 10 and 15 μM and 9 fold at 20 μM BDE-47 with a 1-h exposure, as measured by cytochrome c reduction. BDE-47 (10, 15 and 20 μM) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential by 47–64.5% at 4, 8 and 24 h as assessed with the fluorescent probe Rh123. Treatment with 15 and 20 μM BDE-47 stimulated cellular release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-8 after 12 and 24 h exposures: the greatest increases were a 35-fold increased mRNA expression at 12 h and a 12-fold increased protein concentration at 24 h for IL-6. Antioxidant treatments (deferoxamine mesylate, (±)α-tocopherol, or tempol) suppressed BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release by 54.1%, 56.3% and 37.7%, respectively, implicating a role for ROS in regulation of inflammatory pathways in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Solvent (DMSO) controls exhibited statistically significantly decreased responses compared with non-treated controls for IL-6 release and IL-8 mRNA expression, but these responses were not consistent across experiments and times. Nonetheless, it is possible that DMSO (used to dissolve BDE-47) may have attenuated the stimulatory actions of BDE-47 on cytokine responses. Because abnormal activation of proinflammatory responses can disrupt trophoblast functions

  6. [The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study].

    PubMed

    Adiloğlu, Ali Kudret; Gönülateş, Nurettin; Işler, Mehmet; Senol, Altuğ

    2013-04-01

    The systemic effects of bioactive peptides which are produced by the fermentation of milk via the microorganisms found in kefir have been the subject of interest in recent years. Bioactive peptides activate innate immunity by stimulating macrophages, increasing phagocytosis, augmenting NO and cytokine production and boosting the lumen levels of IgG and IgA+ B-lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum cytokine profiles of healthy volunteers after kefir consumption to evaluate helper T (TH) cell polarization and to bring out the effects on native and allergic immune responses. The study was designed as a prospective and self-controlled study. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (age range: 20-40 yrs, mean age: 35.5 ± 7.38 yrs) from a university hospital staff were recruited to the study, with the approval of ethical board and informed consent. The body mass indices of all participants were between normal range (20.10-25.70 kg/m2). After two weeks of a diet free from fermented products, the participants consumed 200 mL kefir daily, for six weeks. Kefir product was prepared by using kefir starter culture (Danisco Biolacta Sp - 05223B 10001, Poland) which contains Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Streptococcus termophilus, an overnight incubation at 26°C, and consumed freshly. Fasting blood samples of subjects were collected just before kefir use (0th week), at the end of the 3rd and 6th weeks of kefir consumption, and three weeks after cessation of kefir usage (9th week). Serum TNF-a, IL-1, IL-5, IL-8 and TGF-β levels were measured by using commercial ELISA kits (BioSource, Belgium and Invitrogen, USA). Hemoglobin, serum creatinine and ALT levels of all subjects were also determined for follow-up. All volunteers completed the study period without any problem and declared no complaint. Hemoglobin, creatinine and ALT levels did not change with kefir consumption. Serum IL-8 levels were decreased at 3rd and

  7. Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B) exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106μm2/cm2). Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression. Results Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75) and high (150 × 106μm2/cm2) amounts, respectively (p < 0.05/cut off ≥ 2.0-fold change). Exposure to amorphous silica micro-particles at high amounts (150 × 106μm2/cm2) induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p < 0.05) induced by crystalline silica, but none were induced by amorphous silica. QRT-PCR revealed that cristobalite selectively up-regulated stress-related genes and cytokines (FOS, ATF3, IL6 and IL8) early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h). Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 106μm2/cm2, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 106μm2/cm2) revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells. Conclusions Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells

  8. Inflammatory cytokines regulate secretion of VEGF and chemokines by human conjunctival fibroblasts: Role in dysfunctional tear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; William, Abitha; Cherukuri, Aswini; Samuel, William; Hooks, John J; Detrick, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Ocular surface inflammation is one of the primary mechanisms associated with dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS), also known as dry eye disease. DTS, more prevalent in older populations, causes ocular discomfort and visual disturbance due to dryness on the surface layer in the eye. We used human conjunctival fibroblast cultures (HCJVF) to investigate the effects of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β (ITI) on the secretions of VEGF and chemokines. Our results demonstrate the elevated secretion of angiogenic VEGF molecules by ITI without affecting anti-angiogenic molecules, PEDF, endostatin, thrombospondin and sVEGF-R1. The secretion of interferon-γ inducible chemokines, CXCL9, -10, -11 by HCJVF were significantly enhanced by ITI. Our in vitro study supports previously reported observations of elevated VEGF and chemokines in tear fluids of DTS patients, reiterating the role of inflammatory reactions in DTS. PMID:26615568

  9. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands.

    PubMed

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C; Shaker, Anisa

    2015-06-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [-smooth muscle actin (-SMA)+vimentin+CD31-] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed -SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of -SMA+vimentin+CD31-CD45- human esophageal myofibroblasts (HuEso MFs). We modeled GERD by treatment with pH 4.5-acidified media and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, LPS and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and determined myofibroblast cytokine secretion in response to GERD injury. We demonstrate that spindle-shaped cell myofibroblasts are located near the basement membrane of stratified squamous epithelium in normal esophagus. We identify an increase in subepithelial myofibroblasts and activation of proinflammatory pathways in patients with GERD. Primary cultures of stromal cells obtained from normal esophagus retain myofibroblast morphology and express the acid receptor transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and TLR4. HuEso MFs stimulated with acid and TLR4 agonists LPS and HMGB1 increase IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via TRPV1 and NF-B activation. Our work implicates a role for human subepithelial stromal cells in the pathogenesis of GERD-related esophageal injury. Findings of this study can be extended to the investigation of epithelial-stromal interactions in inflammatory esophageal mucosal disorders. PMID:25882613

  10. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G.; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+vimentin+CD31−] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed α-SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of α-SMA+vimentin+CD31−CD45− human esophageal myofibroblasts (HuEso MFs). We modeled GERD by treatment with pH 4.5-acidified media and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, LPS and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and determined myofibroblast cytokine secretion in response to GERD injury. We demonstrate that spindle-shaped cell myofibroblasts are located near the basement membrane of stratified squamous epithelium in normal esophagus. We identify an increase in subepithelial myofibroblasts and activation of proinflammatory pathways in patients with GERD. Primary cultures of stromal cells obtained from normal esophagus retain myofibroblast morphology and express the acid receptor transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and TLR4. HuEso MFs stimulated with acid and TLR4 agonists LPS and HMGB1 increase IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via TRPV1 and NF-κB activation. Our work implicates a role for human subepithelial stromal cells in the pathogenesis of GERD-related esophageal injury. Findings of this study can be extended to the investigation of epithelial-stromal interactions in inflammatory esophageal mucosal disorders. PMID:25882613

  11. Cytokine Therapies in Neurological Disease.

    PubMed

    Azodi, Shila; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of glycoproteins that coordinate physiological functions. Cytokine deregulation is observed in many neurological diseases. This article reviews current research focused on human clinical trials of cytokine and anticytokine therapies in the treatment of several neurological disease including stroke, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, demyelinating diseases, and neurobehavioral diseases. This research suggests that cytokine therapy applications may play an important role in offering new strategies for disease modulation and treatment. Further, this research provides insights into the causal link between cytokine deregulation and neurological diseases. PMID:27388288

  12. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  13. Acute Systemic Inflammation is Unlikely to Affect Adiponectin and Leptin Synthesis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Mattias; Söderberg, Stefan; Tornvall, Per

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), classically thought to be merely an energy store, has been shown to produce inflammatory and metabolically active cytokines. Recently, adiponectin and leptin, adipokines primarily synthesized by adipocytes, have attracted considerable attention because inflammation has been suggested to modulate adipokine levels. However, the regulation of adiponectin and leptin is complex and the knowledge about their synthesis within the early onset of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if the synthesis of adiponectin and leptin is affected during the early phase of an acute systemic inflammation. Eighteen healthy subjects were allocated to vaccination against Salmonella typhi or to a control group, and adiponectin and leptin concentrations measured in plasma during 24 h. Nine patients, without markers of inflammation, undergoing open heart surgery were investigated before and after the operation by analysis of plasma levels and AT gene expression of adiponectin and leptin. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were measured in both cohorts. Plasma levels of IL-6 were doubled after vaccination and increased 30-fold after open heart surgery. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin were unchanged after vaccination whereas adiponectin and leptin tended to decrease after surgery. The gene expression of adiponectin and leptin was unaltered in omental and subcutaneous AT after surgery. Despite the use of two models of stimulated in vivo systemic inflammation, we found no evidence of an early regulation of adiponectin and leptin synthesis, indicating that these two adipokines are not key elements in an acute systemic inflammation in humans. PMID:26664879

  14. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  15. Intestinal ellagitannin metabolites ameliorate cytokine-induced inflammation and associated molecular markers in human colon fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; Larrosa, Mar; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín, Juan C; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-09-12

    Pomegranate ellagitannins (ETs) are transformed in the gut to ellagic acid (EA) and its microbiota metabolites, urolithin A (Uro-A) and urolithin B (Uro-B). These compounds exert anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Uro-A, Uro-B, and EA on colon fibroblasts, cells that play a key role in intestinal inflammation. CCD18-Co colon fibroblasts were exposed to a mixture of Uro-A, Uro-B, and EA, at concentrations comparable to those found in the colon (40 μM Uro-A, 5 μM Uro-B, 1 μM EA), both in the presence or in the absence of IL-1β (1 ng/mL) or TNF-α (50 ng/mL), and the effects on fibroblast migration and monocyte adhesion were determined. The levels of several growth factors and adhesion cytokines were also measured. The mixture of metabolites significantly inhibited colon fibroblast migration (∼70%) and monocyte adhesion to fibroblasts (∼50%). These effects were concomitant with a significant down-regulation of the levels of PGE(2), PAI-1, and IL-8, as well as other key regulators of cell migration and adhesion. Of the three metabolites tested, Uro-A exhibited the most significant anti-inflammatory effects. The results show that a combination of the ET metabolites found in colon, urolithins and EA, at concentrations achievable in the intestine after the consumption of pomegranate, was able to moderately improve the inflammatory response of colon fibroblasts and suggest that consumption of ET-containing foods has potential beneficial effects on gut inflammatory diseases.

  16. Immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against human myeloid leukaemic blasts.

    PubMed

    Poh, Su Li; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2016-05-01

    We studied whether blockade of inhibitory receptors on cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells by immune checkpoint inhibitors could increase its anti-tumour potency against haematological malignancies. CIK cultures were generated from seven normal donors and nine patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or multiple myeloma (MM). The inhibitory receptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator, CD200 receptor, lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing-3 (TIM-3) were present at variable percentages in most CIK cultures, while cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1/2/3) were expressed at low level in most cultures. Without blockade, myeloid leukaemia cells were susceptible to autologous and allogeneic CIK-mediated cytotoxicity. Blockade of KIR, LAG-3, PD-1 and TIM-3 but not CTLA-4 resulted in remarkable increase in killing against these targets, even in those with poor baseline cytotoxicity. ALL and MM targets were resistant to CIK-mediated cytotoxicity, and blockade of receptors did not increase cytotoxicity to a meaningful extent. Combination of inhibitors against two receptors did not further increase cytotoxicity. Interestingly, potentiation of CIK killing by blocking antibodies was not predicted by expression of receptors on CIK and their respective ligands on the targets. Compared to un-activated T and NK cells, blockade potentiated the cytotoxicity of CIK cells to a greater degree and at a lower E:T ratio, but without significant increase in cytotoxicity against normal white cell. Our findings provide the basis for clinical trial combining autologous CIK cells with checkpoint inhibitors for patients with AML.

  17. Xylosyltransferase-I regulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the pathogenic process of human osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Narayanan; Barré, Lydia; Bourhim, Mustapha; Magdalou, Jacques; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Ouzzine, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs) is an early event of osteoarthritis (OA) resulting in cartilage degradation that has been previously demonstrated in both huma and experimental OA models. However, the mechanism of GAG loss and the role of xylosyltransferase-I (XT-I) that initiates GAG biosynthesis onto PG molecules in the pathogenic process of human OA are unknown. In this study, we have characterized XT-I expression and activity together with GAG synthesis in human OA cartilage obtained from different regions of the same joint, defined as "normal", "late-stage" or adjacent to "late-stage". The results showed that GAG synthesis and content increased in cartilage from areas flanking OA lesions compared to cartilage from macroscopically "normal" unaffected regions, while decreased in "late-stage" OA cartilage lesions. This increase in anabolic state was associated with a marked upregulation of XT-I expression and activity in cartilage "next to lesion" while a decrease in the "late-stage" OA cartilage. Importantly, XT-I inhibition by shRNA or forced-expression with a pCMV-XT-I construct correlated with the modulation of GAG anabolism in human cartilage explants. The observation that XT-I gene expression was down-regulated by IL-1β and up-regulated by TGF-β1 indicates that these cytokines may play a role in regulating GAG content in human OA. Noteworthy, expression of IL-1β receptor (IL-1R1) was down-regulated whereas that of TGF-β1 was up-regulated in early OA cartilage. Theses observations may account for upregulation of XT-I and sustained GAG synthesis prior to the development of cartilage lesions during the pathogenic process of OA.

  18. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Smith, Joshua P.; Cripps, Allan W.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  19. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after Treatment with Cypermethrin and Mancozeb In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) α) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45–30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2) and stimulated IL-2 (TH1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings. PMID:25328518

  20. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after treatment with cypermethrin and mancozeb in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) α) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45-30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2) and stimulated IL-2 (TH1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings. PMID:25328518

  1. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after treatment with cypermethrin and mancozeb in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) α) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45-30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2) and stimulated IL-2 (TH1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings.

  2. Human conjunctival epithelial cell responses to platelet-activating factor (PAF): signal transduction and release of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shouxi; Hellberg, Peggy E.; Pang, Iok-Hou; Gamache, Daniel A.; Yanni, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the study were to characterize the signal transduction responses to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and to monitor the downstream effects of PAF on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs). Methods The generation of inositol phosphates ([3H]IPs) from [3H]phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the mobilization of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) were evaluated using ion exchange chromatography and Fura-2 fluorescence techniques, respectively. The production of the cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) from PAF-stimulated HCECs was quantified using specific ELISA assays. Specific PAF antagonists were used to study the pharmacological aspects of PAF actions in HCECs. Results PAF (100 nM) maximally stimulated PI turnover in HCECs by 2.3±0.02 fold (n=21) above basal levels and with a potency (EC50) of 5.9±1.7 nM (n=4). PAF or its stabilized analog, methyl carbamyl (mc)PAF (EC50=0.8 nM), rapidly mobilized [Ca2+]i, which peaked within 30–60 s and remained elevated for 3 min. PAF (10 nM–1 µM) stimulated the release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF, 1.4–3.5 fold above basal levels. The effects of PAF (100 nM) on PI turnover and [Ca2+]i were potently antagonized by the PAF antagonists, 1-o-hexadecyl-2-o-acetyl–sn-glycero-3-phospho (N,N,N-trimethyl) hexanolamine (IC50=0.69 µM; Ki=38 nM), methyl 2-(phenylthio)ethyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-pyridine-3,5-dicsrboxylate (PCA-42481; IC50=0.89 µM; Ki=50 nM), rac-3-(N-octadecylcarbomoyl)-2-methoxy) propyl-(2-thiazolioethyl) phosphate (CV-3988; IC50=13 µM; Ki=771 nM), and (+/−)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl)thiazolidin-4-one HCl (SM-10661; IC50=14 µM; Ki=789 nM [n=3 for each antagonist]). PAF-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF from HCECs was also blocked by these PAF antagonists (IC50=4.6– 8.6 µM). Conclusions HCECs respond to PAF by

  3. [Immunostimulating drugs and cytokines].

    PubMed

    Lehners, Nicola; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Raab, Marc S

    2011-11-01

    Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoesis and the immune system. Genetic engineering of recombinant cytokines has facilitated their implementation in many clinical areas. In the field of oncology the granulopoetic human growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF are of particular importance. They can be applied to prevent chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Furthermore, they allow for mobilization of hematopoetic stem cells in order to obtain peripheral blood stem cell transplants. Another class of cytokines, the interferons, possess immunomodulating, antiproliferative, and antiviral properties. While the significance of interferon alfa as an antitumor agent is dwindling, it still plays a very important role in the therapy of chronic hepatitis b and c. Interferon beta is successfully used to treat multiple sclerosis. Among the heterogenous group of interleukines in particular interleukin 2 has reached clinical practice as an immunostimulating agent in the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Many other cytokines have yet to undergo clinical trials.

  4. The effects of cold exposure on leukocytes, hormones and cytokines during acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dominique D; Gagnon, Sheila S; Rintamäki, Hannu; Törmäkangas, Timo; Puukka, Katri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse

  5. Susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelial cells to enterovirus 71 with normal cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Cheng; Guo, Ni-Jun; Grénman, Reidar; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Vuorenmma, Minna; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hui-Ying; Pang, Li-Li; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Miao; Sun, Xiao-Man; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A recent histopathologic study implicated human tonsillar crypt epithelium as an important site for EV71 replication in EV71-caused fatal cases. This study aimed to confirm the susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelium to EV71. Two human tonsillar epithelial cell lines (UT-SCC-60A and UT-SCC-60B) were susceptive to EV71, and PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways were activated. Interferon-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p40 were induced and regulated by PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways. PI3K/AKT pathway activation appeared to suppress the induction of TNF-α, which induced cell survival by inhibiting GSK-3β. The activation of NF-κB was observed but inhibited by these pathways in EV71 infection. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were essential for efficient EV71 replication. Human tonsillar epithelial cells support EV71 replication and display innate antiviral immunity in vitro, indicating that human tonsillar epithelial cells may be novel targets for EV71 infection and replication in vivo. PMID:27107253

  6. Susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelial cells to enterovirus 71 with normal cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Cheng; Guo, Ni-Jun; Grénman, Reidar; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Vuorenmma, Minna; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hui-Ying; Pang, Li-Li; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Miao; Sun, Xiao-Man; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A recent histopathologic study implicated human tonsillar crypt epithelium as an important site for EV71 replication in EV71-caused fatal cases. This study aimed to confirm the susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelium to EV71. Two human tonsillar epithelial cell lines (UT-SCC-60A and UT-SCC-60B) were susceptive to EV71, and PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways were activated. Interferon-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p40 were induced and regulated by PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways. PI3K/AKT pathway activation appeared to suppress the induction of TNF-α, which induced cell survival by inhibiting GSK-3β. The activation of NF-κB was observed but inhibited by these pathways in EV71 infection. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were essential for efficient EV71 replication. Human tonsillar epithelial cells support EV71 replication and display innate antiviral immunity in vitro, indicating that human tonsillar epithelial cells may be novel targets for EV71 infection and replication in vivo.

  7. Impact of oxidative stress on human cytomegalovirus replication and on cytokine-mediated stimulation of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Cinatl, J; Gross, V; Vogel, J U; Blaheta, R A; Freisleben, H J; Markus, B H; Doerr, H W

    1996-06-27

    Transplantation-related pathogenic factors such as ischemia or allograft-directed inflammation are associated with oxidative changes that might lead to cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on: (1) CMV replication in cultured human endothelial cells and (2) the stimulation of endothelial cells by proinfiammatory cytokines. Both pathomechanisms are known to contribute to graft rejection crises in vivo. Oxidative stress was induced in endothelial cell cultures with 10-200 microM buthionine sulfoximine. Western blotting showed a significant increase in the production of CMV-specific immediate early and late proteins in buthionine sulfoximine-treated cultures. Immunocytochemical staining suggested that this effect was caused by increased numbers of CMV antigen expressing cells (66% immediate early; 78%, late). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for CMV-specific DNA and virus titration revealed that enhanced viral replication levels correlated with increased virion production. As a measure for the endothelial cell activation status, the surface expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1) was quantified by fluorometric methods. Whereas oxidative stress alone did not modulate any surface molecule expression, the IFN-gamma-mediated expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR and the IL-1-mediated expression of ICAM-1, but not of ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 (IL-1 + TNF-alpha), was amplified. Interestingly, the amplification of HLA molecule expression was even higher in CMV-infected endothelial cells. This study provides evidence that oxidative stress contributes to the regulation of CMV replication, virus shedding, and the activation of endothelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines as it is observed in transplant recipients.

  8. Effects of 10 Cigarette Smoke Condensates on Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells by Comparative Gene and Cytokine Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Gavin; Seagrave, JeanClare; Boggs, Susan; Polzin, Gregory; Richter, Patricia; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2010-01-01

    Cigarettes vary in tobacco blend, filter ventilation, additives, and other physical and chemical properties, but little is known regarding potential differences in toxicity to a smoker’s airway epithelia. We compared changes in gene expression and cytokine production in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells following treatment for 18 h with cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) prepared from five commercial and four research cigarettes, at doses of ∼4 μg/ml nicotine. Nine of the CSCs were produced under a standard International Organization for Standardization smoking machine regimen and one was produced by a more intense smoking machine regimen. Isolated messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by microarray hybridization, and media was analyzed for secreted cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed by at least 9 of the 10 CSCs by more than twofold, including genes encoding detoxifying and antioxidant proteins. Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO-1) were selected for validation with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. NQO-1 expression determined with microarrays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting differed among the CSC types, with good correlation among the different assays. CYP1A1 mRNA levels varied substantially, but there was little correlation with the protein levels. For each CSC, the three most induced and three most repressed genes were identified. These genes may be useful as markers of exposure to that particular cigarette type. Furthermore, differences in interleukin-8 secretion were observed. These studies lay the foundation for future investigations to analyze differences in the responses of in vivo systems to tobacco products marketed with claims of reduced exposure or reduced harm. PMID:20015843

  9. Nitric oxide inhibits the secretion of T-helper 1- and T-helper 2-associated cytokines in activated human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, H; Jung, T; Tsikas, D; Stichtenoth, D O; Frölich, J C; Neumann, C

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating the balance of T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) immune responses are of great interest as they may determine the outcome of allergic and infectious diseases. Recently, in mice, nitric oxide (NO), a powerful modulator of inflammation, has been reported to preferentially down-regulate Th1-mediated immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NO on the production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines by activated human T cells and human T-cell clones. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence of the NO-donating agents 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). Both NO-donors markedly inhibited the release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-5, IL-10 and IL-4 by anti-CD3 activated T cells. A preferential inhibition of Th1-associated cytokines was not observed. Neither was nitrite found in the supernatants of activated T cells, nor was specific mRNA for inducible and constitutive NO synthase detectable, indicating that T cells themselves did not contribute to the observed effect of the NO donors. Costimulation with anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prevented SIN-1/SNAP-mediated down-regulation of cytokine production only in part. In contrast, when T cells were stimulated by phorbol-ester and ionomycin, they were refractory to SIN-1-induced inhibition of cytokine production. When SIN-1 was added after the onset of anti-CD3 stimulation, the inhibitory effect was found to be less pronounced, indicating that SIN-1 may interfere with early signal transduction events. The addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase did not restore the effects of SIN-1, demonstrating that the inhibition of cytokines was due to NO and not to oxygen intermediates. Furthermore, 8-Br-cGMP-mediated increase of intracellular cGMP caused the same pattern of cytokine inhibition as observed with SIN-1 and SNAP. Using a single cell assay, these agents were shown to reduce the

  10. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress the Stretch–Induced Inflammatory miR-155 and Cytokines in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Li, Yi-Shuan Julie; Zhou, Jing; Shih, Yu-Ru Vernon; Miller, Marina; Broide, David; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Current research in pulmonary pathology has focused on inflammatory reactions initiated by immunological responses to allergens and irritants. In addition to these biochemical stimuli, physical forces also play an important role in regulating the structure, function, and metabolism of the lung. Hyperstretch of lung tissues can contribute to the inflammatory responses in asthma, but the mechanisms of mechanically induced inflammation in the lung remain unclear. Our results demonstrate that excessive stretch increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs), including IL-8. This increase of IL-8 secretion was due to an elevated microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression, which caused the suppression of Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) production and the subsequent activation of JNK signaling. In vivo studies in our asthmatic mouse model also showed such changes in miR-155, IL-8, and SHIP1 expressions that reflect inflammatory responses. Co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) reversed the stretch-induced hBEC inflammatory responses as a result of IL-10 secretion by hMSCs to down-regulate miR-155 expression in hBECs. In summary, we have demonstrated that mechanical stretch modulates the homeostasis of the hBEC secretome involving miR-155 and that hMSCs can be used as a potential therapeutic approach to reverse bronchial epithelial inflammation in asthma. PMID:23967196

  11. Role of human leukocyte antigen, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, and cytokine gene polymorphisms in leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Raquel Nunes; Martins, Luís; Pinheiro, João Paulo; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Couto, Ana Rita; Santos, Margarida Rodrigues; Peixoto, Maria José; Garrett, Francisco; Leal, João; Tomás, Ana Maria; Bruges-Armas, Jácome

    2009-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. It has a broad range of clinical presentations in humans. Although progress has been made in the characterization of the host immune system factors that may affect disease progression and outcome, to date few reports have addressed the role of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to leptospirosis. In this work a group of patients with a history of leptospiral infection and a control group were compared for polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), in killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), and in cytokine genes. Alleles in the HLA-A and -B loci were associated with susceptibility, as were the class I haplotype A*01-B*08-Cw*07 and the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (A*01-B*08-Cw*07-DRB1*03-DQB1*02). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-4Ralpha genes also had significantly higher frequencies in the patient group. No association was reported between KIR gene profile and leptospirosis. This work highlights the importance of using genetic polymorphisms to better understand the mechanisms involved in the immune response to leptospirosis.

  12. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by arsenite inhibits cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xi; Pi Jingbo; Liu Wenlan; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian; Feng Changjian

    2009-04-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. Arsenite, as an oxidative stressor, is a potent inducer of HO-1 in human and rodent cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of arsenite-induced HO-1 in modulating tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Arsenite pretreatment, which upregulated HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 protein expression by 50% and 40%, respectively. Importantly, knockdown of HO-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the arsenite-induced inhibitory effects. These results indicate that induction of HO-1 by arsenite inhibits the cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVEC by suppressing adhesion molecule expression. These findings established an important mechanistic link between the functional monocyte adhesion properties of HUVEC and the induction of HO-1 by arsenite.

  13. Structures of human genes coding for cytokine LD78 and their expression.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, M; Nomiyama, H; Shimada, K

    1990-01-01

    LD78 is a member of a newly identified superfamily of small inducible proteins involved in inflammatory responses, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Southern blot analysis of the EcoRI-digested human genomic DNAs, using previously isolated LD78 cDNA as a probe, showed that in each individual there are 4.2- and 4.8-kilobase-pair (kb) fragments and that some have an additional 6.5-kb fragment. The 4.2-kb fragment contained genomic DNA sequences corresponding to the LD78 cDNA and was named the LD78 alpha gene. The 4.8-kb fragment contained similar sequences, showing 94% homology to the LD78 alpha gene, and was named the LD78 beta gene. The LD78 alpha gene was present in a single or a few copies per haploid genome, whereas the copy number of the LD78 beta gene and of the 6.5-kb fragment hybridizable to LD78 cDNA varied among the samples tested. Treatment of human myeloid cell lines HL-60 and U937 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased within 2 h cellular levels of the RNA hybridizable to LD78 cDNA. The human glioma cell line U105MG and primary culture of human fibroblasts also expressed the hybridizable RNA in response to PMA. Addition of cycloheximide had no apparent effect on this response in U937 cells and inhibited the response in fibroblasts, whereas it stimulated the response in HL-60 and U105MG cells. mRNA phenotyping experiments revealed that the LD78 alpha and LD78 beta genes were both transcribed in PMA-stimulated U937 cells. Images PMID:1694014

  14. Identification of (poly)phenol treatments that modulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Christopher T; Richardson, Siân; McArdle, Francis; Lotito, Silvina B; Crozier, Alan; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2016-05-28

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables (FV), which contain (poly)phenols, protect against age-related inflammation and chronic diseases. T-lymphocytes contribute to systemic cytokine production and are modulated by FV intake. Little is known about the relative potency of different (poly)phenols in modulating cytokine release by lymphocytes. We compared thirty-one (poly)phenols and six (poly)phenol mixtures for effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release by Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Test compounds were incubated with Jurkat cells for 48 h at 1 and 30 µm, with or without phorbol ester treatment at 24 h to induce cytokine release. Three test compounds that reduced cytokine release were further incubated with primary lymphocytes at 0·2 and 1 µm for 24 h, with lipopolysaccharide added at 5 h. Cytokine release was measured, and generation of H2O2 by test compounds was determined to assess any potential correlations with cytokine release. A number of (poly)phenols significantly altered cytokine release from Jurkat cells (P<0·05), but H2O2 generation did not correlate with cytokine release. Resveratrol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, vanillic acid and specific (poly)phenol mixtures reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from T-lymphocytes, and there was evidence for interaction between (poly)phenols to further modulate cytokine release. The release of interferon-γ induced protein 10 by primary lymphocytes was significantly reduced following treatment with 1 µm isorhamnetin (P<0·05). These results suggest that (poly)phenols derived from onions, turmeric, red grapes, green tea and açai berries may help reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in people at risk of chronic inflammation.

  15. Identification of (poly)phenol treatments that modulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Christopher T; Richardson, Siân; McArdle, Francis; Lotito, Silvina B; Crozier, Alan; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2016-05-28

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables (FV), which contain (poly)phenols, protect against age-related inflammation and chronic diseases. T-lymphocytes contribute to systemic cytokine production and are modulated by FV intake. Little is known about the relative potency of different (poly)phenols in modulating cytokine release by lymphocytes. We compared thirty-one (poly)phenols and six (poly)phenol mixtures for effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release by Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Test compounds were incubated with Jurkat cells for 48 h at 1 and 30 µm, with or without phorbol ester treatment at 24 h to induce cytokine release. Three test compounds that reduced cytokine release were further incubated with primary lymphocytes at 0·2 and 1 µm for 24 h, with lipopolysaccharide added at 5 h. Cytokine release was measured, and generation of H2O2 by test compounds was determined to assess any potential correlations with cytokine release. A number of (poly)phenols significantly altered cytokine release from Jurkat cells (P<0·05), but H2O2 generation did not correlate with cytokine release. Resveratrol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, vanillic acid and specific (poly)phenol mixtures reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from T-lymphocytes, and there was evidence for interaction between (poly)phenols to further modulate cytokine release. The release of interferon-γ induced protein 10 by primary lymphocytes was significantly reduced following treatment with 1 µm isorhamnetin (P<0·05). These results suggest that (poly)phenols derived from onions, turmeric, red grapes, green tea and açai berries may help reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in people at risk of chronic inflammation. PMID:26984113

  16. Human consensus interferons: Bridging the natural and artificial cytokines with intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-12-01

    The consensus interferons are artificially engineered proteins that combine most of the therapeutic features of natural human α-interferons and show high anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 show lower responses to interferon (IFN) therapy than the distributed worldwide patients infected with the other HCV genotypes. Numerous studies have reported that patients with hepatitis C who have not responded to a previous standard IFN-alpha therapy or those who relapsed following treatment cessation may benefit from retreatment with consensus IFN-α (cIFN-α). IFNs-α are shown here to have functionally important disordered regions. Furthermore, a strong correlation is established between the peculiarities of disorder profiles of these proteins and their known structural features. Intrinsic disorder profiles of existing cIFNs-α possess remarkable similarity to the consensus disorder profile calculated as averaged disorder predispositions of all human IFNs-α. If the peculiarities of disorder distribution within the protein sequence are related to protein functionality, then comparison of the disorder profiles of artificial cIFNs (query profiles) with the averaged disorder predisposition profile of human IFNs-α (target profile) can be used in the design of novel cIFNs. The goal here would be to achieve a close similarity between the query and target profiles by manipulating the cIFN sequence.

  17. Exposure of Human CD4 T Cells to IL-12 Results in Enhanced TCR-Induced Cytokine Production, Altered TCR Signaling, and Increased Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human CD4 T cells are constantly exposed to IL-12 during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. The current paradigm is that IL-12 promotes the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th1 cells, but recent studies suggest IL-12 may play a more complex role in T cell biology. We examined if exposure to IL-12 alters human CD4 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. We found that IL-12 pretreatment increased TCR-induced IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-4 and IL-10 production. This suggests that prior exposure to IL-12 potentiates the TCR-induced release of a range of cytokines. We observed that IL-12 mediated its effects through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. IL-12 pretreatment increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p38 and LCK following TCR stimulation without altering other TCR signaling molecules, potentially mediating the increase in transcription of cytokines. In addition, the IL-12-mediated enhancement of cytokines that are not transcriptionally regulated was partially driven by increased oxidative metabolism. Our data uncover a novel function of IL-12 in human CD4 T cells; specifically, it enhances the release of a range of cytokines potentially by altering TCR signaling pathways and by enhancing oxidative metabolism. PMID:27280403

  18. Human resistin stimulates the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha} and IL-12 in macrophages by NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Silswal, Nirupama; Singh, Anil K.; Aruna, Battu; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Ghosh, Sudip; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z. . E-mail: nas_ehtesham@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    Resistin, a recently discovered 92 amino acid protein involved in the development of insulin resistance, has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The elevated serum resistin in human diabetes is often associated with a pro-inflammatory milieu. However, the role of resistin in the development of inflammation is not well understood. Addition of recombinant human resistin protein (hResistin) to macrophages (both murine and human) resulted in enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha} and IL-12, similar to that obtained using 5 {mu}g/ml lipopolysaccharide. Both oligomeric and dimeric forms of hResistin were able to activate these cytokines suggesting that the inflammatory action of resistin is independent of its conformation. Heat denatured hResistin abrogated cytokine induction while treatment of recombinant resistin with polymyxin B agarose beads had no effect thereby ruling out the role of endotoxin in the recombinant hResistin mediated cytokine induction. The pro-inflammatory nature of hResistin was further evident from the ability of this protein to induce the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B transcription factor as seen from electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Induction of TNF-{alpha} in U937 cells by hResistin was markedly reduced in the presence of either dominant negative I{kappa}B{alpha} plasmid or PDTC, a pharmacological inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B. A protein involved in conferring insulin resistance is also a pro-inflammatory molecule that has important implications.

  19. Anti-human cytomegalovirus activity of cytokines produced by CD4+ T-cell clones specifically activated by IE1 peptides in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, J L; Castanié, P; Yorke, J A; Gautier, N; Clément, D; Davrinche, C

    1996-01-01

    The control of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections by the immune system is poorly understood. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells specific for the human CMV major regulatory protein IE1 are frequent in latently infected healthy blood donors. In order to learn about the possible role of these cells, we have developed IE1-specific CD4+ T-cell clones and, in this study, analyzed their epitope specificity and function in vitro. We measured their cytokine production when stimulated with specific IE1 peptides or whole recombinant IE1 protein. Their cytokine profiles, as deduced from gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6 production, were of the Th0- and Th1-like phenotypes. Supernatants from IE1-specific clones producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were shown to inhibit CMV replication in U373 MG cells. This effect was due, as found by using cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies, mostly to IFN-gamma, which was secreted at higher levels than TNF-alpha. To better assess the anti-CMV activity of cytokines, recombinant IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were used and shown to have a synergistic effect on the inhibition of CMV replication and protein expression. Thus, IE1-specific CD4+ T cells display in vitro anti-CMV activity through cytokine secretion and may play a role in the control of in vivo latent infections. PMID:8642638

  20. Potential of Cells and Cytokines/Chemokines to Regulate Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Feifeng

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid tissues involved in chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and cancer. They exhibit almost all the characteristics of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), which are associated with adaptive immune responses; as such, they contain organized B-cell follicles with germinal centers, distinct areas containing T cells and dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, and lymphatics. In this review, we briefly describe the formation of SLO, and describe the cellular subsets and molecular cues involved in the formation and maintenance of TLS. Finally, we discuss the associations of TLS with human diseases, especially autoimmune diseases, and the potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:27799872

  1. Specific inhibition of T-cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human recombinant galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, G A; Ariel, A; Hershkoviz, R; Hirabayashi, J; Kasai, K I; Lider, O

    1999-05-01

    The migration of immune cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) towards inflammatory sites is co-ordinated by receptors recognizing ECM glycoproteins, chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines. In this context, galectins are secreted to the extracellular milieu, where they recognize poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains on major ECM glycoproteins, such as fibronectin and laminin. We investigated the possibility that galectin-1 could modulate the adhesion of human T cells to ECM and ECM components. T cells were purified from human blood, activated with interleukin-2 (IL-2), labelled, and incubated further with intact immobilized ECM and ECM glycoproteins in the presence of increasing concentrations of human recombinant galectin-1, or its more stable, related, C2-S molecule obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The presence of galectin-1 was shown to inhibit T-cell adhesion to intact ECM, laminin and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent to collagen type IV, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was specifically blocked by anti-galectin-1 antibody and was dependent on the lectin's carbohydrate-binding properties. The inhibition of T-cell adhesion by galectin-1 correlates with the ability of this molecule to block the re-organization of the activated cell's actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production was markedly reduced when IL-2-activated T cells were incubated with galectin-1 or its mutant. This effect was prevented by beta-galactoside-related sugars. The present study reveals an alternative inhibitory mechanism for explaining the suppressive properties of the galectin-1 subfamily on inflammatory and autoimmune processes. PMID:10447720

  2. Quercetin Is More Effective than Cromolyn in Blocking Human Mast Cell Cytokine Release and Inhibits Contact Dermatitis and Photosensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Shahrzad; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Butcher, Alan; Fu, Xueyan; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Antoniou, Christina; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are immune cells critical in the pathogenesis of allergic, but also inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through release of many pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF. Contact dermatitis and photosensitivity are skin conditions that involve non-immune triggers such as substance P (SP), and do not respond to conventional treatment. Inhibition of mast cell cytokine release could be effective therapy for such diseases. Unfortunately, disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn), the only compound marketed as a mast cell “stabilizer”, is not particularly effective in blocking human mast cells. Instead, flavonoids are potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds with mast cell inhibitory actions. Here, we first compared the flavonoid quercetin (Que) and cromolyn on cultured human mast cells. Que and cromolyn (100 µM) can effectively inhibit secretion of histamine and PGD2. Que and cromolyn also inhibit histamine, leukotrienes and PGD2 from primary human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs) stimulated by IgE/Anti-IgE. However, Que is more effective than cromolyn in inhibiting IL-8 and TNF release from LAD2 mast cells stimulated by SP. Moreover, Que reduces IL-6 release from hCBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Que inhibits cytosolic calcium level increase and NF-kappa B activation. Interestingly, Que is effective prophylactically, while cromolyn must be added together with the trigger or it rapidly loses its effect. In two pilot, open-label, clinical trials, Que significantly decreased contact dermatitis and photosensitivity, skin conditions that do not respond to conventional treatment. In summary, Que is a promising candidate as an effective mast cell inhibitor for allergic and inflammatory diseases, especially in formulations that permit more sufficient oral absorption. PMID:22470478

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  4. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID PROMOTES HUMAN ADIPOCYTE INSULIN RESISTANCE THROUGH NFκB-DEPENDENT CYTOKINE PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Chung1, Soonkyu; Brown2, J. Mark; Provo1, J. Nathan; Hopkins1, Robin; McIntosh1, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced the triglyceride (TG) content of human adipocytes by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling via interleukins-6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8). However, the upstream mechanism is unknown. Here we show that CLA increased (≥ 6 h) the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in cultures containing both differentiated adipocytes and stromal vascular (SV) cells, non-differentiated SV cells, and adipose tissue explants. CLA’s isomer-specific induction of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was associated with the activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) as evidenced by: 1) phosphorylation of IκBα, IκBα kinase (IKK), and NFκB p65; 2) IκBα degradation; and 3) nuclear translocation of NFκB. Pretreatment with selective NFκB inhibitors and the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 blocked CLA-mediated IL-6 gene expression. Trans-10, cis-12 CLA’s suppression of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at 24 h was associated with decreased total and plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) proteins. Inhibition of NFκB activation or depletion of NFκB by RNA interference using siNFκB p65 attenuated CLA’s suppression of Glut4 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) proteins and glucose uptake. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that trans-10, cis-12 CLA promotes NFκB activation and subsequent induction of IL-6 which are, at least in part, responsible for trans-10, cis-12 CLA-mediated suppression of PPARγ target gene expression and insulin sensitivity in mature human adipocytes. PMID:16155293

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  6. Age-dependent variation in cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes rinsed from the surface of healthy human skin.

    PubMed

    Kinn, Patrick M; Holdren, Grant O; Westermeyer, Brittney A; Abuissa, Mousa; Fischer, Carol L; Fairley, Janet A; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-06-02

    In the skin, aging is associated with overall epidermal thinning, decreased barrier function, and gradual deterioration of the epidermal immune response. However, the presence and role of cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes (CCBAs) in immunosenescence are not known. Here we identified age-related changes in skin properties and CCBAs from stratum corneum of healthy human subjects, providing a means to utilize CCBAs as benchmarks for aging skin health. Transepidermal water loss and a(*) (skin redness) decreased in an age-dependent manner, and were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 (56.6 ± 4.6 years) and 3 (72.9 ± 3.0 years) vs. Group 1 (24.3 ± 2.8 years). In skin wash fluid, 48 CCBAs were detected; seven were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3: EGF, FGF-2, IFNα2, IL-1RA, HSA, keratin-6, and involucrin; cortisol was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3. Our results correspond with the pro-inflammatory shift that occurs with immunosenescence and also provides basis for understanding the inflammatory changes in normal aging skin.

  7. Successful simultaneous measurement of cell membrane and cytokine induced phosphorylation pathways [CIPP] in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Montag, David T; Lotze, Michael T

    2006-06-30

    Phenotyping and simple enumeration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is of limited value for the assessment of many clinical states. As a preferred alternative, cell surface phenotyping may be combined with functional assays for enhanced assessment of altered cells circulating in patients. One simple, yet informative and rapid approach is to examine signaling within individual cells following brief periods of stimulation via flow cytometry. Although monocytes and lymphoid cells can be distinguished based on size, current permeabilization strategies necessary for identifying intracellular phosphorylated signaling molecules largely compromise the labeling of cell surface proteins used to distinguish individual cellular subsets. We have successfully developed conditions that allow for simultaneous detection of cell surface proteins and intracellular phosphorylated proteins in human PBMC following rapid in vitro cytokine stimulation. We analyzed permeabilized CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, and CD56 expressing cells together with intracellular pSTAT1, pSTAT3, pSTAT5, pSTAT6, pp38 MAPK, or pERK1/2 within total PBMC. Of the permeabilizing conditions tested, 75% methanol enabled superior simultaneous detection of both cell surface and intracellular epitopes. This method enables the rapid functional analysis of subsets within complex cell mixtures and provides an opportunity for assessing abnormalities arising in the setting of acute or chronic inflammatory states.

  8. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiangde Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-02-27

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha}). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 {+-} 0.6% of control vs 83.1 {+-} 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 {+-} 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  9. Inhibitory effects of the JAK inhibitor CP690,550 on human CD4+ T lymphocyte cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The new JAK3 inhibitor, CP690,550, has shown efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of CP690,550 on cytokine production and cellular signaling in human CD4+ T cells. Results CD4+ T cells produced IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ in following stimulation with a CD3 antibody. At the optimal concentration, CP690,550 almost completely inhibited the production of IL-4, IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ from these activated CD4+ T cells, but only had marginal effects on IL-2 production. Moreover CP690,550 inhibited anti-CD3-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5, and STAT6, but not the TCR-associated phosphorylation of ZAP-70. Conclusions Therefore, CP690,550-mediated modification of the JAK/STAT pathway may be a new immunosuppressive strategy in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21884580

  10. Procalcitonin neutralizes bacterial LPS and reduces LPS-induced cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is a polypeptide with several cationic aminoacids in its chemical structure and it is a well known marker of sepsis. It is now emerging that PCT might exhibit some anti-inflammatory effects. The present study, based on the evaluation of the in vitro interaction between PCT and bacterial lipopolisaccharide (LPS), reports new data supporting the interesting and potentially useful anti-inflammatory activity of PCT. Results PCT significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay reactivity of LPS from both Salmonella typhimurium (rough chemotype) and Escherichia coli (smooth chemotype). Subsequently, the in vitro effects of PCT on LPS-induced cytokine release were studied in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). When LPS was pre-incubated for 30 minutes with different concentrations of PCT, the release of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) by PBMC decreased in a concentration-dependent manner after 24 hours for IL-10 and 4 hours for TNFα. The release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) exhibited a drastic reduction at 4 hours for all the PCT concentrations assessed, whereas such decrease was concentration-dependent after 24 hours. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the capability of PCT to directly neutralize bacterial LPS, thus leading to a reduction of its major inflammatory mediators. PMID:22568957

  11. Regulation of the human ADAMTS-4 promoter by transcription factors and cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Thirunavukkarasu, Kannan . E-mail: kannan@lilly.com; Pei, Yong; Moore, Terry L.; Wang, He; Yu, Xiao-peng; Geiser, Andrew G.; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan

    2006-06-23

    ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) is a metalloprotease that plays a role in aggrecan degradation in the cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to understand the regulation of ADAMTS-4 gene expression we have cloned and characterized a functional 4.5 kb human ADAMTS-4 promoter. Sequence analysis of the promoter revealed the presence of putative binding sites for nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and Runx family of transcription factors that are known to regulate chondrocyte maturation and differentiation. Using promoter-reporter assays and mRNA analysis we have analyzed the role of chondrocyte-expressed transcription factors NFATp and Runx2 and have shown that ADAMTS-4 is a potential downstream target of these two factors. Our results suggest that inhibition of the expression/function of NFATp and/or Runx2 may enable us to modulate aggrecan degradation in normal physiology and/or in degenerative joint diseases. The ADAMTS-4 promoter would serve as a valuable mechanistic tool to better understand the regulation of ADAMTS-4 expression by signaling pathways that modulate cartilage matrix breakdown.

  12. Synergistic effects of psychological and immune stressors on inflammatory cytokine and sickness responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    Brydon, Lena; Walker, Cicely; Wawrzyniak, Andrew; Whitehead, Daisy; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Yajima, Jumpei; Tsuda, Akira; Steptoe, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system is commonly accompanied by a set of behavioural, psychological and physiological changes known as ‘sickness behaviour’. In animals, infection-related sickness symptoms are significantly increased by exposure to psychosocial stress, suggesting that psychological and immune stressors may operate through similar pathways to induce sickness. We used a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled design to examine the effect of acute psychological stress on immune and subjective mood responses to typhoid vaccination in 59 men. Volunteers were assigned to one of four experimental conditions in which they were either injected with typhoid vaccine or saline placebo, and then either rested or completed two challenging behavioural tasks. Typhoid vaccine induced a significant rise in participants’ serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and this response was significantly larger in the stress versus rest conditions. Negative mood increased immediately post-tasks, an effect also more pronounced in the vaccine/stress condition. In the vaccine/stress group, participants with larger IL-6 responses had heightened systolic blood pressure responses to tasks and elevated post-stress salivary levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-phenyl glycol (MHPG) and cortisol. Our findings suggest that, as seen in animals, psychological and immune stressors may act synergistically to promote inflammation and sickness behaviour in humans. PMID:18835437

  13. Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Viruses Leads to a Favorable Cytokine Profile of Specific T Cells.

    PubMed

    Luckau, Stefanie; Wehrs, Tim P; Brandau, Sven; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Several human papilloma viruses (HPV) are known to cause malignant transformation. The high-risk type HPV 16 is associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16-positive tumor cells exclusively carry the HPV 16 oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes appear as excellent targets for an adoptive immunotherapy. We here addressed the question whether specific T cells from HPV-vaccinated healthy volunteers could be especially suitable for an HPV-specific cellular immunotherapy. Of note, vaccines contain HPV 16. To quantify HPV 16 E6-specific and E7-specific cells, enzyme-linked immunospot assays to measure interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (Th1-Th2 balance) and the secretion of the cytotoxic molecules granzyme B and perforin have been optimized. The frequency of peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting IFN-γ and perforin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in HPV-vaccinated versus nonvaccinated volunteers. Overall, however, the median frequency of HPV 16-specific cells with a favorable secretion profile (Th1 balanced and cytotoxic) was low even in vaccinated volunteers (IFN-γ: 0.0018% and 0.0023%, perforin: 0.01% and 0.0087% for E6-specific and E7-specific cells, respectively). But some vaccinated volunteers showed up to 0.1% HPV-specific, IFN-γ or perforin-secreting cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that vaccinated volunteers are superior to nonvaccinated donors for HPV-specific cellular cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27548034

  14. Vironome of Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus-Inflammatory Cytokine Syndrome in an AIDS patient reveals co-infection of Human Herpesvirus 8 and Human Herpesvirus 6A

    PubMed Central

    Tamburro, Kristen M.; Yang, Dongmei; Poisson, Jessica; Fedoriw, Yuri; Roy, Debasmita; Lucas, Amy; Sin, Sang-Hoon; Malouf, Nadia; Moylan, Vincent; Damania, Blossom; Moll, Stephan; van der Horst, Charles; Dittmer, Dirk P.

    2012-01-01

    KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described condition characterized by systemic illness as a result of systemic, lytic KSHV infection. We used Illumina sequencing to establish the DNA vironome of blood from such a patient. It identified concurrent high-level viremia of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 and 6a. The HHV8 plasma viral load was 5,300,000 copies/ml, which is the highest reported to date; this despite <5 skin lesions and no HHV8 associated lymphoma. This is the first report of systemic HHV6a/KSHV co-infection in a patient. It is the first whole genome KSHV sequence to be determined directly from patient plasma rather than cultured or biopsied tumor material. This case supports KICS as a new clinical entity associated with KSHV. PMID:22925337

  15. Genomic analysis, cytokine expression, and microRNA profiling reveal biomarkers of human dietary zinc depletion and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Chang, Shou-Mei; Shankar, Meena N.; Cousins, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of zinc interventions for subjects suspected of being zinc-deficient is a global need, but is limited due to the absence of reliable biomarkers. To discover molecular signatures of human zinc deficiency, a combination of transcriptome, cytokine, and microRNA analyses was applied to a dietary zinc depletion/repletion protocol with young male human subjects. Concomitant with a decrease in serum zinc concentration, changes in buccal and blood gene transcripts related to zinc homeostasis occurred with zinc depletion. Microarray analyses of whole blood RNA revealed zinc-responsive genes, particularly, those associated with cell cycle regulation and immunity. Responses of potential signature genes of dietary zinc depletion were further assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic properties of specific serum microRNAs for dietary zinc deficiency were identified by acute responses to zinc depletion, which were reversible by subsequent zinc repletion. Depression of immune-stimulated TNFα secretion by blood cells was observed after low zinc consumption and may serve as a functional biomarker. Our findings introduce numerous novel candidate biomarkers for dietary zinc status assessment using a variety of contemporary technologies and which identify changes that occur prior to or with greater sensitivity than the serum zinc concentration which represents the current zinc status assessment marker. In addition, the results of gene network analysis reveal potential clinical outcomes attributable to suboptimal zinc intake including immune function defects and predisposition to cancer. These demonstrate through a controlled depletion/repletion dietary protocol that the illusive zinc biomarker(s) can be identified and applied to assessment and intervention strategies. PMID:22171008

  16. Genomic analysis, cytokine expression, and microRNA profiling reveal biomarkers of human dietary zinc depletion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Chang, Shou-Mei; Shankar, Meena N; Cousins, Robert J

    2011-12-27

    Implementation of zinc interventions for subjects suspected of being zinc-deficient is a global need, but is limited due to the absence of reliable biomarkers. To discover molecular signatures of human zinc deficiency, a combination of transcriptome, cytokine, and microRNA analyses was applied to a dietary zinc depletion/repletion protocol with young male human subjects. Concomitant with a decrease in serum zinc concentration, changes in buccal and blood gene transcripts related to zinc homeostasis occurred with zinc depletion. Microarray analyses of whole blood RNA revealed zinc-responsive genes, particularly, those associated with cell cycle regulation and immunity. Responses of potential signature genes of dietary zinc depletion were further assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic properties of specific serum microRNAs for dietary zinc deficiency were identified by acute responses to zinc depletion, which were reversible by subsequent zinc repletion. Depression of immune-stimulated TNFα secretion by blood cells was observed after low zinc consumption and may serve as a functional biomarker. Our findings introduce numerous novel candidate biomarkers for dietary zinc status assessment using a variety of contemporary technologies and which identify changes that occur prior to or with greater sensitivity than the serum zinc concentration which represents the current zinc status assessment marker. In addition, the results of gene network analysis reveal potential clinical outcomes attributable to suboptimal zinc intake including immune function defects and predisposition to cancer. These demonstrate through a controlled depletion/repletion dietary protocol that the illusive zinc biomarker(s) can be identified and applied to assessment and intervention strategies.

  17. Selective killing of human monocytes and cytokine release provoked by sphingomyelinase (beta-toxin) of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Walev, I; Weller, U; Strauch, S; Foster, T; Bhakdi, S

    1996-01-01

    The best-known activity of Staphylococcus aureus sphingomyelinase C, alias beta-toxin, is as a hemolysin that provokes hot-cold lysis of erythrocytes which contain substantial amounts of sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane. Sheep erythrocytes are most susceptible, and we found that one hemolytic unit, representing the toxin concentration that elicits 50% hemolysis of 2.5 X 10(8) erythrocytes per ml, corresponds to 0.05 enzyme units or to approximately 0.25 microg of sphingomyelinase per ml. The cytotoxic action of beta-toxin on nucleated cells has not been described in any detail before, and the present investigation was undertaken to fill this information gap. We now identify beta-toxin as a remarkably potent monocytocidal agent. At a concentration of 0.001 U/ml, corresponding to approximately 5 ng/ml, beta-toxin killed over 50% of human monocytes (10(6) cells per ml) within 60 min. By contrast, 1 to 5 microg of beta-toxin per ml had no cytocidal effects on human granulocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, or erythrocytes. A selective monocytocidal action was also observed with sphingomyelinase C from Bacillus cereus and a Streptomyces sp., whereas phospholipase A2 and phospholipase D at 100 U/ml were without effect. Monocytes succumbing to the action of beta-toxin processed and released interleukin-1beta, soluble interleukin-6 receptor, and soluble CD14 into the supernatant. Thus, monocyte killing by beta-toxin is associated with cytokine-related events that are important for the initiation and progression of infectious disease. These findings uncover a potentially important role for sphingomyelinase as a determinant of microbial pathogenicity. PMID:8757823

  18. Role of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes: Correlation with Age and Glycemic Condition in Diabetic Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Swaleha; Ajmal, Mohd; Siddiqui, Sheelu Shafiq; Moin, Shagufta; Owais, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic inflammatory disease involving insulin producing β-cells destroyed by the conjoined action of auto reactive T-cells, inflammatory cytokines and monocytic cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the status of pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers and possible correlation of these factors towards outcome of the disease. Methods The study was carried out on 29 T1D subjects and 20 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of oxidative stress markers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were estimated employing biochemical assays. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as by IL-1β & IL-17 in the serum were determined by ELISA, while the expression of TNF-α, IL-23 & IFN-γ was ascertained by qRT-PCR. Results The onset of T1D disease was accompanied with elevation in levels of Plasma malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content and nitric oxide while plasma vitamin C, reduced glutathione and erythrocyte sulfhydryl groups were found to be significantly decreased in T1D patients as compared to healthy control subjects. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-s-transferase showed a significant suppression in the erythrocytes of T1D patients as compared to healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-17A were significantly augmented (***p≤.001) on one hand, while expression of T cell based cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-23 was also up-regulated (*p≤.05) as compared to healthy human subjects. Conclusion The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific biochemical markers in the serum of the patient can be exploited as potential markers for type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The study suggests that level of inflammatory markers is up-regulated in T1D patients in an age dependent manner. PMID:27575603

  19. Middle-term expansion of hematopoietic cord blood cells with new human stromal cell line feeder-layers and different cytokine cocktails.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, S; Baiguera, S; Del Pup, L; Pavan, E; Gajo, G B; Di Liddo, R; Conconi, M T; Grandi, C; Schiavon, O; Parnigotto, P P

    2009-12-01

    Cord blood (CB) is a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is an alternative to bone marrow for allogenic transplantation in patients with hematological disorders. The improvement of HSC in vitro expansion is one of the main challenges in cell therapy. Stromal components and soluble factors, such as cytokines, can be useful to induce in vitro cell expansion. Hence, we investigated whether feeder-layers from new stromal cell lines and different exogenous cytokine cocktails induce HSC expansion in middle-term cultures. CB HSC middle-term expansion was carried out in co-cultures on different feeder-layers exposed to three different cytokine cocktails. CB HSC expansion was also carried out in stroma-free cultures in the presence of different cytokine cocktails. Clonogenic tests were performed, and cell growth levels were evaluated. Moreover, the presence of VCAM-1 mRNA was assessed, and the mesenchymal cell-like phenotype expression was detected. All feeder-layers were able to induce a significant clonogenic growth with respect to the control culture, and all of the cytokine cocktails induced a significant increase in CB cell expansion indexes, even though no potential variation dependent on their composition was noted. The modulative effects of the different cocktails, exerted on each cell line used, was dependent on their composition. Finally, all cell lines were positive for CD73, CD117 and CD309, similar to mesenchymal stem cells present in adult bone marrow and in other human tissues, and negative for the hematopoietic markers. These data indicate that our cell lines have, not only a stromal cell-like phenotype, but also a mesenchymal cell-like phenotype, and they have the potential to support in vitro expansion of CB HSCs. Moreover, exogenous cytokines can be used in synergism with feeder-layers to improve the expansion levels of CB HSCs in preparation for their clinical use in allogenic transplantation. PMID:19885627

  20. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:27381687

  1. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

  2. Synthesis of Human Haemoglobin by Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyesom, I.

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin, Hb is the red, protein pigment in blood that transports oxygen round the body. Decreased quantity could lead to anaemia, and when the anaemic condition turns severe, blood transfusion becomes inevitable. However, the safety of human source has become questionable in recent times, and this has aroused the interest of scientists to…

  3. Particle pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: increase and decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L; Amaral, Beatriz S; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D; Gioda, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent.

  4. Particle Pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Increase and Decrease of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L.; Amaral, Beatriz S.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.; Gioda, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  5. Antimicrobial peptides and endotoxin inhibit cytokine and nitric oxide release but amplify respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Shafer, William M.; Stephens, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in addition to their antibacterial properties, are also chemotactic and signalling molecules that connect the innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of AMP [α defensins, LL-37, a cathepsin G-derived peptide (CG117-136), protegrins (PG-1), polymyxin B (PMX) and LLP1] in modulating the respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages in the presence of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS)] was investigated. AMP were found to neutralize endotoxin induction of nitric oxide and TNFα release in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, macrophages primed overnight with AMP and LOS or LPS significantly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release compared with cells primed with endotoxin or AMP alone, while no responses were seen in unprimed cells. This enhanced ROS release by macrophages was seen in all cell lines including those obtained from C3H/HeJ (TLR4−/−) mice. Similar effects were also seen when AMP and endotoxin were added directly with zymosan to trigger phagocytosis and the respiratory burst in unprimed RAW 264.7 and C3H/HeJ macrophages. Amplification of ROS release was also demonstrated in a cell-free system of xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Although AMP inhibited cytokine and nitric oxide induction by endotoxin in a TLR4-dependent manner, AMP and endotoxin amplified ROS release in a TLR4-independent manner possibly by exerting a prolonged catalytic effect on the ROS generating enzymes such as the NADPH-oxidase complex. PMID:16098213

  6. The non-antibiotic macrolide EM900 inhibits rhinovirus infection and cytokine production in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lusamba Kalonji, Nadine; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Sato, Takeya; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides may be associated with a reduced frequency of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, because the long-term use of antibiotics may promote the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of a treatment to prevent COPD exacerbation with macrolides that do not exert anti-bacterial effects is necessary. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of nonantibiotic macrolides on the replication of rhinovirus (RV), which is the major cause of COPD exacerbation, have not been demonstrated. Primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells and nasal epithelial cells were pretreated with the nonantibiotic macrolide EM900 for 72 h prior to infection with a major group RV type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) and were further treated with EM900 after infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection reduced RV14 titers in the supernatants and viral RNA within the cells. Moreover, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were reduced in the supernatants following RV14 infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection also reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the receptor for RV14, after infection and reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B protein p50 in nuclear extracts after infection. Pretreatment with EM900 reduced the number and fluorescence intensity of the acidic endosomes through which RV RNA enters the cytoplasm. Thus, pretreatment with EM900 may inhibit RV infection by reducing the ICAM-1 levels and acidic endosomes and thus modulate the airway inflammation associated with RV infections. PMID:26462747

  7. Stat6-Dependent Inhibition of Mincle Expression in Mouse and Human Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Th2 Cytokine IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Hupfer, Thomas; Schick, Judith; Jozefowski, Katrin; Voehringer, David; Ostrop, Jenny; Lang, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Mincle, Mcl, and Dectin-2 bind mycobacterial and fungal cell wall glycolipids and carbohydrates. Recently, we described that expression of these CLR is downregulated during differentiation of human monocytes to dendritic cells (DC) in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. Here, we demonstrate that the Th2 cytokine IL-4 specifically inhibits expression of Mincle, Mcl, and Dectin-2 in human antigen-presenting cells (APC). This inhibitory effect of IL-4 was observed across species, as murine macrophages and DC treated with IL-4 also downregulated these receptors. IL-4 blocked upregulation of Mincle and Mcl mRNA expression and cell surface protein by murine macrophages in response to the Mincle ligand Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB), whereas the TLR4 ligand LPS overcame inhibition by IL-4. Functionally, downregulation of Mincle expression by IL-4 was accompanied by reduced cytokine production upon stimulation with TDB. These inhibitory effects of IL-4 were dependent on the transcription factor Stat6. Together, our results show that the key Th2 cytokine IL-4 exerts a negative effect on the expression of Mincle and other Dectin-2 cluster CLR in mouse and human macrophages and DC, which may render these sentinel cells less vigilant for sensing mycobacterial and fungal ligands. PMID:27790218

  8. Whole Cigarette Smoke Increased the Expression of TLRs, HBDs, and Proinflammory Cytokines by Human Gingival Epithelial Cells through Different Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Witoled, Chmielewski; Alanazi, Mohammed; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The gingival epithelium is becoming known as a regulator of the oral innate immune responses to a variety of insults such as bacteria and chemicals, including those chemicals found in cigarette smoke. We investigated the effects of whole cigarette smoke on cell-surface-expressed Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, −4 and −6, human β-defensin (HBD) and proinflammatory cytokine expression and production in primary human gingival epithelial cells. Whole cigarette smoke was shown to increase TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 expression. Cigarette smoke led to ERK1/2, p38 and JNK phosphorylation in conjunction with nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) translocation into the nucleus. TLR expression following cigarette smoke exposure was down regulated by the use of ERK1/2, p38, JNK MAP kinases, and NFκB inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways in the cellular response against cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke also promoted HBD2, HBD3, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression through the ERK1/2 and NFκB pathways. Interestingly, the modulation of TLR, HBD, and cytokine expression was maintained long after the gingival epithelial cells were exposed to smoke. By promoting TLR, HBDs, and proinflammatory cytokine expression and production, cigarette smoke may contribute to innate immunity dysregulation, which may have a negative effect on human health. PMID:23300722

  9. D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

    1986-07-31

    D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

  10. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor represses cytokine-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway in embryonic neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Taga, Tetsuya

    2005-09-01

    Neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system are generated from common neural precursor cells during development. To evaluate the functions of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in neural precursor cells, neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were prepared from mouse embryos (E14.5), and the effects of an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthesis, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), on NECs was investigated. In PDMP-treated NECs, the expression of GD3, a major ganglioside of NECs, disappeared. We found that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were repressed in PDMP-treated NECs. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-induced ERK activation was also abolished in PDMP-treated NECs, suggesting that PDMP specifically represses the Ras-MAPK pathway. bFGF-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway in NECs is dependent on GSL-enriched microdomains, lipid rafts. The organization of lipid rafts and the distribution of Ras and Grb2-SOS in the microdomains were not affected. However, Ras activation was repressed in PDMP-treated NECs. In PDMP-treated NECs, some neuronal genes were up-regulated and glial genes were down-regulated. These results suggest that GSLs might be involved in the proliferation, survival, signal transduction and differentiation of NECs.

  11. Low- versus high-baseline epinephrine output shapes opposite innate cytokine profiles: presence of Lewis- and Fischer-like neurohormonal immune phenotypes in humans?

    PubMed

    Elenkov, Ilia J; Kvetnansky, Richard; Hashiramoto, Akira; Bakalov, Vladimir K; Link, Amrey A; Zachman, Keith; Crane, Marianna; Jezova, Daniela; Rovensky, Jozef; Dimitrov, Mariana A; Gold, Philip W; Bonini, Sergio; Fleisher, Thomas; Chrousos, George P; Wilder, Ronald L

    2008-08-01

    Immunogenetic mechanisms operating within the immune system are known to influence cytokine profiles and disease susceptibility. Yet the role of the individual's neurohormonal background in these processes remains undefined. Hormonal imbalances are documented in immune-related diseases, but it is unclear whether this represents a secondary phenomenon or a primary "defect" related to specific neurohormonal immune phenotype(s). We report that in a large subpopulation of healthy humans the baseline epinephrine output (but not cortisol and sex steroid hormones) correlated inversely with proinflammatory and positively with anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, low vs high epinephrine excretors had a 2- to 5-fold higher TNF-alpha and IL-12 production but 2-fold lower IL-10 production induced by LPS ex vivo. In alternative settings, we found low baseline levels and profoundly blunted stress-induced epinephrine responses but high TNF-alpha levels in Lewis vs Fischer inbred rats. Additionally, isoproterenol, a beta adrenoreceptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced TNF-alpha production, with more pronounced effect in Lewis than in Fischer rats. In human monocytes, epinephrine and the beta(2) adrenoreceptor agonist fenoterol potently inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-12, but stimulated IL-10 production. The order of potency for hormones able to inhibit IL-12 production ex vivo was: epinephrine > norepinephrine > or = 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) > hydrocortisone. This indicates that baseline epinephrine conditions cytokine responsiveness and through this mechanism intrinsic hypo- or hyperactive adrenal medullas in some individuals may shape opposite cytokine profiles. Since Lewis and Fischer rats have opposite susceptibility to experimental immunological diseases, this suggests that the parallel human phenotypes could be linked to differing responsiveness and susceptibility to infections and immune/inflammatory-related conditions. PMID:18641310

  12. Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cytokine gene expression in myeloid cells by NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Roulston, A; Lin, R; Beauparlant, P; Wainberg, M A; Hiscott, J

    1995-01-01

    CD4+ macrophages in tissues such as lung, skin, and lymph nodes, promyelocytic cells in bone marrow, and peripheral blood monocytes serve as important targets and reservoirs for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. HIV-1-infected myeloid cells are often diminished in their ability to participate in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing. HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells can lead to the expression of surface receptors associated with cellular activation and/or differentiation that increase the responsiveness of these cells to cytokines secreted by neighboring cells as well as to bacteria or other pathogens. Enhancement of HIV-1 replication is related in part to increased DNA-binding activity of cellular transcription factors such as NF-kappa B. NF-kappa B binds to the HIV-1 enhancer region of the long terminal repeat and contributes to the inducibility of HIV-1 gene expression in response to multiple activating agents. Phosphorylation and degradation of the cytoplasmic inhibitor I kappa B alpha are crucial regulatory events in the activation of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity. Both N- and C-terminal residues of I kappa B alpha are required for inducer-mediated degradation. Chronic HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells leads to constitutive NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity and provides an intranuclear environment capable of perpetuating HIV-1 replication. Increased intracellular stores of latent NF-kappa B may also result in rapid inducibility of NF-kappa B-dependent cytokine gene expression. In response to secondary pathogenic infections or antigenic challenge, cytokine gene expression is rapidly induced, enhanced, and sustained over prolonged periods in HIV-1-infected myeloid cells compared with uninfected cells. Elevated levels of several inflammatory cytokines have been detected in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. Secretion of myeloid cell-derived cytokines may both increase virus production and contribute to AIDS

  13. Caspase‐8 regulates the expression of pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory cytokines in human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Siv H.; Westhrin, Marita; Zahoor, Muhammad; Nørgaard, Nikolai N.; Hella, Hanne; Størdal, Berit; Sundan, Anders; Nilsen, Nadra J.; Sponaas, Anne‐Marit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells, also called mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs, have great potential in stem cell therapy partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. How these cells respond to chronic inflammatory stimuli is therefore of importance. Toll‐like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors that mediate inflammatory signals in response to infection, stress, and damage. Caspase‐8 is involved in activation of NF‐kB downstream of TLRs in immune cells. Here we investigated the role of caspase‐8 in regulating TLR‐induced cytokine production from human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Methods Cytokine expression in hBMCs in response to poly(I:C) and LPS was evaluated by PCR, multiplex cytokine assay, and ELISA. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase‐8 were silenced using siRNA. Caspase‐8 was also inhibited using a caspase‐8 inhibitor, z‐IEDT. Results We found that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) and TLR4 agonist LPS induced secretion of several pro‐inflammatory cytokines in a TLR‐dependent manner which required the TLR signaling adaptor molecule TRIF. Further, poly(I:C) reduced the expression of anti‐inflammatory cytokines HGF and TGFβ whereas LPS reduced HGF expression only. Notably, caspase‐8 was involved in the induction of IL‐ IL‐1β, IL‐6, CXCL10, and in the inhibition of HGF and TGFβ. Conclusion Caspase‐8 appears to modulate hBMSCs into gaining a pro‐inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, inhibiting caspase‐8 in hBMSCs might promote an immunosuppressive phenotype which could be useful in clinical applications to treat inflammatory disorders.

  14. Caspase‐8 regulates the expression of pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory cytokines in human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Siv H.; Westhrin, Marita; Zahoor, Muhammad; Nørgaard, Nikolai N.; Hella, Hanne; Størdal, Berit; Sundan, Anders; Nilsen, Nadra J.; Sponaas, Anne‐Marit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells, also called mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs, have great potential in stem cell therapy partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. How these cells respond to chronic inflammatory stimuli is therefore of importance. Toll‐like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors that mediate inflammatory signals in response to infection, stress, and damage. Caspase‐8 is involved in activation of NF‐kB downstream of TLRs in immune cells. Here we investigated the role of caspase‐8 in regulating TLR‐induced cytokine production from human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Methods Cytokine expression in hBMCs in response to poly(I:C) and LPS was evaluated by PCR, multiplex cytokine assay, and ELISA. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase‐8 were silenced using siRNA. Caspase‐8 was also inhibited using a caspase‐8 inhibitor, z‐IEDT. Results We found that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) and TLR4 agonist LPS induced secretion of several pro‐inflammatory cytokines in a TLR‐dependent manner which required the TLR signaling adaptor molecule TRIF. Further, poly(I:C) reduced the expression of anti‐inflammatory cytokines HGF and TGFβ whereas LPS reduced HGF expression only. Notably, caspase‐8 was involved in the induction of IL‐ IL‐1β, IL‐6, CXCL10, and in the inhibition of HGF and TGFβ. Conclusion Caspase‐8 appears to modulate hBMSCs into gaining a pro‐inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, inhibiting caspase‐8 in hBMSCs might promote an immunosuppressive phenotype which could be useful in clinical applications to treat inflammatory disorders. PMID:27621815

  15. CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells and Cytokine Responses in Human Schistosomiasis before and after Treatment with Praziquantel

    PubMed Central

    Janse, Jacqueline J.; de Gier, Brechje; Adegnika, Ayôla A.; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic schistosomiasis is associated with T cell hypo-responsiveness and immunoregulatory mechanisms, including induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about Treg functional capacity during human Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methodology CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ cells were characterized by flow cytometry and their function assessed by analysing total and Treg-depleted PBMC responses to schistosomal adult worm antigen (AWA), soluable egg antigen (SEA) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in S. haematobium-infected Gabonese children before and 6 weeks after anthelmintic treatment. Cytokines responses (IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17 and TNF) were integrated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Proliferation was measured by CFSE. Principal Findings S. haematobium infection was associated with increased Treg frequencies, which decreased post-treatment. Cytokine responses clustered into two principal components reflecting regulatory and Th2-polarized (PC1) and pro-inflammatory and Th1-polarized (PC2) cytokine responses; both components increased post-treatment. Treg depletion resulted in increased PC1 and PC2 at both time-points. Proliferation on the other hand, showed no significant difference from pre- to post-treatment. Treg depletion resulted mostly in increased proliferative responses at the pre-treatment time-point only. Conclusions Schistosoma-associated CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+Tregs exert a suppressive effect on both proliferation and cytokine production. Although Treg frequency decreases after praziquantel treatment, their suppressive capacity remains unaltered when considering cytokine production whereas their influence on proliferation weakens with treatment. PMID:26291831

  16. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  17. Selected Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression by CD4+ T cells isolated from inflamed human gingival tissues

    PubMed Central

    FUJIHASHI, K.; YAMAMOTO, M.; HIROI, T.; BAMBERG, T. V.; MCGHEE, J R; KIYONO, H.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated numbers of plasma cells are associated with localized and chronically inflamed gingiva of patients with adult periodontitis. However, only limited information is currently available as to how cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells are involved in these increased B cell responses in affected gingival tissues. When gingival mononuclear cells (GMC) were isolated from inflamed tissues and examined by flow cytometry, ∼20–30% of lymphocytes were CD4+ T cells. For the analysis of Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression by these CD4+ T cells, RNA was extracted and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed by using specific 5' and 3' primers for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-2 (Th1), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 (Th2) and β-actin (internal control). Two distinct cytokine profiles were noted based on the expression of selected Th1 and Th2 cytokines, where one pattern was represented by expression of mRNA for IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13, while the second consisted of mRNA for IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-13. In most samples, mRNA for IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were not detected by cytokine-specific RT-PCR. When RNA was isolated from CD4+ T cells of concanavalin A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear celts (PBMC) of the same patients and examined by RT-PCR. mRNA for all Th1 and Th2 cytokines were detected. These findings suggest that although human CD4+ T cells are capable of producing an array of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, the CD4+ T cells associated with periodontitis are limited to production of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-13 and in some instances IL-10. CD4+ T cells from diseased periodontal tissues are divisible into two groups based upon whether or not IL-10 is produced, together with IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-13. PMID:8608641

  18. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  19. Pathogen specific cytokine release reveals an effect of TLR2 Arg753Gln during Candida sepsis in humans.

    PubMed

    Woehrle, Tobias; Du, Weidong; Goetz, Achim; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Joos, Thomas O; Weiss, Manfred; Bauer, Ute; Brueckner, Uwe B; Marion Schneider, E

    2008-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for activation of innate and adapted immunity. TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, Gram-positive pathogens, and mycobacteria. Receptor activation culminates in monocyte, T-helper (Th)1, and Th2 cytokine release. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp affect TLR2 responsiveness and may contribute to the course of sepsis, which is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality during intensive care treatment. We genotyped 325 critically ill patients with septic shock, and performed a detailed clinical follow-up with 47 of these patients. Here, we investigated whether distinct sepsis episodes result in defined plasma cytokine patterns, and whether cytokine profiles may be linked to the TLR2 polymorphisms. Blood sampling was done daily and microbiological testing was performed on a routine basis. DNA was extracted from whole blood and TLR2 SNPs were typed by pyrosequencing. Cytokines were measured by multiplexed array technologies and the leukocyte phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. Among the 325 ICU patients, 17 individuals (5.2%) were heterozygous for Arg753Gln. The SNP Arg677Trp was not found in any patient. Episodes of Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and Candida sepsis were recorded. During Gram-positive sepsis, the cytokine pattern did not differ between Arg753Gln heterozygous patients and wild type patients. By contrast, during Candida sepsis, the Arg753Gln heterozygous patients showed biomarker patterns that differed from wild type patients with elevated TNF-alpha plasma concentrations, but reduced IFN-gamma and IL-8 levels. In conclusion, TLR2 SNP Arg753Gln results in altered cytokine release in response to Candida but not to Gram-positive sepsis.

  20. Synthesis and decoding of selenocysteine and human health

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rachel L.; Simonović, Miljan

    2012-01-01

    Selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid, has been found in 25 human selenoproteins and selenoenzymes important for fundamental cellular processes ranging from selenium homeostasis maintenance to the regulation of the overall metabolic rate. In all organisms that contain selenocysteine, both the synthesis of selenocysteine and its incorporation into a selenoprotein requires an elaborate synthetic and translational apparatus, which does not resemble the canonical enzymatic system employed for the 20 standard amino acids. In humans, three synthetic enzymes, a specialized elongation factor, an accessory protein factor, two catabolic enzymes, a tRNA, and a stem-loop structure in the selenoprotein mRNA are critical for ensuring that only selenocysteine is attached to selenocysteine tRNA and that only selenocysteine is inserted into the nascent polypeptide in response to a context-dependent UGA codon. The abnormal selenium homeostasis and mutations in selenoprotein genes have been causatively linked to a variety of human diseases, which, in turn, sparked a renewed interest in utilizing selenium as the dietary supplement to either prevent or remedy pathologic conditions. In contrast, the importance of the components of the selenocysteine-synthetic machinery for human health is less clear. Emerging evidence suggests that enzymes responsible for selenocysteine formation and decoding the selenocysteine UGA codon, which by extension are critical for synthesis of the entire selenoproteome, are essential for the development and health of the human organism. PMID:23275319

  1. A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces cell intrinsic innate cytokine responses in human monocytic and macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guorui; Luo, Huanle; Tian, Bing; Mann, Brian; Bao, Xiaoyong; McBride, Jere; Tesh, Robert; Barrett, Alan D; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant induces stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than wild-type WNV in mice, which has important applications to vaccine development. To investigate the mechanism of immunogenicity, we characterized WNV NS4B-P38G mutant infection in two human cell lines--THP-1 cells and THP-1 macrophages. Although the NS4B-P38G mutant produced more viral RNA than the parental WNV NY99 in both cell types, there was no detectable infectious virus in the supernatant of either cell type. Nonetheless, the attenuated mutant boosted higher innate cytokine responses than virulent parental WNV NY99 in these cells. The NS4B-P38G mutant infection of THP-1 cells led to more diverse and robust innate cytokine responses than that seen in THP-1 macrophages, which were mediated by toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1(RIG-I) signaling pathways. Overall, these results suggest that a defective viral life cycle during NS4B-P38G mutant infection in human monocytic and macrophage cells leads to more potent cell intrinsic innate cytokine responses. PMID:25562791

  2. Vitamins A and D have antagonistic effects on expression of effector cytokines and gut-homing integrin in human innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Bert; Patil, Sarita U.; Shreffler, Wayne G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA), the main biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is known to promote gut homing of lymphocytes, as well as various regulatory and effector immune responses. In contrast, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), is predominantly immunosuppressive. Little is known about the effects of these vitamins on the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Objective We sought to characterize the effects of RA and 1,25D3 on human ILCs. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 27 non-selected blood donor buffy coats, and ILCs were sorted by FACS. ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 cells were cultured for 5 days with RA, 1,25D3, and various cytokines known to activate ILCs (IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33). Cytokines produced by ILCs were measured in culture supernatants, and surface receptor expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results RA acted synergistically with IL-2 and other activating cytokines to induce expression of the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in ILCs, as well as production of IL-5 and IL-13 in ILC2 cells, and IFN-γ in ILC1 and ILC3 cells. Expression of integrin α4β7 and cytokine production in ILCs stimulated with RA + IL-2 was increased at least 4-fold as compared to ILCs cultured with RA or IL-2 alone. In contrast, RA completely inhibited the IL-2-induced expression of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) in ILCs. Moreover, addition of 1,25D3 to ILCs cultured with RA + IL-2 inhibited cytokine production and expression of integrin α4β7 by at least 30%. Conclusions RA and 1,25D3 have antagonistic effects on expression of effector cytokines and gut-homing integrin in human ILCs. The balance between these vitamins may be an important factor in the functioning of ILCs and the diseases in which ILCs are implicated, such as allergic inflammation. PMID:25959810

  3. Acute metabolic acidosis decreases muscle protein synthesis but not albumin synthesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Kleger, G R; Turgay, M; Imoberdorf, R; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Ballmer, P E

    2001-12-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis induces negative nitrogen balance by either increased protein breakdown or decreased protein synthesis. Few data exist regarding effects of acute metabolic acidosis on protein synthesis. We investigated fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) of muscle protein and albumin, plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones (free thyroxin [fT(4)] and triiodothyronine [fT(3)]) in seven healthy human volunteers after a stable controlled metabolic period of 5 days and again 48 hours later after inducing metabolic acidosis by oral ammonium chloride intake (4.2 mmol/kg/d divided in six daily doses). Muscle and albumin FSRs were obtained by the [(2)H(5)ring]phenylalanine flooding technique. Ammonium chloride induced a significant decrease in pH (7.43 +/- 0.02 versus 7.32 +/- 0.04; P < 0.0001) and bicarbonate concentration (24.6 +/- 1.6 versus 16.0 +/- 2.7 mmol/L; P < 0.0001) within 48 hours. Nitrogen balance decreased significantly on the second day of acidosis. The FSR of muscle protein decreased (1.94 +/- 0.25 versus 1.30 +/- 0.39; P < 0.02), whereas the FSR of albumin remained constant. TSH levels increased significantly (1.1 +/- 0.5 versus 1.9 +/- 1.1 mU/L; P = 0.03), whereas IGF-I, fT(4), and fT(3) levels showed no significant change. We conclude that acute metabolic acidosis for 48 hours in humans induces a decrease in muscle protein synthesis, which contributes substantially to a negative nitrogen balance. In contrast to prolonged metabolic acidosis of 7 days, a short period of acidosis in the present study did not downregulate albumin synthesis.

  4. Development of a Human IgG4 Bispecific Antibody for Dual Targeting of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13 (IL-13) Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Christoph; Bevers, Jack; Jackman, Janet; Chiang, Nancy; Nakamura, Gerald; Dillon, Michael; Liu, Hongbin; Molina, Patricia; Elliott, J. Michael; Shatz, Whitney; Scheer, Justin M.; Giese, Glen; Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yin; Dennis, Mark S.; Giulianotti, James; Gupta, Prateek; Reilly, Dorothea; Palma, Enzo; Wang, Jianyong; Stefanich, Eric; Scheerens, Heleen; Fuh, Germaine; Wu, Lawren C.

    2013-01-01

    Human bispecific antibodies have great potential for the treatment of human diseases. Although human IgG1 bispecific antibodies have been generated, few attempts have been reported in the scientific literature that extend bispecific antibodies to other human antibody isotypes. In this paper, we report our work expanding the knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody technology to the human IgG4 isotype. We apply this approach to generate a bispecific antibody that targets IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines that play roles in type 2 inflammation. We show that IgG4 bispecific antibodies can be generated in large quantities with equivalent efficiency and quality and have comparable pharmacokinetic properties and lung partitioning, compared with the IgG1 isotype. This work broadens the range of published therapeutic bispecific antibodies with natural surface architecture and provides additional options for the generation of bispecific antibodies with differing effector functions through the use of different antibody isotypes. PMID:23880771

  5. The chitinase 3-like protein human cartilage glycoprotein 39 inhibits cellular responses to the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hua; Recklies, Anneliese D

    2004-01-01

    Expression of the chitinase 3-like protein HC-gp39 (human cartilage glycoprotein 39) is associated with conditions of increased matrix turnover and tissue remodelling. High levels of this protein have been found in sera and synovial fluids of patients with inflammatory and degenerative arthritis. In order to assess the role of HC-gp39 in matrix degradation induced by inflammatory cytokines, we have examined its effect on the responses of connective tissue cells to TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) and IL-1 (interleukin-1) with respect to activation of signalling pathways and production of MMPs (matrix metalloproteases) and chemokines. Stimulation of human skin fibroblasts or articular chondrocytes with IL-1 or TNF-alpha in the presence of HC-gp39 resulted in a marked reduction of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, whereas nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB proceeded unimpeded. HC-gp39 suppressed the cytokine-induced secretion of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13, as well as secretion of the chemokine IL-8. The suppressive effects of HC-gp39 were dependent on phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, and treatment of cells with HC-gp39 resulted in AKT-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. This process could therefore be responsible for the down-regulation of cytokine signalling by HC-gp39. These results suggest a physiological role for HC-gp39 in limiting the catabolic effects of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:15015934

  6. Differential Induction of Cytokines by Human Neonatal, Adult, and Elderly Monocyte/Macrophages Infected with Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Nereida; Levy, Alegria; Añez, Germán; Marcucci, Rafael; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Immunosuppressive status against infections in monocytes from neonates and elderly subjects has been reported. The interaction between dengue virus and monocytes/macrophages plays an important role during dengue disease. The aim of this study was to determine the cytokine response of monocytes from individuals with different ages after infection with dengue virus. Monocyte/macrophage cultures from neonatal, adult, and elderly subjects (n=10 each group) were incubated with all four dengue virus types (DENV-1 to -4). After 1 and 3 days of culture, cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) were determined in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Increased production of all studied cytokines was induced by the different viral types in monocyte/macrophage cultures regardless of their source. However, lower cytokine concentrations were found in neonatal and elderly monocytes. The relative monocyte/macrophage immunosuppressive status observed in neonates and the elderly could be relevant during dengue infection in those age groups and important in innate and adaptive immunity responses against this virus. PMID:24801946

  7. Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William D. K.; Close, Andrew J.; Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Williams, Nicola J.; Humphrey, Tom J.; Wigley, Paul; Rushton, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies, based on prior knowledge, can be tested. In both breeds important cytokines including pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, , IL-4, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ and anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4 were expressed post-challenge. The SEM revealed a putative regulatory pathway illustrating a T helper (Th)17 response and regulation of IL-10, which is breed-dependent. The prominence of the Th17 pathway indicates the cytokine response aims to limit the invasion or colonization of an extracellular bacterial pathogen but the time-dependent nature of the response differs between breeds. PMID:27069644

  8. Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response.

    PubMed

    Reid, William D K; Close, Andrew J; Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Williams, Nicola J; Humphrey, Tom J; Wigley, Paul; Rushton, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies, based on prior knowledge, can be tested. In both breeds important cytokines including pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, , IL-4, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ and anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4 were expressed post-challenge. The SEM revealed a putative regulatory pathway illustrating a T helper (Th)17 response and regulation of IL-10, which is breed-dependent. The prominence of the Th17 pathway indicates the cytokine response aims to limit the invasion or colonization of an extracellular bacterial pathogen but the time-dependent nature of the response differs between breeds. PMID:27069644

  9. Inhibition of the MAP3 kinase Tpl2 protects rodent and human β-cells from apoptosis and dysfunction induced by cytokines and enhances anti-inflammatory actions of exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Varin, E M; Wojtusciszyn, A; Broca, C; Muller, D; Ravier, M A; Ceppo, F; Renard, E; Tanti, J-F; Dalle, S

    2016-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines exert cytotoxic effects on β-cells, and are involved in the pathogenesis of type I and type II diabetes and in the drastic loss of β-cells following islet transplantation. Cytokines induce apoptosis and alter the function of differentiated β-cells. Although the MAP3 kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is known to integrate signals from inflammatory stimuli in macrophages, fibroblasts and adipocytes, its role in β-cells is unknown. We demonstrate that Tpl2 is expressed in INS-1E β-cells, mouse and human islets, is activated and upregulated by cytokines and mediates ERK1/2, JNK and p38 activation. Tpl2 inhibition protects β-cells, mouse and human islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis and preserves glucose-induced insulin secretion in mouse and human islets exposed to cytokines. Moreover, Tpl2 inhibition does not affect survival or positive effects of glucose (i.e., ERK1/2 phosphorylation and basal insulin secretion). The protection against cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis is strengthened when Tpl2 inhibition is combined with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog exendin-4 in INS-1E cells. Furthermore, when combined with exendin-4, Tpl2 inhibition prevents cytokine-induced death and dysfunction of human islets. This study proposes that Tpl2 inhibitors, used either alone or combined with a GLP-1 analog, represent potential novel and effective therapeutic strategies to protect diabetic β-cells. PMID:26794660

  10. Human Leukocyte Antigen and Cytokine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated With Heterogeneous Immune Responses to Mumps Viral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Dhiman, Neelam; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mumps outbreaks continue to occur throughout the world, including in highly vaccinated populations. Vaccination against mumps has been successful; however, humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccines vary significantly from person to person. We set out to assess whether HLA and cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with variations in the immune response to mumps viral vaccine. METHODS To identify genetic factors that might contribute to variations in mumps vaccine–induced immune responses, we performed HLA genotyping in a group of 346 healthy schoolchildren (12–18 years of age) who previously received 2 doses of live mumps vaccine. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (minor allele frequency of >5%) in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes were genotyped for a subset of 118 children. RESULTS Median values for mumps-specific antibody titers and lymphoproliferative stimulation indices were 729 IU/mL and 4.8, respectively. Girls demonstrated significantly higher mumps antibody titers than boys, indicating gender-linked genetic differences in humoral immune response. Significant associations were found between the HLA-DQB1*0303 alleles and lower mumps-specific antibody titers. An interesting finding was the association of several HLA class II alleles with mumps-specific lymphoproliferation. Alleles of the DRB1 (*0101, *0301, *0801, *1001, *1201, and *1302), DQA1 (*0101, *0105, *0401, and *0501), and DQB1 (*0201, *0402, and *0501) loci were associated with significant variations in lymphoproliferative immune responses to mumps vaccine. Additional associations were observed with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-10RA, interleukin-12RB1, and interleukin-12RB2 cytokine receptor genes. Minor alleles for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within interleukin-10RA and interleukin-12RB genes were associated with variations in humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccination. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest the important role of

  11. Simultaneous synthesis of human-, mouse- and chimeric epidermal growth factor genes via 'hybrid gene synthesis' approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, W L; Zahab, D M; Yao, F L; Wu, R; Narang, S A

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous synthesis of two DNA duplexes encoding human and mouse epidermal growth factors (EGF) was accomplished in a single step. A 174 b.p. DNA heteroduplex, with 16 single and double base pair mismatches, was designed. One strand encoded the human EGF, and the opposite strand indirectly encoded the mouse EGF. The heteroduplex DNA was synthesized by ligation of seven overlapping oligodeoxyribonucleotides with a linearized plasmid. After transformation in E. coli HB101 (recA 13), the resulting heteroduplex plasmid served as the template in plasmid replication. Two different plasmid progenies bearing either the human or mouse EGF-coding sequence were identified by colony hybridization using the appropriate probes. However, in E. coli JM103, the same process yielded plasmid progenies encoding different chimeric EGF molecules, presumably due to crossover of human and mouse EGF gene sequences. Images PMID:3529034

  12. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  13. Estetrol Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Russo, Eleonora; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen that is present at high concentrations during pregnancy. E4 has been reported to act as an endogenous estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system but presenting antagonistic effects on the breast. Due to these characteristics, E4 is currently being developed for a number of clinical applications, including contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a key player for vascular function and disease during pregnancy and throughout aging in women. Endothelial NO is an established target of estrogens that enhance its formation in human endothelial cells. We here addressed the effects of E4 on the activity and expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). E4 stimulated the activation of eNOS and NO secretion in HUVEC. E4 was significantly less effective compared to E2, and a peculiar concentration-dependent effect was found, with higher amounts of E4 being less effective than lower concentrations. When E2 was combined with E4, an interesting pattern was noted. E4 antagonized NO synthesis induced by pregnancy-like E2 concentrations. However, E4 did not impede the modest induction of NO synthesis associated with postmenopausal-like E2 levels. These results support the hypothesis that E4 may be a regulator of NO synthesis in endothelial cells and raise questions on its peculiar signaling in this context. Our results may be useful to interpret the role of E4 during human pregnancy and possibly to help develop this interesting steroid for clinical use. PMID:26257704

  14. Spleen tyrosine kinase is important in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in human mesangial cells following stimulation with IgA1 isolated from IgA nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; McDaid, John P; McAdoo, Stephen P; Barratt, Jonathan; Molyneux, Karen; Masuda, Esteban S; Pusey, Charles D; Tam, Frederick W K

    2012-10-01

    IgA immune complexes are capable of inducing human mesangial cell (HMC) activation, resulting in release of proinflammatory and profibrogenic mediators. The subsequent inflammation, cellular proliferation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix lead to the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is an intracellular protein tyrosine kinase involved in cell signaling downstream of immunoreceptors. In this study, we determined whether SYK is involved in the downstream signaling of IgA1 stimulation in HMC, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and cell proliferation. Incubation of HMC with IgA1 purified from IgAN patients significantly increased the synthesis of MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. There was also significantly increased production of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, RANTES, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB. Stimulation of HMC with heat-aggregated IgA1 purified from IgAN patients induced significantly increased HMC proliferation. Both pharmacological inhibition of SYK and knockdown of SYK by small interfering RNA significantly reduced the synthesis of these mediators and inhibited HMC proliferation. Moreover, positive immunostaining for total and phospho-SYK in glomeruli of kidney biopsies from IgAN patients strongly suggests the involvement of SYK in the pathogenesis of IgAN. To our knowledge, we demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of SYK in the downstream signaling of IgA1 stimulation in HMC and in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Hence, SYK represents a potential therapeutic target for IgAN.

  15. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K. )

    1990-11-15

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling.

  16. Steroid synthesis by primary human keratinocytes; implications for skin disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hannen, Rosalind F.; Michael, Anthony E.; Jaulim, Adil; Bhogal, Ranjit; Burrin, Jacky M.; Philpott, Michael P.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Primary keratinocytes express the steroid enzymes required for cortisol synthesis. {yields} Normal primary human keratinocytes can synthesise cortisol. {yields} Steroidogenic regulators, StAR and MLN64, are expressed in normal epidermis. {yields} StAR expression is down regulated in eczema and psoriatic epidermis. -- Abstract: Cortisol-based therapy is one of the most potent anti-inflammatory treatments available for skin conditions including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have investigated the steroidogenic capabilities of keratinocytes, though none have demonstrated that these skin cells, which form up to 90% of the epidermis are able to synthesise cortisol. Here we demonstrate that primary human keratinocytes (PHK) express all the elements required for cortisol steroidogenesis and metabolise pregnenolone through each intermediate steroid to cortisol. We show that normal epidermis and cultured PHK express each of the enzymes (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3{beta}HSD1, CYP21 and CYP11B1) that are required for cortisol synthesis. These enzymes were shown to be metabolically active for cortisol synthesis since radiometric conversion assays traced the metabolism of [7-{sup 3}H]-pregnenolone through each steroid intermediate to [7-{sup 3}H]-cortisol in cultured PHK. Trilostane (a 3{beta}HSD1 inhibitor) and ketoconazole (a CYP17A1 inhibitor) blocked the metabolism of both pregnenolone and progesterone. Finally, we show that normal skin expresses two cholesterol transporters, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), regarded as the rate-determining protein for steroid synthesis, and metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) whose function has been linked to cholesterol transport in steroidogenesis. The expression of StAR and MLN64 was aberrant in two skin disorders, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, that are commonly treated with cortisol, suggesting dysregulation of epidermal steroid synthesis in these patients. Collectively these data

  17. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  18. In vitro proliferation and production of cytokine and IgG by human PBMCs stimulated with polysaccharide extract from plants endemic to Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mengome, Line Edwige; Voxeur, Aline; Akue, Jean Paul; Lerouge, Patrice

    2014-11-13

    Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) (5×10⁵ cells/mL) proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) from healthy volunteers. The culture supernatants were used for cytokine and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that pectin and hemicellulose extracts from Uvaria klainei, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Trichoscypha addonii, Aphanocalyx microphyllus, Librevillea klaineana, Neochevalierodendron stephanii and Scorodophloeus zenkeri induced production levels that were variable from one individual to another for IL-12 (3-40 pg/mL), IL-10 (6-443 pg/mL), IL-6 (7-370 pg/mL), GM-CSF (3-170 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (5-80 pg/mL). Only hemicelluloses from Aphanocalyx microphyllus produce a small amount of IgG (OD=0.034), while the proliferation of cells stimulated with these polysaccharides increased up to 318% above the proliferation of unstimulated cells. However, this proliferation of PBMCs was abolished when the pectin of some of these plants was treated with endopolygalacturonase (p<0.05), but the trend of cytokine synthesis remained the same, both before and after enzymatic treatment or saponification. This study suggests that these polysaccharides stimulate cells in a structure-dependent manner. The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI) fragment alone was not able to induce the proliferation of PBMC.

  19. The Imidazoquinoline Toll-Like Receptor-7/8 Agonist Hybrid-2 Potently Induces Cytokine Production by Human Newborn and Adult Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Van Haren, Simon; Dowling, David J.; Bergelson, Ilana; Shukla, Nikunj M.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Tanji, Hiromi; Ohto, Umeharu; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; David, Sunil A.; Levy, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Background Newborns and young infants are at higher risk for infections than adults, and manifest suboptimal vaccine responses, motivating a search for novel immunomodulators and/or vaccine adjuvants effective in early life. In contrast to most TLR agonists (TLRA), TLR8 agonists such as imidazoquinolines (IMQs) induce adult-level Th1-polarizing cytokine production from human neonatal cord blood monocytes and are candidate early life adjuvants. We assessed whether TLR8-activating IMQ congeners may differ in potency and efficacy in inducing neonatal cytokine production in vitro, comparing the novel TLR7/8-activating IMQ analogues Hybrid-2, Meta-amine, and Para-amine to the benchmark IMQ resiquimod (R848). Methods TLRA-induced NF-κB activation was measured in TLR-transfected HEK cells. Cytokine production in human newborn cord and adult peripheral blood and in monocyte-derived dendritic cell cultures were measured by ELISA and multiplex assays. X-ray crystallography characterized the interaction of human TLR8 with Hybrid-2. Results Hybrid-2 selectively activated both TLR7 and 8 and was more potent than R848 in inducing adult-like levels of TNF-α, and IL-1β. Consistent with its relatively high in vitro activity, crystallographic studies suggest that absence in Hybrid-2 of an ether oxygen of the C2-ethoxymethyl substituent, which can engage in unfavorable electrostatic and/or dipolar interactions with the carbonyl oxygen of Gly572 in human TLR8, may confer greater efficacy and potency compared to R848. Conclusions Hybrid-2 is a selective and potent TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life immunization. PMID:26274907

  20. Rap1 induces cytokine production in pro-inflammatory macrophages through NFκB signaling and is highly expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yin; Sukhova, Galina K; Wong, Hoi Kin; Xu, Aimin; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2015-01-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is essential for maintaining telomere length and structural integrity, but it also exerts other non-telomeric functions. The present study tested the hypothesis that Rap1 is released into the cytoplasm and induces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling in macrophages, a cell type involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Western blotting analysis confirmed that Rap1 was present in the cytoplasm of differentiated human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1, a macrophage-like cell line). Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed a direct interaction between Rap1 and I kappa B kinase (IKK). Knockdown of Rap1 suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFκB, and phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B α (IκBα) and p65 in THP-1 macrophages. The reduction of NFκB activity was paralleled by a decreased production of NFκB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increased expression of IκBα (native NFκB inhibitor) in various macrophage models with pro-inflammatory phenotype, including THP-1, mouse peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived M1 macrophages. These changes were observed selectively in pro-inflammatory macrophages but not in bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages (with an anti-inflammatory phenotype), mouse lung endothelial cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells or human aortic smooth muscle cells. Immunostaining revealed that Rap1 was localized mainly in macrophage-rich areas in human atherosclerotic plaques and that the presence of Rap1 was positively correlated with the advancement of the disease process. In pro-inflammatory macrophages, Rap1 promotes cytokine production via NFκB activation favoring a pro-inflammatory environment which may contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26505215

  1. Aspergillus Cell Wall Chitin Induces Anti- and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human PBMCs via the Fc-γ Receptor/Syk/PI3K Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Becker, K. L.; Aimanianda, V.; Wang, X.; Gresnigt, M. S.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Jacobs, C. W.; Gazendam, R. P.; Joosten, L. A. B.; Netea, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chitin is an important cell wall component of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, of which hundreds are inhaled on a daily basis. Previous studies have shown that chitin has both anti- and proinflammatory properties; however the exact mechanisms determining the inflammatory signature of chitin are poorly understood, especially in human immune cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with chitin from Aspergillus fumigatus. Transcription and production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were measured from the cell culture supernatant by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Chitin induced an anti-inflammatory signature characterized by the production of IL-1Ra in the presence of human serum, which was abrogated in immunoglobulin-depleted serum. Fc-γ-receptor-dependent recognition and phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized chitin was identified as a novel IL-1Ra-inducing mechanism by chitin. IL-1Ra production induced by chitin was dependent on Syk kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. In contrast, costimulation of chitin with the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands lipopolysaccharide, Pam3Cys, or muramyl dipeptide, but not β-glucan, had synergistic effects on the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, chitin can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on the presence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and immunoglobulins, thus explaining the various inflammatory signatures reported for chitin. PMID:27247234

  2. Differential effects of nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs on cytokine and chemokine responses in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ovrevik, J.; Arlt, V.M.; Oya, E.; Nagy, E.; Mollerup, S.; Phillips, D.H.; Lag, M.; Holme, J.A.

    2010-02-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and air pollution particles. Along with other PAHs, many nitro-PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, but their effects on pro-inflammatory processes and cell death are less known. In the present study we examined the effects of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and their corresponding amino forms, 1-AP, 3-AF and 3-ABA, in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The effects of the different nitro- and amino-PAHs were compared to the well-characterized PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Expression of 17 cytokine and chemokine genes, measured by real-time PCR, showed that 1-NP and 3-NF induced a completely different cytokine/chemokine gene expression pattern to that of their amino analogues. 1-NP/3-NF-induced responses were dominated by maximum effects on CXCL8 (IL-8) and TNF-alpha expression, while 1-AP-/3-AF-induced responses were dominated by CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL10 (IP-10) expression. 3-NBA and 3-ABA induced only marginal cytokine/chemokine responses. However, 3-NBA exposure induced considerable DNA damage resulting in accumulation of cells in S-phase and a marked increase in apoptosis. B[a]P was the only compound to induce expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but did not induce cytokine/chemokine responses in BEAS-2B cells. Importantly, nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs induced both qualitatively and quantitatively different effects on cytokine/chemokine expression, DNA damage, cell cycle alterations and cytotoxicity. The cytokine/chemokine responses appeared to be triggered, at least partly, through mechanisms separate from the other examined endpoints. These results confirm and extend previous studies indicating that certain nitro-PAHs have a considerable pro-inflammatory potential.

  3. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19). PMID:27546365

  4. Human and mouse monocytes display distinct signalling and cytokine profiles upon stimulation with FFAR2/FFAR3 short-chain fatty acid receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Zhiwei; Er, Jun Zhi; Tan, Nguan Soon; Lu, Jinhua; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Grosse, Johannes; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Knockout mice studies implicate the mammalian short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptors, FFAR2 and FFAR3– in colitis, arthritis and asthma. However, the correlation with human biology is uncertain. Here, we detected FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression in human monocytes via immunohistochemistry. Upon treatment with acetate SCFA or FFAR2- and FFAR3-specific synthetic agonists, human monocytes displayed elevated p38 phosphorylation and attenuated C5, CCL1, CCL2, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β and ICAM-1 inflammatory cytokine expression. Acetate and FFAR2 agonist treatment also repressed Akt and ERK2 signalling. Surprisingly, mouse monocytes displayed a distinct response to acetate treatment, elevating GM-CSF, IL-1α, and IL-1β cytokine expression. This effect persisted in FFAR2/3-knockout mouse monocytes and was not reproduced by synthetic agonists, suggesting a FFAR2/3 independent mechanism in mice. Collectively, we show that SCFAs act via FFAR2/3 to modulate human monocyte inflammatory responses– a pathway that is absent in mouse monocytes. PMID:27667443

  5. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch.

  6. Human Host-Derived Cytokines Associated with Plasmodium vivax Transmission from Acute Malaria Patients to Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Shira R.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Tong, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes by humans is not always successful in the setting of patent gametocytemia. This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection. Blood from adults with acute, non-severe P. vivax malaria was fed to laboratory-reared F1 An. darlingi mosquitoes. A panel of cytokines at the time of mosquito infection was assessed in patient sera and levels compared among subjects who did and did not infect mosquitoes. Overall, blood from 43 of 99 (43%) subjects led to mosquito infection as shown by oocyst counts. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in vivax infection and normalized 3 weeks later. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in nontransmitters compared with top transmitters but was not in TNF-α and IFN-γ. The IL-10 elevation during acute malaria was associated with P. vivax transmission blocking. PMID:23478585

  7. Human host-derived cytokines associated with Plasmodium vivax transmission from acute malaria patients to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Shira R; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Tong, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-06-01

    Infection of mosquitoes by humans is not always successful in the setting of patent gametocytemia. This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection. Blood from adults with acute, non-severe P. vivax malaria was fed to laboratory-reared F1 An. darlingi mosquitoes. A panel of cytokines at the time of mosquito infection was assessed in patient sera and levels compared among subjects who did and did not infect mosquitoes. Overall, blood from 43 of 99 (43%) subjects led to mosquito infection as shown by oocyst counts. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in vivax infection and normalized 3 weeks later. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in nontransmitters compared with top transmitters but was not in TNF-α and IFN-γ. The IL-10 elevation during acute malaria was associated with P. vivax transmission blocking.

  8. Mutation in human selenocysteine transfer RNA selectively disrupts selenoprotein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Carlson, Bradley; Agostini, Maura; Moran, Carla; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Bochukova, Elena; Tobe, Ryuta; Peat, Rachel; Gevers, Evelien; Muntoni, Francesco; Guicheney, Pascale; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Farooqi, Sadaf; Lyons, Greta; Hatfield, Dolph; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Selenium is a trace element that is essential for human health and is incorporated into more than 25 human selenocysteine-containing (Sec-containing) proteins via unique Sec-insertion machinery that includes a specific, nuclear genome-encoded, transfer RNA (tRNA[Ser]Sec). Here, we have identified a human tRNA[Ser]Sec mutation in a proband who presented with a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and low plasma levels of selenium. This mutation resulted in a marked reduction in expression of stress-related, but not housekeeping, selenoproteins. Evaluation of primary cells from the homozygous proband and a heterozygous parent indicated that the observed deficit in stress-related selenoprotein production is likely mediated by reduced expression and diminished 2'-O-methylribosylation at uridine 34 in mutant tRNA[Ser]Sec. Moreover, this methylribosylation defect was restored by cellular complementation with normal tRNA[Ser]Sec. This study identifies a tRNA mutation that selectively impairs synthesis of stress-related selenoproteins and demonstrates the importance of tRNA modification for normal selenoprotein synthesis. PMID:26854926

  9. Adaptive interactions between cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J G

    1998-09-29

    Circulating and tissue concentrations of pyrogenic cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-1 beta, vary temporally through the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The secretion of these cytokines in vitro by isolated human mononuclear cells is significantly influenced by exogenous gonadal steroids and gonadotropins. Reciprocally, cytokines influence gonadotropin secretion by the pituitary and steroidogenesis by the ovaries and testes. Several hypotheses have been advanced regarding the adaptive value of these interrelationships. Cytokine-induced synthesis of proteolytic enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins may be important for the tissue remodeling necessary for ovulation, implantation, and delivery. Tolerance of the fetal allograft may require downregulation of cytotoxic effector cells and reciprocal upregulation of humoral and nonspecific host defenses. The inhibitory influence of IL-1 beta on the luteinizing hormone surge may prevent inopportune conception, and the abortive influences of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma interferon may terminate pregnancy during periods of infection.

  10. Year-and-a-Half Old, Dried Echinacea Roots Retain Cytokine-Modulating Capabilities in an in vitro Human Older Adult Model of Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Senchina, David S.; Wu, Lankun; Flinn, Gina N.; Konopka, Del N.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrelechner, Mark P.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Kohut, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol tinctures prepared from aged Echinacea roots are typically taken for preventing or treating upper respiratory infections, as they are purported to stimulate immunity in this context. The effects of long-term (> 1 year) dry storage on the capabilities of Echinacea spp. roots from mature individuals to modulate cytokine production are unknown. Using an older human adult model of influenza vaccination, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects 6 months post-vaccination and stimulated them in vitro with the two Type A influenza viruses contained in the trivalent 2004–2005 vaccine with a 50% alcohol tincture prepared from the roots of one of seven Echinacea species: E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis. Before being processed into extracts, all roots had been stored under dry conditions for sixteen months. Cells were cultured for 48 hours; following incubation, supernatants were collected and assayed for interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and interferon-γ production, cytokines important in the immune response to viral infection. Four species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. simulata, E. tennesseensis) augmented IL-10 production, diminished IL-2 production, and had no effect on IFN-γ production. Echinacea pallida suppressed production of all cytokines; E. paradoxa and E. sanguinea behaved similarly, although to a lesser extent. The results from these in vitro bioactivity assays indicate that dried Echinacea roots stored for sixteen months maintain cytokine-modulating capacities. Our data support and extend previous research and indicate that tinctures from different Echinacea species have different patterns of immune modulation; further, they indicate that certain species may be efficacious in the immune response to viral infection. PMID:17021999

  11. Vitamin D sufficiency associates with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines after intense exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Martins, Thomas B; Hill, Harry R; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Dixon, Brian M; Schneider, Erik D; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of vitamin D status (insufficient vs. sufficient) on circulating cytokines and skeletal muscle strength after muscular injury. To induce muscular injury, one randomly selected leg (SSC) performed exercise consisting of repetitive eccentric-concentric contractions. The other leg served as the control. An averaged serum 25(OH)D concentration from two blood samples collected before exercise and on separate occasions was used to establish vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL, n=6) and sufficiency (>30ng/mL, n=7) in young, adult males. Serum cytokine concentrations, single-leg peak isometric force, and single-leg peak power output were measured before and during the days following the exercise protocol. The serum IL-10 and IL-13 responses to muscular injury were significantly (both p<0.05) increased in the vitamin D sufficient group. The immediate and persistent (days) peak isometric force (p<0.05) and peak power output (p<0.05) deficits in the SSC leg after the exercise protocol were not ameliorated with vitamin D sufficiency. We conclude that vitamin D sufficiency increases the anti-inflammatory cytokine response to muscular injury. PMID:24388225

  12. Gene polymorphism and protein of human pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Chinese healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is thought to arise from the interaction of various factors, including the susceptibility of the host, the presence of pathogenic organisms, and the absence of beneficial species. The genetic factors may play a significant role in the risk of periodontal diseases. Cytokines initiate, mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to compare genotypes and soluble protein of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-4) in subjects with or free of chronic periodontitis. Methods A total of 1,290 Chinese subjects were recruited to this clinical trial: 850 periodontally healthy controls and 440 periodontal patients. All subjects were free of systemic diseases. Oral examinations were performed, and the following parameters were recorded for each subject: supragingival/subgingival calculus, gingival recession, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival recession and tooth mobility. The peripheral blood samples were collected for genetic and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Restriction enzymes were used for digestion of amplified fragments of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-4. Results The protein expressions of patient and control samples for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 measured by ELISA confirmed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The digestion of fragments of various genes showed that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 demonstrated a correlation with chronic inflammation in patients (X2: p < 0.001). The remaining genes investigated in patients and healthy subjects (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10) did not show any significant difference. Conclusions The cytokine gene polymorphisms may be used as a marker for periodontitis susceptibility, clinical behaviour and severity. This

  13. C-reactive protein impairs angiogenic functions and decreases the secretion of arteriogenic chemo-cytokines in human endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Wonhee; Kim, Koung Li; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lee, Young-Sam; Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Jeong-Min; Jang, Hyung-Suk; Shin, In-Soon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Byun, Jonghoe; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2004-08-13

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a predictor of future cardiovascular diseases, has been reported to damage the vascular wall by inducing endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. This proatherogenic CRP was speculated to have a role in attenuating angiogenic functions of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), possibly impairing vascular regeneration and increasing cardiovascular vulnerability to ischemic injury. Herein, we investigated the direct effect of CRP on angiogenic activity and gene expression in human EPCs. Incubation of EPCs with human recombinant CRP significantly inhibited EPC migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor, possibly by decreasing the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and subsequent nitric oxide production. In addition, CRP-treated EPCs showed the reduced adhesiveness onto an endothelial cell monolayer. When assayed for the gene expression of arteriogenic chemo-cytokines, CRP substantially decreased their expression levels in EPC, in part due to the upregulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins. These results suggest that CRP directly attenuates the angiogenic and possibly arteriogenic functions of EPCs. This CRP-induced EPC dysfunction may impair the vascular regenerative capacity of EPCs, thereby leading to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Expansion of FOXP3high regulatory T cells by human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and after injection of cytokine-matured DCs in myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Devi K.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Matayeva, Elyana; Steinman, Ralph M.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2006-01-01

    CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg's) play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance. The mechanisms controlling the induction and maintenance of Treg's in humans need to be defined. We find that human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are superior to other antigen presenting cells for the maintenance of FOXP3+ Treg's in culture. Coculture of DCs with autologous T cells leads to an increase in both the number of Treg's, as well as the expression of FOXP3 protein per cell both in healthy donors and myeloma patients. DC-mediated expansion of FOXP3high Treg's is enhanced by endogenous but not exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), and DC-T-cell contact, including the CD80/CD86 membrane costimulatory molecules. DCs also stimulate the formation of Treg's from CD25- T cells. The efficacy of induction of Treg's by DCs depends on the nature of the DC maturation stimulus, with inflammatory cytokine-treated DCs (Cyt-DCs) being the most effective Treg inducers. DC-induced Treg's from both healthy donors and patients with myeloma are functional and effectively suppress T-cell responses. A single injection of cytokine-matured DCs led to rapid enhancement of FOXP3+ Treg's in vivo in 3 of 3 myeloma patients. These data reveal a role for DCs in increasing the number of functional FOXP3high Treg's in humans. PMID:16763205

  15. Stimulation of small proteoglycan synthesis by the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Masaru; Nakamura, Toshiya; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Mizunuma, Hideki; Endo, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Human skin fibroblasts cultured with 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), a hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor, produce a hyaluronan-deficient extracellular matrix (See [9]). Our present study investigated the effects of MU on proteoglycan, which is the other main component of the extracellular matrix, and interacts with hyaluronan. Proteoglycans isolated from culture medium in the presence or absence of MU were characterized by gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange HPLC, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. We found that MU had only a negligible effect on the synthesis of large proteoglycan but increased the production of small proteoglycan in comparison with cultures lacking MU. This small proteoglycan was identified by immunoblotting as decorin. The structures of decorin synthesized in the presence and absence of MU were compared by gel-filtration chromatography, and the data indicated that cells incubated with MU produced a larger decorin molecule than cells incubated without MU. Furthermore, the two decorins had galactosaminoglycan chains of different sizes. These results suggest that MU inhibits the synthesis of hyaluronan and accelerates production of the larger decorin in the extracellular matrix.

  16. The synthesis of proteoglycans by human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Steward, W P; Christmas, S E; Lyon, M; Gallagher, J T

    1990-05-22

    We have examined the proteoglycans produced by highly-purified cultures of human T-lymphocytes. The proteoglycans were metabolically labelled with [35S]sulphate and analysed in cellular and medium fractions using DEAE-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration and specific enzymatic and chemical degradations. The results showed that the T cells synthesized a relatively homogeneous, proteinase-resistant chondroitin 4-sulphate proteoglycan that accumulated in the culture medium during a 48 h incubation period. The cellular fraction contained a significant amount of free chondroitin sulphate chains that were not secreted into the medium. These polysaccharides were formed by intracellular degradation of proteoglycan in a chloroquine-sensitive process, indicating a requirement for an acidic environment. In contrast to chondroitin sulphate derived from proteoglycan, chondroitin sulphates synthesized on the exogenous primer, beta-D-xyloside, were mainly secreted by the cells. beta-D-Xylosides caused an 8-fold stimulation in the synthesis of chondroitin sulphate, but decreased the synthesis of proteoglycan by about 50%. These proteoglycans contained shorter chondroitin sulphate chains than their normal counterparts. The results indicate that although proteoglycans are mainly secretory components in human T-cell cultures, a specific metabolic step leads to the intracellular accumulation of free glycosaminoglycans. Separate functions are likely to be associated with the intracellular and secretory pools of chondroitin sulphate.

  17. Cytokine disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Noam; Stohl, William

    2011-07-06

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is complex, and the resulting disease manifestations are heterogeneous. Cytokine dysregulation is pervasive, and their protein and gene expression profiles may serve as markers of disease activity and severity. Importantly, biologic agents that target specific cytokines may represent novel therapies for SLE. Four cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IFNα, and BLyS) are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in SLE. The present review will examine the roles of each of these cytokines in murine and human SLE, and will summarize results from clinical trials of agents that target these cytokines.

  18. Extrahepatic synthesis of plasminogen in the human cornea is up-regulated by interleukins-1alpha and -1beta.

    PubMed Central

    Twining, S S; Wilson, P M; Ngamkitidechakul, C

    1999-01-01

    The avascular cornea has limited access to plasma proteins, including plasminogen, a protein that is synthesized by the liver and supplied to most tissues via the blood. Recent experiments by others using plasminogen-deficient mice revealed the importance of plasmin, the active form of plasminogen, for the maintenance of the normal cornea and for corneal wound healing [Kao, Kao, Bugge, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Converse, Good and Degan (1998) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 502-508; Drew, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Danton, Daugherty, Degen and Bugge (1998) Blood 91, 1616-1624]. In the present experiments, plasmin was identified as a major serine proteinase in the human cornea. The major plasminogen and plasmin forms on non-reducing zymograms and Western blots had Mr values of 76x10(3) and 85x10(3), with minor forms of Mr 200x10(3), 135x10(3), 68x10(3) and 45x10(3). Angiostatin-like peptides with Mrs of 48x10(3), 45x10(3) and 38x10(3) were observed which bound to lysine-Sepharose and reacted with anti-plasminogen monoclonal antibodies directed towards kringle domains 1-3 of plasminogen. The cornea contained 1.1+/-0.15 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/cornea, or 0.54+/-0.05 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/mg of protein. Cornea conditioned medium contained nine times the amount of plasminogen+plasmin that could be extracted from the cornea. These data suggested that corneal cells, unlike most extrahepatic cells, synthesize plasminogen. The synthesis of plasminogen by the cornea was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled plasminogen, sequencing of its cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase-PCR and inhibition of protein synthesis. Interleukins-1alpha and -1beta stimulated corneal plasminogen synthesis 2-3-fold; however, interleukin-6 decreased corneal plasminogen synthesis by approx. 40% at early times after addition of the cytokine. By 24 h of culture, no differences were noted in the presence and absence of interleukin-6. Thus the cornea can synthesize

  19. Total chemical synthesis of human psoriasin by native chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangqun; de Leeuw, Erik; Lu, Wuyuan

    2005-11-01

    Human psoriasin (S100A7), a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, is richly expressed in keratinocytes of patients suffering from psoriasis. To date, the exact physiological function of psoriasin abundant in many human cell types remains unclear. A recent report by Schröder and colleagues suggests that psoriasin, purified from human stratum corneum extracts, selectively kills Escherichia coli by sequestering Zn(2+) ions essential for bacterial growth, indicative of an important role in innate immune defense against microbial infection. We chemically synthesized the N-terminally acetylated psoriasin of 100 amino acid residues using solid phase peptide synthesis in combination with native chemical ligation. More than 140 mg of highly pure and correctly folded synthetic psoriasin was obtained from a single synthesis on a 0.25 mmol scale. Analysis of synthetic psoriasin by size exclusion chromatography showed that the protein forms a homodimer in solution. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the alpha-helicity of psoriasin increases by more than 20% in the presence of CaCl(2) or ZnCl(2), suggesting a metal ion binding induced conformational change. Circular dichroism based titration further established that the synthetic protein binds two Ca(2+) and two Zn(2+) ions per dimer, in agreement with the published structural findings. Importantly, the ability of the synthetic protein to kill E. coli and the inhibition of the killing by ZnCl(2) is comparable to that of psoriasin isolated from its natural source. The robust synthetic access to large quantities of human psoriasin should facilitate studies of its biological functions as well as its mode of action.

  20. Cytokine modulation of Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the brush border membrane of monolayers of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Souba, W W; Copeland, E M

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Na(+)-dependent brush border glutamine transport is diminished in septic patients. To examine the potential regulation of this decreased transport by endotoxin, cytokines, or glucocorticoids, the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line was studied in vitro. Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the apical brush border membrane was assayed in confluent monolayers of differentiated cells that were 10 days old. Uptake of 50 microM glutamine was determined after a 12-hour incubation with varying doses (10 to 1000 U/mL) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and various combinations of these cytokines. Studies were also done in cells incubated with E. coli endotoxin (1 micrograms/mL) or dexamethasone (1 and 10 microM). Endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 alone and in combination did not significantly reduce Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the brush border of Caco-2 cells. Dexamethasone decreased glutamine transport by 20%, but this decrease was not apparent for 48 hours. Interferon consistently decreased glutamine transport by 30%; this was due to a reduction in carrier maximal transport velocity (3427 +/- 783 pmol/mg protein/minute in controls versus 2279 +/- 411 in interferon, p less than 0.05) rather than a change in Km (276 +/- 29 microM in controls versus 333 +/- 74 in interferon, p = not interferon + dexamethasone + tumor necrosis factor + interleukin-1 resulted in a 38% decrease in transport activity. Cytokines and glucocorticoids may work independently and synergistically in regulating Na(+)-dependent brush border glutamine transport in human intestinal cells. Whether these signal molecules play a central role in the cause of the diminished brush border glutamine transport that occurs in septic patients requires further study. PMID:1616390

  1. Extensive characterization of the immunophenotype and pattern of cytokine production by distinct subpopulations of normal human peripheral blood MHC II+/lineage− cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, J; Bueno, C; Alguero, M C; Sanchez, M L; Cañizo, M C; Fernandez, M E; Vaquero, J M; Laso, F J; Escribano, L; San Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    1999-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent the most powerful professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse, on a single-cell basis by multiparametric flow cytometry with simultaneous four-colour staining and a two-step acquisition procedure, the immunophenotypic profile and cytokine production of DC from 67 normal whole peripheral blood (PB) samples. Two clearly different subsets of HLA-II+/lineage− were identified on the basis of their distinct phenotypic characteristics: one DC subset was CD33strong+ and CD123dim+ (0.16 ± 0.06% of the PB nucleated cells and 55.9 ± 11.9% of all PB DC) and the other, CD33dim+ and CD123strong+ (0.12 ± 0.04% of PB nucleated cells and 44.53 ± 11.5% of all PB DC). Moreover, the former DC subpopulation clearly showed higher expression of the CD13 myeloid-associated antigen, the CD29 and CD58 adhesion molecules, the CD2, CD5 and CD86 costimulatory molecules, the CD32 IgG receptor and the CD11c complement receptor. In addition, these cells showed stronger HLA-DR and HLA-DQ expression and a higher reactivity for the IL-6 receptor α-chain (CD126) and for CD38. In contrast, the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC showed a stronger reactivity for the CD4 and CD45RA molecules, whereas they did not express the CD58, CD5, CD11c and CD13 antigens. Regarding cytokine production, our results show that while the CD33strong+/CD123dim+ DC are able to produce significant amounts of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β (97 ± 5% of positive cells), IL-6 (96 ± 1.1% of positive cells), IL-12 (81.5 ± 15.5% of positive cells) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (84 ± 22.1% of positive cells) as well as chemokines such as IL-8 (99 ± 1% of positive cells), the functional ability of the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC subset to produce cytokines under the same conditions was almost null. Our results therefore clearly show the presence of two distinct subsets of DC in normal human PB, which differ not only in

  2. Mechanisms of modulation of cytokine release by human cord blood monocytes exposed to high concentrations of caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Ahlawat, Rajni; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Gauda, Estelle B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum caffeine concentrations >20µg/mL (100 µM) in infants treated for apnea of prematurity increases TNF-α and decreases IL-10, change that perhaps is linked to co-morbidities. We hypothesize that this pro-inflammatory cytokine profile may be linked to differential binding of caffeine to adenosine receptor subtypes (AR), inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), and modulation of toll-like receptors (TLR). Methods LPS-activated cord blood monocytes (CBM) from 19 infants were exposed to caffeine (0 to 200 µM) with or without previous exposure to A1R, A3R, or PDE IV antagonists to determine changes in dose-response curves. Cytokines levels (ELISA), intracellular cAMP accumulation (EIA) and TLR gene expression (real time qRT PCR) were measured. Results Caffeine at ≤100µM decreased TNF-α levels (~25%, p=0.01) and cAMP. All caffeine concentrations decreased IL-10 levels (17 to 35%, p<0.01). A1R, A3R and PDE blockades decreased TNF-α (31%, 21%, and 88%, p≤0.01), but not IL-10. Caffeine further decreased TNF-α following A3R and PDE blockades. Caffeine concentrations directly correlated to TLR4 gene expression (r=0.84; p<0.001). Conclusion Neither A3R, nor PDE blockades are involved in caffeine’s modulation of cytokine release by CBM at any concentration. Besides A1R blockade, caffeine’s up-regulation of TLR4 may promote inflammation at high concentrations. PMID:26982450

  3. IL-21 is the primary common γ chain-binding cytokine required for human B-cell differentiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Recher, Mike; Berglund, Lucinda J.; Avery, Danielle T.; Cowan, Morton J.; Gennery, Andrew R.; Smart, Joanne; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Pai, Sung-Yun; Baxi, Sachin; Walter, Jolan E.; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Gillian A.; Rice, Michael; Brothers, Shannon; Al-Herz, Waleed; Oettgen, Hans; Eibel, Hermann; Puck, Jennifer M.; Cattaneo, Federica; Ziegler, John B.; Giliani, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    SCID resulting from mutations in IL2RG or JAK3 is characterized by lack of T and natural killer cells; B cells are present in normal number, but antibody responses are defective. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for SCID. However, B-cell dysfunction persists in a substantial proportion of patients. We hypothesized that impaired B-cell responses after HCT in IL2RG/JAK3 deficiency results from poor donor B-cell engraftment and defective γc-dependent cytokine signaling in host B cells. To test this, and to identify which γc cytokine(s) is critical for humoral immunity, we studied 28 transplanted patients with IL2RG/JAK3 deficiency. Lack of donor B-cell engraftment associated with persistent humoral dysfunction and significantly reduced memory B cells. B-cell proliferation induced by CD40L alone or together with CpG, anti-Ig, IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13 was comparable in healthy controls and in post-HCT SCID patients, irrespective of their chimerism status. However, in vitro stimulation with CD40L/IL-21 induced B-cell proliferation, plasmablast differentiation, and antibody secretion in patients with donor B cells, but not in patients with autologous B cells. These data imply that IL-21–mediated signaling is critical for long-lived humoral immunity and to restore antibody responses in IL2RG/JAK3-deficient patients after HCT. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation with CD40L/IL-21 can predict in vivo B-cell immunity in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after transplantation. PMID:22039266

  4. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mattana, Antonella; Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W; Henriquez, Fiona L; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  5. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  6. Cytotoxic Capacity of IL-15-Stimulated Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Against Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma in Humanized Preclinical Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Rettinger, Eva; Meyer, Vida; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Volk, Andreas; Kuçi, Selim; Willasch, Andre; Koscielniak, Ewa; Fulda, Simone; Wels, Winfried S.; Boenig, Halvard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has become an important treatment modality for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is also under investigation for soft tissue sarcomas. The therapeutic success is still limited by minimal residual disease (MRD) status ultimately leading to patients’ relapse. Adoptive donor lymphocyte infusions based on MRD status using IL-15-expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells may prevent relapse without causing graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). To generate preclinical data we developed mouse models to study anti-leukemic- and anti-tumor-potential of CIK cells in vivo. Immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc−, NSG) were injected intravenously with human leukemic cell lines THP-1, SH-2 and with human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines RH41 and RH30 at minimal doses required for leukemia or tumor engraftment. Mice transplanted with THP-1 or RH41 cells were randomly assigned for analysis of CIK cell treatment. Organs of mice were analyzed by flow cytometry as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction for engraftment of malignant cells and CIK cells. Potential of CIK cells to induce GvHD was determined by histological analysis. Tissues of the highest degree of THP-1 cell expansion included bone marrow followed by liver, lung, spleen, peripheral blood (PB), and brain. RH30 and RH41 engraftment mainly took place in liver and lung, but was also detectable in spleen and PB. In spite of delayed CIK cell expansion compared with malignant cells, CIK cells injected at equal amounts were sufficient for significant reduction of RH41 cells, whereas against fast-expanding THP-1 cells 250 times more CIK than THP-1 cells were needed to achieve comparable results. Our preclinical in vivo mouse models showed a reliable 100% engraftment of malignant cells which is essential for analysis of anti-cancer therapy. Furthermore our data demonstrated that IL-15-activated CIK cells have potent cytotoxic capacity against AML

  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α modulates metabolic activity and cytokine release in anti-Aspergillus fumigatus immune responses initiated by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fliesser, Mirjam; Morton, Charles Oliver; Bonin, Michael; Ebel, Frank; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The mold Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Over the past decade, new findings in research have improved our understanding of A. fumigatus-host interactions, including the recent identification of myeloid-expressed hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) as a relevant immune-modulating transcription factor and potential therapeutic target in anti-fungal defense. However, the function of HIF-1α signaling for human anti-A. fumigatus immunity is still poorly understood, including its role in dendritic cells (DCs), which are important regulators of anti-fungal immunity. This study investigated the functional relevance of HIF-1α in the anti-A. fumigatus immune response initiated by human DCs. Hypoxic cell culture conditions were included because hypoxic microenvironments occur during A. fumigatus infections and may influence the host immune response. HIF-1α was stabilized in DCs following stimulation with A. fumigatus under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This stabilization was partially dependent on dectin-1, the major receptor for A. fumigatus on human DCs. Using siRNA-based HIF-1α silencing combined with genome-wide transcriptional analysis, a modulatory effect of HIF-1α on the anti-fungal immune response of human DCs was identified. Specifically, the difference in the transcriptomes of HIF-1α silenced and non-silenced DCs indicated that HIF-1α contributes to DC metabolism and cytokine release in response to A. fumigatus under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. This was confirmed by further down-stream analyses that included metabolite analysis and cytokine profiling of a time-course infection experiment. Thereby, this study revealed a so far undescribed functional relevance of HIF-1α in human DC responses against A. fumigatus.

  8. MicroRNA-122 Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines by Targeting the PKR Activator PACT in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masato; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Jiang, Xia; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is one of the most abundant miRs in the liver. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-122 plays a role in inflammation in the liver and functions in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which reside in the space of Disse. Here, we showed that the transient inhibition of PKR-activating protein (PACT) expression, by miR-122 or siRNA targeting of PACT, suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1β, in human HSC LX-2. Sequence and functional analyses confirmed that miR-122 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of PACT. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that miR-122 blocked NF-κB-nuclear translocation in LX-2 cells. We also showed that conditioned medium from miR-122-transfected LX-2 cells suppressed human monocyte-derived THP-1 cell migration. Taken together, our study indicates that miR-122 may downregulate cytokine production in HSCs and macrophage chemotaxis and that the targeting of miR-122 may have therapeutic potential for preventing the progression of liver diseases. PMID:26636761

  9. Cytokines and therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G; Bidlingmaier, M; Eigler, A; Hacker, U; Endres, S

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides - short strands of synthetic nucleic acids - encompass antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to target RNA by complementary base pairing and to inhibit translation of the target protein. Antisense oligonucleotides enable specific inhibition of cytokine synthesis. In contrast, aptamer oligonucleotides are able to bind directly to specific proteins. This binding depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Aptamer oligonucleotides with CpG motifs can exert strong immunostimulatory effects. Both kinds of therapeutic oligonucleotides - antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides - provide promising tools to modulate immunological functions. Recently, therapeutic oligonucleotides have moved towards clinical application. An antisense oligonucleotide directed against the proinflammatory intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is currently being tested in clinical trials for therapy of inflammatory disease. Immunostimulatory aptamer oligonucleotides are in preclinical development for immunotherapy. In the present review we summarize the application of therapeutic oligonucleotides to modulate immunological functions. We include technological aspects as well as current therapeutic concepts and clinical studies.

  10. Lipoteichoic Acid Isolated from Weissella cibaria Increases Cytokine Production in Human Monocyte-Like THP-1 Cells and Mouse Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Seongjae; Lee, Youn-Woo; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-07-28

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have beneficial effects on intestinal health and skin diseases. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is known to induce the production of several cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 and affect the intestinal microflora, anti-aging, sepsis, and cholesterol level. In this study, Weissella cibaria was isolated from Indian dairy products, and we examined its immune-enhancing effects. Live and heatkilled W. cibaria did not induce the secretion of immune-related cytokines, whereas LTA isolated from W. cibaria (cLTA) significantly increased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. cLTA increased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappalight-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases in THP-1 cells. The secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 was also increased in the cLTA-treated mouse splenocytes. These results suggest that cLTA, but not W. cibaria whole cells, has immune-boosting potential and can be used to treat immunosuppression diseases. PMID:27012236

  11. The combined effects of high-energy shock waves and cytostatic drugs or cytokines on human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wörle, K.; Steinbach, P.; Hofstädter, F.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of shock waves generated by an experimental Siemens lithotripter in combination with cytostatic drugs or cytokines on several bladder cancer cell lines were examined in vitro. Proliferation after treatment was determined with the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Dose enhancement ratios were calculated for each drug and each shock wave application mode in order to characterise the sensitising effect of shock wave pretreatment. The influence of the time between shock wave and drug treatment as well as the effects of different sequences of shock wave and drug treatment or concomitant treatment were assessed for selected combinations of cell lines and drugs. It was found that shock wave treatment could render certain cell lines more susceptible to subsequent cis-platinum, mitomycin C or actinomycin D incubation. Cell lines sensitive to tumour necrosis factor alpha or interferon alpha were further sensitised to these cytokines by shock wave pretreatment. The enhanced sensitivity to cis-platinum and actinomycin D decreased rapidly during the first hours after shock wave treatment. The antiproliferative effect was most pronounced after concomitant shock wave and drug treatment. The sensitisation to interferon alpha diminishes more slowly after shock wave exposure. From the results presented in this study it is concluded that transient shock wave-induced permeabilisation of cell membrane not only enhances drug efficiency, but also causes damage to cell organelles and alterations in cellular metabolism. PMID:8286211

  12. Effects of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-13 on stromal interaction molecule-1 aggregation in human airway smooth muscle intracellular Ca(2+) regulation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li; Delmotte, Philippe; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation elevates intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is an important source of [Ca(2+)]i mediated by stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein. In transducing SR Ca(2+) depletion, STIM1 aggregates to form puncta, thereby activating SOCE via interactions with a Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel protein (Orai1) in the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that STIM1 aggregation is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines, thereby augmenting SOCE in human ASM cells. We used real-time fluorescence microscopic imaging to assess the dynamics of STIM1 aggregation and SOCE after exposure to TNF-α or IL-13 in ASM cells overexpressing yellow fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type STIM1 (WT-STIM1) and STIM1 mutants lacking the Ca(2+)-sensing EF-hand (STIM1-D76A), or lacking the cytoplasmic membrane binding site (STIM1ΔK). STIM1 aggregation was analyzed by monitoring puncta size during the SR Ca(2+) depletion induced by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We found that puncta size was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 after CPA. However, STIM1-D76A constitutively formed puncta, whereas STIM1ΔK failed to form puncta. Furthermore, cytokines increased basal WT-STIM1 puncta size, and the SOCE triggered by SR Ca(2+) depletion was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 or STIM1-D76A. Meanwhile, SOCE in cells expressing STIM1ΔK and STIM1 short, interfering RNA (siRNA) was decreased. Similarly, in cells overexpressing STIM1, the siRNA knockdown of Orai1 blunted SOCE. However, exposure to cytokines increased SOCE in all cells, increased basal [Ca(2+)]i, and decreased SR Ca(2+) content. These data suggest that cytokines induce a constitutive increase in STIM1 aggregation that contributes to enhanced SOCE in human ASM after inflammation. Such effects of inflammation on STIM1 aggregations may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:23713409

  13. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and the effects of its polysaccharides on the production of human cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17.

    PubMed

    Habijanic, Jožica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Plankl, Mojca; Wraber, Branka

    2015-01-25

    An original strain of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd, MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian habitats was grown by a submerged liquid substrate cultivation in a laboratory stirred tank reactor. Five fractions of extracellular and cell-wall polysaccharides were obtained by extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification by ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. The capacity of isolated polysaccharide fractions to induce innate inflammatory cytokines, and to modulate cytokine responses of activated lymphocytes was investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated in vitro with polysaccharide fractions, in order to induce innate inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). For the immunomodulation capacity, polysaccharide fractions were cultured with ionomycine and phorbol myristate acetate (IONO+PMA) activated PBMC, and the concentrations of induced IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured. The results showed that polysaccharides from G. lucidum induced moderate to high amounts of innate inflammatory cytokines. Fungal cell-wall polysaccharides were stronger innate inflammatory cytokines inducers, while extracellular polysaccharides demonstrated a higher capacity to modulate cytokine responses of IONO+PMA induced production of IL-17. The results indicate that G. lucidum polysaccharides enhance Th1 response with high levels of IFN-γ and IL-2, and display low to no impact on IL-4 production. A similar pattern was observed at regulatory cytokine IL-10. All of the polysaccharide fractions tested induced IL-17 production at different concentration levels.

  14. Synthesis of type I collagen in healing wounds in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Haukipuro, K; Melkko, J; Risteli, L; Kairaluoma, M; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    To quantify wound healing in surgical patients, samples of wound fluid were collected through a silicone rubber tube for 7 postoperative days and their concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured with specific radioimmunoassays. The mean concentration of PICP in would fluid on day 1 was 207 +/- 92 (SD) micrograms/L, and on day 2 908 +/- 469 micrograms/L (p less than 0.001, signed rank test). On day 7, the mean concentration reached was 380 times higher than that of day 1 (79,330 +/- 54,151 micrograms/L). Only one peak of PICP antigenicity, corresponding to the intact propeptide as set free during synthesis of type I procollagen, was detected on Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration analysis of wound fluid samples. The mean concentration of PIIINP was 70 +/- 61 micrograms/L on day 1, 86 +/- 88 micrograms/L on day 2, and 180 +/- 129 micrograms/L on day 3 (p less than 0.001 when compared with day 1). Finally on day 7, a 250-fold concentration (17,812 +/- 9839 micrograms/L), compared with day 1, was reached. Methods described in the present paper allow separate and repetitive quantification of the synthesis of both type I and type III procollagen during human wound healing. PMID:1985542

  15. An optimized chemical synthesis of human relaxin-2.

    PubMed

    Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-04-01

    Human gene 2 relaxin (RLX) is a member of the insulin superfamily and is a multi-functional factor playing a vital role in pregnancy, aging, fibrosis, cardioprotection, vasodilation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. RLX is currently applied in clinical trials to cure among others acute heart failure, fibrosis, and preeclampsia. The synthesis of RLX by chemical methods is difficult because of the insolubility of its B-chain and the required laborious and low yielding site-directed combination of its A (RLXA) and B (RLXB) chains. We report here that oxidation of the Met(25) residue of RLXB improves its solubility, allowing its effective solid-phase synthesis and application in random interchain combination reactions with RLXA. Linear Met(O)(25)-RLX B-chain (RLXBO) reacts with a mixture of isomers of bicyclic A-chain (bcRLXA) giving exclusively the native interchain combination. Applying this method Met(O)(25)-RLX (RLXO) was obtained in 62% yield and was easily converted to RLX in 78% yield, by reduction with ammonium iodide. PMID:20191607

  16. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Himmlova, Lucie; Kubies, Dana; Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Stikarova, Jana; Suttnar, Jiri; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  17. In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Roomi, M W; Monterrey, J C; Kalinovsky, T; Rath, M; Niedzwiecki, A

    2010-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by cervical and ovarian cancer, especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. We examined the effect of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines. Human cervical (HeLa and DoTc2-4510) and ovarian (SK-OV-3) cell lines were cultured in appropriate media. At near confluence, the cells were washed with PBS and incubated in serum-free medium with various concentrations of several cytokines, mitogens and inhibitors. After 24 h the media were removed and analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatinase zymography and quantitated by densitometry. HeLa and SK-OV-3 cell lines expressed MMP-2 whereas DoTc2-4510 cells expressed MMP-9. Treatment of cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and DoTc2-4510) with PMA had no effect on MMP-2 expression and a moderate stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3. MMP-9 was stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in HeLa cells and enhanced in DoTc2-4510. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta, had slight inhibitory effect on HeLa cell expression of MMP-2 while lipopolysaccharide stimulated MMP-2 in HeLa cells. Doxycycline, epigallocatechin gallate, a nutrient mixture, actinomycin-D, cyclohexamide, retinoic acid and dexamethasone inhibited MMP-2 in HeLa and SK-OV-3 cell lines and inhibited MMP-9 in DoTc2-4510. Our results show that cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors have an up or down regulatory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in ovarian and cervical cancer cell lines, suggesting these agents may be effective strategies to treat these cancers.

  18. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  19. Houttuynia cordata Thunb inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NFκB signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Joe; Seo, Hye-Sook; Kim, Gyung-Jun; Jeon, Chan Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Sun-Ju; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is widely used in oriental medicine as a remedy for inflammation. However, at present there is no explanation for the mechanism by which HCT affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. The current study aimed to determine the effect of an essence extracted from HCT on mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cytokine production induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus a calcium ionophore, A23187, was measured in the human mast cell line, HMC-1, incubated with various concentrations of HCT. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secreted protein levels were measured using an ELISA assay. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR analysis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were examined by western blot analysis. The NF-κB promoter activity was examined by luciferase assay. It was observed that HCT inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretion and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. It was also noted that HCT suppressed the induction of NF-κB activity, inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα in stimulated HMC-1 cells. It was concluded that HCT is an inhibitor of NF-κB and cytokines blocking mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. These results indicate that HCT may be used for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23846481

  20. Cytokine responses of human lung cells (BEAS-2B) treated with micron-sized and nanoparticles of metal oxides compared to soil dusts

    PubMed Central

    Veranth, John M; Kaser, Erin G; Veranth, Martha M; Koch, Michael; Yost, Garold S

    2007-01-01

    Background The induction of cytokines by airway cells in vitro has been widely used to assess the effects of ambient and occupational particles. This study measured cytotoxicity and the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by human bronchial epithelial cells treated with manufactured nano- and micron-sized particles of Al2O3, CeO2, Fe2O3, NiO, SiO2, and TiO2, with soil-derived particles from fugitive dust sources, and with the positive controls LPS, TNF-α, and VOSO4. Results The nano-sized particles were not consistently more potent than an equal mass of micron-sized particles of the same nominal composition for the induction of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in the in vitro models used in this study. The manufactured pure oxides were much less potent than natural PM2.5 particles derived from soil dust, and the cells were highly responsive to the positive controls. The nano-sized particles in the media caused artifacts in the measurement of IL-6 by ELISA due to adsorption of the cytokine on the high-surface-area particles. The potency for inducing IL-6 secretion by BEAS-2B cells did not correlate with the generation of reactive oxygen species in cell-free media. Conclusion Direct comparisons of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles and previously studied types of particles and surrogate proinflammatory agonists showed that the metal oxide particles have low potency to induce IL-6 secretion in BEAS-2B cells. Particle artifacts from non-biological effects need to be considered in experiments of this type, and the limitations inherent in cell culture studies must be considered when interpreting in vitro results. This study suggests that manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles are not highly toxic to lung cells compared to environmental particles. PMID:17326846

  1. Alpha interferon combined with ribavirin potentiates proliferative suppression but not cytokine production in mitogenically stimulated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, M L; Verbeke, S B; Kimball, P M

    2000-11-01

    The improved clinical outcome observed among patients with hepatitis C treated with the combination of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) is presumed to result from immunomodulation and viral inhibition. However, the impact of the drug combination upon lymphocyte activity is unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of IFN and RBV, singly and in combination, upon proliferation, cell cycle sensitivity and cytokine elaboration following PHA stimulation of lymphocytes. Two formulations of IFN, interferon-a-2b (IFN-2b) and interferon-a-con-1 (CIFN), were included. Titration of each drug over a wide range of concentrations showed dose dependent proliferative suppression without cytotoxicity. Proliferation was suppressed 57-99% (P<0.001) by IFN-2b (10(5)-10(7) IU/ml), 41-74% (P<0.001) by CIFN (1.5-150 ng/ml), and 10-94% (P<0.001) by RBV (0.5-50 microg/ml). Isobologram analysis showed that the interaction between IFN-2b and RBV on proliferative suppression was additive. In contrast, the interaction between CIFN and RBV was weakly antagonistic. Proliferative suppression by both the IFNs was cell cycle restricted. IFN-2b and CIFN added at the onset of PHA stimulation (G0/G1) versus 24 h later (S phase) inhibited proliferation by 50 versus 5%, respectively (P<0.05). The onset of IFN resistance correlated with a 50% reduction (P<0.05) in IFN receptors on the cell surface. In contrast, RBV caused equivalent proliferative suppression (P=NS) when added at any time during PHA activation. Cytokine secretion after 24 h of PHA stimulation showed that IFN-2b versus CIFN increased the secretion of IL2, TNF and gamma IFN by 4.5-, 4.1- and 8.3-fold (P<0.005) versus 1-, 1.9- and 1.9-fold (P<0.05), respectively, above control levels. Neither IFN affected IL10 secretion. RBV, singly and in combination with IFN, had no impact on cytokine expression (P=NS). This study identifies several potential mechanisms by which the combination of IFN and RBV may exert a more potent effect

  2. Synthesis of catechol estrogens by human uterus and leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.V.; Hanjani, P.; Rajan, R.

    1981-02-01

    Homogenates of human endometrial, myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were incubated with (2,4,6,7-/sub 3/H)-estradiol and tritiated catechol estrogens were isolated and identified. Though 2- and 4-hydroxylations were about the same in endometrium, 4-hydroxylation was two to four fold higher than 2-hydroxylation in myometrium and leiomyoma. However, endometrium showed greater capacity to form both 2- and 4-hydroxyestrogens than the other two tissues. Both 2- and 4-hydroxylations were significantly less than in myometrium. In view of the reports indicating that inhibitors of catechol 0-methyl transferase (COMT) might act as antineoplastic agents due to their interference with t-RNA methylases and since catechol estrogens inhibit COMT, the present results suggest that endogenous synthesis of catechol estrogens may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uterine leiomyoma.

  3. Seasonal effects on human striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Baller, Erica B; Bronstein, Joel A; Masdeu, Joseph C; Berman, Karen F

    2010-11-01

    Past studies in rodents have demonstrated circannual variation in central dopaminergic activity as well as a host of compelling interactions between melatonin--a scotoperiod-responsive neurohormone closely tied to seasonal adaptation--and dopamine in the striatum and in midbrain neuronal populations with striatal projections. In humans, seasonal effects have been described for dopaminergic markers in CSF and postmortem brain, and there exists a range of affective, psychotic, and substance abuse disorders that have been associated with both seasonal symptomatic fluctuations and dopamine neurotransmission abnormalities. Together, these data indirectly suggest a potentially crucial link between circannual biorhythms and central dopamine systems. However, seasonal effects on dopamine function in the living, healthy human brain have never been tested. For this study, 86 healthy adults underwent (18)F-DOPA positron emission tomography scanning, each at a different time throughout the year. Striatal regions of interest (ROIs) were evaluated for differences in presynaptic dopamine synthesis, measured by the kinetic rate constant, K(i), between fall-winter and spring-summer scans. Analyses comparing ROI average K(i) values showed significantly greater putamen (18)F-DOPA K(i) in the fall-winter relative to the spring-summer group (p = 0.038). Analyses comparing voxelwise K(i) values confirmed this finding and evidenced intrastriatal localization of seasonal effects to the caudal putamen (p < 0.05, false-discovery rate corrected), a region that receives dopaminergic input predominantly from the substantia nigra. These data are the first to directly demonstrate a seasonal effect on striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis and merit future research aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms and implications for neuropsychiatric disease and new treatment approaches.

  4. [Cytokine release after administration of endotoxin containing vaccines

    PubMed

    Ecker, Martina; Müller, Günter

    1998-01-01

    Endotoxins from gram negative bacteria are known to be potent inducers for the synthesis and the release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The amount of these proinflammatory mediators in plasma from animals and human patients suffering of an acute infection or sepsis, however, is well correlated with the outcome and the prognosis of such diseases (Hack et al., 1989; Ostermann et al., 1997; Rigato, 1996). In connection with regular testing of vaccine lots we determine the release and the kinetic of TNF and IL-6 in piglets after immunisation with different vaccines containing endotoxin. The current results suggest that the amounts of both cytokines increased with elevated endotoxin concentration given with the doses. TNF peaked in plasma after one hour, IL-6 peaked between two and four hours p.appl. We did not find any influence of the gender of the animals. In contrast, the body weight seems to affect the cytokine release in different ways. Determination of cytokine changes in plasma is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of systemic reactions and supports data about the clinical and haematological signs.

  5. Cooperative Effects of Corticosteroids and Catecholamines upon Immune Deviation of the Type-1/Type-2 Cytokine Balance in Favor of Type-2 Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Sams, Clarence F.; Marshall, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show strong associations between stress and altered immune function. In vivo studies of chronic and acute stress have demonstrated that cognitive stressors are strongly correlated with high levels of catecholamines (CT) and corticosteroids (CS). Although both CS and CT individually can inhibit the production of T-helper 1 (TH1, type-1 like) cytokines and simultaneously promote the production of T-helper 2 (TH2, type-2 like) cytokines in antigen-specific and mitogen stimulated human leukocyte cultures in vitro, little attention has been focused on the effects of combination CT and CS in immune responses that may be more physiologically relevant. We therefore investigated the combined effects of in vitro CT and CS upon the type-1/type-2 cytokine balance of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a model to study the immunomodulatory effects of superimposed acute and chronic stress. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in type-1 cytokine production (IFN-gamma) and a significant increase in type-2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10) in our CS+CT incubated cultures when compared to either CT or CS agents alone. Furthermore, variable enhancement of type-1/type-2 immune deviation occurred depending upon when the CT was added. The data suggest that CS can increase the sensitivity of PBMC to the immunomodulatory effects of CT and establishes an in vitro model to study the combined effects of in vivo type-1/type-2 cytokine alterations observed in acute and chronic stress.

  6. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. PMID:26640326

  7. Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induce an inflammatory cytokine response by cultured human cells through the paracrine action of cytolytically released interleukin-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, L; Reed, S L; Smith, J R; Kagnoff, M F

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica results in a high mortality worldwide. To initiate infection, E. histolytica trophozoites in the bowel lumen penetrate the epithelium, and cause extensive lysis of host cells. The acute amebic lesions in animal models are characterized by infiltration with inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils. The acute host response is likely important for determining whether the infection will spread systemically, but little is known regarding the signals which initiate an acute inflammatory response to E. histolytica. In the studies reported herein, we used an in vitro model system to define the proinflammatory signals produced by epithelial and other host cells in response to infection with E. histolytica trophozoites. Coculture of human epithelial and stromal cells and cell lines with trophozoites is shown to increase expression and secretion of an array of chemoattractant and proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, GRO alpha, GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, and IL-6. Moreover, high-level secretion of those cytokines is regulated by the paracrine action of cytolytically released IL-1 alpha. A second mechanism for trophozoite-induced IL-8 production involves trophozoite-target cell contact via a galactose-inhibitable amebic adherence protein, and appears to be mediated through increased intracellular calcium levels. These studies define novel mechanisms through which acute inflammation can be initiated in the host in response to a cytolytic pathogen, such as E. histolytica. PMID:7657801

  8. Gardenia jasminoides Extract Attenuates the UVB-Induced Expressions of Cytokines in Keratinocytes and Indirectly Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Suh, Hwa-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of photoaging, which also involves inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The present study was undertaken to examine the UVB-protecting effects of yellow-colored plant extracts in cell-based assays. HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to UVB in the absence or presence of plant extracts, and resulting changes in cell viability and inflammatory cytokine expression were measured. Of the plant extracts tested, Gardenia jasminoides extract showed the lowest cytotoxicity and dose-dependently enhanced the viabilities of UVB-exposed cells. Gardenia jasminoides extract also attenuated the mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HaCaT cells stimulated by UVB. Conditioned medium from UVB-exposed HaCaT cells was observed to stimulate MMP-1 protein expression in human dermal fibroblasts, and this effect was much smaller for the conditioned medium of HaCaT cells exposed to UVB in the presence of Gardenia jasminoides extract. Gardenia jasminoides extract also exhibited antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects in HaCaT cells exposed to UVB. These results indicated that UVB-induced injury and inflammatory responses of skin cells can be attenuated by yellow-colored plant extracts, such as Gardenia jasminoides extract. PMID:24711853

  9. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca²⁺ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca(2+) signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca(2+) signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca(2+) signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca(2+) pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca(2+) response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca(2+) signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca(2+) signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. PMID:26640326

  10. Molecular farming of human cytokines and blood products from plants: challenges in biosynthesis and detection of plant-produced recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Nicolau B; Vianna, Giovanni R; da Almeida Lima, Thaina; Rech, Elíbio

    2014-01-01

    Plants have emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional mammalian cell cultures or microbial cell-based systems system for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Through recombinant DNA technology, plants can be engineered to produce large quantities of pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins of high quality at low costs. The recombinant production, by transgenic plants, of therapeutic proteins normally present in human plasma, such as cytokines, coagulation factors, anticoagulants, and immunoglobulins, represents a response to the ongoing challenges in meeting the demand for therapeutic proteins to treat serious inherited or acquired bleeding and immunological diseases. As the clinical utilization of fractionated plasma molecules is limited by high production costs, using recombinant biopharmaceuticals derived from plants represents a feasible alternative to provide efficient treatment. Plant-derived pharmaceuticals also reduce the potential risks to patients of infection with pathogens or unwanted immune responses due to immunogenic antigens. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in molecular farming of cytokines. We also examine the technological basis, upcoming challenges, and perspectives for the biosynthesis and detection of these molecules in different plant production platforms. PMID:24376137

  11. Cytokine-independent growth and clonal expansion of a primary human CD8+ T-cell clone following retroviral transduction with the IL-15 gene.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cary; Jones, Stephanie A; Cohen, Cyrille J; Zheng, Zhili; Kerstann, Keith; Zhou, Juhua; Robbins, Paul F; Peng, Peter D; Shen, Xinglei; Gomes, Theotonius J; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Munroe, David J; Stewart, Claudia; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2007-06-15

    Malignancies arising from retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells have been reported in animal models and human gene therapy trials. Whether mature lymphocytes are susceptible to insertional mutagenesis is unknown. We have characterized a primary human CD8(+) T-cell clone, which exhibited logarithmic ex vivo growth in the absence of exogenous cytokine support for more than 1 year after transduction with a murine leukemia virus-based vector encoding the T-cell growth factor IL-15. Phenotypically, the clone was CD28(-), CD45RA(-), CD45RO(+), and CD62L(-), a profile consistent with effector memory T lymphocytes. After gene transfer with tumor-antigen-specific T-cell receptors, the clone secreted IFN-gamma upon encountering tumor targets, providing further evidence that they derived from mature lymphocytes. Gene-expression analyses revealed no evidence of insertional activation of genes flanking the retroviral insertion sites. The clone exhibited constitutive telomerase activity, and the presence of autocrine loop was suggested by impaired cell proliferation following knockdown of IL-15R alpha expression. The generation of this cell line suggests that nonphysiologic expression of IL-15 can result in the long-term in vitro growth of mature human T lymphocytes. The cytokine-independent growth of this line was a rare event that has not been observed in other IL-15 vector transduction experiments or with any other integrating vector system. It does not appear that the retroviral vector integration sites played a role in the continuous growth of this cell clone, but this remains under investigation.

  12. C1q Differentially Modulates Phagocytosis and Cytokine Responses during Ingestion of Apoptotic Cells by Human Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Deborah A.; Laust, Amanda K.; Nelson, Edward L.; Tenner, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is also a pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. C1q deficiency in humans leads to development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, and it has been speculated that impaired clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to disease development. Since phagocytes initiate specific and appropriate immune responses as a result of initial ligand-receptor interactions, regulation of gene expression by C1q may also contribute to the sculpting of an immune response to the ingested “self-Ags.” In this study, the role of C1q in apoptotic cell clearance and subsequent modulation of cytokine release by phagocytes was assessed including donor matched human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), and dendritic cells (DCs). First, C1q binding is much greater to late compared with early apoptotic cells. Second, C1q binding to apoptotic cells significantly enhanced the levels of ingestion by monocytes but had no effect on HMDM and DC uptake. Third, in the presence of serum, C1q bound to apoptotic cells, activated the complement pathway, leading to C3b deposition, and enhancement of uptake of apoptotic cells by monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs. Finally, although C1q, either immobilized on a plate or bound to apoptotic cells, modulates the LPS-induced cytokine levels released by human monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs toward a more limited immune response, both the degree and direction of modulation differed significantly depending on the differentiation state of the phagocyte, providing further evidence of the integration of these cell- and environment-specific signals in determining appropriate immune responses. PMID:19864605

  13. Cytokine production by human epithelial and endothelial cells following exposure to oral viridans streptococci involves lectin interactions between bacteria and cell surface receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Vernier, A; Diab, M; Soell, M; Haan-Archipoff, G; Beretz, A; Wachsmann, D; Klein, J P

    1996-01-01

    In order to examine the possible implication of human epithelial and endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with oral viridans streptococci, we tested the immunomodulatory effects of 11 representative strains of oral viridans streptococci on human epithelial KB cells and endothelial cells. We then examined the possible role of two major adhesins from oral viridans streptococci, protein I/II and rhamnose-glucose polymers (RGPs), in this process. In this study we demonstrate that oral viridans streptococci are potent stimulators of interleukin-8 (IL-8) production from KB cells and of IL-6 and IL-8 production from endothelial cells. The ability of protein I/II and RGPs to contribute to these effects was then examined. Using biotinylated protein I/IIf and RGPs from Streptococcus mutans OMZ 175, we showed that these adhesins bind to KB and endothelial cells through specific interactions and that the binding of these molecules initiates the release of IL-8 from KB cells and of IL-6 and IL-8 from endothelial cells. These results suggest that protein I/IIf and RGPs play an important role in the interactions between bacteria and KB and endothelial cells in that similar cytokine profiles are obtained when cells are stimulated with bacteria or surface components. We also provide evidence that protein I/IIf binds to and stimulates KB and endothelial cells through lectin interactions and that N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) and fucose present on cell surface glycoproteins may form the recognition site since binding and cytokine release can be inhibited by dispase and periodate treatment of cells and by NANA and fucose. These results demonstrate that oral viridans streptococci, probably by engaging two cell surface adhesins, exert immunomodulatory effects on human KB and endothelial cells. PMID:8757828

  14. IL22 Regulates Human Urothelial Cell Sensory and Innate Functions through Modulation of the Acetylcholine Response, Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Antimicrobial Peptides: Assessment of an In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phong T.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Zhang, Shubin; Campbell, Edward M.; Fok, Cynthia S.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brincat, Cynthia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Human urinary disorders are generally studied in rodent models due to limitations of functional in vitro culture models of primary human urothelial cells (HUCs). Current HUC culture models are often derived from immortalized cancer cell lines, which likely have functional characteristics differ from healthy human urothelium. Here, we described a simple explant culture technique to generate HUCs and assessed their in vitro functions. Using transmission electron microscopy, we assessed morphology and heterogeneity of the generated HUCs and characterized their intercellular membrane structural proteins relative to ex vivo urothelium tissue. We demonstrated that our cultured HUCs are free of fibroblasts. They are also heterogeneous, containing cells characteristic of both immature basal cells and mature superficial urothelial cells. The cultured HUCs expressed muscarinic receptors (MR1 and MR2), carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), immunoregulatory cytokines IL7, IL15, and IL23, as well as the chemokine CCL20. HUCs also expressed epithelial cell-specific molecules essential for forming intercellular structures that maintain the functional capacity to form the physiological barrier of the human bladder urothelium. A subset of HUCs, identified by the high expression of CD44, expressed the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) along with its co-receptor CD14. We demonstrated that HUCs express, at the mRNA level, both forms of the IL22 receptor, the membrane-associated (IL22RA1) and the secreted soluble (IL22RA2) forms; in turn, IL22 inhibited expression of MR1 and induced expression of CarAT and two antimicrobial peptides (S100A9 and lipocalin-2). While the cellular sources of IL22 have yet to be identified, the HUC cytokine and chemokine profiles support the concept that IL22-producing cells are present in the human bladder mucosa tissue and that IL22 plays a regulatory role in HUC functions. Thus, the described explant technique is clearly capable of generating functional HUCs

  15. IL22 regulates human urothelial cell sensory and innate functions through modulation of the acetylcholine response, immunoregulatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides: assessment of an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Le, Phong T; Pearce, Meghan M; Zhang, Shubin; Campbell, Edward M; Fok, Cynthia S; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brincat, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Human urinary disorders are generally studied in rodent models due to limitations of functional in vitro culture models of primary human urothelial cells (HUCs). Current HUC culture models are often derived from immortalized cancer cell lines, which likely have functional characteristics differ from healthy human urothelium. Here, we described a simple explant culture technique to generate HUCs and assessed their in vitro functions. Using transmission electron microscopy, we assessed morphology and heterogeneity of the generated HUCs and characterized their intercellular membrane structural proteins relative to ex vivo urothelium tissue. We demonstrated that our cultured HUCs are free of fibroblasts. They are also heterogeneous, containing cells characteristic of both immature basal cells and mature superficial urothelial cells. The cultured HUCs expressed muscarinic receptors (MR1 and MR2), carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), immunoregulatory cytokines IL7, IL15, and IL23, as well as the chemokine CCL20. HUCs also expressed epithelial cell-specific molecules essential for forming intercellular structures that maintain the functional capacity to form the physiological barrier of the human bladder urothelium. A subset of HUCs, identified by the high expression of CD44, expressed the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) along with its co-receptor CD14. We demonstrated that HUCs express, at the mRNA level, both forms of the IL22 receptor, the membrane-associated (IL22RA1) and the secreted soluble (IL22RA2) forms; in turn, IL22 inhibited expression of MR1 and induced expression of CarAT and two antimicrobial peptides (S100A9 and lipocalin-2). While the cellular sources of IL22 have yet to be identified, the HUC cytokine and chemokine profiles support the concept that IL22-producing cells are present in the human bladder mucosa tissue and that IL22 plays a regulatory role in HUC functions. Thus, the described explant technique is clearly capable of generating functional HUCs

  16. HDAC inhibitor SAHA normalizes the levels of VLCFAs in human skin fibroblasts from X-ALD patients and downregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Abcd1/2-silenced mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2011-11-01

    X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). The consistent metabolic abnormality in all forms of X-ALD is an inherited defect in the peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs >C22:0) and the resultant pathognomic accumulation of VLCFA. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)], and normalizing the peroxisomal β-oxidation, as well as the saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and monounsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by SAHA treatment. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes, we also examined the effects of SAHA in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. SAHA treatment decreased the inflammatory response as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-κB in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. These observations indicate that SAHA corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be an ideal drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans.

  17. Use of a SCID mouse/human lymphoma model to evaluate cytokine-induced killer cells with potent antitumor cell activity

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    C.B-17 severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, allow xenografts and, therefore, can be used to study the biology of human malignancies. Two different human B cell lymphoma cell lines, SU-DHL-4 and OCI-Ly8, which both harbor the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation, were injected into C.B-17 SCID mice. Mice injected intravenously or intraperitoneally developed tumors and died in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of tumor cells in various murine tissues could be demonstrated by a clonogenic tumor assay, staining of frozen sections with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a human B cell antigen (CD19), and with the polymerase chain reaction technique. A protocol using cytotoxic effector cells was developed and used to selectively deplete the tumor cells from bone marrow. These cells were developed by growing peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), anti- CD3 mAb, and interleukin 2 (IL-2). The timing of IFN-gamma treatment was critical and optimal if IFN-gamma was added before IL-2 treatment. The cells that were stimulated by IFN-gamma, followed by IL-2, could be expanded by treatment with a mAb directed against CD3. These cells could be further activated by IL-1, but not by tumor necrosis factor alpha. With this protocol, a tumor cell kill of 3 logs was obtained as measured by a clonogenic assay. Interestingly, despite their high cytotoxic activity against lymphoma cells, these cells had little toxicity against a subset of normal human hematopoietic precursor cells (granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units). These cells were further tested by treating murine bone marrow contaminated with the human lymphoma cell line SU-DHL-4, and injecting these cells into SCID mice to assay for tumor growth in vivo. The animals injected with bone marrow contaminated with SU-DHL-4 cells had enhanced survival if the bone marrow was treated with the cytokine-induced killer cells before

  18. Leptin stimulates protein synthesis-activating translation machinery in human trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Maymó, Julieta; Gambino, Yésica; Dueñas, José L; Goberna, Raimundo; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2009-11-01

    Leptin was originally considered as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy, particularly in placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone, mediating angiogenesis, growth, and immunomodulation. Leptin receptor (LEPR, also known as Ob-R) shows sequence homology to members of the class I cytokine receptor (gp130) superfamily. In fact, leptin may function as a proinflammatory cytokine. We have previously found that leptin is a trophic and mitogenic factor for trophoblastic cells. In order to further investigate the mechanism by which leptin stimulates cell growth in JEG-3 cells and trophoblastic cells, we studied the phosphorylation state of different proteins of the initiation stage of translation and the total protein synthesis by [(3)H]leucine incorporation in JEG-3 cells. We have found that leptin dose-dependently stimulates the phosphorylation and activation of the translation initiation factor EIF4E as well as the phosphorylation of the EIF4E binding protein EIF4EBP1 (PHAS-I), which releases EIF4E to form active complexes. Moreover, leptin dose-dependently stimulates protein synthesis, and this effect can be partially prevented by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PIK3) pathways. In conclusion, leptin stimulates protein synthesis, at least in part activating the translation machinery, via the activation of MAPK and PIK3 pathways.

  19. Cytokine response to vitamin E supplementation is dependent on pre-supplementation cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Belisle, Sarah E; Leka, Lynette S; Dallal, Gerard E; Jacques, Paul F; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ordovas, Jose M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested to improve immune response in the aged in part by altering cytokine production. However, there is not a consensus regarding the effect of supplemental vitamin E on cytokine production in humans. There is evidence that baseline immune health can affect immune response to supplemental vitamin E in the elderly. Thus, the effect of vitamin E on cytokines may depend on their pre-supplementation cytokine response. Using data from a vitamin E intervention in elderly nursing home residents, we examined if the effect of vitamin E on ex vivo cytokine production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma depended on baseline cytokine production. We observed that the effect of vitamin E supplementation on cytokine production depended on pre-supplementation production of the respective cytokines. The interactions between vitamin E and baseline cytokine production were not explained by covariates known to impact cytokine production. Our results offer evidence that baseline cytokine production should be considered in studies that examine the effect of supplemental vitamin E on immune and inflammatory responses. Our results could have implications in designing clinical trials to determine the impact of vitamin E on conditions in which cytokines are implicated such as infections and atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Cytokine response to vitamin E supplementation is dependent on pre-supplementation cytokine levels

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, Sarah E.; Leka, Lynette S.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Jacques, Paul F.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ordovas, Jose M.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested to improve immune response in the aged in part by altering cytokine production. However, there is not a consensus regarding the effect of supplemental vitamin E on cytokine production in humans. There is evidence that baseline immune health can affect immune response to supplemental vitamin E in the elderly. Thus, the effect of vitamin E on cytokines may depend on their pre-supplementation cytokine response. Using data from a vitamin E intervention in elderly nursing home residents, we examined if the effect of vitamin E on ex vivo cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ depended on baseline cytokine production. . We observed that the effect of vitamin E supplementation on cytokine production depended on pre-supplementation production of the respective cytokines. The interactions between vitamin E and baseline cytokine production were not explained covariates known to impact cytokine production. Our results offer evidence that baseline cytokine production should be considered in studies that examine the effect of supplemental vitamin E on immune and inflammatory responses. Our results could have implications in designing clinical trials to determine the impact of vitamin E on conditions in which cytokines are implicated such as infections and atherosclerotic disease. PMID:19478423

  1. Correlation Between Human Tear Cytokine Levels and Cellular Corneal Changes in Patients With Bacterial Keratitis by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Calvacanti, Bernardo M.; Cruzat, Andrea; Qazi, Yureeda; Ishikawa, Shizu; Osuka, Akinori; Lederer, James; Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated bilateral tear cytokine levels in patients with unilateral bacterial keratitis (BK) as associated with in vivo confocal microscopic (IVCM) alterations in corneal nerves and dendritiform immune cells (DCs). Methods. A total of 54 (13 BK, 13 contralateral, 28 healthy controls) tear samples was collected prospectively and analyzed by multiplex microbeads assay. The IVCM of the central cornea was performed on the same day, and assessed for corneal nerve and DC alterations. Results. Interleukin-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly elevated only in affected eyes (66.6 ± 26.8, 7174 ± 2430, and 810 ± 315 ρg/mL, respectively; P = 0.04, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively), compared to healthy controls (13.0 ± 4.0, 171.8 ± 32.1, and 56.5 ± 33.8 ρg/mL). Levels of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2), IL-10, and IL-17a were elevated only in contralateral eyes (813 ± 478, 86.7 ± 38.3, and 3350 ± 881 ρg/mL, respectively; P = 0.02, P = 0.01, and P = 0.04, respectively), compared to controls (73.7 ± 25.3, 17.5 ± 4.9, and 1350 ± 337 ρg/mL). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 was significantly elevated in affected (551 ± 231 ρg/mL, P = 0.02) and contralateral unaffected (545 ± 298 ρg/mL, P = 0.03) eyes compared to controls (31.3 ± 12.4 ρg/mL). The density of DCs was significantly increased in affected (226.9 ± 37.3 cells/mm2, P < 0.001) and unaffected (122.3 ± 23.7 cells/mm2, P < 0.001) eyes compared to controls (22.7 ± 5.9 cells/mm2). Sub-basal nerve density significantly decreased in affected (3337 ± 1615 μm/mm2, P < 0.001) and contralateral (13,230 ± 1635 μm/mm2, P < 0.001) eyes compared to controls (21,200 ± 545 μm/mm2). Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly correlated with DC density (R = 0.40, R = 0.55, and R = 0.31, all P < 0.02) and nerve density (R = −0.30, R = −0.53, and R = −0.39, all P < 0.01). Conclusions. Proinflammatory tear cytokines are elevated bilaterally in patients with

  2. Wheat germ agglutinin and other selected lectins increase synthesis of decay-accelerating factor in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R W; Granzow, C A; Siegel, M I; Egan, R W; Billah, M M

    1991-09-15

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF) is a cell-surface phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that protects the cell from inadvertent complement attack by binding to and inactivating C3 and C5 convertases. We have measured DAF on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by immunoradiometric assay after its removal by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C or Nonidet P-40 detergent extraction and have previously demonstrated that DAF synthesis can be stimulated by phorbol ester activation of protein kinase C. We now report that although stimulation (4-48 h) of HUVEC with various cytokines, including TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma, did not alter DAF levels, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) (5-50 micrograms/ml), a lectin specific for binding N-acetyl neuraminic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine residues, increased DAF levels fivefold when incubated with HUVEC for 12 to 24 h. The lectins Con A and PHA also stimulated DAF expression twofold, whereas a number of others including Ulex europaeus, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I, and Ricinus communis agglutinin I, which bind to endothelial cells, were inactive. The increase in DAF by WGA was inhibited by N-acetyl glucosamine (10-50 mM) but by neither N-acetyl neuraminic acid nor removal of surface N-acetyl neuraminic acid with neuraminidase. However, succinylated WGA, which has unaltered affinity for N-acetyl glucosamine but not longer binds N-acetyl neuraminic acid, was inactive. These data suggest that the binding of WGA to sugar residues alone is not sufficient to trigger DAF expression and that occupation of additional, specific sites are required. The increase in DAF levels on HUVEC was blocked by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. We conclude that continuous occupation by WGA of specific binding sites on HUVEC triggers events leading to DAF synthesis. This unique, long term stimulation of endothelial cells by lectins may be relevant to cell:cell interactions at the endothelium.

  3. Illumination from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) disrupts pathological cytokines expression and activates relevant signal pathways in primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ye; Xie, Chen; Gu, Yangshun; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the aged people. The latest systemic review of epidemiological investigations revealed that excessive light exposure increases the risk of AMD. With the drastically increasing use of high-energy light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light in our domestic environment nowadays, it is supposed to pose a potential oxidative threat to ocular health. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major ocular source of pathological cytokines, which regulate local inflammation and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that high-energy LED light might disrupt the pathological cytokine expression of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD. Primary human RPE cells were isolated from eyecups of normal eye donors and seeded into plate wells for growing to confluence. Two widely used multichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2954 and 7378 K were used in this experiment. The confluent primary RPE cells were under white LEDs light exposure until 24 h. VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs were measured using an ELISA kit and RT-PCR, respectively. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Akt, Janus kinase (JAK)2 and Nuclear factor (NF)-κB signal pathways after LEDs illumination were evaluated by western blotting analysis. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using chloromethyl- 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Inhibitors of relevant signal pathways and anti-oxidants were added to the primary RPE cells before LEDs illumination to evaluate their biological functions. We found that 7378 K light, but not 2954 K upregulated the VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and downregulated MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs levels in a time-dependent manner. In parallel, initial activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signal pathways were also observed after 7378 K light exposure. Mechanistically, antioxidants for eliminating reactive oxygen

  4. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha formation in human decidua. Potential role of cytokines in infection-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, M L; Cox, S M; Beutler, B; Milewich, L; MacDonald, P C

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of an investigation to evaluate the hypothesis that bacterial toxins (LPS or lipoteichoic acid), acting on macrophage-like uterine decidua to cause increased formation of cytokines, may be involved in the pathogenesis of infection-associated preterm labor. We found that cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was synthesized and secreted into the culture medium by human decidual cells and explants in response to treatment with LPS. LPS treatment also caused an increase in PGF2 alpha production by decidual cells and explants. In amnion cells in monolayer culture, TNF-alpha stimulated PGE2 formation, and TNF-alpha was cytostatic (inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA) but not cytolytic in amnion cells. TNF-alpha was not detectable (less than 0.34 ng/ml) in the amniotic fluid of normal pregnancies at midtrimester or at term before or after the onset of labor (n = 44); but TNF-alpha was present at concentrations between 2.8 and 22.3 ng/ml in amniotic fluids of 4 of 20 pregnancies with intact membranes complicated by preterm labor (less than 34 wk gestational age). LPS was present in 10 of the 20 amniotic fluids of preterm labor pregnancies, including all four in which TNF-alpha was present. Bacteria were identified in only one of the four LPS-positive, TNF-alpha-positive fluids. Cytokine formation in macrophage-like decidua may serve a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, including increased prostaglandin formation and premature rupture of the membranes. Images PMID:2913048

  5. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  6. Biphasic expression of two paracrine melanogenic cytokines, stem cell factor and endothelin-1, in ultraviolet B-induced human melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Akira; Kobayashi, Akemi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Imokawa, Genji

    2004-12-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been reported to be up-regulated at the protein and gene levels in human epidermis after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and to play central roles in UVB-induced pigmentation. However, little is known about the time sequence of SCF and ET-1 expression in UVB-exposed human epidermis and the coordination of their roles during epidermal pigmentation. To clarify such parameters in UVB-exposed human skin, we measured the expression patterns of SCF and ET-1 (as well as of their corresponding receptors) at the gene level at various times during UVB-induced human pigmentation. When human forearm skin was exposed to UVB radiation at two minimal erythemal doses, the expression of SCF mRNA transcripts was significantly enhanced at 3 days after irradiation with an early decrease and subsequently constant expression of SCF receptor (c-KIT) mRNA transcripts. In contrast, up-regulation of ET-1 and endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) mRNA expression was synchronized at 5 to 10 days after irradiation in concert with an increased expression of tyrosinase mRNA transcripts and the increase in pigmentation. In parallel the expression of tyrosinase and ET(B)R proteins as well as ET-1 was up-regulated at 7 to 10 days after irradiation, whereas KIT protein decreased at 3 days after irradiation and returned to the nonirradiated control level at 5 days after irradiation. When cultured human melanocytes were treated with human recombinant SCF, ET(B)R protein expression and the binding of (125)I-labeled ET-1 to the ET(B)R were significantly increased, further suggesting the preferential and coordinated role of early expression of SCF in UVB-induced melanogenesis. These findings suggest that SCF/KIT signaling is predominantly involved in the early phase of UVB-induced human pigmentation during which it stimulates the ET-1/ET(B)R linkage that is associated with the later phase of UVB-induced melanogenesis.

  7. A Heterodimeric Cytokine, Consisting of IL-17A and IL-17F, Promotes Migration and Capillary-Like Tube Formation of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Numasaki, Muneo; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Ohrui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17 family, consisting of six homodimeric cytokines IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, and IL-17F, mediates a variety of biological activities including regulation of chemokine secretion and angiogenesis. Among the IL-17 family members, IL-17A and IL-17E/IL-25 are angiogenesis stimulators, while IL-17B and IL-17F are angiogenesis inhibitors. Recently, IL-17A/F heterodimer, comprised of the IL-17A and IL-17F subunits, was found as another member of the IL-17 cytokine family. However, to date, it has been unknown whether IL-17A/F has biological actions to affect the angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial functions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the biological effects of IL-17A/F on the growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. Recombinant IL-17A/F protein had no direct effects on the growth of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), whereas, after 4-hour incubation in a modified Boyden Chemotaxicell chamber, IL-17A/F significantly induced migration of HMVECs over a wide range of doses via the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. We further investigated the biological effect of IL-17A/F on capillary-like tube formation using a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), which mimicked the in vivo microenvironment. In this co-culture system, IL-17A/F significantly promoted capillary-like endothelial tube formation in a dose-dependent fashion via the PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Additionally, IL-17A/F up-regulated secretion of angiogenic growth factors such as IL-8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α by HDFs. These findings identify a novel biological function for IL-17A/F as an indirect angiogenic agent. PMID:27594509

  8. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L., Papaveraceae) Enhances Proliferation and Cytokine Production by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in an In Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Flinn, Gina N; McCann, Dustin A; Kohut, Marian L; Shearn, Colin T

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that phytomedicinal preparations from bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.) may harbor immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of alcohol tinctures and water infusions generated from bloodroot flowers, leaves, rhizomes, and roots on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production and proliferation in vitro. PBMCs were collected from 16 healthy young adults and cultured with bloodroot extracts or respective controls for interleukins-1β, -2, -8, -10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor. Proliferative capabilities of both PBMCs and K562 cells (an immortalized human myelogenous leukemia cell line) following extract treatment were determined. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to quantify berberine, chelerythrine, and sanguinarine in the extracts and to correlate extract composition with observed effects. Overall, infusions demonstrated greater immunomodulatory capabilities than tinctures, and flower- and root-based extracts showed greater immunomodulatory properties than leaf- or rhizome-based extracts (some effects seen with root-based extracts may be due to endotoxin). Several extracts were able to augment PBMC proliferation and diminish K562 proliferation, suggesting a selective anti-carcinogenic activity. The rhizome alcohol tincture had a markedly stronger effect against K562 cells than other extracts. Chelerythrine, sanguinarine, and endotoxin (but not berberine) sometimes correlated with observed effects. The in vitro activities demonstrated here suggest bloodroot extracts may have potential as therapeutic immunomodulators.

  9. A Human Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 Fab Fragment Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Cai, Binggang; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Zhou, Linfu; Yang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Changjun; Nie, Shinan; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical and experimental studies suggest that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling activation is critical in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, studies examining the role of specific TLR4 inhibitor are still lacking. The present study was aimed to prepare a human anti-TLR4 Fab fragment, named hTLR4-Fab01, and to explore its immune activity. We screened the positive clone of anti-human TLR4 phagemid from a human phage-display antibody library using recombinant TLR4 protein, which was used as template cDNA for the amplification of variable regions of the heavy (VH) chain and light chain (VL), then coupled with highly conserved regions of the heavy chain domain 1 (CH1) and the light chain (CL), respectively. Thus, the prokaryotic expression vector pETDuet-1 of hTLR4-Fab01 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. The characteristic of hTLR4-Fab01 was examined by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, affinity and kinetics assay. Further, our data demonstrate that hTLR4-Fab01 could specifically bind to TLR4, and its treatment obviously attenuated the proinflammatory effect, characterized by less LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 production in human macrophages. In conclusion, we have successfully prepared the hTLR4-Fab01 with efficient activity for blocking LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the hTLR4-Fab01 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26785354

  10. A Human Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 Fab Fragment Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maorong; Zheng, Wenkai; Zhu, Xuhui; Xu, Jing; Cai, Binggang; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Zhou, Linfu; Yang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Changjun; Nie, Shinan; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical and experimental studies suggest that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling activation is critical in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, studies examining the role of specific TLR4 inhibitor are still lacking. The present study was aimed to prepare a human anti-TLR4 Fab fragment, named hTLR4-Fab01, and to explore its immune activity. We screened the positive clone of anti-human TLR4 phagemid from a human phage-display antibody library using recombinant TLR4 protein, which was used as template cDNA for the amplification of variable regions of the heavy (VH) chain and light chain (VL), then coupled with highly conserved regions of the heavy chain domain 1 (CH1) and the light chain (CL), respectively. Thus, the prokaryotic expression vector pETDuet-1 of hTLR4-Fab01 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. The characteristic of hTLR4-Fab01 was examined by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, affinity and kinetics assay. Further, our data demonstrate that hTLR4-Fab01 could specifically bind to TLR4, and its treatment obviously attenuated the proinflammatory effect, characterized by less LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 production in human macrophages. In conclusion, we have successfully prepared the hTLR4-Fab01 with efficient activity for blocking LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the hTLR4-Fab01 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Circulating follicular T helper cells and cytokine profile in humans following vaccination with the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Fouzia; Beck, Kevin; Paolino, Kristopher M.; Phillips, Revell; Waters, Norman C.; Regules, Jason A.; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S.

    2016-01-01

    The most recent Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreak was the largest and most widespread in recorded history, emphasizing the need for an effective vaccine. Here, we analyzed human cellular immune responses induced by a single dose of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine candidate, which showed significant protective efficacy in endemic populations in Guinea. This is the first in-depth characterization of ZEBOV-GP specific, circulating follicular T cells (cTfh). Since antibody titers correlated with protection in preclinical models of ZEBOV infection, Tfh were predicted to correlate with protection. Indeed, the ZEBOV-specific cTfh data correlated with antibody titers in human vaccines and unexpectedly with the Tfh17 subset. The combination of two cutting edge technologies allowed the immuno-profiling of rare cell populations and may help elucidate correlates of protection for a variety of vaccines. PMID:27323685

  12. Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Girolamo Jose; Sanchez, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Jose Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF) are secretory products of mucin producing cells. They play a key role in the maintenance of the surface integrity of oral mucosa and enhance healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa by a process called restitution. TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2), and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). They have an important and necessary role in epithelial restitution within the gastrointestinal tract. Significant amounts of TFF are present in human milk. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between TFF3 isolated from human breast milk and levels of cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and defensins (hBD2 and hBD4) in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 treated with trefoil. Samples of human milk were collected within 2-4 weeks postpartum from healthy human mothers (18-30-years-old) by manual breast massage, and TFF3 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, isoelectric precipitation, DEAE-chromatography, and gel filtration. In this work we measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of cytokines and defensins by immunoassay (ELISA) and semiquantitative RT-PCR technique, respectively. Also we measured the peroxidase activity. We present the first evidence of human milk TFF3 purification. Here we show that the presence of TFF3 isolated from milk strongly correlates with downregulation of IL8 and IL6 in human intestinal epithelial cells. On the other hand, TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2) and beta defensins 4 (hBD4). These findings suggest that TFF can activate intestinal epithelial cells and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies by inducing the production of peptides related to innate defence, such as defensins.

  13. The effect of kynurenic acid on the synthesis of selected cytokines by murine splenocytes – in vitro and ex vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Siwicki, Andrzej K.; Wójcik, Roman M.; Turski, Waldemar A.; Kaczorek, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a secondary product of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, known mainly as an endogenous neuroprotectant, shows also immunotropic properties. Some quantities of KYNA are present in food and are effectively absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the spleen is an important target of dietary immunomodulators, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of exogenous KYNA on murine splenocytes. Splenocytes isolated from adult BALB/c mice were used in the study. Firstly, the effect of increasing KYNA concentrations (0-5 mM) on the viability, and proliferative and cytokine response (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) of murine splenocytes under in vitro conditions was determined. Then, proliferative and cytokine responses were determined in cells derived from animals receiving kynurenic acid in drinking water at concentrations of 2.5, 25, or 250 mg/l for 7-14 days. Cytokine levels were measured using commercial immunoassay (ELISA) kits, and cell viability and proliferation was determined with MTT reduction assay. Exogenous KYNA was characterised by a low level of cytotoxicity towards murine splenocytes, and was well tolerated by the animals receiving it in drinking water. As expected, it exhibited anti-inflammatory action towards the activated splenocytes, under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Surprisingly, however, KYNA itself influenced the activity of resting, non-stimulated cells, exerting an immunostimulant effect in vitro, and an immunosuppressive effect under ex vivo conditions. The obtained results indicate not only anti-inflammatory, but also more complex, immunomodulating properties of KYNA, which require more detailed investigation. PMID:27095921

  14. Human gammadelta T cells from G-CSF-mobilized donors retain strong tumoricidal activity and produce immunomodulatory cytokines after clinical-scale isolation.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mario; Barfield, Raymond C; Iyengar, Rekha; Gatewood, Janet; Müller, Ingo; Holladay, Martha S; Houston, Jim; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    Human gammadelta T cells are a small fraction of T cells that have been shown to exert major histocompatibility (MHC)-unrestricted natural cytotoxicity against a variety of solid tumors and some subsets of leukemias and lymphomas. They are also involved in the immune response to certain bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and expand significantly in CMV- or HSV-infected organ allografts. They are able to mediate antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and are not alloreactive, which makes them attractive candidates for cell-based immunotherapy. However, their frequency in peripheral blood is low and ex vivo expansion of gammadelta T cells is labor-extensive, does not always yield cells with full innate cytotoxic power, and has the potential for microbial contamination. Therefore, the authors developed a clinical-scale, automated cell purification method for the efficient enrichment of gammadelta T cells from leukapheresis products. Six leukapheresis products were purified for gammadelta T cells using a single-step immunomagnetic method. Purity and phenotype were assessed by flow cytometry. A standard Europium release assay was performed to determine the cytotoxic capacity of the cells. Cytokine production was measured using a multiplex sandwich immunoassay. The mean percentage of gammadelta T cells in the final product was 91%, with an average recovery of 63%. The cells showed a high co-expression of CD8, CD56, CD28, and CD11b/CD18. In some products an unusually high proportion of Vgamma9Vdelta1 T cells was found. The isolated cells were cytotoxic against the neuroblastoma cell line NB1691 and the erythroleukemic line K562 in vitro. They were able to produce a variety of immunomodulatory cytokines such as IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and MIP-1beta, but also GM-CSF and G-CSF when co-incubated in culture with and without various stimuli. In summary, the authors describe a rapid, automated, and efficient method for the large-scale enrichment of human gammadelta T cells. The

  15. Cytokine Regulation of Metastasis and Tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yao, M; Brummer, G; Acevedo, D; Cheng, N

    2016-01-01

    The human body combats infection and promotes wound healing through the remarkable process of inflammation. Inflammation is characterized by the recruitment of stromal cell activity including recruitment of immune cells and induction of angiogenesis. These cellular processes are regulated by a class of soluble molecules called cytokines. Based on function, cell target, and structure, cytokines are subdivided into several classes including: interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines. While cytokines regulate normal physiological processes, chronic deregulation of cytokine expression and activity contributes to cancer in many ways. Gene polymorphisms of all types of cytokines are associated with risk of disease development. Deregulation RNA and protein expression of interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines have been detected in many solid tumors and hematopoetic malignancies, correlating with poor patient prognosis. The current body of literature suggests that in some tumor types, interleukins and chemokines work against the human body by signaling to cancer cells and remodeling the local microenvironment to support the growth, survival, and invasion of primary tumors and enhance metastatic colonization. Some lymphokines are downregulated to suppress tumor progression by enhancing cytotoxic T cell activity and inhibiting tumor cell survival. In this review, we will describe the structure/function of several cytokine families and review our current understanding on the roles and mechanisms of cytokines in tumor progression. In addition, we will also discuss strategies for exploiting the expression and activity of cytokines in therapeutic intervention. PMID:27613135

  16. A correlative review of acetylcholine synthesis in relation to histopathology of the human syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, M

    1986-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the human placental villous tissue. An attempt was made to correlate the ACh synthesis in different pathological placentas with the histopathology of the syncytiotrophoblast available in the literature. The ACh synthesis was estimated by 'in vitro' incubation of the placental tissue. Full-term (36-38 weeks) vaginally delivered pathological placentas and hydatid moles (28 weeks) were compared with normal placentas of the same age. The results suggested that: ACh synthesis is normal in states with normal syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., healthy greater than 42 week placenta, placenta praevia, twins, and hydramnios); high ACh synthesis is correlated with hormonal and immunological changes (e.g., diabetes mellitus and Rh-incompatibility); low levels of ACh synthesis occur in states with moderate syncytial degeneration (e.g., nephrotic syndrome and essential hypertension); very poor ACh synthesis occurs when syncytial degeneration is advanced (e.g., preeclampsia, eclampsia, intra-uterine death of fetus, vesicles of hydatid mole and placental tissue infarcts); and ACh synthesis is nil in material that is completely devoid of syncytiotrophoblast (e.g., placental tissue-like material, which rarely appears in between the vesicles of hydatid moles). In essence, the degree of reduction in ACh synthesis seems to correlate with the state of the syncytiotrophoblast in various pathological conditions; and ACh synthesis is greatly reduced during syncytial degeneration. It is concluded that the capacity of the placenta to synthesize ACh reflects the state of the syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:3799152

  17. Protein-bound polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor attenuate LPS-induced synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate PBMCs proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Piotrowski, Jakub; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-10-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP) isolated from Coriolus versicolor (CV) are classified as biological response modifiers capable of exhibiting various biological activities, such as anti-tumour and immunopotentiating activity. Since we have found in vivo studies that the tested PBP induced prolongation of endotoxin fever in rats, the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the PBP on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results showed that the PBP affect the immunomodulating properties of the LPS-treated PBMCs by the enhancement of mitogenic activity and attenuation of the LPS-induced production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, the tested polysaccharides peptides themselves also exhibit immunomodulatory properties manifested in the increased cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from PBMCs. The effect of PBP on the both phenomena was time-dependent and occurred in the U-shaped dose response manner. These findings are significant when considering the use of commercially available PBP from CV extract by cancer patients suffering from immunodeficiency, who may experience microbial infections during therapy.

  18. Protein-bound polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor attenuate LPS-induced synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate PBMCs proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Piotrowski, Jakub; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-10-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP) isolated from Coriolus versicolor (CV) are classified as biological response modifiers capable of exhibiting various biological activities, such as anti-tumour and immunopotentiating activity. Since we have found in vivo studies that the tested PBP induced prolongation of endotoxin fever in rats, the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the PBP on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results showed that the PBP affect the immunomodulating properties of the LPS-treated PBMCs by the enhancement of mitogenic activity and attenuation of the LPS-induced production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, the tested polysaccharides peptides themselves also exhibit immunomodulatory properties manifested in the increased cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from PBMCs. The effect of PBP on the both phenomena was time-dependent and occurred in the U-shaped dose response manner. These findings are significant when considering the use of commercially available PBP from CV extract by cancer patients suffering from immunodeficiency, who may experience microbial infections during therapy. PMID:27594322

  19. Tropism and Induction of Cytokines in Human Embryonic-Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors upon Inoculation with Highly- Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Praphet, Reunkeaw; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction caused by neurovirulent influenza viruses is a dreaded complication of infection, and may play a role in some neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson-like diseases and encephalitis lethargica. Although CNS infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been demonstrated, it is unknown whether H5N1 infects neural progenitor cells, nor whether such infection plays a role in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. To pursue this question, we infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells in vitro with H5N1 virus, and studied the resulting cytopathology, cytokine expression, and genes involved in the differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (BG01) were maintained and differentiated into the neural progenitors, and then infected by H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Thailand/CUK2/04) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. At 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-infection (hpi), cytopathic effects were observed. Then cells were characterized by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, supernatants quantified for virus titers, and sampled cells studied for candidate genes.The hNPCs were susceptible to H5N1 virus infection as determined by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. The infection was characterized by a significant up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression, while expressions of IFN-α2, IFN-β1, IFN-γ and IL-6 remained unchanged compared to mock-infected controls. Moreover, H5N1 infection did not appear to alter expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers of hNPCs, such as β-III tubulin and GFAP, respectively. The results indicate that hNPCs support H5N1 virus infection and may play a role in the neuroinflammation during acute viral encephalitis. PMID:26274828

  20. Human H7N9 and H5N1 Influenza Viruses Differ in Induction of Cytokines and Tissue Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Kercher, Lisa; Cline, Troy; Freiden, Pamela; Duan, Susu; Vogel, Peter; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Malik; Thomas, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since emerging in 2013, the avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses have resulted in over 400 human infections, leading to 115 deaths to date. Although the epidemiology differs from human highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus infections, there is a similar rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of these studies was to compare the pathological and immunological characteristics of a panel of human H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in vitro and in vivo. Although there were similarities between particular H5N1 and H7N9 viruses, including association between lethal disease and spread to the alveolar spaces and kidney, there were also strain-specific differences. Both H5N1 and H7N9 viruses are capable of causing lethal infections, with mortality correlating most strongly with wider distribution of viral antigen in the lungs, rather than with traditional measures of virus titer and host responses. Strain-specific differences included hypercytokinemia in H5N1 infections that was not seen with the H7N9 infections regardless of lethality. Conversely, H7N9 viruses showed a greater tropism for respiratory epithelium covering nasal passages and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue than H5N1 viruses, which may explain the enhanced transmission in ferret models. Overall, these studies highlight some distinctive properties of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in different in vitro and in vivo models. IMPORTANCE The novel avian-origin H7N9 pandemic represents a serious threat to public health. The ability of H7N9 to cause serious lung pathology, leading in some cases to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, is of particular concern. Initial reports of H7N9 infection compared them to infections caused by highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the pathology and immunological response to infection with H7N9 compared to HPAI H5N1 viruses. We compared these responses in both in vitro and in vivo

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of the herbicide propanil on cytokine production in humans: In vivo and in vitro exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Corsini, Emanuela . E-mail: emanuela.corsini@unimi.it; Codeca, Ilaria; Mangiaratti, Simona; Birindelli, Sarah; Minoia, Claudio; Turci, Roberta; Viviani, Barbara; Facchi, Alessandra; Vitelli, Nora; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2007-07-15

    Propanil, 3,4-dichloropropionanilide, a commonly used herbicide, has been shown to induce effects on the mouse immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the immunotoxicity of propanil in occupationally exposed agricultural workers and to characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Seven agricultural workers intermittently exposed to propanil and 7 healthy matched controls entered the study. Data were collected through physical examination, and laboratory investigations addressed at the main serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. The levels of exposure were assessed by determining the urine concentration of the major propanil metabolite, 3,4-dichloroaniline. The investigation of serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters suggested that propanil exposure results in a modest immunomodulatory effect, characterized by an increase in the plasma level of IgG{sub 1} and in LPS-induced IL-6 release and, by a reduction in PHA-induced IL-10 and IFN release, associated with a reduced IFN/IL-4 ratio. As observed, following in vivo exposure, in vitro treatment of human peripheral blood leukocytes with propanil resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in PHA-induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production, while LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} production was not affected indicating a direct effect of propanil on selected immune parameters. We demonstrated that propanil interfering with PHA-induced intracellular calcium increase modulated IL-10 and IFN-gamma transcription and translation, which indicates that propanil acts on early events triggered by PHA. Overall, our results suggest that human exposure to propanil has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out that the inhibition of the PHA-induced intracellular calcium rise is an important target of propanil. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying propanil-induced immunotoxicity.

  2. delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: effect on macromolecular synthesis in human and other mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Blevins, R D; Regan, J D

    1976-03-11

    The principal psychoactive component of marihuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This compound at 10(-5) molar concentration in the medium of human cell cultures appeared to inhibit DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis by 50, 40, and 30% respectively, as measured by incorporation of radioactive precursors into acid-insoluble cell fractions in human diploid fibroblasts, human neuroblastoma cells, and mouse neuroblastoma cells. While delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited semiconservative DNA synthesis, it had no effect on DNA repair synthesis in human cells as assayed by the photolysis of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA during repair after ultraviolet radiation damage. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol also had no effect on rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks induced by gamma-rays. The nonspecificity of the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis by delta-9-THC suggested a possible interference with uptake of radioactive precursors. However, experimentation has shown that this depression of macromolecular synthesis cannot be accounted for by reduced transport of radioactive precursors into the cell because the rate of transport of these precursors into the cell is essentially the same in the presence or absence of delta-9-THC. Pool sizes of macromolecular precursors as measured radioisotopically (3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine, 14C-leucine) appear to be reduced about 50%, and this reduced pool size could fully account for the reduced macromolecular synthesis seen in the presence of delta-9-THC. We do not know what causes this apparent reduction of pool sizes in the presence of delta-9-THC.

  3. Total synthesis of the α-subunit of human glycoprotein hormones: toward fully synthetic homogeneous human follicle-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Aussedat, Baptiste; Fasching, Bernhard; Johnston, Eric; Sane, Neeraj; Nagorny, Pavel; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2012-02-22

    Described herein is the first total chemical synthesis of the unique α-subunit of the human glycoprotein hormone (α-hGPH). Unlike the biologically derived glycoprotein hormones, which are isolated as highly complex mixtures of glycoforms, α-hGPH obtained by chemical synthesis contains discrete homogeneous glycoforms. Two such systems have been prepared. One contains the disaccharide chitobiose at the natural N-glycosylation sites. The other contains dodecamer oligosaccharides at these same sites. The dodecamer sugar is a consensus sequence incorporating the key features associated with human glycoproteins.

  4. Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentially Inhibit Cytokine Production by Peripheral Blood Monocytes Subpopulations and Myeloid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, Paula; Gomes, Joana; Pedrosa, Monia; Martinho, Antonio; Antunes, Brigida; Ribeiro, Tania; Santos, Francisco; Domingues, Rosario; Abecasis, Manuel; Trindade, Helder; Paiva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) rendered them an attractive therapeutic approach for immune disorders and an increasing body of evidence demonstrated their clinical value. However, the influence of MSC on the function of specific immune cell populations, namely, monocyte subpopulations, is not well elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of human bone marrow MSC on the cytokine and chemokine expression by peripheral blood classical, intermediate and nonclassical monocytes, and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon (IFN)γ. We found that MSC effectively inhibit tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and macrophage inflammatory protein- (MIP-) 1β protein expression in monocytes and mDC, without suppressing CCR7 and CD83 protein expression. Interestingly, mDC exhibited the highest degree of inhibition, for both TNF-α and MIP-1β, whereas the reduction of TNF-α expression was less marked for nonclassical monocytes. Similarly, MSC decreased mRNA levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in classical monocytes, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 in classical and nonclassical monocytes, and IL-1β and CXCL10 in mDC. MSC do not impair the expression of maturation markers in monocytes and mDC under our experimental conditions; nevertheless, they hamper the proinflammatory function of monocytes and mDC, which may impede the development of inflammatory immune responses. PMID:26060498

  5. Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanović, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca2+, and promoted increased α-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway. PMID:25663523

  6. Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanović, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+), and promoted increased α-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway.

  7. Patterns of in vitro cell-death, metaloproteinase-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes induced by the BCG vaccine, Moreau strain.

    PubMed

    Simas, C J A; Silva, D P H; Ponte, C G G; Castello-Branco, L R R; Antas, P R Z

    2011-09-01

    Mononuclear cells have been implicated in the primary inflammatory response against mycobacteria. Yet, little is known about the interaction of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) with human monocytes. Here, we investigated the potential of BCG Moreau strain to induce in vitro specific cell-death utilizing a flow cytometry approach that revealed an increase in apoptosis events in BCG-stimulated monocytes from healthy adults. We also detected a concomitant release of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), but not metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. In addition, annexin V-propidium iodide double staining demonstrated an enhancement of monocytes necrosis, but not apoptosis, following BCG Moreau strain stimulation of umbilical vein cells from naïve, neonate. This pattern was paralleled by different pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as MMP-9 induction when compared to the adults. Our findings support the hypothesis that BCG induces distinct cell-death patterns during the maturation of the immune system and that this pattern might set the stage for a subsequent antimycobacterial immune response that might have profound effects during vaccination.

  8. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Counteracts Rhesus Macaque TRIM5α-Induced Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Production

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Sayaka; Sakuma, Ryuta; Ohmine, Seiga; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Old world monkey TRIM5α is a host factor that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Previously, we reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5α (RhTRIM5α) restricts HIV-1 production by inducing degradation of precursor Gag. Since suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is known to enhance HIV-1 production by rescuing Gag from lysosomal degradation, we examined if SOCS1 is involved in RhTRIM5α-mediated late restriction. Over-expression of SOCS1 restored HIV-1 production in the presence of RhTRIM5α to a level comparable to that in the absence of RhTRIM5α in terms of titer and viral protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SOCS1 physically interacted with RhTRIM5α. Over-expression of SOCS1 affected RhTRIM5α expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was not reversed by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, SOCS1 and RhTRIM5α were detected in virus-like particles. These results suggest that SOCS1 alleviates RhTRIM5α-mediated regulation in the late phase of HIV-1 life cycle probably due to the destabilization of RhTRIM5α. PMID:25310711

  9. An experimental mixed bacterial infection induced differential secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα) and proMMP-9 in human fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Herrera, H; García-López, G; Díaz, N F; Molina-Hernández, A; Osorio-Caballero, M; Soriano-Becerril, D; Zaga-Clavellina, V

    2012-04-01

    Overall, 1-4% of all births in the US are complicated by choriamnionitis. Choriamnionitis is a polymicrobial infection most often due to ascending genital microbes which, in over 65% of positive amniotic fluid cultures, involves two or more organisms. In this study, we determine the cytokines expression (IL-1β, TNFα) and prometalloproteinase activation (proMMP-2 and proMMP-9) after double o single infection an in vitro model of human fetal membranes. Fetal membranes at term were mounted in the Transwell culture system and after 24 h of infection, choriodecidual, and amnion media was collected. IL-1β and TNFα were evaluated by ELISA, whereas proMMP-9 and proMMP-2 were determined by substrate gel zymography. The choriodecidual and amnion compartments actively respond to the infectious process, which induced the secretion of IL-1β, TNFα, and proMMP-9 after either mixed or single infection. The proMMP-2 secretion profile was the same after all experimental conditions. There was no synergy between Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli for inducing the secretion of inflammatory factors or degradative metalloproteinase. In conclusion, these two bacteria could initiate different pathways to induce chorioamnioitis.

  10. Endogenous Circadian Regulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in the Presence of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Shea, Steven A.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Davidson, Alec J.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Various aspects of immune response exhibit 24-hour variations suggesting that infection susceptibility and treatment efficacy may vary by time of day. Whether these 24-hour variations are endogenous or evoked by changes in environmental or behavioral conditions is not known. We assessed the endogenous circadian control and environmental and behavioral influences on ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood in thirteen healthy participants under 48 hours of baseline conditions with standard sleep-wake schedules and 40–50 hours of constant environmental and behavioral (constant routine; CR) conditions. Significant 24-hour rhythms were observed under baseline conditions in Monocyte Chemotactic Protein, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin 8 but not Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha whereas significant 24-hour rhythms were observed in all four immune factors under CR conditions. The rhythm amplitudes, expressed as a percentage of mean, were comparable between immune factors and across conditions. In contrast, the acrophase time (time of the fitted peak) was different between immune factors, and included daytime and nighttime peaks and changes across behavioral conditions. These results suggest that the endogenous circadian system underpins the temporal organization of immune responses in humans with additional effects of external environmental and behavioral cycles. These findings have implications for understanding the adverse effects of recurrent circadian disruption and sleep curtailment on immune function. PMID:25452149

  11. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, a growth factor for AIDS Kaposi sarcoma and cytokine-activated vascular cells, induces adhesion of the same cell types by using integrin receptors recognizing the RGD amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Barillari, G; Gendelman, R; Gallo, R C; Ensoli, B

    1993-01-01

    Spindle-shaped cells of vascular origin are the probable tumor cells of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). These cells, derived from patients with KS and AIDS, proliferate in response to extracellular Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Normal vascular cells, believed to be the progenitors of AIDS-KS cells, acquire spindle morphology and become responsive to the mitogenic effect of Tat after culture with inflammatory cytokines. Such cytokines are increased in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected people, suggesting that immune stimulation (rather than immune deficiency) is a component of AIDS-KS pathogenesis. Here we show that (i) Tat promotes adhesion of AIDS-KS and normal vascular cells; (ii) adhesion of normal vascular cells to Tat is induced by exposure of the cells to the same cytokines; (iii) adhesion is associated with the amino acid sequence RGD of Tat through a specific interaction with the integrin receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3, although it is augmented by the basic region; and (iv) the expression of both integrins is increased by the same cytokines that promote these cells to acquire spindle morphology and become responsive to the adhesion and growth effects of Tat. The results also suggest that RGD-recognizing integrins mediate the vascular cell-growth-promoting effect of Tat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7690138

  12. Modern Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exhibit Lineage-Specific Patterns of Growth and Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rajesh; Lenders, Laura; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary in virulence. Strains that have caused outbreaks in the United States and United Kingdom have been shown to subvert the innate immune response as a potential immune evasion mechanism. There is, however, little information available as to whether these patterns of immune subversion are features of individual strains or characteristic of broad clonal lineages of M. tuberculosis. Methods Strains from two major modern lineages (lineage 2 [East-Asian] and lineage 4 [Euro-American]) circulating in the Western Cape in South Africa as well as a comparator modern lineage (lineage 3 [CAS/Delhi]) were identified. We assessed two virulence associated characteristics: mycobacterial growth (in liquid broth and monocyte derived macrophages) and early pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Results In liquid culture, Lineage 4 strains grew more rapidly and reached higher plateau levels than other strains (lineage 4 vs. lineage 2 p = 0.0024; lineage 4 vs. lineage 3 p = 0.0005). Lineage 3 strains were characterized by low and early plateau levels, while lineage 2 strains showed an intermediate growth phenotype. In monocyte-derived macrophages, lineage 2 strains grew faster than lineage 3 strains (p<0.01) with lineage 4 strains having an intermediate phenotype. Lineage 2 strains induced the lowest levels of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-12p40 as compared to other lineages (lineage 2: median TNF 362 pg/ml, IL-12p40 91 pg/ml; lineage 3: median TNF 1818 pg/ml, IL-12p40 123 pg/ml; lineage 4: median TNF 1207 pg/ml, IL-12p40 205 pg/ml;). In contrast, lineage 4 strains induced high levels of IL-12p40 and intermediate level of TNF. Lineage 3 strains induced high levels of TNF and intermediate levels of IL-12p40. Conclusions Strains of M. tuberculosis from the three major modern strain lineages possess distinct patterns of growth and cytokine induction. Rapid growth and immune subversion may be key characteristics to the success of

  13. Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running.

    PubMed

    Malm, Christer; Sjödin, The Late Bertil; Sjöberg, Berit; Lenkei, Rodica; Renström, Per; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Ekblom, Björn

    2004-05-01

    Muscular adaptation to physical exercise has previously been described as a repair process following tissue damage. Recently, evidence has been published to question this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate inflammatory processes in human skeletal muscle and epimysium after acute physical exercise with large eccentric components. Three groups of subjects (n= 19) performed 45 min treadmill running at either 4 deg (n= 5) or 8 deg (n= 9) downhill or 4 deg uphill (n= 5) and one group served as control (n= 9). One biopsy was taken from each subject 48 h post exercise. Blood samples were taken up to 7 days post exercise. Compared to the control group, none of the markers of inflammation in muscle and epimysium samples was different in any exercised group. Only subjects in the Downhill groups experienced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and increased serum creatine kinase activity (CK). The detected levels of immunohistochemical markers for T cells (CD3), granulocytes (CD11b), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1beta (HIF-1beta) were greater in epimysium from exercised subjects with DOMS ratings >3 (0-10 scale) compared to exercised subjects without DOMS but not higher than controls. Eccentric physical exercise (downhill running) did not result in skeletal muscle inflammation 48 h post exercise, despite DOMS and increased CK. It is suggested that exercise can induce DOMS by activating inflammatory factors present in the epimysium before exercise. Repeated physical training may alter the content of inflammatory factors in the epimysium and thus reduce DOMS. PMID:14766942

  14. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor α, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1β, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies.

  15. Surface structure characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia mutated in the melanin synthesis pathway and their human cellular immune response.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Beaussart, Audrey; Dufrêne, Yves F; Sharma, Meenu; Bansal, Kushagra; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Brakhage, Axel A; Kaveri, Srini V; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, the conidial surface contains dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. Six-clustered gene products have been identified that mediate sequential catalysis of DHN-melanin biosynthesis. Melanin thus produced is known to be a virulence factor, protecting the fungus from the host defense mechanisms. In the present study, individual deletion of the genes involved in the initial three steps of melanin biosynthesis resulted in an altered conidial surface with masked surface rodlet layer, leaky cell wall allowing the deposition of proteins on the cell surface and exposing the otherwise-masked cell wall polysaccharides at the surface. Melanin as such was immunologically inert; however, deletion mutant conidia with modified surfaces could activate human dendritic cells and the subsequent cytokine production in contrast to the wild-type conidia. Cell surface defects were rectified in the conidia mutated in downstream melanin biosynthetic pathway, and maximum immune inertness was observed upon synthesis of vermelone onward. These observations suggest that although melanin as such is an immunologically inert material, it confers virulence by facilitating proper formation of the A. fumigatus conidial surface.

  16. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand protein synthesis inhibitor bindarit prevents cytoskeletal rearrangement and contraction of human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Paccosi, Sara; Giachi, Matelda; Di Gennaro, Paola; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Parenti, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    Intraglomerular mesangial cells (MCs) maintain structural and functional integrity of renal glomerular microcirculation and homeostasis of mesangial matrix. Following different types of injury, MCs change their phenotype upregulating the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), changing contractile abilities and increasing the production of matrix proteins, chemokines and cytokines. CCL2 is a chemokine known to be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. Its glomerular upregulation correlates with the extent of renal damage. Bindarit is an indazolic derivative endowed with anti-inflammatory activity when tested in experimental diseases. It selectively inhibits the synthesis of inflammatory C-C chemokines including CCL2, CCL7 and CCL8. This work aims to analyse bindarit effects on ET1-, AngII- and TGFβ-induced mesangial cell dysfunction. Bindarit significantly reduced AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-induced α-SMA upregulation. In a collagen contraction assay, bindarit reduced AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-induced HRMC contraction. Within 3-6h stimulation, vinculin organization and phosphorylation was significantly impaired by bindarit in AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-stimulated cells without any effect on F-actin distribution. Conversely, p38 phosphorylation was not significantly inhibited by bindarit. Our data strengthen the importance of CCL2 on ET-1, AngII- and TGFβ-induced mesangial cell dysfunction, adding new insights into the cellular mechanisms responsible of bindarit protective effects in human MC dysfunction. PMID:27309675

  17. RAGE and TGF-β1 Cross-Talk Regulate Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Cytokine Synthesis in AGEs Exposed Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    AGEs accumulation in the skin affects extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and triggers diabetes associated skin conditions and accelerated skin aging. The receptor of AGEs (RAGE) has an essential contribution to cellular dysfunction driven by chronic inflammatory responses while TGF-β1 is critical in both dermal homeostasis and inflammation. We investigated the contribution of RAGE and TGF-β1 to the modulation of inflammatory response and ECM turnover in AGEs milieu, using a normal fibroblast cell line. RAGE, TGF-β1, collagen I and III gene and protein expression were upregulated after exposure to AGEs-BSA, and MMP-2 was activated. AGEs-RAGE was pivotal in NF-κB dependent collagen I expression and joined with TGF-β1 to stimulate collagen III expression, probably via ERK1/2 signaling. AGEs-RAGE axis induced upregulation of TGF-β1, TNF-α and IL-8 cytokines. TNF-α and IL-8 were subjected to TGF-β1 negative regulation. RAGE’s proinflammatory signaling also antagonized AGEs-TGF-β1 induced fibroblast contraction, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory cross-talk mechanism between TGF-β1 and RAGE signaling. RAGE and TGF-β1 stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-4 expression. GM-CSF and IL-6 expression appeared to be dependent only on TGF-β1 signaling. Our data also indicated that IFN-γ upregulated in AGEs-BSA milieu in a RAGE and TGF-β1 independent mechanism. Our findings raise the possibility that RAGE and TGF-β1 are both involved in fibrosis development in a complex cross-talk mechanism, while also acting on their own individual targets. This study contributes to the understanding of impaired wound healing associated with diabetes complications. PMID:27015414

  18. RAGE and TGF-β1 Cross-Talk Regulate Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Cytokine Synthesis in AGEs Exposed Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    AGEs accumulation in the skin affects extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and triggers diabetes associated skin conditions and accelerated skin aging. The receptor of AGEs (RAGE) has an essential contribution to cellular dysfunction driven by chronic inflammatory responses while TGF-β1 is critical in both dermal homeostasis and inflammation. We investigated the contribution of RAGE and TGF-β1 to the modulation of inflammatory response and ECM turnover in AGEs milieu, using a normal fibroblast cell line. RAGE, TGF-β1, collagen I and III gene and protein expression were upregulated after exposure to AGEs-BSA, and MMP-2 was activated. AGEs-RAGE was pivotal in NF-κB dependent collagen I expression and joined with TGF-β1 to stimulate collagen III expression, probably via ERK1/2 signaling. AGEs-RAGE axis induced upregulation of TGF-β1, TNF-α and IL-8 cytokines. TNF-α and IL-8 were subjected to TGF-β1 negative regulation. RAGE's proinflammatory signaling also antagonized AGEs-TGF-β1 induced fibroblast contraction, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory cross-talk mechanism between TGF-β1 and RAGE signaling. RAGE and TGF-β1 stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-4 expression. GM-CSF and IL-6 expression appeared to be dependent only on TGF-β1 signaling. Our data also indicated that IFN-γ upregulated in AGEs-BSA milieu in a RAGE and TGF-β1 independent mechanism. Our findings raise the possibility that RAGE and TGF-β1 are both involved in fibrosis development in a complex cross-talk mechanism, while also acting on their own individual targets. This study contributes to the understanding of impaired wound healing associated with diabetes complications. PMID:27015414

  19. Total Synthesis of Leupyrrin B1: A Potent Inhibitor of Human Leukocyte Elastase.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Sebastian; Wosniok, Paul R; Herkommer, Daniel; Schulz-Fincke, Anna-Christina; Gütschow, Michael; Menche, Dirk

    2016-08-19

    The total synthesis of leupyrrin B1 was accomplished by an expedient strategy that involves an optimized HATU-mediated amide coupling protocol of elaborate substrates. The generally useful procedure was also successfully applied in an improved total synthesis of leupyrrin A1. Finally, leupyrrins A1 and B1 were evaluated toward a panel of proteases, and human leukocyte elastase was discovered as a molecular target of the leupyrrins. PMID:27486674

  20. Xilonix, a Novel True Human Antibody Targeting the Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1 alpha, in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, David S.; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Falchook, Gerald S.; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Fu, Siqing; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Stecher, Michael; Mohanty, Prasant; Simard, John; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were treated as part of a Phase I dose escalation and expansion study evaluating a true human monoclonal antibody targeting IL-1α (Xilonix), which is intended to modulate the malignant phenotype—inhibiting tumor growth, spread and offering relief of symptoms. Methods Sixteen NSCLC patients were included. Patients failed a median of 4 chemotherapy regimens, including 10/16 failing anti-EGFR therapy. Disease progression was evaluated using a multi-modal approach: tumor response, patient reported outcomes (EORTC-QLQC30), and lean body mass (LBM). Patients received infusions every two or three weeks until progression, and were followed 24 months to assess survival. Results There were no infusion reactions, dose-limiting toxicities, or deaths due to therapy. Albeit not statistically significant, there was a trend in IL-6 (−2.6±18.5 (0.1 [−2.8-2.4]), platelet counts (−11±54 (−4[−36.0-1.0]), CRP (−3.3±30.2 (0.4 [−10.7-1.8]) and LBM (1.0±2.5 (0.4 [−0.5-2.6]). Self-reported outcomes revealed reductions in pain, fatigue and improvement in appetite. Median survival was 7.6 (IQR 4.4-11.5) months, stratification based on prior anti-EGFR therapy revealed a median survival of 9.4 months (IQR 7.6-12.5) for those pretreated (N=10) versus a survival of 4.8 months (IQR 4.3-5.7) for those without (N=6, logrank p=0.187). Conclusion Xilonix was well tolerated, with gains in LBM and improvement in symptoms suggesting a clinically important response. Although not statistically significant, the survival outcomes observed for patients with and without prior anti-EGFR therapy raises intriguing questions about the potential synergy of IL-1α blockade and anti-EGFR therapy. Further study for this agent in NSCLC is warranted. PMID:25822109

  1. Production and function of cytokines in natural and acquired immunity to Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, R B; Papadimitriou, J M

    1995-01-01

    Host resistance against infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans is mediated predominantly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. Antigens of Candida stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis, and in both humans and mice, these cytokines enhance the candidacidal functions of the phagocytic cells. In systemic candidiasis in mice, cytokine production has been found to be a function of the CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. The Th1 subset of these cells, characterized by the production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2, is associated with macrophage activation and enhanced resistance against reinfection, whereas the Th2 subset, which produces interleukins-4, -6, and -10, is linked to the development of chronic disease. However, other models have generated divergent data. Mucosal infection generally elicits Th1-type cytokine responses and protection from systemic challenge, and identification of cytokine mRNA present in infected tissues of mice that develop mild or severe lesions does not show pure Th1- or Th2-type responses. Furthermore, antigens of C. albicans, mannan in particular, can induce suppressor cells that modulate both specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral immune responses, and there is an emerging body of evidence that molecular mimicry may affect the efficiency of anti-Candida responses within defined genetic contexts. PMID:8531890

  2. Cytokines in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baliwag, Jaymie; Barnes, Drew H.; Johnston, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with an incompletely understood etiology. The disease is characterized by red, scaly and well-demarcated skin lesions formed by the hyperproliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. This hyperproliferation is driven by cytokines secreted by activated resident immune cells, an infiltrate of T cells, dendritic cells and cells of the innate immune system, as well as the keratinocytes themselves. Psoriasis has a strong hereditary character and has a complex genetic background. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms within or near a number of genes encoding cytokines, cytokine receptors or elements of their signal transduction pathways, further implicating these cytokines in the psoriasis pathomechanism. A considerable number of inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be elevated in lesional psoriasis skin, and the serum concentrations of a subset of these also correlate with psoriasis disease severity. The combined effects of the cytokines found in psoriasis lesions likely explain most of the clinical features of psoriasis, such as the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, increased neovascularization and skin inflammation. Thus, understanding which cytokines play a pivotal role in the disease process can suggest potential therapeutic targets. A number of cytokines have been therapeutically targeted with success, revolutionizing treatment of this disease. Here we review a number of key cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:25585875

  3. TNF-α and Th2 cytokines induce atopic dermatitis-like features on epidermal differentiation proteins and stratum corneum lipids in human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Danso, Mogbekeloluwa O; van Drongelen, Vincent; Mulder, Aat; van Esch, Jeltje; Scott, Hannah; van Smeden, Jeroen; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which the skin barrier function is disrupted. In this inflammatory AD environment, cytokines are upregulated, but the cytokine effect on the AD skin barrier is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the influence of Th2 (IL-4, IL-13, IL-31) and pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) cytokines on epidermal morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and stratum corneum lipid properties. For this purpose, we used the Leiden epidermal model (LEM) in which the medium was supplemented with these cytokines. Our results show that IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α induce spongiosis, augment TSLP secretion by keratinocytes, and alter early and terminal differentiation-protein expression in LEMs. TNF-α alone or in combination with Th2 cytokines decreases the level of long chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and ester linked ω-hydroxy (EO) ceramides, consequently affecting the lipid organization. IL-31 increases long chain FFAs in LEMs but decreases relative abundance of EO ceramides. These findings clearly show that supplementation with TNF-α and Th2 cytokines influence epidermal morphogenesis and barrier function. As a result, these LEMs show similar characteristics as found in AD skin and can be used as an excellent tool for screening formulations and drugs for the treatment of AD.

  4. Plasma Concentrations of Inflammatory Cytokines Rise Rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the Release of Pre-formed Stores in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    McILwain, Britt; Timpa, Joseph; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; Holt, David W.; Kelly, David R.; Hartman, Yolanda; Neel, Mary Lauren; Karnatak, Rajendra K.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2009-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically-ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a ‘cytokine storm’, leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Methods Three-week-old previously-healthy piglets were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 hours. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (polymerase chain reaction/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Results Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. TNF-α and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 hours of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. Conclusions TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately following the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory

  5. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and apoptosis in human chorion cells of fetal membranes by influenza virus infection: possible implications for maintenance and interruption of pregnancy during infection.

    PubMed

    Uchide, Noboru; Ohyama, Kunio; Bessho, Toshio; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2005-01-01

    Human fetal membranes are composed of amnion, chorion and decidua tissues, which play a critical role in defense barriers as well as maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, produced by the tissues are postulated to facilitate parturition. Influenza virus infection is one of causes of pregnancy-associated complications, such as premature delivery, abortion and stillbirth. Recent studies have demonstrated that influenza virus infection induced the gene expression of a set of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-beta, IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the secretion of unidentified monocyte differentiation-inducing factor(s) from primary cultured chorion cells undergoing apoptosis. These phenomena were not observed in primary cultured amnion cells infected with the virus. This article reviews, (1) the production of cytokines in fetal membrane tissues and their functions; (2) the differential induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and apoptosis in fetal membrane chorion and amnion cells by influenza virus infection. An accumulating number of evidence suggests that interactive reactions between fetal membrane chorion cells and maternal monocytes/macrophages may play a critical role in defense barriers against the virus infection. Understanding the interactions would make important contributions to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection during pregnancy. PMID:15614205

  6. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the cytokine genes interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha into human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for cell line behavior and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Coze, C; Leimig, T; Jimeno, M T; Mannoni, P

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the value of a gene therapy approach for neuroblastoma (NB), based on retroviral transduction of the IL-1beta or TNF-alpha cytokine genes into human NB lines. Secretion of the corresponding cytokine, was demonstrated in all lines, although with considerable quantitative variations. Cytokine gene expression significantly reduced the proliferation index (p = 0.0001); this effect was associated with either terminal neuronal (one TNF-alpha line) or fibroblast-like differentiation (two IL-1beta lines), leading to growth arrest after a few weeks. Cell surface levels of CD54 and HLA class II remained unaffected, but HLA class I (p < 0.001) and CD58 expression (p = 0.01) increased on SKNSH after TNF-alpha gene transfer. Mononuclear cells from normal allogeneic donors cocultured with both IL-1beta (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha lines (p < 0.01), showed a significant increase in the proportion of activated T cells (CD3+DR+); however, their cytotoxicity and proliferation rate remained unchanged. Immunotherapy of neuroblastoma will require identification of transduced lines in which cytokine secretion induces phenotypic changes in such a way as to augment their likely immunomodulatory properties without impeding cell growth. Because of the limited efficacy of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha gene transfer alone, further studies should focus on combination with other immunomodulatory agents, to improve their potential efficacy in neuroblastoma.

  7. Efficiency of transgenic T cell generation from gene-marked cultured human CD34+ cord blood cells is determined by their maturity and the cytokines present in the culture medium.

    PubMed

    Verhasselt, B; Naessens, E; De Smedt, M; Plum, J

    2000-05-01

    Success of gene therapy for diseases affecting the T cell lineage depends on the thymic repopulation by genetically engineered hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). Although it has been shown that retrovirally transduced HPC can repopulate the thymus, little information is available on the effect of the culture protocol. Moreover, for expansion of the number of HPC, cytokine supplemented culture is needed. Here, we transduced purified human umbilical cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells in cultures supplemented with various combinations of the cytokines thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF), flt3/flk-2 ligand (FL), interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-6, and investigated thymus-repopulating ability of gene-marked HPC in vitro. Irrespective of the cytokine cocktail used, transduced CD34+CD38- CB cells, expressing the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoded by the MFG-GFP retrovirus, have both superior proliferative and thymus-repopulating potential compared with transduced CD34+CD38+ CB cells. Effectively transduced GFP+CD34+CD38- HPC, cultured for 3 or 17 days, more readily generated T cells than GFP- HPC from the same culture. The reverse was true in the case of CD34+CD38+ HPC cultures. Finally, our results indicate that the number of GFP+ T cell progenitors actually increased during culture of CD34+CD38- HPC, in a magnitude that is determined by the cytokine cocktail used during culture. PMID:10845720

  8. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Boström, Elisabeth A; Kindstedt, Elin; Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely