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Sample records for human dentate nucleus

  1. Development of the human dentate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, P; Zecevic, N

    1986-01-01

    The developing human dentate nucleus (DN) was studied in a series of specimens of various pre- and postnatal ages ranging from 8 gestational weeks (gw) to 10 years, in Golgi-impregnated and Nissl-stained material. The DN emerges from the cerebellar white matter at around 16 gestational weeks (gw) as a thick band of cells (600-700 micron in width) that gradually attenuates to a final width of 150-250 micron as it undergoes extensive infolding beginning around 24 gw. The highly convoluted configuration of the adult DN is recognizable by 35 gw. Around 16 gw, two basic classes of DN neurons can be identified. Differentiation of these neurons is especially intensive during the mid-gestational period (20-25 gw). At this time the size of cell bodies increases, dendrites branch profusely and acquire spines. A second, slower phase of maturation consisting of addition of secondary and tertiary branches, continues into the postnatal period. At all prenatal ages examined, dentate neurons are morphologically more mature than the Purkinje cells in the overlying cortex. DN neurons of premature infants did not show cytomorphological differences when compared with babies born at term.

  2. Evidence for a motor somatotopy in the cerebellar dentate nucleus--an FMRI study in humans.

    PubMed

    Küper, Michael; Thürling, Markus; Stefanescu, Roxana; Maderwald, Stefan; Roths, Johannes; Elles, Hans G; Ladd, Mark E; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Timmann, Dagmar

    2012-11-01

    Previous anatomical studies in monkeys have shown that forelimb motor representation is located caudal to hindlimb representation within the dorso-rostral dentate nucleus. Here we investigate human dentate nucleus motor somatotopy by means of ultra-highfield (7 T) functional magnetic brain imaging (fMRI). Twenty five young healthy males participated in the study. Simple finger and foot movement tasks were performed to identify dentate nucleus motor areas. Recently developed normalization procedures for group analyses were used for the cerebellar cortex and the cerebellar dentate nucleus. Cortical activations were in good accordance with the known somatotopy of the human cerebellar cortex. Dentate nucleus activations following motor tasks were found in particular in the ipsilateral dorso-rostral nucleus. Activations were also present in other parts of the nucleus including the contralateral side, and there was some overlap between the body part representations. Within the ipsilateral dorso-rostral dentate, finger activations were located caudally compared to foot movement-related activations in fMRI group analysis. Likewise, the centre of gravity (COG) for the finger activation was more caudal than the COG of the foot activation across participants. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on the x, y, and z coordinates of the COG indicated that this difference was significant (P = 0.043). These results indicate that in humans, the lower and upper limbs are arranged rostro-caudally in the dorsal aspect of the dentate nucleus, which is consistent with studies in non-human primates.

  3. Mathematical Model of Neuronal Morphology: Prenatal Development of the Human Dentate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajković, Katarina; Bačić, Goran; Ristanović, Dušan; Milošević, Nebojša T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the morphological changes of the human dentate nucleus during prenatal development using mathematical models that take into account main morphometric parameters. The camera lucida drawings of Golgi impregnated neurons taken from human fetuses of gestational ages ranging from 14 to 41 weeks were analyzed. Four morphometric parameters, the size of the neuron, the dendritic complexity, maximum dendritic density, and the position of maximum density, were obtained using the modified Scholl method and fractal analysis. Their increase during the entire prenatal development can be adequately fitted with a simple exponential. The three parameters describing the evolution of branching complexity of the dendritic arbor positively correlated with the increase of the size of neurons, but with different rate constants, showing that the complex development of the dendritic arbor is complete during the prenatal period. The findings of the present study are in accordance with previous crude qualitative data on prenatal development of the human dentate nucleus, but provide much greater amount of fine details. The mathematical model developed here provides a sound foundation enabling further studies on natal development or analyzing neurological disorders during prenatal development. PMID:24995329

  4. Evidence for a motor and a non-motor domain in the human dentate nucleus--an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Küper, M; Dimitrova, A; Thürling, M; Maderwald, S; Roths, J; Elles, H G; Gizewski, E R; Ladd, M E; Diedrichsen, J; Timmann, D

    2011-02-14

    Dum and Strick (J. Neurophysiol. 2003; 89, 634-639) proposed a division of the cerebellar dentate nucleus into a "motor" and "non-motor" area based on anatomical data in the monkey. We asked the question whether motor and non-motor domains of the dentate can be found in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore dentate activation was compared in motor and cognitive tasks. Young, healthy participants were tested in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Data from 13 participants were included in the final analysis. A block design was used for the experimental conditions. Finger tapping of different complexities served as motor tasks, while cognitive testing included a verbal working memory and a visuospatial task. To further confirm motor-related dentate activation, a simple finger movement task was tested in a supplementary experiment using ultra-highfield (7 T) fMRI in 23 participants. For image processing, a recently developed region of interest (ROI) driven normalization method of the deep cerebellar nuclei was used. Dorso-rostral dentate nucleus activation was associated with motor function, whereas cognitive tasks led to prominent activation of the caudal nucleus. The visuospatial task evoked activity bilaterally in the caudal dentate nucleus, whereas verbal working memory led to activation predominantly in the right caudal dentate. These findings are consistent with Dum and Strick's anatomical findings in the monkey.

  5. Cerebello-cortical heterotopia in dentate nucleus, and other microdysgeneses in trisomy D1 (Patau) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hori, A; Peiffer, J; Pfeiffer, R A; Iizuka, R

    1980-01-01

    Several new histological findings in six cases of the trisomy D1 syndrome are described: hyperplasia of fetal structures (indusium griseum, median raphe of the medulla oblongata) and completely developed cerebellar cortical heterotopia in the dentate nucleus. In one case, a heterotopic pontine nucleus was found within the cerebellar white matter. The coexistence of overdeveloped and remaining fetal structures is emphasized. Several hypotheses regarding cerebellar dysgenesis are discussed.

  6. Synaptic pathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus in chronic multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Albert, Monika; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Lohrberg, Melanie; Antel, Jack P; Prineas, John W; Palkovits, Miklós; Wolff, Joachim R; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2016-10-05

    In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here, we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control. We found a significant reduction of afferent dentate synapses in multiple sclerosis, irrespective of the presence of demyelination, and a close relationship between glial processes and dentate synapses. Ultrastructurally, we show autophagosomes containing degradation products of synaptic vesicles within dendrites, residual bodies within intact-appearing axons and free postsynaptic densities opposed to astrocytic appendages. Our study demonstrates loss of dentate afferent synapses and provides, for the first time, ultrastructural evidence pointing towards neuron-autonomous and neuroglia-mediated mechanisms of synaptic degradation in chronic multiple sclerosis.

  7. The dentate nucleus in Friedreich's ataxia: the role of iron-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Koeppen, Arnulf H; Michael, Susan C; Knutson, Mitchell D; Haile, David J; Qian, Jiang; Levi, Sonia; Santambrogio, Paolo; Garrick, Michael D; Lamarche, Jacques B

    2007-08-01

    Frataxin deficiency in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) causes cardiac, endocrine, and nervous system manifestations. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein, and adequate amounts are essential for cellular iron homeostasis. The main histological lesion in the brain of FRDA patients is neuronal atrophy and a peculiar proliferation of synaptic terminals in the dentate nucleus termed grumose degeneration. This cerebellar nucleus may be especially susceptible to FRDA because it contains abundant iron. We examined total iron and selected iron-responsive proteins in the dentate nucleus of nine patients with FRDA and nine normal controls by biochemical and microscopic techniques. Total iron (1.53 +/- 0.53 mumol/g wet weight) and ferritin (206.9 +/- 46.6 mug/g wet weight) in FRDA did not significantly differ from normal controls (iron: 1.78 +/- 0.88 mumol/g; ferritin: 210.9 +/- 9.0 mug/g) but Western blots exhibited a shift to light ferritin subunits. Immunocytochemistry of the dentate nucleus revealed loss of juxtaneuronal ferritin-containing oligodendroglia and prominent ferritin immunoreactivity in microglia and astrocytes. Mitochondrial ferritin was not detectable by immunocytochemistry. Stains for the divalent metal transporter 1 confirmed neuronal loss while endothelial cells reacting with antibodies to transferrin receptor 1 protein showed crowding of blood vessels due to collapse of the normal neuropil. Regions of grumose degeneration were strongly reactive for ferroportin. Purkinje cell bodies, their dendrites and axons, were also ferroportin-positive, and it is likely that grumose degeneration is the morphological manifestation of mitochondrial iron dysmetabolism in the terminals of corticonuclear fibers. Neuronal loss in the dentate nucleus is the likely result of trans-synaptic degeneration.

  8. Dentate nucleus iron deposition is a potential biomarker for tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    He, Naying; Huang, Pei; Ling, Huawei; Langley, Jason; Liu, Chunlei; Ding, Bei; Huang, Juan; Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongping; Hu, Xiaoping; Chen, Shengdi; Yan, Fuhua

    2016-05-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with variable clinicopathologic phenotypes and underlying neuropathologic mechanisms. Each clinical phenotype has a unique set of motor symptoms. Tremor is the most frequent initial motor symptom of PD and is the most difficult symptom to treat. The dentate nucleus (DN) is a deep iron-rich nucleus in the cerebellum and may be involved in PD tremor. In this study, we test the hypothesis that DN iron may be elevated in tremor-dominant PD patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping. Forty-three patients with PD [19 tremor dominant (TD)/24 akinetic rigidity (AR) dominant] and 48 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were recruited. Multi-echo gradient echo data were collected for each subject on a 3.0-T MR system. Inter-group susceptibility differences in the bilateral DN were investigated and correlations of clinical features with susceptibility were also examined. In contrast with the AR-dominant group, the TD group was found to have increased susceptibility in the bilateral DN when compared with healthy controls. In addition, susceptibility was positively correlated with tremor score in drug-naive PD patients. These findings indicate that iron load within the DN may make an important contribution to motor phenotypes in PD. Moreover, our results suggest that TD and AR-dominant phenotypes of PD can be differentiated on the basis of the susceptibility of the DN, at least at the group level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity of dentate nucleus is associated with tremor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huizi; Chen, Huimin; Fang, Jinping; Gao, Liyan; Ma, Lingyan; Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Zhang, Jiarong; Feng, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit has been indicated important for tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the role of dentate nucleus (DN) in parkinsonian tremor remains unclear. To investigate whether DN plays a role in PD tremor, we recruited 50 PD and 29 age-matched health controls (HC). The patients were divided into tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor-dominant (NTD) groups. We collected resting-state fMRIs data for each subject. The bilateral DN was then chosen as the region of interest to examine PD tremor-related network changes, as well as its correlation with tremor severity. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analysis revealed that the bilateral DN had higher connectivity with the bilateral cerebellar anterior lobe, and had lower connectivity with the bilateral prefrontal cortex in TD compared to the HC and NTD groups. Functional connectivity of the bilateral DN with the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe was also higher in TD than NTD group. Functional connectivity between the bilateral DN and the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe showed positive correlation with tremor severity, while that between the bilateral DN and the bilateral prefrontal cortex displayed negative correlation. Our study demonstrates higher dentato-cerebellar connectivity and lower dentato-prefrontal connectivity in TD patients, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD tremor. And we conclude that DN might be associated with the pathogenesis of PD tremor.

  10. Friedreich Ataxia: Failure of GABA-ergic and Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in the Dentate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Koeppen, Arnulf H.; Ramirez, Liane; Becker, Alyssa B.; Feustel, Paul J.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Atrophy of large neurons in the dentate nucleus (DN) is an important pathological correlate of neurological disability in patients with Friedreich ataxia (FA). Thinning of the DN was quantified in 29 autopsy cases of FA and 2 carriers by measuring the thickness of the gray matter ribbon on stains with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA). The DN was thinner than normal in all cases of FA, and atrophy correlated inversely with disease duration but not with age of onset or length of the homozygous guanine-adenine-adenine trinucleotide expansions. In 13 of the FA cases, frozen DN tissue was available for assay of frataxin. DN atrophy was more severe when frataxin was very low. Immunohistochemical staining for GAD revealed grumose reaction and preservation of small GABA-ergic neurons in the DN of FA patients. Residual small DN neurons and varicose axons also contained the glycine transporter 2, identifying them as glycinergic. Immunohistochemistry also confirmed severe loss of GABA-A and glycine receptors in the DN with comparable depletion of the receptor-anchoring protein gephyrin. Thus, loss of gephyrin and failure to position GABA-A and glycine receptors correctly may reduce trophic support of large DN neurons and contribute to their atrophy. By contrast, Purkinje cells may escape retrograde atrophy in FA by issuing new axonal sprouts to small surviving DN neurons where they form reparative grumose clusters. PMID:25575136

  11. Resting-State Functional Connectivity Changes Between Dentate Nucleus and Cortical Social Brain Regions in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Olivito, Giusy; Clausi, Silvia; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Tedesco, Anna Maria; Baiocco, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Molinari, Marco; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are known to be characterized by restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests and by impairments in social communication and interactions mainly including "theory of mind" (ToM) processes. The cerebellum has emerged as one of the brain regions affected by ASDs. As the cerebellum is known to influence cerebral cortex activity via cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits, it has been proposed that cerebello-cortical "disconnection" could in part underlie autistic symptoms. We used resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the potential RS connectivity changes between the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) and the CTC circuit targets, that may contribute to ASD pathophysiology. When comparing ASD patients to controls, we found decreased connectivity between the left DN and cerebral regions known to be components of the ToM network and the default mode network, implicated in specific aspects of mentalizing, social cognition processing, and higher order emotional processes. Further, a pattern of overconnectivity was also detected between the left DN and the supramodal cerebellar lobules associated with the default mode network. The presented RS-fMRI data provide evidence that functional connectivity (FC) between the dentate nucleus and the cerebral cortex is altered in ASD patients. This suggests that the dysfunction reported within the cerebral cortical network, typically related to social features of ASDs, may be at least partially related to an impaired interaction between cerebellum and key cortical social brain regions.

  12. Potassium currents in acutely isolated human hippocampal dentate granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, H; Clusmann, H; Kral, T; Schramm, J; Heinemann, U; Elger, C E

    1997-01-01

    1. Properties of voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents were investigated in thirty-four dentate granule cells acutely isolated from the resected hippocampus of eleven patients with therapy-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2. When intracellular Ca2+ was strongly buffered with 11.5 mM EGTA-1 mM Ca2+ in the recording pipette, K+ currents (IK) with a slow activation and biexponential time-dependent decay could be elicited, which showed a threshold for activation around -30 mV. 3. A contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents became apparent with intracellular solution containing 1 mM BAPTA-0.1 mM Ca2+. Superfusion of low-Ca2+ extracellular solution blocked 43% of outward currents in this recording configuration. Outward current components could also be blocked by substituting 5 mM Ba2+ for extracellular Ca2+ (78%), or by application of 100 microM Cd2+ (25%). 4. The Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents could be pharmacologically subdivided into two components. One component was sensitive to 500 microM tetraethylammmonium (TEA; 41%) and 10 nM charybdotoxin (CTX; 47.2%). The blocking effects of 10 nM CTX and 500 microM TEA were not additive, suggesting that both agents block the same conductance. A second, smaller outward current component was blocked by 50 nM apamin (13%). 5. A transient A-type K+ current could be observed in six neurones and showed a fast monoexponential time-dependent inactivation with a steady-state voltage dependence that was distinct from that of IK. The A-type current was blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) but not by TEA or low-Ca2+ solution. 6. We conclude that outward currents in human hippocampal dentate granule cells can be separated into at least four types by their kinetic and pharmacological properties. These include at least one voltage-dependent current similar to those observed in mammalian hippocampal neurones, and two Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents that most probably correspond to SK- and BK-type currents. A classical A-type current

  13. [An autopsy case with peculiar acidophilic bodies in the dentate nucleus and brain stem, associated with degeneration of the pyramidal-extrapyramidal systems].

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Kashima, H; Tominaga, I; Nojima, T; Yanai, K; Takayama, K; Tamazawa, A; Miura, I; Oyanagi, S

    1985-12-01

    Case S.S. 59 years of age, male. At the age of 25, he had admitted to sanatorium for 7 years because of pulmonary tuberculosis. After his discharge, at the age of 45, he had started complaining of depressive mood or the idea of suicide and admitted to a mental hospital. Psychiatric diagnosis was depression and slight mental retardation. Shortly after, his depressive mood was improved, but his hypochondriac attitude was unchanged. No tendency toward dementia was proven. At the age of 54, he became enable to walk. Neurologically, pyramidal and some sort of extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria, disturbance of swallowing, fecal and urinary incontinence became apparent. Laboratory data showed scarcely any abnormality. At the age of 59, he died of bronchopneumonia. Neuropathologically, moderate degeneration of dentate nucleus, slight degeneration of pyramidal tract from medulla oblongata to spinal cord, striatum, substantia nigra were found. Neither senile plaques nor neurofibrillary changes could be seen throughout central nervous system. The most important finding is the presence of peculiar acidophilic bodies. They are round or oval, 10 approximately 20 mu in diameter and distributed in dentate nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, central grey of midbrain, superior colliculus, putamen, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, Zona incerta, hypothalamus, Locus coeruleus, reticular formation of midbrain and pons, pontine nucleus, raphe nucleus, vestibular nucleus, inferior olive in order of number of the bodies. These bodies are scattered in so-called ground substance, and have no relations to any cell bodies or cell processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Organisation of the human dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Juergen K; Ashwell, Ken W; Paxinos, George

    2004-01-19

    This study used acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry to reveal the organization of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DM) in the human. Topographically, the human DM is similar to DM in the monkey and rat. It is wedged between the paraventricular nucleus, dorsally, and the ventromedial nucleus, ventrally. Laterally, DM borders the lateral hypothalamic area while medially it approaches the 3rd ventricle. The AChE staining distinguished two subcompartments of the human DM: the larger diffuse and the smaller compact DM. The subcompartmental organization of the human DM appears homologous to that found in the monkey and less complex than that reported in rats. Understanding of the organization of DM creates meaningful anatomical reference for physiological and pharmacological studies in the human hypothalamus.

  15. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio; Strange, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established.

  16. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  17. Pick's disease with Pick bodies: an unusual autopsy case showing degeneration of the pontine nucleus, dentate nucleus, Clarke's column, and lower motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Oda, Tatsuro; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Arai, Tetsuaki; Togo, Takashi; Uchikado, Hirotake; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Haga, Chie; Ikeda, Kenji; Kato, Motoichiro; Kato, Yuji; Hara, Tsunekatsu; Onaya, Mitsumoto; Hori, Koji; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Itaru

    2007-02-01

    We report a 51-year-old female with Pick's disease with Pick bodies (PDPB) showing a brainweight of 530 g. This case was considered to be a very rare case of PDPB, in which the lesion developed in the temporal and frontal lobes and later spread to the parietal lobe, occipital lobe, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. This case showed very atypical clinicopathological findings. Clinically, bulging eyes and myoclonus were observed. Neuropathologically, Pick bodies were widely distributed beyond the usual distribution areas to the parietal cortices, occipital cortices, dentate nuclei, motor neuron nuclei in the brain stem, and spinal cord. The atypical clinical symptoms and the widespread neuropathological abnormalities observed in this case seem to represent an extremely extended form of PDPB.

  18. Preservation of perisomatic inhibitory input of granule cells in the epileptic human dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Wittner, L; Maglóczky, Z; Borhegyi, Z; Halász, P; Tóth, S; Eross, L; Szabó, Z; Freund, T F

    2001-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with hyperactivity that is likely to be generated or amplified in the hippocampal formation. The majority of granule cells, the principal cells of the dentate gyrus, are found to be resistant to damage in epilepsy, and may serve as generators of seizures if their inhibition is impaired. Therefore, the parvalbumin-containing subset of interneurons, known to provide the most powerful inhibitory input to granule cell somata and axon initial segments, were examined in human control and epileptic dentate gyrus. A strong reduction in the number of parvalbumin-containing cells was found in the epileptic samples especially in the hilar region, although in some patches of the granule cell layer parvalbumin-positive terminals that form vertical clusters characteristic of axo-axonic cells were more numerous than in controls. Analysis of the postsynaptic target elements of parvalbumin-positive axon terminals showed that they form symmetric synapses with somata, dendrites, axon initial segments and spines as in the control, but the ratio of axon initial segment synapses was increased in the epileptic tissue (control: 15.9%, epileptic: 31.3%). Furthermore, the synaptic coverage of granule cell axon initial segments increased more than three times (control: 0.52, epileptic: 2.10 microm synaptic length/100 microm axon initial segment membrane) in the epileptic samples, whereas the amount of somatic symmetric synapses did not change significantly. Although the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons is decreased, the perisomatic inhibitory input of dentate granule cells is preserved in temporal lobe epilepsy. Basket and axo-axonic cell terminals - whether positive or negative for parvalbumin - are present, moreover, the axon collaterals targeting axon initial segments sprout in the epileptic dentate gyrus. We suggest that perisomatic inhibitory interneurons survive in epilepsy, but their somadendritic compartment and partly the

  19. Safety of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Focusing in Part on Their Accumulation in the Brain and Especially the Dentate Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2016-05-01

    The established class of intravenous contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging is the gadolinium chelates, more generally referred to as the gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). These can be differentiated on the basis of stability in vivo, with safety and tolerability of the GBCAs dependent upon chemical and biologic inertness. This review discusses first the background in terms of development of these agents and safety discussions therein, and second their relative stability based both on in vitro studies and clinical observations before and including the advent of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. This sets the stage for the subsequent focus of the review, the current knowledge regarding accumulation of gadolinium in the brain and specifically the dentate nucleus after intravenous administration of the GBCAs and differentiation among agents on this basis. The information available to date, from the initial conception of these agents in 1981 to the latest reports concerning safety, demonstrates a significant difference between the macrocyclic and linear chelates. The review concludes with a discussion of the predictable future, which includes, importantly, a reassessment of the use of the linear GBCAs or a subset thereof.

  20. Progressive increase of T1 signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in the pediatric brain exposed to multiple doses of gadolinium contrast.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Donna R; Holden, Kenton R

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there have been reports of gadolinium accumulation in the brain and bone of adult patients with normal renal function who have undergone multiple gadolinium contrast administrations. This case report gives the first description of a pediatric patient who, following multiple contrasted MRI exams, demonstrated abnormal signal on unenhanced T1-weighted imaging involving the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, a finding which has previously been shown to represent gadolinium deposition in adults. The patient presented here had no history of intracranial pathology which would alter the blood brain barrier or abnormal renal function. The clinical significance of gadolinium accumulation in the human body is currently unknown but is of concern, particularly in pediatric patients who have a lifetime to manifest any potential adverse consequences. Therefore, research is needed to address the clinical significance, if any, of gadolinium deposition in the developing pediatric brain. Given these current uncertainties, clinicians should continue to use prudence in selecting pediatric patients to undergo contrasted MRI and in selecting the appropriate contrast agents to use.

  1. Dissociated signals in human dentate gyrus and CA3 predict different facets of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Watabe, Joseph; Ly, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    A wealth of evidence has implicated the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe cortices in support of recognition memory. However, the roles of the various subfields of the hippocampus are poorly understood. In this study, we concurrently varied stimulus familiarization and repetition to engage different facets of recognition memory. Using high-resolution fMRI (1.5 mm isotropic), we observed distinct familiarity and repetition-related recognition signal profiles in the dentate gyrus (DG)/CA3 subfield in human subjects. The DG/CA3 demonstrated robust response suppression with repetition and familiarity-related facilitation. Both of these discrete responses were predictive of different aspects of behavioral performance. Consistent with previous work, we observed novelty responses in CA1 consistent with "match/mismatch detection," as well as mixed recognition signaling distributed across medial temporal lobe cortices. Additional analyses indicated that the repetition and familiarity-related signals in the DG/CA3 were strikingly dissociated along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and that activity in the posterior hippocampus was strongly correlated with the retrosplenial cortex. These data provide novel insight into the roles of hippocampal subfields in support of recognition memory and further provide evidence of a functional heterogeneity in the human DG/CA3, particularly along the longitudinal axis.

  2. Do Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Affect (18)F-FDG PET/CT Uptake in the Dentate Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kyle; Lathrum, Alaina; Raslan, Osama; Kelly, Patrick V; Zhou, Yihua; Hewing, Debra; Botkin, Crystal; Turner, James A; Osman, Medhat

    2017-03-01

    Gadolinium is toxic and to avoid its deposition in tissues, it must be chemically bonded with nonmetal ions to facilitate its excretion by the kidneys. High signal intensity in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images has been both morphologically and pathologically linked to gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) retention in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated administrations of GBCA would affect the uptake of (18)F-FDG in the DN and GP on PET/CT. Methods: Three hundred seventy-six patients who underwent both contrast-enhanced MR (CE MR) of the brain and PET/CT from January 2004 to October 2015 were identified. Patients with a history of brain irradiation or hepatic or renal disease were excluded. The SUVmax was measured in the DN and GP on the PET/CT scan in patients who had 3-6 successive CE MR brain studies. The SUVmax of the corresponding areas in the control group of patients who had not undergone previous CE MR and who had a normal, unenhanced MR finding of the brain was also measured. A Wilcoxon 2-sample test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifteen of 376 (4%) patients (mean age ± SD, 54 ± 18 y; 10 men and 5 women) were included in the subject group, and 15 patients (mean age ± SD, 36 ± 9 y; 11 men and 4 women) were included in the control group. The median DN SUVmax was significantly lower in the subject group than in the control group (5.4 vs. 6.4, respectively; P = 0.021). Similarly, the median GP SUVmax was significantly lower in the subject group than in the control group (8.8 vs. 12.1, respectively; P = 0.003). Conclusion: The median SUVmax in the DN and GP was 16% and 27% lower, respectively, in patients who received GBCAs than in those who had not received GBCAs, possibly related to gadolinium deposition in these areas.

  3. Subcellular localization of the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 in the cerebellar dentate nucleus of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Espinaco, V; Elezgarai, I; Díez-García, J; Puente, N; Knöpfel, T; Grandes, P

    2008-09-09

    Deep cerebellar dentate nuclei are in a key position to control motor planning as a result of an integration of cerebropontine inputs and hemispheric Purkinje neurons signals, and their influence through synaptic outputs onto extracerebellar hubs. GABAergic dentate neurons exhibit broader action potentials and slower afterhyperpolarization than non-GABAergic (presumably glutamatergic) neurons. Specific potassium channels may be involved in these distinct firing profiles, particularly, Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 subunits which rapidly activate at relatively positive potentials to support the generation of fast action potentials. To investigate the subcellular localization of Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 in GAD- and GAD+ dentate neurons of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice a preembedding immunocytochemical method for electron microscopy was used. Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 were in membranes of cell somata, dendrites, axons and synaptic terminals of both GAD- and GAD+ dentate neurons. The vast majority of GAD- somatodendritic membrane segments domains labeled for Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 (96.1% and 84.7%, respectively) whereas 56.2% and 69.8% of GAD- axonal membrane segments were immunopositive for these subunits. Furthermore, density of Kv3.1b immunoparticles was much higher in GAD- somatodendritic than axonal domains. As to GAD+ neurons, only 70.6% and 50% of somatodendritic membrane segments, and 53.3% and 59.5% of axonal membranes exhibited Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 labeling, respectively. In contrast to GAD- cells, GAD+ cells exhibited a higher density labeling for both Kv3 subunits at their axonal than at their somatodendritic membranes. Taken together, Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 potassium subunits are expressed in both GAD- and GAD+ cells, albeit at different densities and distribution. They likely contribute to the distinct biophysical properties of both GAD- and GAD+ neurons in the dentate nucleus.

  4. Development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve plays an integral part in the control of visceral function. The aim of the present study was to correlate structural and chemical changes in the developing nucleus with available data concerning functional maturation of human viscera and reflexes. The fetal development (ages 9 to 26 weeks) of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve has been examined with the aid of Nissl staining and immunocytochemistry for calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase. By 13 weeks, the dorsal vagal nucleus emerges as a distinct structure with at least two subnuclei visible in Nissl stained preparations. By 15 weeks, three subnuclei (dorsal intermediate, centrointermediate and ventrointermediate) were clearly discernible at the open medulla level with caudal and caudointermediate subnuclei visible at the level of the area postrema. All subnuclei known to exist in the adult were visible by 21 weeks and cytoarchitectonic differentiation of the nucleus was largely completed by 25 weeks. The adult distribution pattern of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons was also largely completed by 21 weeks, although morphological differentiation of labeled neurons continued until the last age examined (26 weeks). The structural development of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve appears to occur in parallel with functional maturation of the cardiovascular and gastric movements, which the nucleus controls.

  5. Ontogeny of calbindin immunoreactivity in the human hippocampal formation with a special emphasis on granule cells of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Abrahám, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla; Kravják, András; Kovács, Krisztina; Gömöri, Eva; Seress, László

    2009-04-01

    Calbindin (CB) is a calcium-binding protein that is present in principal cells as well as in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of various species including humans. Studies with transgenic mice revealed that CB is essential for long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity which are the cellular basis of learning and memory. In a previous study we have shown that CB expression in granule cells of the dentate gyrus correlates with the functional maturation of the hippocampal formation in the rat. In the present study we examined the ontogeny of CB using immunohistochemistry in the human hippocampal formation paying special attention to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. As early as the 14(th) week of gestation (GW), CB was being expressed by pyramidal cells of CA1-3 regions in the deepest cell rows of the pyramidal layer towards the ventricular zone. Later, CB sequentially appears in more superficial cell rows. After midgestation, CB disappears from CA3 pyramidal neurons. Expression of CB by granule cells starts at the 22(nd)-23(rd) GW, first by the most superficial neurons of the ectal end of the dorsal blade. At the 24(th) GW, CB is expressed by granule cells of the crest and medial portion of the ventral blade whereas later the entire ventral blade revealed CB immunoreactivity. At term, and in the first few postnatal months, CB-immunoreaction is detected in granule cells of both blades except for those neurons in the deepest cell rows at the hilar border. At around 2-3 years of age, all granule cells of the entire cell layer are CB-immunoreactive. Axons of granule cells, the mossy fibers, start to express CB around the 30(th) GW in stratum lucidum of CA3a. With further development, CB is expressed in CA3b and c, as well as in the hilus. An adult-like pattern of CB-immunoreactivity could be observed at 11 years of age. Our results indicate that (i) CB is expressed by hippocampal pyramidal cells a few weeks before midgestation; (ii) similarly to

  6. Distinct Pattern Separation Related Transfer Functions in Human CA3/Dentate and CA1 Revealed Using High-Resolution fMRI and Variable Mnemonic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Joyce W.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Shauna M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while…

  7. The subthalamic nucleus influences visuospatial attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmalbach, Barbara; Günther, Veronika; Raethjen, Jan; Wailke, Stefanie; Falk, Daniela; Deuschl, Günther; Witt, Karsten

    2014-03-01

    Spatial attention is a lateralized feature of the human brain. Whereas the role of cortical areas of the nondominant hemisphere on spatial attention has been investigated in detail, the impact of the BG, and more precisely the subthalamic nucleus, on signs and symptoms of spatial attention is not well understood. Here we used unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to reversibly, specifically, and intraindividually modify the neuronal BG outflow and its consequences on signs and symptoms of visuospatial attention in patients suffering from Parkinson disease. We tested 13 patients with Parkinson disease and chronic deep brain stimulation in three stimulation settings: unilateral right and left deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus as well as bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In all three stimulation settings, the patients viewed a set of pictures while an eye-tracker system recorded eye movements. During the exploration of the visual stimuli, we analyzed the time spent in each visual hemispace, as well as the number, duration, amplitude, peak velocity, acceleration peak, and speed of saccades. In the unilateral left-sided stimulation setting, patients show a shorter ipsilateral exploration time of the extrapersonal space, whereas number, duration, and speed of saccades did not differ between the different stimulation settings. These results demonstrated reduced visuospatial attention toward the side contralateral to the right subthalamic nucleus that was not being stimulated in a unilateral left-sided stimulation. Turning on the right stimulator, the reduced visuospatial attention vanished. These results support the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in modulating spatial attention. Therefore, the subthalamic nucleus is part of the subcortical network that subserves spatial attention.

  8. Intrinsic neurophysiological properties of hilar ectopic and normotopic dentate granule cells in human temporal lobe epilepsy and a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, A. L.; Sagher, O.; Parent, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Hilar ectopic dentate granule cells (DGCs) are a salient feature of aberrant plasticity in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and most rodent models of the disease. Recent evidence from rodent TLE models suggests that hilar ectopic DGCs contribute to hyperexcitability within the epileptic hippocampal network. Here we investigate the intrinsic excitability of DGCs from humans with TLE and the rat pilocarpine TLE model with the objective of comparing the neurophysiology of hilar ectopic DGCs to their normotopic counterparts in the granule cell layer (GCL). We recorded from 36 GCL and 7 hilar DGCs from human TLE tissue. Compared with GCL DGCs, hilar DGCs in patient tissue exhibited lower action potential (AP) firing rates, more depolarized AP threshold, and differed in single AP waveform, consistent with an overall decrease in excitability. To evaluate the intrinsic neurophysiology of hilar ectopic DGCs, we made recordings from retrovirus-birthdated, adult-born DGCs 2–4 mo after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus or sham treatment in rats. Hilar DGCs from epileptic rats exhibited higher AP firing rates than normotopic DGCs from epileptic or control animals. They also displayed more depolarized resting membrane potential and wider AP waveforms, indicating an overall increase in excitability. The contrasting findings between disease and disease model may reflect differences between the late-stage disease tissue available from human surgical specimens and the earlier disease stage examined in the rat TLE model. These data represent the first neurophysiological characterization of ectopic DGCs from human hippocampus and prospectively birthdated ectopic DGCs in a rodent TLE model. PMID:25429123

  9. Disambiguating the similar: the dentate gyrus and pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brandy; Marrone, Diano F; Markus, Etan J

    2012-01-01

    The human hippocampus supports the formation of episodic memory without confusing new memories with old ones. To accomplish this, the brain must disambiguate memories (i.e., accentuate the differences between experiences). There is convergent evidence linking pattern separation to the dentate gyrus. Damage to the dentate gyrus reduces an organism's ability to differentiate between similar objects. The dentate gyrus has tenfold more principle cells than its cortical input, allowing for a divergence in information flow. Dentate gyrus granule neurons also show a very different pattern of representing the environment than "classic" place cells in CA1 and CA3, or grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. More recently immediate early genes have been used to "timestamp" activity of individual cells throughout the dentate gyrus. These data indicate that the dentate gyrus robustly differentiates similar situations. The degree of differentiation is non-linear, with even small changes in input inducing a near maximal response in the dentate. Furthermore this differentiation occurs throughout the dentate gyrus longitudinal (dorsal-ventral) axis. Conversely, the data point to a divergence in information processing between the dentate gyrus suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades possibly related to differences in organization within these regions. The accumulated evidence from different approaches converges to support a role for the dentate gyrus in pattern separation. There are however inconsistencies that may require incorporation of neurogenesis and hippocampal microcircuits into the currents models. They also suggest different roles for the dentate gyrus suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades, and the responsiveness of CA3 to dentate input.

  10. Attention modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daniel H; Fukui, Miki M; Pinsk, Mark A; Kastner, Sabine

    2002-11-01

    Attentional mechanisms are important for selecting relevant information and filtering out irrelevant information from cluttered visual scenes. Selective attention has previously been shown to affect neural activity in both extrastriate and striate visual cortex. Here, evidence from functional brain imaging shows that attentional response modulation is not confined to cortical processing, but can occur as early as the thalamic level. We found that attention modulated neural activity in the human lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in several ways: it enhanced neural responses to attended stimuli, attenuated responses to ignored stimuli and increased baseline activity in the absence of visual stimulation. The LGN, traditionally viewed as the gateway to visual cortex, may also serve as a 'gatekeeper' in controlling attentional response gain.

  11. The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies).

    PubMed

    Amaral, David G; Scharfman, Helen E; Lavenex, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a simple cortical region that is an integral portion of the larger functional brain system called the hippocampal formation. In this review, the fundamental neuroanatomical organization of the dentate gyrus is described, including principal cell types and their connectivity, and a summary of the major extrinsic inputs of the dentate gyrus is provided. Together, this information provides essential information that can serve as an introduction to the dentate gyrus--a "dentate gyrus for dummies."

  12. Functional imaging of the human lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Sabine; O'Connor, Daniel H; Fukui, Miki M; Fehd, Hilda M; Herwig, Uwe; Pinsk, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    In the human brain, little is known about the functional anatomy and response properties of subcortical nuclei containing visual maps such as the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and the pulvinar. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 tesla (T), collective responses of neural populations in the LGN were measured as a function of stimulus contrast and flicker reversal rate and compared with those obtained in visual cortex. Flickering checkerboard stimuli presented in alternation to the right and left hemifields reliably activated the LGN. The peak of the LGN activation was found to be on average within +/-2 mm of the anatomical location of the LGN, as identified on high-resolution structural images. In all visual areas except the middle temporal (MT), fMRI responses increased monotonically with stimulus contrast. In the LGN, the dynamic response range of the contrast function was larger and contrast gain was lower than in the cortex. Contrast sensitivity was lowest in the LGN and V1 and increased gradually in extrastriate cortex. In area MT, responses were saturated at 4% contrast. Response modulation by changes in flicker rate was similar in the LGN and V1 and occurred mainly in the frequency range between 0.5 and 7.5 Hz; in contrast, in extrastriate areas V4, V3A, and MT, responses were modulated mainly in the frequency range between 7.5 and 20 Hz. In the human pulvinar, no activations were obtained with the experimental designs used to probe response properties of the LGN. However, regions in the mediodorsal right and left pulvinar were found to be consistently activated by bilaterally presented flickering checkerboard stimuli, when subjects attended to the stimuli. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fMRI at 3 T can be used effectively to study thalamocortical circuits in the human brain.

  13. Cellular components of the human medial amygdaloid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Aline; Xavier, Léder L; Hilbig, Arlete; Ferme, Denise; Moreira, Jorge E; Achaval, Matilde; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2013-02-15

    The medial nucleus (Me) is a superficial component of the amygdaloid complex. Here we assessed the density and morphology of the neurons and glial cells, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity, and the ultrastructure of the synaptic sites in the human Me. The optical fractionator method was applied. The Me presented an estimated mean neuronal density of 1.53 × 10⁵ neurons/mm³ (greater in the left hemisphere), more glia (72% of all cells) than neurons, and a nonneuronal:neuronal ratio of 2.7. Golgi-impregnated neurons had round or ovoid, fusiform, angular, and polygonal cell bodies (10-30 μm in diameter). The length of the dendrites varied, and pleomorphic spines were found in sparsely spiny or densely spiny cells (1.5-5.2 spines/dendritic μm). The axons in the Me neuropil were fine or coarsely beaded, and fibers showed simple or notably complex collateral terminations. The protoplasmic astrocytes were either isolated or formed small clusters and showed GFAP-immunoreactive cell bodies and multiple branches. Furthermore, we identified both asymmetrical (with various small, clear, round, electron-lucent vesicles and, occasionally, large, dense-core vesicles) and symmetrical (with small, flattened vesicles) axodendritic contacts, also including multisynaptic spines. The astrocytes surround and may compose tripartite or tetrapartite synapses, the latter including the extracellular matrix between the pre- and the postsynaptic elements. Interestingly, the terminal axons exhibited a glomerular-like structure with various asymmetrical contacts. These new morphological data on the cellular population and synaptic complexity of the human Me can contribute to our knowledge of its role in health and pathological conditions.

  14. Neural Correlates of Decision Thresholds in the Human Subthalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Herz, Damian M; Zavala, Baltazar A; Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Peter

    2016-04-04

    If humans are faced with difficult choices when making decisions, the ability to slow down responses becomes critical in order to avoid suboptimal choices. Current models of decision making assume that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates this function by elevating decision thresholds, thereby requiring more evidence to be accumulated before responding [1-9]. However, direct electrophysiological evidence for the exact role of STN during adjustment of decision thresholds is lacking. Here, we show that trial-by-trial variations in STN low-frequency oscillatory activity predict adjustments of decision thresholds before subjects make a response. The relationship between STN activity and decision thresholds critically depends on the subjects' level of cautiousness. While increased oscillatory activity of the STN predicts elevated decision thresholds during high levels of cautiousness, it predicts decreased decision thresholds during low levels of cautiousness. This context-dependent relationship may be mediated by increased influence of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-STN pathway on decision thresholds during high cautiousness. Subjects who exhibit a stronger increase in phase alignment of low-frequency oscillatory activity in mPFC and STN before making a response have higher decision thresholds and commit fewer erroneous responses. Together, our results demonstrate that STN low-frequency oscillatory activity and corresponding mPFC-STN coupling are involved in determining how much evidence subjects accumulate before making a decision. This finding might explain why deep-brain stimulation of the STN can impair subjects' ability to slow down responses and can induce impulsive suboptimal decisions.

  15. Neural Correlates of Decision Thresholds in the Human Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Damian M.; Zavala, Baltazar A.; Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary If humans are faced with difficult choices when making decisions, the ability to slow down responses becomes critical in order to avoid suboptimal choices. Current models of decision making assume that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates this function by elevating decision thresholds, thereby requiring more evidence to be accumulated before responding [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. However, direct electrophysiological evidence for the exact role of STN during adjustment of decision thresholds is lacking. Here, we show that trial-by-trial variations in STN low-frequency oscillatory activity predict adjustments of decision thresholds before subjects make a response. The relationship between STN activity and decision thresholds critically depends on the subjects’ level of cautiousness. While increased oscillatory activity of the STN predicts elevated decision thresholds during high levels of cautiousness, it predicts decreased decision thresholds during low levels of cautiousness. This context-dependent relationship may be mediated by increased influence of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-STN pathway on decision thresholds during high cautiousness. Subjects who exhibit a stronger increase in phase alignment of low-frequency oscillatory activity in mPFC and STN before making a response have higher decision thresholds and commit fewer erroneous responses. Together, our results demonstrate that STN low-frequency oscillatory activity and corresponding mPFC-STN coupling are involved in determining how much evidence subjects accumulate before making a decision. This finding might explain why deep-brain stimulation of the STN can impair subjects’ ability to slow down responses and can induce impulsive suboptimal decisions. PMID:26996501

  16. Shuttling of the autoantigen La between nucleus and cell surface after uv irradiation of human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, M.; Chang, S.; Slor, H.; Kukulies, J.; Mueller, W.E. )

    1990-12-01

    During the past years we have established that the nuclear autoantigen La shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in tumor cells after inhibition of transcription or virus infection. We reinvestigated this shuttling using primary human keratinocytes from both healthy donors and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ultraviolet irradiation resulted in both an inhibition of transcription and a translocation of La protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. After a prolonged inhibition of transcription La protein relocated into the nucleus and assembled with nuclear storage regions. The uv-induced shuttling included a translocation to the cell surface, where La protein colocalized with epidermal growth factor receptors.

  17. Prolonged expansion of human nucleus pulposus cells expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase mediated by lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Deli; Ruan, Dike; He, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chaofeng; Xin, Hongkui; Xu, Cheng; Liu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Human degenerative disc disease (DDD) is characterized by progressive loss of human nucleus pulposus (HNP) cells and extracellular matrix, in which the massive deposition are secreted by HNP cells. Cell therapy to supplement HNP cells to degenerated discs has been thought to be a promising strategy to treat DDD. However, obtaining a large quality of fully functional HNP cells has been severely hampered by limited proliferation capacity of HNP cells in vitro. Previous studies have used lipofectamine or recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors to deliver human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) into ovine or HNP cells to prolong the activity of nucleus pulposus cells with limited success. Here we developed a lentiviral vector bearing both hTERT and a gene encoding green fluorescence protein (L-hTERT/EGFP). This vector efficiently mediated both hTERT and EGFP into freshly isolated HNP cells. The expressions of both transgenes in L-hTERT/EGFP transduced HNP cells were detected up to day 210 post viral infection, which was twice as long as rAAV vector did. Furthermore, we observed restored telomerase activity, maintained telomere length, delayed cell senescence, and increased cell proliferation rate in those L-hTERT/EGFP transduced HNP cells. Our study suggests that lentiviral vector might be a useful gene delivery vehicle for HNP cell therapy to treat DDD.

  18. Cholinergic Circuitry of the Human Nucleus Basalis and Its Fate in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus basalis is located at the confluence of the limbic and reticular activating systems. It receives dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, serotonergic input from the raphe nuclei, and noradrenergic input from the nucleus locus coeruleus. Its cholinergic contingent, known as Ch4, provides the principal source of acetylcholine for the cerebral cortex and amygdala. More than half of presynaptic varicosities along its cholinergic axons make traditional synaptic contacts with cortical neurons. Limbic and paralimbic cortices of the brain receive the heaviest cholinergic input from Ch4 and are also the principal sources of reciprocal cortical projections back to the nucleus basalis. This limbic affiliation explains the role of the nucleus basalis in modulating the impact and memorability of incoming sensory information. The anatomical continuity of the nucleus basalis with other basomedial limbic structures may underlie its early and high vulnerability to the tauopathy and neurofibrillary degeneration of Alzheimer's disease. The tauopathy in Ch4 eventually leads to the degeneration of the cholinergic axons that it sends to the cerebral cortex. The early involvement of Ch4 has a magnifying effect on Alzheimer's pathology, because neurofibrillary degeneration in a small number of neurons can perturb neurotransmission in all cortical areas. Although the exact contribution of the Ch4 lesion to the cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease remains poorly understood, the cholinergic circuitry of the nucleus basalis is emerging as one of the most strategically positioned and behaviorally consequential modulatory systems of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:23852922

  19. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force-related-BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-02-27

    The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non-linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD-force relationship that is region-dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  1. Development of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus in the human fetus: transient presence of discrete cytoarchitectonic units.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, I; Kostović, I

    1986-01-01

    The cytoarchitectonic development of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus has been studied on Nissl-stained sections through brains of human fetuses ranging between 11 to 24 weeks of gestation. The first sign of cytoarchitectonic inhomogeneity of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus is the appearance of 2-3 ovoid cell clusters around 12 weeks of gestation. Between 12.5-16 weeks of gestation, the ventral part of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus contains 7-11 columnar cell clusters separated by "septa" of lower cell-packing density. These columnar clusters, stretching in the rostrocaudal direction, appear on cross-section as ovoid structures elongated in the ventrodorsal direction. In subsequent development (16-24 weeks of gestation) this distinct columnar appearance becomes less obvious, owing to the disappearance of "septa" along the dorsal edges of cellular clusters. This process begins first in the medial part of the columnar field. As a result, the cytoarchitectonic units gradually fuse into a homogeneous grey mass. However, the ventral part of the columnar field retains an undulated appearance throughout late gestation, showing multiple indentations as a sign of former cytoarchitectonic inhomogeneities. In conclusion, the fetal lateral amygdaloid nucleus contains a number of cytoarchitectonic "moduli" which could serve as a new parameter for an estimation of histogenetic maturity of the human amygdala. This transient cytoarchitectonic inhomogeneity could be a sign of the temporary predominance of one characteristic afferent-efferent system during a given developmental stage. Alternatively, it could reflect a clustered type of neurogenesis.

  2. Perimovement decrease of alpha/beta oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Kaufmann, Jörn; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e., online, role during action preparation. We recorded local field potentials from the nucleus accumbens in patients with epilepsy undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. We found a consistent decrease in the power of alpha/beta oscillations (10–30 Hz) before and around the time of movements. This perimovement alpha/beta desynchronization was observed in seven of eight patients and was present both before instructed movements in a serial reaction time task as well as before self-paced, deliberate choices in a decision making task. A similar beta decrease over sensorimotor cortex and in the subthalamic nucleus has been directly related to movement preparation and execution. Our results support the idea of a direct role of the human nucleus accumbens in action preparation and execution. PMID:27486103

  3. Abnormal lateral geniculate nucleus and optic chiasm in human albinism.

    PubMed

    Mcketton, Larissa; Kelly, Krista R; Schneider, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to measure how the misrouting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fibers affects the organization of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) in human albinism. We compared the chiasmal structures and the LGN in both pigmented controls and patients with albinism by using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 12 patients with oculocutaneous albinism and 12 age-matched pigmented controls. Using a 3T MRI scanner, we acquired a T1 -weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) image of the whole brain, oriented so that the optic nerves, chiasm, and tracts were in the same plane. We acquired multiple proton density-weighted images centered on the thalamus and midbrain, and averaged them to increase the signal, enabling precise manual tracing of the anatomical boundaries of the LGN. Albinism patients exhibited significantly smaller diameters of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, and optic chiasm and LGN volume compared with controls (P < 0.001 for all). The reductions in chiasmal diameters in the albinism compared with the control group can be attributed to the abnormal crossing of optic fibers and the reduction of RGCs in the central retina. The volume of the LGN devoted to the center of the visual field may be reduced in albinism due to fewer RGCs representing the area where the fovea would normally lie. Our data may be clinically useful in addressing how genetic deficits compromise proper structural and functional development in the brain.

  4. Transient features of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the human foetal brain.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, N; Nickel, J; Bohl, J

    1998-12-01

    The architectonic organization and neuronal types of the human foetal reticular nucleus (RN)--with special reference to transient characteristics--have been investigated using antisera against calretinin, parvalbumin and neurofilament epitopes of somata and dendrites (SMI 311). The RN consists of four subdivisions (clearly distinguishable in the 6/7th gestational month): The main portion appears as a prominent structure on account of its extension and high packing density of neurons which coexpress calretinin and parvalbumin. These two calcium-binding proteins are also expressed by the perireticular nucleus forming a conspicuous grey within the internal capsule. Perireticular cells form clusters which are in continuity with the main portion, globus pallidus, ganglionic eminence and pregeniculate nucleus. In double-labellings, a medial subnucleus stands out distinctly as it only expresses calretinin. SMI 311-immunopreparations show neurons revealing a high degree of diversification and elaborated dendritic trees. Several transient characteristics become obvious: the perireticular nucleus, not visible in the adult, represents a distinct entity in the human foetal brain. The main portion and the pregeniculate nucleus appearing as prominent greys are dramatically reduced in size later on. The percentage of RN-neurons expressing calretinin, the diversity of neuronal types and elaborated dendritic trees are reduced. The transient features can be correlated with the RN's putative functional roles in development: early RN-afferents to the dorsal thalamus may represent pioneer fibres providing guiding cues for outgrowing axons from or into the thalamus. Moreover, the RN may serve as an intermediate target for growing axons which are sorted and directed towards different final targets.

  5. Intracellular mitochondrial DNA transfers to the nucleus in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Seok

    2016-06-01

    Genome instability is a well-known hallmark of cancer cells. With the revolution of high-throughput sequencing technologies, our knowledge of somatically acquired genome structural variation (SV) has greatly improved over the last decade. Remarkably, surveys of thousands of human whole-cancer genomes have shown that chromosomal rearrangements are frequently combined with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments somatically transferred to the nucleus. The high transfer rate and features of integration breakpoints provide clues for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying these events and provide insights into the role of mtDNA segments transferred into the nucleus. In this review, I discuss our current understanding of somatic nuclear transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome of human cancer cells.

  6. Export of Precursor tRNAIle from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Min; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Mi; Niu, Meijuan; Seif, Elias; Kleiman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In the current concept, tRNA maturation in vertebrate cells, including splicing of introns, trimming of 5’ leader and 3’ trailer, and adding of CCA, is thought to occur exclusively in the nucleus. Here we provide evidence to challenge this concept. Unspliced intron-containing precursor tRNAIle was identified in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions, which are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Northern blot, confocal microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR further verified enrichment of this unspliced tRNAIle within the cytoplasm in human cells. In addition to containing an intron, the cytoplasmic precursor tRNAIle also contains a short incompletely processed 5´ leader and a 3´ trailer, which abundance is around 1000 fold higher than the nuclear precursor tRNAIle with long 5’ leader and long 3’ trailer. In vitro data also suggest that the cytoplasmic unspliced end-immature precursor tRNAIle could be processed by short isoform of RNase Z, but not long isoform of RNase Z. These data suggest that precursor tRNAs could export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in human cells, instead of be processed only in the nucleus. PMID:27101286

  7. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  8. Gene expression profile of the nucleus accumbens of human cocaine abusers: evidence for dysregulation of myelin

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Dawn N.; Pruetz, Barb; Schmidt, Carl J.; Kuhn, Donald M.; Kapatos, Gregory; Bannon, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cocaine abuse induces long-term neural adaptations as a consequence of alterations in gene expression. This study was undertaken to identify those transcripts differentially regulated in the nucleus accumbens of human cocaine abusers. Affymetrix microarrays were used to measure transcript abundance in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 control subjects matched for age, race, sex, and brain pH. As expected, gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was increased in the nucleus accumbens of cocaine abusers. The most robust and consistent finding, however, was a decrease in the expression of a number of myelin-related genes, including myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic protein (MOBP). The differential expression seen by microarray for CART as well as MBP, MOBP, and PLP was verified by RT–PCR. In addition, immunohistochemical experiments revealed a decrease in the number of MBP-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes present in the nucleus accumbens and surrounding white matter of cocaine abusers. These findings suggest a dysregulation of myelin in human cocaine abusers. PMID:15009677

  9. Locations of movement-related cells in the human subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Theodosopoulos, Philip V; Marks, William J; Christine, Chadwick; Starr, Philip A

    2003-07-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an emerging target for deep brain stimulator (DBS) implantation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Understanding the somatotopic organization of the STN is important for surgical navigation within the nucleus. We analyzed intraoperative data obtained during 54 procedures for the implantation of STN stimulators to assess the locations of movement-related cells. Cells were considered movement-related if they exhibited modulation of the cell discharge during passive movement of the contralateral upper or lower extremity. Microelectrode track reconstructions were plotted on a human brain atlas, using the location of the DBS electrode from postoperative magnetic resonance images as a registration mark in reconstructing microelectrode track locations. Movement-related cells were predominantly located in the dorsal part of the nucleus. The majority of the cells were related to proximal joint manipulation. Arm-related cells were located laterally and at the rostral and caudal poles, whereas leg-related cells were located medially and centrally. The finding of three or more leg-related cells on a given microelectrode track was predictive of a medial localization within the motor area. Our findings are consistent with the small number of published studies on STN somatopy in the human and the nonhuman primate.

  10. Rostrocaudal changes in neuronal cell size in human lateral vestibular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, C; Suarez, C; Navarro, A; Gonzalez del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    1993-07-09

    A cytoarchitectonic and morphometric study of the human lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) is presented. In sagittal sections, the LVN appears as a triangular cell group rostrally located near the motor trigeminal nucleus and caudally near the vestibular root. The estimated volume is 13.49 mm3 with a neuronal population of 25,046 cells and 1855 neurons/mm3 in density. The average neuronal cross-sectional area changes from a minimum caudally (380.02 +/- 7.23 microns 2) to a maximum rostrally (825.16 +/- 25.10 microns 2). Four types of neurons can be observed: small (< 200 microns 2), medium (200-500 microns 2), large (500-100 microns 2) and giant or Deiter's cells (> 1000 microns 2). The small and medium cells constitute 62%, large cells 26% and the giant cells only 12% of the neuronal population.

  11. Nuclear configuration and neuronal types of the nucleus niger in the brain of the human adult.

    PubMed

    Braak, H; Braak, E

    1986-01-01

    The pigmentoarchitectonic analysis of the human nucleus niger reveals three main territories: Pars compacta, pars diffusa and pars reticulata. Seven subnuclei are recognized within the pars compacta. The nerve cell types forming the nucleus niger were investigated using a Golgi de-impregnation technique in combination with counterstaining of intraneuronally deposited pigment granules. Three principal types of neurons were defined: Type I was a medium-sized to large neuron, mainly encountered in the pars compacta, giving off a few thick and sparsely branching dendrites. These cells were richly endowed with elongated patches of Nissl material that were mainly found in the peripheral portions of the dendrites. One pole of the cell body contained tightly packed neuromelanin granules. Type II neurons were mainly found in the pars reticulata. They were variable in size and shape and generated, similar to type I neurons, extended and sparsely branching dendrites. Type II neurons were devoid of neuromelanin. A considerable number of these cells were lacking in lipofuscin deposits as well. Type III neurons occurred in all portions of the nuclear complex. The small cell body gave rise to a few thin and spineless dendrites. The axon and filiform processes of the dendrites showed small varicosities irregularly spaced apart. The pale cytoplasm contained small and intensely stained lipofuscin granules, which did not tend to agglomerate. Intraneuronally deposited neuromelanin and lipofuscin pigment can be considered a natural marker of the neuronal type in the nucleus niger of the human adult. The technique and the data provide a basis for investigations of the aged and the diseased human brain.

  12. MUC1 Functions as an Oncogene by Targeting the Nucleus of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Donald Kufe, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: September 2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MUCI Functions as an Oncogene by Targeting the Nucleus of Human Breast Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...5. MUC1 increases ERa occupancy of EREs and ERa-mediated transactivation. A. MCF-7/CsiRNA and MCF-7/ MUCl siRNA-A cells were treated with 100 nM E2 for

  13. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Šťastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well. PMID:25713375

  14. Prediction error as a linear function of reward probability is coded in human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Kammerer, Hannes; Spitzer, Manfred

    2006-06-01

    Reward probability has been shown to be coded by dopamine neurons in monkeys. Phasic neuronal activation not only increased linearly with reward probability upon expectation of reward, but also varied monotonically across the range of probabilities upon omission or receipt of rewards, therefore modeling discrepancies between expected and received rewards. Such a discrete coding of prediction error has been suggested to be one of the basic principles of learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that the human dopamine system codes reward probability and prediction error in a similar way. We used a simple delayed incentive task with a discrete range of reward probabilities from 0%-100%. Activity in the nucleus accumbens of human subjects strongly resembled the phasic responses found in monkey neurons. First, during the expectation period of the task, the fMRI signal in the human nucleus accumbens (NAc) increased linearly with the probability of the reward. Second, during the outcome phase, activity in the NAc coded the prediction error as a linear function of reward probabilities. Third, we found that the Nac signal was correlated with individual differences in sensation seeking and novelty seeking, indicating a link between individual fMRI activation of the dopamine system in a probabilistic paradigm and personality traits previously suggested to be linked with reward processing. We therefore identify two different covariates that model activity in the Nac: specific properties of a psychological task and individual character traits.

  15. The cytoarchitecture of the adult human parabrachial nucleus: a Nissl and Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Gioia, M; Rodella, L; Petruccioli, M G; Bianchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) plays important roles in numerous autonomic functions and in pain modulation. In different animal species, three main regions of the PBN have been identified: the m-PB, the l-PB, and the Kolliker-Fuse nucleus (KF). The KF has not been identified in humans. The present study used Nissl and Golgi-Cox material and morphoquantitative methods to investigate the cytoarchitectural organization of the adult human PBN, paying particular attention to neuronal features endowed with functional significance, i. e. the arborization of the neurons. The PBN neuron population is made up of elements which are heterogeneous in size, shape and dendritic arborization, and grouped into two regions, the lateral and medial PBN (l- and m-PB). It has been suggested that some large sized neurons located in the ventral region of the m-PB might be the counterpart of the KF. In the m-PB the fusiform neurons are the most numerous cells; in the l-PB the multipolar neurons prevail, and are particularly numerous in the dorsal l-PB. Since the dendritic arborization is generally the main target of afferent projections to a neuron, it is possible that the l-PB, and in particular its dorsal region, might be the main site for the endings of afferences to the human PBN.

  16. Properties of Membranes Derived from the Total Lipids Extracted from the Human Lens Cortex and Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Human lens lipid membranes prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method from the total lipids extracted from the clear lens cortex and nucleus of 41- to 60-year-old donors were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling. Profiles of the phospholipid alkyl-chain order, fluidity, oxygen transport parameter, and hydrophobicity were assessed across coexisting membrane domains. Membranes prepared from the lens cortex and nucleus were found to contain two distinct lipid environments, the bulk phospholipid-cholesterol domain and the cholesterol bilayer domain (CBD). The alkyl chains of phospholipids were strongly ordered at all depths, indicating that the amplitude of the wobbling motion of alkyl chains was small. However, profiles of the membrane fluidity, which explicitly contain time (expressed as the spin-lattice relaxation rate) and depend on the rotational motion of spin labels, show relatively high fluidity of alkyl chains close to the membrane center. Profiles of the oxygen transport parameter and hydrophobicity have a rectangular shape and also indicate a high fluidity and hydrophobicity of the membrane center. The amount of CBD was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. The presence of the CBD in lens lipid membranes, which at 37°C showed a permeability coefficient for oxygen about 60% smaller than across a water layer of the same thickness, would be expected to raise the barrier for oxygen transport across the fiber cell membrane. Properties of human membranes are compared with those obtained for membranes made of lipids extracted from cortex and nucleus of porcine and bovine eye lenses. PMID:23438364

  17. β- and γ-Actins in the nucleus of human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Migocka-Patrzałek, Marta; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Nowak, Dorota; Mazur, Antonina J; Hofmann, Wilma A; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is expressed in all eukaryotic cells and has essential functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nuclear actin is involved in transcription by all three RNA polymerases, chromatin remodelling, RNA processing, intranuclear transport, nuclear export and in maintenance of the nuclear architecture. The nuclear actin level and polymerization state are important factors regulating nuclear processes such as transcription. Our study shows that, in contrast to the cytoplasm, the majority of endogenous nuclear actin is unpolymerized in human melanoma A375 cells. Most mammalian cells express the two non-muscle β- and γ-actin isoforms that differ in only four amino acids. Despite their sequence similarity, studies analysing the cytoplasmic functions of these isoforms demonstrated that β- and γ-actins show differences in localization and function. However, little is known about the involvement of the individual actin isoforms in nuclear processes. Here, we used the human melanoma A375 cell line to analyse actin isoforms in regard to their nuclear localization. We show that both β- and γ-non-muscle actin isoforms are present in nuclei of these cells. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that both isoforms co-localize with RNA polymerase II and hnRNP U. However, we observe differences in the ratio of cytoplasmic to nuclear actin distribution between the isoforms. We show that β-actin has a significantly higher nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio than γ-actin.

  18. Movement-related frequency modulation of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Priori, A

    2005-10-15

    Event-related changes of brain electrical rhythms are typically analysed as amplitude modulations of local field potential (LFP) oscillations, like radio amplitude modulation broadcasting. In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) is less susceptible to interference than amplitude modulation (AM) and is therefore preferred for high-fidelity transmissions. Here we hypothesized that LFP rhythms detected from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease could represent movement-related activity not only in AM but also in FM. By combining adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition, we were able to show that FM of low-beta (13-20 Hz) and high-beta (20-35 Hz) rhythms significantly contributes to the involvement of the human STN in movement preparation, execution and recovery, and that the FM patterns are regulated by the dopamine levels in the system. Movement-related FM of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus therefore provides a novel informational domain for rhythm-based pathophysiological models of cortico-basal ganglia processing.

  19. Movement-related frequency modulation of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Foffani, G; Bianchi, AM; Baselli, G; Priori, A

    2005-01-01

    Event-related changes of brain electrical rhythms are typically analysed as amplitude modulations of local field potential (LFP) oscillations, like radio amplitude modulation broadcasting. In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) is less susceptible to interference than amplitude modulation (AM) and is therefore preferred for high-fidelity transmissions. Here we hypothesized that LFP rhythms detected from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease could represent movement-related activity not only in AM but also in FM. By combining adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition, we were able to show that FM of low-beta (13–20 Hz) and high-beta (20–35 Hz) rhythms significantly contributes to the involvement of the human STN in movement preparation, execution and recovery, and that the FM patterns are regulated by the dopamine levels in the system. Movement-related FM of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus therefore provides a novel informational domain for rhythm-based pathophysiological models of cortico-basal ganglia processing. PMID:16123109

  20. Reduction of the immunostainable length of the hippocampal dentate granule cells' primary cilia in 3xAD-transgenic mice producing human A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Gaudet, Chantal; Menard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Atkinson, Trevor; LaFerla, Frank M.; Ito, Shingo; Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Pra, Ilaria; Whitfield, James

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} and tau-induced neurofibrillary tangles play a key role in Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}{sub 1-42} and mutant tau protein together reduce the primary cilium length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This shortening likely reduces cilium-dependent neurogenesis and memory function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This provides a model of an A{beta}/tau targeting of a neuronal signaling organelle. -- Abstract: The hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of the two sites of continuous neurogenesis in adult rodents and humans. Virtually all dentate granule cells have a single immobile cilium with a microtubule spine or axoneme covered with a specialized cell membrane loaded with receptors such as the somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}). The signals from these receptors have been reported to stimulate neuroprogenitor proliferation and the post-mitotic maturation of newborn granule cells into functioning granule cells. We have found that in 6-24-months-old triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (3xTg-AD) producing both A{beta}{sub 1-42} and the mutant human tau protein tau{sub P301L,} the dentate granule cells still had immunostainable SSTR3- and p75{sup NTR}-bearing cilia but they were only half the length of the immunostained cilia in the corresponding wild-type mice. However, the immunostainable length of the granule cell cilia was not reduced either in 2xTg-AD mice accumulating large amounts of A{beta}{sub 1-42} or in mice accumulating only a mutant human tau protein. Thus it appears that a combination of A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau protein accumulation affects the levels of functionally important receptors in 3xTg-AD mice. These observations raise the important possibility that structural and functional changes in granule cell cilia might have a role in AD.

  1. Single-nucleus RNA-seq of differentiating human myoblasts reveals the extent of fate heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Shan; Kong, Xiangduo; El-Ali, Nicole; Ball, Alexander R.; Ma, Christopher I-Hsing; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Yokomori, Kyoko; Mortazavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Myoblasts are precursor skeletal muscle cells that differentiate into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Current single-cell microfluidic methods are not optimized for capturing very large, multinucleated cells such as myotubes. To circumvent the problem, we performed single-nucleus transcriptome analysis. Using immortalized human myoblasts, we performed RNA-seq analysis of single cells (scRNA-seq) and single nuclei (snRNA-seq) and found them comparable, with a distinct enrichment for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in snRNA-seq. We then compared snRNA-seq of myoblasts before and after differentiation. We observed the presence of mononucleated cells (MNCs) that remained unfused and analyzed separately from multi-nucleated myotubes. We found that while the transcriptome profiles of myoblast and myotube nuclei are relatively homogeneous, MNC nuclei exhibited significant heterogeneity, with the majority of them adopting a distinct mesenchymal state. Primary transcripts for microRNAs (miRNAs) that participate in skeletal muscle differentiation were among the most differentially expressed lncRNAs, which we validated using NanoString. Our study demonstrates that snRNA-seq provides reliable transcriptome quantification for cells that are otherwise not amenable to current single-cell platforms. Our results further indicate that snRNA-seq has unique advantage in capturing nucleus-enriched lncRNAs and miRNA precursors that are useful in mapping and monitoring differential miRNA expression during cellular differentiation. PMID:27566152

  2. Single-nucleus RNA-seq of differentiating human myoblasts reveals the extent of fate heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Shan; Kong, Xiangduo; El-Ali, Nicole; Ball, Alexander R; Ma, Christopher I-Hsing; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Yokomori, Kyoko; Mortazavi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Myoblasts are precursor skeletal muscle cells that differentiate into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Current single-cell microfluidic methods are not optimized for capturing very large, multinucleated cells such as myotubes. To circumvent the problem, we performed single-nucleus transcriptome analysis. Using immortalized human myoblasts, we performed RNA-seq analysis of single cells (scRNA-seq) and single nuclei (snRNA-seq) and found them comparable, with a distinct enrichment for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in snRNA-seq. We then compared snRNA-seq of myoblasts before and after differentiation. We observed the presence of mononucleated cells (MNCs) that remained unfused and analyzed separately from multi-nucleated myotubes. We found that while the transcriptome profiles of myoblast and myotube nuclei are relatively homogeneous, MNC nuclei exhibited significant heterogeneity, with the majority of them adopting a distinct mesenchymal state. Primary transcripts for microRNAs (miRNAs) that participate in skeletal muscle differentiation were among the most differentially expressed lncRNAs, which we validated using NanoString. Our study demonstrates that snRNA-seq provides reliable transcriptome quantification for cells that are otherwise not amenable to current single-cell platforms. Our results further indicate that snRNA-seq has unique advantage in capturing nucleus-enriched lncRNAs and miRNA precursors that are useful in mapping and monitoring differential miRNA expression during cellular differentiation.

  3. Decoding gripping force based on local field potentials recorded from subthalamic nucleus in humans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Brown, Peter

    2016-11-18

    The basal ganglia are known to be involved in the planning, execution and control of gripping force and movement vigour. Here we aim to define the nature of the basal ganglia control signal for force and to decode gripping force based on local field potential (LFP) activities recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We found that STN LFP activities in the gamma (55-90 Hz) and beta (13-30m Hz) bands were most informative about gripping force, and that a first order dynamic linear model with these STN LFP features as inputs can be used to decode the temporal profile of gripping force. Our results enhance the understanding of how the basal ganglia control gripping force, and also suggest that deep brain LFPs could potentially be used to decode movement parameters related to force and movement vigour for the development of advanced human-machine interfaces.

  4. Behavior modification after inactivation of cerebellar dentate nuclei.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Villatoro, Lee; Arneson, Tom; Ahuja, Brittany; Voss, Stephanie; Swain, Rodney A

    2012-08-01

    Effort-based decision making occurs when subjects are given a choice between a reward available at a high response cost and a reward available at a low response cost and is altered in individuals with disorders such as autism or particular patterns of brain injury. The current study explored the relationship between effort-based decision making and reinforcement characteristics in the T maze. This was done using both normal animals and animals with bilateral inactivation of the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Rats chose between alternatives in which one arm contained high-density reinforcement (HR) and the other arm contained low-density reinforcement (LR). During training, the HR arm was obstructed and the point at which the animal no longer worked for reinforcement (breaking point) was determined. The cerebellar dentate nuclei were then transiently inactivated and once again breaking points were assessed. The results indicated that inactivation of the dentate nucleus disrupted effort-based decision making. Additionally, altering both the palatability and the magnitude of the reinforcement were assessed in an attempt to reestablish the original preinactivation breaking point. It was hypothesized that an increase in the strength or magnitude of the reinforcement would promote an increase in the breaking point of the animal even when the cerebellum was inactivated. The results indicated that with both strategies animals effectively reestablished original breaking points. The results of this study will inform the current literature regarding the modification of behavior after brain injury and further the understanding of the behavioral deficits associated with cerebellar dysfunction.

  5. Sex steroids and the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hajszan, Tibor; Milner, Teresa A; Leranth, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the finding that the dentate gyrus contains more granule cells in the male than in the female of certain mouse strains provided the first indication that the dentate gyrus is a significant target for the effects of sex steroids during development. Gonadal hormones also play a crucial role in shaping the function and morphology of the adult brain. Besides reproduction-related processes, sex steroids participate in higher brain operations such as cognition and mood, in which the hippocampus is a critical mediator. Being part of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is naturally involved in these mechanisms and as such, this structure is also a critical target for the activational effects of sex steroids. These activational effects are the results of three major types of steroid-mediated actions. Sex steroids modulate the function of dentate neurons under normal conditions. In addition, recent research suggests that hormone-induced cellular plasticity may play a larger role than previously thought, particularly in the dentate gyrus. Specifically, the regulation of dentate gyrus neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling by sex steroids received increasing attention lately. Finally, the dentate gyrus is influenced by gonadal hormones in the context of cellular injury, and the work in this area demonstrates that gonadal hormones have neuroprotective potential. The expression of estrogen, progestin, and androgen receptors in the dentate gyrus suggests that sex steroids, which could be of gonadal origin and/or synthesized locally in the dentate gyrus, may act directly on dentate cells. In addition, gonadal hormones could also influence the dentate gyrus indirectly, by subcortical hormone-sensitive structures such as the cholinergic septohippocampal system. Importantly, these three sex steroid-related themes, functional effects in the normal dentate gyrus, mechanisms involving neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling, as well as neuroprotection, have

  6. Measurement of the Nucleus Area and Nucleus/Cytoplasm and Mitochondria/Nucleus Ratios in Human Colon Tissues by Dual-Colour Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su Lim, Chang; Sun Kim, Eun; Yeon Kim, Ji; Taek Hong, Seung; Jai Chun, Hoon; Eun Kang, Dong; Rae Cho, Bong

    2015-01-01

    We developed two-photon (TP) probes for DNA (ABI-Nu), cytoplasm (Pyr-CT), and mitochondria (BF-MT). We found that ABI-Nu binds to AT in the minor groove, while ABI-Nu and BF-MT are effective for tracking in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively. These probes showed very large effective two-photon action cross section values of 2230, 1555, and 790 Göppert-Mayer units (1 GM  =  10−50 cm4 s photon−1molecule−1) at 740 nm with emission maxima at 473, 561, and 560 nm, respectively, in each organelle. Using these probes, we quantitatively estimated the mean nuclear area and the ratios of nuclei to cytoplasm and mitochondria to nuclei in human colon tissues by dual-colour two-photon microscopy imaging within 2  h after biopsy. The mean nuclear area and the nuclei to cytoplasm and mitochondria to cytoplasm ratios increased in the following order: normal colon mucosa

  7. Chondroprotective supplementation promotes the mechanical properties of injectable scaffold for human nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Foss, Berit L; Maxwell, Thomas W; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A result of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is no longer able to withstand applied load leading to pain and disability. The objective of this study is to fabricate a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold with chondroprotective supplementation in vitro to improve the mechanical properties of a degenerative NP. Tissue-engineered scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride and mechanically evaluated. Fabrication conditions were based on structural and mechanical resemblance to the native NP. Chondroprotective supplementation, glucosamine (GCSN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were added to scaffolds at concentrations of 0:0µg/mL (0:0-S), 125:100µg/mL (125:100-S), 250:200µg/mL (250:200-S), and 500:400µg/mL (500:400-S), GCSN and CS, respectively. Scaffolds were used to fabricate tissue-engineered constructs through encapsulation of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). The tissue-engineered constructs were collected at days 1, 14, and 28 for biochemical and biomechanical evaluations. Confocal microscopy showed HNPC viability and rounded morphology over the 28 day period. MTT analysis resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation for each group. Collagen type II ELISA quantification and compressive aggregate moduli (HA) showed increasing trends for both 250:200-S and the 500:400-S groups on Day 28 with significantly greater HA compared to 0:0-S group. Glycosaminoglycan and water content decreased for all groups. Results indicate the increased mechanical properties of the 250:200-S and the 500:400-S was due to production of a functional matrix. This study demonstrated potential for a chondroprotective supplemented injectable scaffold to restore biomechanical function of a degenerative disc through the production of a mechanically functional matrix.

  8. Distinctive Profiles of Gene Expression in the Human Nucleus Accumbens Associated with Cocaine and Heroin Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Dawn N; Schmidt, Carl J; Kapatos, Gregory; Bannon, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse is thought to induce long-term cellular and behavioral adaptations as a result of alterations in gene expression. Understanding the molecular consequences of addiction may contribute to the development of better treatment strategies. This study utilized highthroughput Affymetrix microarrays to identify gene expression changes in the post-mortem nucleus accumbens of chronic heroin abusers. These data were analyzed independently and in relation to our previously reported data involving human cocaine abusers, in order to determine which expression changes were drug specific and which may be common to the phenomenon of addiction. A significant decrease in the expression of numerous genes encoding proteins involved in presynaptic release of neurotransmitter was seen in heroin abusers, a finding not seen in the cocaine-abusing cohort. Conversely, the striking decrease in myelin-related genes observed in cocaine abusers was not evident in our cohort of heroin subjects. Overall, little overlap in gene expression profiles was seen between the two drug-abusing cohorts: out of the approximately 39 000 transcripts investigated, the abundance of only 25 was significantly changed in both cocaine and heroin abusers, with nearly one-half of these being altered in opposite directions. These data suggest that the profiles of nucleus accumbens gene expression associated with chronic heroin or cocaine abuse are largely unique, despite what are thought to be common effects of these drugs on dopamine neurotransmission in this brain region. A re-examination of our current assumptions about the commonality of molecular mechanisms associated with substance abuse seems warranted. PMID:16710320

  9. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  10. The human subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus differentially encode reward during action control.

    PubMed

    Justin Rossi, Peter; Peden, Corinna; Castellanos, Oscar; Foote, Kelly D; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have recently been shown to encode reward, but few studies have been performed in humans. We investigated STN and GPi encoding of reward and loss (i.e., valence) in humans with Parkinson's disease. To test the hypothesis that STN and GPi neurons would change their firing rate in response to reward- and loss-related stimuli, we recorded the activity of individual neurons while participants performed a behavioral task. In the task, action choices were associated with potential rewarding, punitive, or neutral outcomes. We found that STN and GPi neurons encode valence-related information during action control, but the proportion of valence-responsive neurons was greater in the STN compared to the GPi. In the STN, reward-related stimuli mobilized a greater proportion of neurons than loss-related stimuli. We also found surprising limbic overlap with the sensorimotor regions in both the STN and GPi, and this overlap was greater than has been previously reported. These findings may help to explain alterations in limbic function that have been observed following deep brain stimulation therapy of the STN and GPi. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1952-1964, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus from human brain MR images.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Bettinger, Keith; Shen, Lin; Reiss, Allan L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a knowledge-driven algorithm to automatically delineate the caudate nucleus (CN) region of the human brain from a magnetic resonance (MR) image. Since the lateral ventricles (LVs) are good landmarks for positioning the CN, the algorithm first extracts the LVs, and automatically localizes the CN from this information guided by anatomic knowledge of the structure. The face validity of the algorithm was tested with 55 high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets, and segmentation results were overlaid onto the original image data for visual inspection. We further evaluated the algorithm by comparing automated segmentation results to a "gold standard" established by human experts for these 55 MR datasets. Quantitative comparison showed a high intraclass correlation between the algorithm and expert as well as high spatial overlap between the regions-of-interest (ROIs) generated from the two methods. The mean spatial overlap +/- standard deviation (defined by the intersection of the 2 ROIs divided by the union of the 2 ROIs) was equal to 0.873 +/- 0.0234. The algorithm has been incorporated into a public domain software program written in Java and, thus, has the potential to be of broad benefit to neuroimaging investigators interested in basal ganglia anatomy and function.

  12. Intrinsic connectivity between the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area in humans.

    PubMed

    Kahn, I; Shohamy, D

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that memory formation in the hippocampus is modulated by the motivational significance of events, allowing past experience to adaptively guide behavior. The effects of motivation on memory are thought to depend on interactions between the hippocampus, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Indeed, animal studies reveal anatomical pathways for circuit-level interaction between these regions. However, a homologue circuit connectivity in humans remains to be shown. We characterized this circuitry in humans by exploiting spontaneous low-frequency modulations in the fMRI signal (termed resting-state functional connectivity), which are thought to reflect functionally related regions and their organization into functional networks in the brain. We examined connectivity in this network across two datasets (hi-resolution, n = 100; standard resolution, n = 894). Results reveal convergent connectivity between the hippocampus, and both the NAcc and the VTA centered on ventral regions in the body of the hippocampus. Additionally, we found individual differences in the strength of connectivity within this network. Together, these results provide a novel task-independent characterization of circuitry underlying interactions between the hippocampus, NAcc, and VTA and provide a framework with which to understand how connectivity might reflect and constrain the effects of motivation on memory.

  13. Proliferation-dependent positioning of individual centromeres in the interphase nucleus of human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ollion, Jean; Loll, François; Cochennec, Julien; Boudier, Thomas; Escudé, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized structure and plays an important role in gene regulation. Understanding the mechanisms that sustain this organization is therefore essential for understanding genome function. Centromeric regions (CRs) of chromosomes have been known for years to adopt specific nuclear positioning patterns, but the significance of this observation is not yet completely understood. Here, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunochemistry on fixed human cells and high-throughput imaging, we directly and quantitatively investigated the nuclear positioning of specific human CRs. We observe differential attraction of individual CRs toward both the nuclear border and the nucleoli, the former being enhanced in nonproliferating cells and the latter being enhanced in proliferating cells. Similar positioning patterns are observed in two different lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, the positioning of CRs differs from that of noncentromeric regions, and CRs display specific orientations within chromosome territories. These results suggest the existence of not-yet-characterized mechanisms that drive the nuclear positioning of CRs and therefore pave the way toward a better understanding of how CRs affect nuclear organization.

  14. Mechanical behavior of the human lumbar intervertebral disc with polymeric hydrogel nucleus implant: An experimental and finite element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhijeet Bhaskar

    The origin of the lower back pain is often the degenerated lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD). We are proposing replacement of the degenerated nucleus by a PVA/PVP polymeric hydrogel implant. We hypothesize that a polymeric hydrogel nucleus implant can restore the normal biomechanics of the denucleated IVD by mimicking the natural load transfer phenomenon as in case of the intact IVD. Lumbar IVDs (n = 15) were harvested from human cadavers. In the first part, specimens were tested in four different conditions for compression: Intact, bone in plug, denucleated and Implanted. Hydrogel nucleus implants were chosen to have line-to-line fit in the created nuclear cavity. In the second part, nucleus implant material (modulus) and geometric (height and diameter) parameters were varied and specimens (n = 9) were tested. Nucleus implants with line-to-line fit significantly restored (88%) the compressive stiffness of the denucleated IVD. The synergistic effect between the implant and the intact annulus resulted in the nonlinear increase in implanted IVD stiffness, where Poisson effect of the hydrogel played major role. Nucleus implant parameters were observed to have a significant effect on the compressive stiffness. All implants with modulus in the tested range restored the compressive stiffness. The undersize implants resulted in incomplete restoration while oversize implants resulted in complete restoration compared to the BI condition. Finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate the actual test conditions and validated against the experimental results for all conditions. The annulus (defined as hyperelastic, isotropic) mainly determined the nonlinear response of the IVD. Validated FEMs predicted 120--3000 kPa as a feasible range for nucleus implant modulus. FEMs also predicted that overdiameter implant would be more effective than overheight implant in terms of stiffness restoration. Underdiameter implants, initially allowed inward deformation of the annulus and

  15. IL-1β induces apoptosis and autophagy via mitochondria pathway in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jieliang; Xu, Shengxi; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Huzhe; Jiang, Wei; Hao, Jie; Hu, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    IL-1β has been reported highly expressed in degenerative intervertebral disc, and our previous study indicated IL-1β facilitates apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) cell. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We here demonstrate that IL-1β played a significantly pro-apoptotic effect under serum deprivation. IL-1β decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced cytochrome C released from mitochondria to cytosol, which proved mitochondria-meidated apoptosis was induced. Subsequently, mitochondria damage was detected under IL-1β stimualtion. In addition, IL-1β-mediated injuried mitochondria contributes to activate autophagy. However, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine showed the potential in further elevating the apoptosis rate induced by IL-1β in NP cells. Our results indicated that the mitochondrial pathway was involved in IL-1β-induced apoptosis of NP cells. Meanwhile, the damaged mitochondria-induced autophagy played a protective role against apoptosis, suggesting a postive feedback mechanism under inflammatory stress. PMID:28120948

  16. Decoding gripping force based on local field potentials recorded from subthalamic nucleus in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are known to be involved in the planning, execution and control of gripping force and movement vigour. Here we aim to define the nature of the basal ganglia control signal for force and to decode gripping force based on local field potential (LFP) activities recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We found that STN LFP activities in the gamma (55–90 Hz) and beta (13–30m Hz) bands were most informative about gripping force, and that a first order dynamic linear model with these STN LFP features as inputs can be used to decode the temporal profile of gripping force. Our results enhance the understanding of how the basal ganglia control gripping force, and also suggest that deep brain LFPs could potentially be used to decode movement parameters related to force and movement vigour for the development of advanced human-machine interfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19089.001 PMID:27855780

  17. Human Subthalamic Nucleus Theta and Beta Oscillations Entrain Neuronal Firing During Sensorimotor Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Baltazar; Damera, Srikanth; Dong, Jian Wilson; Lungu, Codrin; Brown, Peter; Zaghloul, Kareem A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that prefrontal cortical structures may inhibit impulsive actions during conflict through activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Consistent with this hypothesis, deep brain stimulation to the STN has been associated with altered prefrontal cortical activity and impaired response inhibition. The interactions between oscillatory activity in the STN and its presumably antikinetic neuronal spiking, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we simultaneously recorded intraoperative local field potential and spiking activity from the human STN as participants performed a sensorimotor action selection task involving conflict. We identified several STN neuronal response types that exhibited different temporal dynamics during the task. Some neurons showed early, cue-related firing rate increases that remained elevated longer during high conflict trials, whereas other neurons showed late, movement-related firing rate increases. Notably, the high conflict trials were associated with an entrainment of individual neurons by theta- and beta-band oscillations, both of which have been observed in cortical structures involved in response inhibition. Our data suggest that frequency-specific activity in the beta and theta bands influence STN firing to inhibit impulsivity during conflict. PMID:26494798

  18. Ultraviolet-induced movement of the human DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum type G, in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.S.; Knauf, J.A.; Pendergrass, S.H.

    1996-08-06

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type G (XPG) is a human genetic disease exhibiting extreme sensitivity to sunlight. XPG patients are defective XPG endonuclease, which is an enzyme essential for DNA repair of the major kinds of solar ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damages. Here we describe a novel dynamics of this protein within the cell nucleus after UV irradiation of human cells. USing confocal microscopy, we have localized the immunofluorescent, antigenic signal of XPG protein to foci throughout the cell nucleus. Our biochemical studies also established that XPG protein forms a tight association with nuclear structure(s). In human skin fibroblast cells, the number of XPG foci decreased within 2 h after UV irradiation, whereas total nuclear XPG fluorescence intensity remained constant, suggesting redistribution of XPG from a limited number of nuclear foci to the nucleus overall. Within 8 h after UV, most XPG antigenic signal was found as foci. Using {beta}-galactosidase-XPG fusion constructs ({beta}-gal-XPG) transfected into HeLa cells, we have identified a single region of XPG that is evidently responsible both for foci formation and for the UV dynamic response. The fusion protein carrying the C terminus of XPG (amino acids 1146-1185) localized {beta}-gal specific antigenic signal to foci and to the nucleolus regions. After UV irradiation, antigenic {beta}-gal translocated reversibly from the subnuclear structures to the whole nucleus with kinetics very similar to the movements of XPG protein. These findings lead us to propose a model in which distribution of XPG protein may regulate the rate of DNA repair within transcriptionally active and inactive compartments of the cell nucleus. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Genetic regulation of dentate gyrus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangnan; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the small number of forebrain areas that have continued adult neurogenesis. During development the dentate gyrus acquires the capacity for neurogenesis by generating a new neurogenic stem cell niche at the border between the hilus and dentate granule cell layer. This is in distinction to the other prominent zone of continued neurogenesis in the subventricular zone where neurons are born in a structure directly descended from the mid-gestation subventricular zone. The ability to generate this newly formed dentate neurogenic niche is controlled by the action of a number of genes during prenatal and early postnatal development that regulate the fate, survival, migration, expansion, and differentiation of the cellular components of the dentate neurogenic niche. In this review, we provide an updated framework discussing the molecular steps and genes involved in these early stages of dentate gyrus formation. We previously described a molecular framework for dentate gyrus morphogenesis that can be associated with specific gene defects (Li, G., Pleasure, S.J. (2005). Dev. Neurosci., 27, 93-99), and here we add additional recently described molecular players and discuss this framework.

  20. The supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum activate the cortex during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing. PMID:26601158

  1. Inflammatory Kinetics and Efficacy of Anti-inflammatory Treatments on Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Benjamin A; Purmessur, Devina; Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Weinberg, Alan; Cho, Samuel K.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Human nucleus pulposus (NP) cell culture study investigating response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), effectiveness of clinically available anti-inflammatory drugs, and interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines. Objective To characterize the kinetic response of pro-inflammatory cytokines released by human NP cells to TNFα stimulation and the effectiveness of multiple anti-inflammatories with 3 sub-studies: Timecourse, Same-time blocking, Delayed blocking. Summary of Background Data Chronic inflammation is a key component of painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Improved efficacy of anti-inflammatories requires better understanding of how quickly NP cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and which pro-inflammatory mediators are most therapeutically advantageous to target. Methods Degenerated human NP cells (n=10) were cultured in alginate with or without TNFα (10ng/mL). Cells were incubated with one of four anti-inflammatories (anti-IL-6 receptor/atlizumab, IL-1 receptor anatagonist, anti-TNFα/infliximab and sodium pentosan polysulfate/PPS) in two blocking-studies designed to determine how intervention timing influences drug efficacy. Cell viability, protein and gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6 & IL-8 were assessed. Results Timecourse: TNFα substantially increased the amount of IL-6, IL-8 & IL-1β, with IL-1β and IL-8 reaching equilibrium within ~72 hours (IL-1β: 111±40pg/mL, IL-8: 8478±957pg/mL), and IL-6 not reaching steady state after 144 hours (1570±435 pg/mL). Anti-TNFα treatment was most effective at reducing the expression of all cytokines measured when added at the same time as TNFα stimulation. Similar trends were observed when drugs were added 72 hours after TNFα stimulation, however, no anti-inflammatories significantly reduced cytokine levels compared to TNF control. Conclusion IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were expressed at different rates and magnitudes suggesting different roles for these cytokines in disease

  2. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Renana; Shamir, Reuben R.; Linetsky, Eduard; Rosenbluh, Ovadya; Moshel, Shay; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12–30 Hz), the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs. In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and psychiatric

  3. Good Vibrations: Cross-Frequency Coupling in the Human Nucleus Accumbens during Reward Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael X.; Axmacher, Nikolai; Lenartz, Doris; Elger, Christian E.; Sturm, Volker; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is critical for reward-guided learning and decision-making. It is thought to "gate" the flow of a diverse range of information (e.g., rewarding, aversive, and novel events) from limbic afferents to basal ganglia outputs. Gating and information encoding may be achieved via cross-frequency coupling, in which bursts of…

  4. Subthalamic nucleus and internal globus pallidus scale with the rate of change of force production in humans.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, David E; Mayka, Mary A; Thulborn, Keith R; Corcos, Daniel M

    2004-09-01

    The basal ganglia, motor cortex, and cerebellum have been implicated as a circuit that codes for movement velocity. Since movement velocity covaries with the magnitude of force exerted and previous studies have shown that similar regions scale in activation for velocity and force, the scaling of neuronal activity with movement velocity could be due to the force exerted. The present study implemented a parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design to determine which brain regions directly scale with the rate of change of force production, independent of the magnitude of force exerted. Nine healthy adults produced force with their right middle finger and thumb at 25% of their maximal voluntary contraction across four conditions: (1) fast pulse, (2) fast hold, (3) medium hold, and (4) slow hold. There were three primary findings: (i) the activation volume in multiple regions increased with the duration of the force contraction, (ii) only the activation volume in the bilateral internal globus pallidus and left subthalamic nucleus parametrically scaled with the rate of change of force production, and (iii) there was an inverse relation between the activation volume in the subthalamic nucleus and internal globus pallidus with the rate of change of force production. The current findings are the first to have used neuroimaging techniques in humans to segregate the functional anatomy of the internal globus pallidus from external globus pallidus, distinguish functional activation in the globus pallidus from the putamen, and demonstrate task-dependent scaling in the subthalamic nucleus and internal globus pallidus. We conclude that fast, ballistic force production is preprogrammed, requiring a small metabolic demand from the basal ganglia. In contrast, movements that require the internal regulation of the rate of change of force are associated with increased metabolic demand from the subthalamic nucleus and internal segment of the globus pallidus.

  5. How to make a hippocampal dentate gyrus granule neuron.

    PubMed

    Yu, Diana X; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2014-06-01

    Granule neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) receive their primary inputs from the cortex and are known to be continuously generated throughout adult life. Ongoing integration of newborn neurons into the existing hippocampal neural circuitry provides enhanced neuroplasticity, which plays a crucial role in learning and memory; deficits in this process have been associated with cognitive decline under neuropathological conditions. In this Primer, we summarize the developmental principles that regulate the process of DG neurogenesis and discuss recent advances in harnessing these developmental cues to generate DG granule neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

  6. Location of chromosomes in the nucleus of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, A V; Voldgorn, Y I

    2011-08-01

    For evaluation of the spatial structure of chromatin in nuclei of mesenchymal SC we determined the position of centromeres and individual chromosomes in interphase nucleus of mesenchymal SC. More than 300 nuclei in 7 cultures of mesenchymal SC were analyzed. Centromeres of chromosomes 6, 8, and 11 lie at a longer (0.68, 0.67, 0.7), while centromere of chromosome 18 at a shorter radial distance (0.49). Homologues of each chromosome had different radial distances. No differences in radial distances of centromeres were detected between mesenchymal SC from the adipose tissue and BM. After passage 8, distal displacement of chromosome 6 centromere (from 0.66 to 0.72) was observed, which probably indicates aging or spontaneous differentiation of cells.

  7. Determination and comparison of specifics of nucleus pulposus cells of human intervertebral disc in alginate and chitosan–gelatin scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Renani, Hamid Bahramian; Ghorbani, Masood; Beni, Batool Hashemibeni; Karimi, Z; Mirhosseini, MM; Zarkesh, H; Kabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain is a major economical and social problem nowadays. Intervertebral disc herniation and central degeneration of disc are two major reasons of low back pain that occur because of structural impairment of disc. The intervertebral disc contains three parts as follows : Annulus fibrosus, transitional region, and nucleus pulposus, which forms the central nucleus of the disc. The reduction of cell count and extracellular matrix, especially in nucleus pulposus, causes disc degeneration. Different scaffolds (natural and synthetic) have been used for tissue repairing and regeneration of the intervertebral disc in tissue engineering. Most scaffolds have biodegradable and biocompatible characteristics and also prepare a fine condition for proliferation and migration of cells. In this study, proliferation of NP cells of human intervertebral disc compromised in Chitosan-gelatin scaffold with alginate scaffold was studied. Materials and Methods: NP cells derived from nucleus pulposus by collagenase enzymatic hydrolysis. They were derived from patients who undergoing open surgery for discectomy in the Isfahan Alzahra hospital. Chitosan was blended with gelatin and glutaraldehyde was used for cross linking the two polymers. Then, alginate scaffold was prepared. Cellular suspension with 1 × 105 transferred to each scaffold and cultured for 21 days. Cell viability and proliferation investigated by trypan blue and (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to assert the porosity and to survey structure of scaffold. Results: MTT assay dem1onstrated that cell viability of third day had significant difference in contrast by first day in both scaffolds. Accordingly, there was a significant decreased in cellular viability from day 3 to 21. Results of the cell count showed a punctual elevation cell numbers for alginate scaffold but there was no similar result for chitosan

  8. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  9. Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Hatch, J P; Shinkai, R S; Sakai, S; Rugh, J D; Paunovich, E D

    2001-07-01

    Masticatory performance results from a complex interplay of direct and indirect effects, yet most studies employ univariate models. This study tested a multivariate model of masticatory performance for dentate subjects. Explanatory variables included number of functional tooth units, bite force, sex, age, masseter cross-sectional area, presence of temporomandibular disorders, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The population-based sample consisted of 631 dentate subjects aged 37-80 years. Covariance structure analysis showed that 68% of the variability in masticatory performance could be explained by the combined effects of the explanatory variables. Age and sex did not show a strong effect on masticatory performance, either directly or indirectly through masseter cross-sectional area, temporomandibular disorders, and bite force. Number of functional tooth units and bite force were confirmed as the key determinants of masticatory performance, which suggests that their maintenance may be of major importance for promoting healthful functional status.

  10. Proteomic profiling of the epileptic dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aiqing; Choi, Yun-Sik; Dziema, Heather; Cao, Ruifeng; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Jung, Yeon Joo; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the pathogenic process. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based approach, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 24 differentially expressed proteins, including 9 phosphoproteins, were identified. Functionally, these proteins were organized into several classes, including synaptic physiology, cell structure, cell stress, metabolism and energetics. The altered expression of three proteins involved in synaptic physiology, actin, profilin 1 and α-synuclein, was validated by secondary methods. Interestingly, marked changes in protein expression were detected in the supragranular cell region, an area where robust mossy fibers sprouting occurs. Together, these data provide new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and point to potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis. PMID:20608933

  11. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, But Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    PubMed

    Bach, Frances C; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    2017-03-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) on canine and human chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs) derived from the nucleus pulposus of degenerated IVDs were studied. Human and canine CLCs were cultured in 3D microaggregates in basal culture medium supplemented with/without TGF-β1 (10 ng/mL) or BMP2 (100 or 250 ng/mL). Both TGF-β1 and BMP2 increased proliferation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition of human and canine CLCs. TGF-β1 induced collagen type I deposition and fibrotic (re)differentiation, whereas BMP2 induced more collagen type II deposition. In dogs, TGF-β1 induced Smad1 and Smad2 signaling, whereas in humans, it only tended to induce Smad2 signaling. BMP2 supplementation increased Smad1 signaling in both species. This altogether indicates that Smad1 signaling was associated with collagen type II production, whereas Smad2 signaling was associated with fibrotic CLC (re)differentiation. As a step toward preclinical translation, treatment with BMP2 alone and combined with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was further investigated. Canine male CLCs were seeded in albumin-based hydrogels with/without female bone marrow-derived MSCs (50:50) in basal or 250 ng/mL BMP2-supplemented culture medium. Although the results indicate that a sufficient amount of MSCs survived the culture period, total GAG production was not increased and GAG production per cell was even decreased by the addition of MSCs, implying that MSCs did not exert additive regenerative effects on the CLCs.

  12. Neuronal subtypes and diversity revealed by single-nucleus RNA sequencing of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Blue B.; Ai, Rizi; Kaeser, Gwendolyn E.; Salathia, Neeraj S.; Yung, Yun C.; Liu, Rui; Wildberg, Andre; Gao, Derek; Fung, Ho-Lim; Chen, Song; Vijayaraghavan, Raakhee; Wong, Julian; Chen, Allison; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Kaper, Fiona; Shen, Richard; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The human brain has enormously complex cellular diversity and connectivities fundamental to our neural functions, yet difficulties in interrogating individual neurons has impeded understanding of the underlying transcriptional landscape. We developed a scalable approach to sequence and quantify RNA molecules in isolated neuronal nuclei from post-mortem brain, generating 3,227 sets of single neuron data from six distinct regions of the cerebral cortex. Using an iterative clustering and classification approach, we identified 16 neuronal subtypes that were further annotated on the basis of known markers and cortical cytoarchitecture. These data demonstrate a robust and scalable method for identifying and categorizing single nuclear transcriptomes, revealing shared genes sufficient to distinguish novel and orthologous neuronal subtypes as well as regional identity within the human brain. PMID:27339989

  13. Differential expression of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues and cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Weiguo; Fang, Dejian; Ye, Dongping; Zou, Longqiang; Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Xu, Jiake

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • ERK5 involved in NP cells. • ERK5 involved in NP tissue. • It was important modulator. - Abstract: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and regulates a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, necrosis, apoptosis and degeneration. However, the expression of ERK5 and its role in degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) is hitherto unknown. In this study, we observed the differential expression of ERK5 in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Treatment of NP cells with Pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α decreased ERK5 gene expression as well as NP marker gene expression; including the type II collagen and aggrecan. Suppression of ERK5 gene expression in NP cells by ERK5 siRNA resulted in decreased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK5 activation by BIX02188 (5 μM) decreased the gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in NP cells. Our results document the expression of ERK5 in degenerated nucleus pulposus tissues, and suggest a potential involvement of ERK5 in human degenerated nucleus pulposus.

  14. Distribution of chromosome 18 and X centric heterochromatin in the interphase nucleus of cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, S.; Scholl, H.P.; Loos, P.; Jauch, A.; Cremer, C.; Cremer, T. ); Stelzer, E. )

    1990-07-01

    In situ hybridization of human chromosome 18 and X-specific alphoid DNA-probes was performed in combination with three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional (2D) image analysis to study the interphase distribution of the centric heterochromatin (18c and Xc) of these chromosomes in cultured human cells. 3D analyses of 18c targets using confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated a nonrandom disposition in 73 amniotic fluid cell nuclei. In agreement with the 3D observations 18c targets were found significantly closer to the center of the 2D nuclear image (CNI) and to each other in all these cultures compared to a random distribution derived from corresponding ellipsoid or cylinder model nuclei. For comparison, a chromosome X-specific alphoid DNA probe was used to investigate the 2D distribution of chromosome X centric heterochromatin in the same cell types. Two dimensional Xc-Xc and Xc-CNI distances fit a random distribution in diploid normal and Bloom's syndrome nuclei, as well as in nuclei with trisomy X. The different distributions of 18c and Xc targets were confirmed by the simultaneous staining of these targets in different colors within individual nuclei using a double in situ hybridization approach.

  15. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: from basic neuroscience to neurosurgical applications: arousal from slices to humans: implications for DBS.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Simon, Christen; Smith, Kristen; Kezunovic, Nebosja; Hyde, James

    2011-10-01

    One element of the reticular activating system (RAS) is the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms and the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion. The PPN is a posterior midbrain site known to induce locomotion in decerebrate animals when activated at 40-60 Hz, and has become a target for DBS in disorders involving gait deficits. We developed a research program using brainstem slices containing the PPN to study the cellular and molecular organization of this region. We showed that PPN neurons preferentially fire at gamma band frequency (30-60 Hz) when maximally activated, accounting for the effects of electrical stimulation. In addition, we developed the P13 midlatency auditory evoked potential, which is generated by PPN outputs, in freely moving rats. This allows the study of PPN cellular and molecular mechanisms in the whole animal. We also study the P50 midlatency auditory evoked potential, which is the human equivalent of the rodent P13 potential, allowing us to study PPN-related processes detected in vitro, confirmed in the whole animal, and tested in humans. Previous findings on the P50 potential in PD suggest that PPN output in this disorder is overactive. This translational research program led to the discovery of a novel mechanism of sleep-wake control based on electrical coupling, pointing the way to a number of new clinical applications in the development of novel stimulants (e.g., modafinil) and anesthetics. In addition, it provides methods for monitoring therapeutic efficacy of DBS in humans and animal models.

  16. SDF‑1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF‑κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongchao; Ma, Chuan; Shen, Jieliang; Wang, Dawu; Hao, Jie; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-07-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of lower back pain, and increased cell apoptosis is a key characteristic of IVDD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of the stromal cell‑derived factor‑1 (SDF‑1)/C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis on apoptosis in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). The expression levels of SDF‑1 and CXCR4 in human intervertebral discs (IVD) were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis of primary cultured NPCs was quantified by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining following stimulation with SDF‑1 and knockdown of CXCR4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The association with the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling pathway was investigated using CXCR4‑siRNA and NF‑κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), treatment. The results demonstrated that SDF‑1 and its receptor, CXCR4, were upregulated in degenerative IVD samples compared with normal samples. Stimulation with SDF‑1 increased the level of apoptosis in cultured NPCs, and conversely, the apoptosis level was suppressed post‑transfection with CXCR4 siRNA compared with SDF‑1 stimulation alone. Furthermore, SDF‑1 treatment increased the level of phosphorylated NF‑κB subunit P65, which was downregulated following CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC treatment. In addition, CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65, which was induced by SDF‑1. Taken together, SDF‑1‑mediated apoptosis was suppressed by NF‑κB inhibition using PDTC. In conclusion, the SDF‑1/CXCR4 axis promoted cell apoptosis in human degenerative NPCs via the NF‑κB pathway, thus suggesting that SDF‑1/CXCR signaling may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of degenerative IVD diseases.

  17. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZONGCHAO; MA, CHUAN; SHEN, JIELIANG; WANG, DAWU; HAO, JIE; HU, ZHENMING

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of lower back pain, and increased cell apoptosis is a key characteristic of IVDD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis on apoptosis in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). The expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in human intervertebral discs (IVD) were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis of primary cultured NPCs was quantified by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining following stimulation with SDF-1 and knockdown of CXCR4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The association with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was investigated using CXCR4-siRNA and NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), treatment. The results demonstrated that SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, were upregulated in degenerative IVD samples compared with normal samples. Stimulation with SDF-1 increased the level of apoptosis in cultured NPCs, and conversely, the apoptosis level was suppressed post-transfection with CXCR4 siRNA compared with SDF-1 stimulation alone. Furthermore, SDF-1 treatment increased the level of phosphorylated NF-κB subunit P65, which was downregulated following CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC treatment. In addition, CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65, which was induced by SDF-1. Taken together, SDF-1-mediated apoptosis was suppressed by NF-κB inhibition using PDTC. In conclusion, the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promoted cell apoptosis in human degenerative NPCs via the NF-κB pathway, thus suggesting that SDF-1/CXCR signaling may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of degenerative IVD diseases. PMID:27220474

  18. The human neurosecretory neurones under perinatal hypoxia: a quantitative immunohistochemical study of the supraoptic nucleus in autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Pagida, M A; Konstantinidou, A E; Malidelis, Y I; Ganou, V; Tsekoura, E; Patsouris, E; Panayotacopoulou, M T

    2013-12-01

    In the rat, experimental manipulations that cause activation of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurones result in the synthesis, in addition to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY), of other neurotransmitters or peptides, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis. In the human neonate, our previous study showed that TH was selectively increased in AVP neurones of subjects that died from prolonged perinatal hypoxia. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate the expression of TH, AVP, OXY and neurophysin in magnocellular neurones of the human neonate in relation to the severity/duration of perinatal hypoxia, as estimated by neuropathological criteria. Autopsy was performed after obtaining parental written consent for diagnostic and research purposes. The intensity of the immunohistochemical reactions and the cellular/nuclear size were measured in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus using a computerised image analysis system. We showed that prolonged perinatal hypoxia resulted in the activation of the magnocellular neuroendocrine neurones of the human neonate, as indicated by their increased neuronal and nuclear size. OXY neurones appeared larger than the AVP ones at birth, possibly indicating an active role of foetal OXY during labour or even earlier. The gradual increase in the duration of the insult resulted in the reduction of intracellular AVP content, in parallel with a dramatic increase in the expression of TH, indicating a functional interaction of these peptides under neuronal activation. Ιsolated evidence in our series, obtained from an infant of a diabetic mother, raises the probability that in the case of hyperglycaemia the above pathogenetic mechanisms are diversified.

  19. Lower crosslinking density enhances functional nucleus pulposus-like matrix elaboration by human mesenchymal stem cells in carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huizi A; Gupta, Michelle S; Varma, Devika M; Gilchrist, M Lane; Nicoll, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Engineered constructs represent a promising treatment for replacement of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. Recently, photocrosslinked hydrogels comprised of methacrylated carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were shown to support chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and promote accumulation of NP-like extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of CMC crosslinking density, by varying macromer concentration and modification (i.e., methacrylation) percentage, on NP-like differentiation of encapsulated hMSCs. Constructs of lower macromer concentration (2%, w/v) exhibited significantly greater collagen II accumulation, more homogeneous distribution of ECM macromolecules, and a temporal increase in mechanical properties compared to hydrogels of higher macromer concentration (4%, w/v). Constructs of higher modification percentage (25%) gave rise to significantly elevated collagen II content and the formation of cell clusters within the matrix relative to samples of lower modification percentage (10% and 15%). These differences in functional ECM accumulation and distribution are likely attributed to the distinct crosslinked network structures of the various hydrogel formulations. Overall, CMC constructs of lower macromer concentration and modification percentage were most promising as scaffolds for NP tissue engineering based on functional ECM assembly. Optimization of such hydrogel fabrication parameters may lead to the development of clinically relevant tissue-engineered NP replacements.

  20. A novel branched TAT(47-57) peptide for selective Ni(2+) introduction into the human fibrosarcoma cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Szyrwiel, Łukasz; Shimura, Mari; Shirataki, Junko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Setner, Bartosz; Szczukowski, Łukasz; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Malinka, Wiesław; Chavatte, Laurent; Łobinski, Ryszard

    2015-07-01

    A TAT47-57 peptide was modified on the N-terminus by elongation with a 2,3-diaminopropionic acid residue and then by coupling of two histidine residues on its N-atoms. This branched peptide could bind to Ni under physiological conditions as a 1 : 1 complex. We demonstrated that the complex was quantitatively taken up by human fibrosarcoma cells, in contrast to Ni(2+) ions. Ni localization (especially at the nuclei) was confirmed by imaging using both scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy and Newport Green fluorescence. A competitive assay with Newport Green showed that the latter displaced the peptide ligand from the Ni-complex. Ni(2+) delivered as a complex with the designed peptide induced substantially more DNA damage than when introduced as a free ion. The availability of such a construct opens up the way to investigate the importance of the nucleus as a target for the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of Ni(2+).

  1. Inhibition and interneuron distribution in the dentate gyrus of p35 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Knight, Leena S; Wenzel, H Jürgen; Schwartzkroin, Philip A

    2012-06-01

    The p35 knockout (p35-/-) mouse is an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy that recapitulates key neuroanatomic abnormalities-granule cell dispersion and mossy fiber sprouting-observed in the hippocampal formation of humans, as well as spontaneous seizure activity. It is a useful model in which to study the relationship between the abnormal neuronal structure and seizure activity to further our understanding of cortical dysplasia in epileptogenesis. Our previous work using this mouse model characterized the anatomic features of the dentate granule cells and the functional implications of these abnormalities on increased recurrent excitation. These data also suggested that there might be compromised inhibition in this animal model. We pursued this possibility, focusing our investigation on inhibitory circuitry. In preliminary investigations using neuroanatomic tools (immunocytochemistry, camera lucida reconstructions of individually labeled interneurons, and electron microscopy) combined with intracellular electrophysiology, we observed no significant reduction in the number of symmetric versus asymmetric synaptic contacts on dentate granule cell somata, and no statistically significant changes in evoked early or late inhibition. Although there were some abnormalities in the morphology/distribution of inhibitory interneurons (as well as a larger population of dentate granule cells) of the dentate gyrus, overall inhibition in the p35 knockout mouse appeared to be largely intact.

  2. Nonrandom connectivity of the epileptic dentate gyrus predicts a major role for neuronal hubs in seizures

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert J.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Many complex neuronal circuits have been shown to display nonrandom features in their connectivity. However, the functional impact of nonrandom network topologies in neurological diseases is not well understood. The dentate gyrus is an excellent circuit in which to study such functional implications because proepileptic insults cause its structure to undergo a number of specific changes in both humans and animals, including the formation of previously nonexistent granule cell-to-granule cell recurrent excitatory connections. Here, we use a large-scale, biophysically realistic model of the epileptic rat dentate gyrus to reconnect the aberrant recurrent granule cell network in four biologically plausible ways to determine how nonrandom connectivity promotes hyperexcitability after injury. We find that network activity of the dentate gyrus is quite robust in the face of many major alterations in granule cell-to-granule cell connectivity. However, the incorporation of a small number of highly interconnected granule cell hubs greatly increases network activity, resulting in a hyperexcitable, potentially seizure-prone circuit. Our findings demonstrate the functional relevance of nonrandom microcircuits in epileptic brain networks, and they provide a mechanism that could explain the role of granule cells with hilar basal dendrites in contributing to hyperexcitability in the pathological dentate gyrus. PMID:18375756

  3. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  4. Delimiting subterritories of the human subthalamic nucleus by means of microelectrode recordings and a Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Adam; Spivak, Alexander; Shpigelman, Lavi; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2009-09-15

    Positive therapeutic response without adverse side effects to subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) depends to a large extent on electrode location within the STN. The sensorimotor region of the STN (seemingly the preferred location for STN DBS) lies dorsolaterally, in a region also marked by distinct beta (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the parkinsonian state. In this study, we present a real-time method to accurately demarcate subterritories of the STN during surgery, based on microelectrode recordings (MERs) and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Fifty-six MER trajectories were used, obtained from 21 PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS implantation surgery. Root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density (PSD) of the MERs were used to train and test an HMM in identifying the dorsolateral oscillatory region (DLOR) and nonoscillatory subterritories within the STN. The HMM demarcations were compared to the decisions of a human expert. The HMM identified STN-entry, the ventral boundary of the DLOR, and STN-exit with an error of -0.09 +/- 0.35, -0.27 +/- 0.58, and -0.20 +/- 0.33 mm, respectively (mean +/- standard deviation), and with detection reliability (error < 1 mm) of 95, 86, and 91%, respectively. The HMM was successful despite a very coarse clustering method and was robust to parameter variation. Thus, using an HMM in conjunction with RMS and PSD measures of intraoperative MER can provide improved refinement of STN entry and exit in comparison with previously reported automatic methods, and introduces a novel (intra-STN) detection of a distinct DLOR-ventral boundary.

  5. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  6. Failure of neuronal maturation in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Chen, She; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, an important anatomic structure of the hippocampal formation, is one of the major areas in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is thought to play an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Neurogenesis has been reported to be increased in the dentate gyrus of patients with Alzheimer disease, but it is not known whether the newly generated neurons differentiate into mature neurons. In this study, the expression of the mature neuronal marker high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein (MAP) isoforms MAP2a and b was found to be dramatically decreased in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus, as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The total MAP2, including expression of the immature neuronal marker, the MAP2c isoform, was less affected. These findings suggest that newly generated neurons in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus do not become mature neurons, although neuroproliferation is increased.

  7. The Development of Hypertrophic Inferior Olivary Nucleus in Oculopalatal Tremor.

    PubMed

    Jun, Bokkwan

    2016-12-01

    Oculopalatal tremor is an acquired clinical condition resulting from the interruption of the dentato-rubro-olivary neuronal pathway. The signal change in inferior olivary nucleus and its hypertrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be observed prior to the development of symptomatic oculopalatal tremor. This is a case of the fourth cranial nerve palsy followed by oculopalatal tremor, and increased signal intensity in inferior olivary nucleus on MRI was observed in 7 months after damage to the dentate-rubro-olivary pathway and 5 months prior to the development of oscillopsia and oculopalatal tremor.

  8. Single-unit analysis of the human posterior hypothalamus and red nucleus during deep brain stimulation for aggressivity.

    PubMed

    Micieli, Robert; Rios, Adriana Lucia Lopez; Aguilar, Ricardo Plata; Posada, Luis Fernando Botero; Hutchison, William D

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) has been reported to be effective for aggressive behavior in a number of isolated cases. Few of these case studies have analyzed single-unit recordings in the human PH and none have quantitatively analyzed single units in the red nucleus (RN). The authors report on the properties of ongoing neuronal discharges in bilateral trajectories targeting the PH and the effectiveness of DBS of the PH as a treatment for aggressive behavior. METHODS DBS electrodes were surgically implanted in the PH of 1 awake patient with Sotos syndrome and 3 other anesthetized patients with treatment-resistant aggressivity. Intraoperative extracellular recordings were obtained from the ventral thalamus, PH, and RN and analyzed offline to discriminate single units and measure firing rates and firing patterns. Target location was based on the stereotactic coordinates used by Sano et al. in their 1970 study and the location of the dorsal border of the RN. RESULTS A total of 138 units were analyzed from the 4 patients. Most of the PH units had a slow, irregular discharge (mean [± SD] 4.5 ± 2.7 Hz, n = 68) but some units also had a higher discharge rate (16.7 ± 4.7 Hz, n = 15). Two populations of neurons were observed in the ventral thalamic region as well, one with a high firing rate (mean 16.5 ± 6.5 Hz, n = 5) and one with a low firing rate (mean 4.6 ± 2.8 Hz, n = 6). RN units had a regular firing rate with a mean of 20.4 ± 9.9 Hz and displayed periods of oscillatory activity in the beta range. PH units displayed a prolonged period of inhibition following microstimulation compared with RN units that were not inhibited. Patients under anesthesia showed a trend for lower firing rates in the PH but not in the RN. All 4 patients displayed a reduction in their aggressive behavior after surgery. CONCLUSIONS During PH DBS, microelectrode recordings can provide an additional mechanism to help identify the PH target and

  9. The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Duclos, Yann; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana; Baunez, Christelle; Régis, Jean; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus-the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease-in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for adjusting behaviour to conflict. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses by recording the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease during an effort-based decision task. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of 12 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (mean age 63.8 years ± 6.8; mean disease duration 9.4 years ± 2.5) both OFF and ON levodopa while they had to decide whether to engage in an effort task based on the level of effort required and the value of the reward promised in return. The data were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and cluster-based permutation methods. Behaviourally, the probability of trial acceptance increased with the reward value and decreased with the required effort level. Dopamine replacement therapy increased the rate of acceptance for efforts associated with low rewards. When recording the subthalamic nucleus activity, we found a clear neural response to both reward and effort cues in the 1-10 Hz range. In addition these responses were informative of the subjective value of reward and level of effort rather than their actual quantities, such that they were predictive of the participant's decisions. OFF levodopa, this link with acceptance was weakened. Finally, we found that these responses did not index conflict, as they did not vary as a function of the distance from indifference in the acceptance decision. These findings show that low

  10. Differential properties of dentate gyrus and CA1 neural precursors.

    PubMed

    Becq, H; Jorquera, I; Ben-Ari, Y; Weiss, S; Represa, A

    2005-02-05

    In the present article we investigated the properties of CA1 and dentate gyrus cell precursors in adult rodents both in vivo and in vitro. Cell proliferation in situ was investigated by rating the number of cells incorporating BrdU after kainate-induced seizures. CA1 precursors displayed a greater proliferation capacity than dentate gyrus precursors. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells in CA1 expressed Nestin and Mash-1, two markers of neural precursors. BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus expressed Nestin, but only a few expressed Mash-1. In animals pretreated with the antimitotic azacytidine, the capacity of kainate to enhance the proliferation was higher in CA1 than in the dentate gyrus. Differences in intrinsic progenitor cell activity could underlie these different expansion capacities. Thus, we compared the renewal- expansion and multipotency of dentate gyrus and CA1 precursors isolated in vitro. We found that the dissected CA1 region, including the periventricular zone, is enriched in neurosphere-forming cells (presumed stem cells), which respond to either EGF or FGF-2. Dentate gyrus contains fewer neurosphere-forming cells and none that respond to FGF-2 alone. Neurospheres generated from CA1 were multipotent and produced neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, while dentate gyrus neurospheres mostly produced glial cells. The analysis of the effects of EGF on organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices depicted similar features: BrdU and Nestin immunoreactivities increased after EGF treatment in CA1 but not in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that CA1 precursors are more stem-cell-like than granule cell precursors, which may represent a more restricted precursor cell.

  11. The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Zénon, Alexandre; Duclos, Yann; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana; Baunez, Christelle; Régis, Jean; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus—the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease—in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for adjusting behaviour to conflict. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses by recording the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease during an effort-based decision task. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of 12 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (mean age 63.8 years ± 6.8; mean disease duration 9.4 years ± 2.5) both OFF and ON levodopa while they had to decide whether to engage in an effort task based on the level of effort required and the value of the reward promised in return. The data were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and cluster-based permutation methods. Behaviourally, the probability of trial acceptance increased with the reward value and decreased with the required effort level. Dopamine replacement therapy increased the rate of acceptance for efforts associated with low rewards. When recording the subthalamic nucleus activity, we found a clear neural response to both reward and effort cues in the 1–10 Hz range. In addition these responses were informative of the subjective value of reward and level of effort rather than their actual quantities, such that they were predictive of the participant’s decisions. OFF levodopa, this link with acceptance was weakened. Finally, we found that these responses did not index conflict, as they did not vary as a function of the distance from indifference in the acceptance decision. These findings show

  12. Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hevner, Robert F

    2016-02-15

    The dentate gyrus (DG), a part of the hippocampal formation, has important functions in learning, memory, and adult neurogenesis. Compared with homologous areas in sauropsids (birds and reptiles), the mammalian DG is larger and exhibits qualitatively different phenotypes: 1) folded (C- or V-shaped) granule neuron layer, concave toward the hilus and delimited by a hippocampal fissure; 2) nonperiventricular adult neurogenesis; and 3) prolonged ontogeny, involving extensive abventricular (basal) migration and proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). Although gaps remain, available data indicate that these DG traits are present in all orders of mammals, including monotremes and marsupials. The exception is Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), in which DG size, convolution, and adult neurogenesis have undergone evolutionary regression. Parsimony suggests that increased growth and convolution of the DG arose in stem mammals concurrently with nonperiventricular adult hippocampal neurogenesis and basal migration of NSPCs during development. These traits could all result from an evolutionary change that enhanced radial migration of NSPCs out of the periventricular zones, possibly by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, to colonize and maintain nonperiventricular proliferative niches. In turn, increased NSPC migration and clonal expansion might be a consequence of growth in the cortical hem (medial patterning center), which produces morphogens such as Wnt3a, generates Cajal-Retzius neurons, and is regulated by Lhx2. Finally, correlations between DG convolution and neocortical gyrification (or capacity for gyrification) suggest that enhanced abventricular migration and proliferation of NSPCs played a transformative role in growth and folding of neocortex as well as archicortex.

  13. Enhanced Synaptic Connectivity in the Dentate Gyrus during Epileptiform Activity: Network Simulation

    PubMed Central

    França, Keite Lira de Almeida; Guimarães de Almeida, Antônio-Carlos; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Duarte, Mario Antônio; da Silveira, Gilcélio Amaral; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Rodrigues, Antônio Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Structural rearrangement of the dentate gyrus has been described as the underlying cause of many types of epilepsies, particularly temporal lobe epilepsy. It is said to occur when aberrant connections are established in the damaged hippocampus, as described in human epilepsy and experimental models. Computer modelling of the dentate gyrus circuitry and the corresponding structural changes has been used to understand how abnormal mossy fibre sprouting can subserve seizure generation observed in experimental models when epileptogenesis is induced by status epilepticus. The model follows the McCulloch-Pitts formalism including the representation of the nonsynaptic mechanisms. The neuronal network comprised granule cells, mossy cells, and interneurons. The compensation theory and the Hebbian and anti-Hebbian rules were used to describe the structural rearrangement including the effects of the nonsynaptic mechanisms on the neuronal activity. The simulations were based on neuroanatomic data and on the connectivity pattern between the cells represented. The results suggest that there is a joint action of the compensation theory and Hebbian rules during the inflammatory process that accompanies the status epilepticus. The structural rearrangement simulated for the dentate gyrus circuitry promotes speculation about the formation of the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting and its role in epileptic seizures. PMID:23431287

  14. Organization of the amplified type I interferon gene cluster and associated chromosome regions in the interphase nucleus of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, Michael J; Marella, Narasimharao V; Malyavantham, Kishore S; Goetze, Sandra; Bode, Juergen; Raska, Ivan; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The organization of the amplified type I interferon (IFN) gene cluster and surrounding chromosomal regions was studied in the interphase cell nucleus of the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Rather than being arranged in a linear ladder-like array as in mitotic chromosomes, a cluster of approximately 15 foci was detected that was preferentially associated along the periphery of both the cell nucleus and a chromosome territory containing components of chromosomes 4, 8, and 9. Interspersed within the IFN gene foci were corresponding foci derived from amplified centromere 4 and 9 sequences. Other copies of chromosomes 4 and 8 were frequently detected in pairs or higher-order arrays lacking discrete borders between the chromosomes. In contrast, while chromosomes 4 and 8 in normal WI38 human fibroblast and osteoblast cells were occasionally found to associate closely, discrete boundaries were always detected between the two. DNA replication timing of the IFN gene cluster in early- to mid-S phase of WI38 cells was conserved in the amplified IFN gene cluster of MG63. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a approximately 3-fold increase in IFN beta transcripts in MG63 compared with WI38 and RNA/DNA FISH experiments revealed 1-5 foci of IFN beta transcripts per cell with only approximately 5% of the cells showing foci within the highly amplified IFN gene cluster.

  15. The CA3 “Backprojection” to the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an “entry point” to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be “broadcasted,” whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, “back” to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this “backprojection” to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves

  16. The CA3 "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an "entry point" to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be "broadcasted," whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, "back" to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves instead to inhibit

  17. Evaluation of the proliferation and viability rates of nucleus pulposus cells of human intervertebral disk in fabricated chitosan-gelatin scaffolds by freeze drying and freeze gelation methods

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Zeinab; Ghorbani, Masoud; Hashemibeni, Batool; Bahramian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain is one of the most significant musculoskeletal diseases of our time. Intervertebral disk herniation and central degeneration of the disk are two major reasons for low back pain, which occur because of structural impairment of the disk. The reduction of cell count and extracellular matrix, especially in the nucleus pulposus, causes disk degeneration. Different scaffolds have been used for tissue repairing and regeneration of the intervertebral disk in tissue engineering. Various methods are used for fabrication of the porosity scaffolds in tissue engineering. The freeze drying method has disadvantages such as: It is time consuming, needs high energy, and so on. The freeze-gelation method can save a great deal of time and energy, and large-sized porous scaffolds can be fabricated by this method. In this study, proliferation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the human intervertebral disk are compromised in the fabricated Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds by freeze drying and freeze gelation methods. Materials and Methods: The cells were obtained from the nucleus pulposus by collagenase enzymatic hydrolysis. They were obtained from patients who were undergoing open surgery for discectomy in the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital. Chitosan was blended with gelatin. Chitosan polymer, solution after freezing at -80°C, was immersed in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The cellular suspension was transferred to each scaffold and cultured in plate for 14 days. Cell viability and proliferation were investigated by Trypan blue and MTT assays. Results: The MTT and Trypan blue assays demonstrated that cell viability and the mean of the cell number showed a significant difference between three and fourteen days, in both scaffolds. Accordingly, there was a significantly decrease in the fabricated chitosan-gelatin scaffold by the freeze-drying method. Conclusion: The fabricated chitosan-gelatin scaffold by the freeze-gelation method prepared a better condition for

  18. Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Ligtenberg, Lisette; Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-10-15

    The intermediate nucleus (InM) in the preoptic area of the human brain, also known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus-1 (INAH-1) is explored here. We investigated its population of galanin-immunoreactive (Gal-Ir) neurons in relation to sex, age, and gender identity in the postmortem brain of 77 subjects. First we compared the InM volume and number of Gal-Ir neurons of 22 males and 22 females in the course of aging. In a second experiment, we compared for the first time the InM volume and the total and Gal-Ir neuron number in 43 subjects with different gender identities: 14 control males (M), 11 control females (F), 10 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people, and 5 men who were castrated because of prostate cancer (CAS). In the first experiment we found a sex difference in the younger age group (<45 years of age), i.e., a larger volume and Gal-Ir neuron number in males and an age difference, with a decrease in volume and Gal-Ir neuron number in males > 45 years. In the second experiment the MtF transsexual group presented an intermediate value for the total InM neuron number and volume that did not seem different in males and females. Because the CAS group did not have total neuron numbers that were different from the intact males, the change in adult circulating testosterone levels does not seem to explain the intermediate values in the MtF group. Organizational and activational hormone effects on the InM are discussed.

  19. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions alter prefrontal cortex dendritic spine morphology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, David J; Peterson, Todd C; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-28

    Anatomical tracing studies in primates have revealed neural tracts from the cerebellar dentate nuclei to prefrontal cortex, implicating a cerebellar role in nonmotor processes. Experiments in rats examining the functional role of this cerebellothalamocortical pathway have demonstrated the development of visuospatial and motivational deficits following lesions of the dentate nuclei, in the absence of motor impairment. These behavioral deficits possibly occur due to structural modifications of the cerebral cortex secondary to loss of cerebellar input. The current study characterized morphological alterations in prefrontal cortex important for visuospatial and motivational processes following bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions. Rats received either bilateral electrolytic cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions or sham surgery followed by a 30-day recovery. Randomly selected Golgi-impregnated neurons in prefrontal cortex were examined for analysis. Measures of branch length and spine density revealed no differences between lesioned and sham rats in either apical or basilar arbors; however, the proportion of immature to mature spines significantly decreased in lesioned rats as compared to sham controls, with reductions of 33% in the basilar arbor and 28% in the apical arbor. Although expected pruning of branches and spines did not occur, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebellar lesions influence prefrontal morphology and support the possibility that functional deficits following cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions are related to prefrontal morphological alteration.

  20. Dentate total molecular layer interneurons mediate cannabinoid-sensitive inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiandong; Swietek, Bogumila; Proddutur, Archana; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Activity of the dentate gyrus, which gates information flow to the hippocampus, is under tight inhibitory regulation by interneurons with distinctive axonal projections, intrinsic and synaptic characteristics and neurochemical identities. Total molecular layer cells (TML-Cs), a class of morphologically distinct GABAergic neurons with axonal projections across the molecular layer, are among the most frequent interneuronal type in the dentate subgranular region. However, little is known about their synaptic and neurochemical properties. We demonstrate that synapses from morphologically identified TML-Cs to dentate interneurons are characterized by low release probability, facilitating short-term dynamics and asynchronous release. TML-Cs consistently show somatic and axonal labeling for the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 R) yet fail to express cholecystokinin (CCK) indicating their distinctive neurochemical identity. In paired recordings, the release probability at synapses between TML-Cs was increased by the CB1 R antagonist AM251, demonstrating baseline endocannabinoid regulation of TML-C synapses. Apart from defining the synaptic and neurochemical features of TML-Cs, our findings reveal the morphological identity of a class of dentate CB1 R-positive neurons that do not express CCK. Our findings indicate that TML-Cs can mediate cannabinoid sensitive feed-forward and feedback inhibition of dentate perforant path inputs.

  1. Cytoarchitectonic mapping of the human brain cerebellar nuclei in stereotaxic space and delineation of their co-activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tellmann, Stefanie; Bludau, Sebastian; Eickhoff, Simon; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Minnerop, Martina; Amunts, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar nuclei are involved in several brain functions, including the modulation of motor and cognitive performance. To differentiate their participation in these functions, and to analyze their changes in neurodegenerative and other diseases as revealed by neuroimaging, stereotaxic maps are necessary. These maps reflect the complex spatial structure of cerebellar nuclei with adequate spatial resolution and detail. Here we report on the cytoarchitecture of the dentate, interposed (emboliform and globose) and fastigial nuclei, and introduce 3D probability maps in stereotaxic MNI-Colin27 space as a prerequisite for subsequent meta-analysis of their functional involvement. Histological sections of 10 human post mortem brains were therefore examined. Differences in cell density were measured and used to distinguish a dorsal from a ventral part of the dentate nucleus. Probabilistic maps were calculated, which indicate the position and extent of the nuclei in 3D-space, while considering their intersubject variability. The maps of the interposed and the dentate nuclei differed with respect to their interaction patterns and functions based on meta-analytic connectivity modeling and quantitative functional decoding, respectively. For the dentate nucleus, significant (p < 0.05) co-activations were observed with thalamus, supplementary motor area (SMA), putamen, BA 44 of Broca's region, areas of superior and inferior parietal cortex, and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). In contrast, the interposed nucleus showed more limited co-activations with SMA, area 44, putamen, and SFG. Thus, the new stereotaxic maps contribute to analyze structure and function of the cerebellum. These maps can be used for anatomically reliable and precise identification of degenerative alteration in MRI-data of patients who suffer from various cerebellar diseases.

  2. In vivo Exploration of the Connectivity between the Subthalamic Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus in the Human Brain Using Multi-Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Sonia; Cabeen, Ryan; Sébille, Sophie B.; Yelnik, Jérôme; François, Chantal; Fernandez Vidal, Sara; Karachi, Carine; Zhao, Yulong; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Jannin, Pierre; Kikinis, Ron; Bardinet, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The basal ganglia is part of a complex system of neuronal circuits that play a key role in the integration and execution of motor, cognitive and emotional function in the human brain. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder of the motor circuit characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus pars interna provides an efficient treatment to reduce symptoms and levodopa-induced side effects in Parkinson’s disease patients. While the underlying mechanism of action of DBS is still unknown, the potential modulation of white matter tracts connecting the surgical targets has become an active area of research. With the introduction of advanced diffusion MRI acquisition sequences and sophisticated post-processing techniques, the architecture of the human brain white matter can be explored in vivo. The goal of this study is to investigate the white matter connectivity between the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus. Two multi-fiber tractography methods were used to reconstruct pallido-subthalamic, subthalamo-pallidal and pyramidal fibers in five healthy subjects datasets of the Human Connectome Project. The anatomical accuracy of the tracts was assessed by four judges with expertise in neuroanatomy, functional neurosurgery, and diffusion MRI. The variability among subjects was evaluated based on the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of the tracts. Both multi-fiber approaches enabled the detection of complex fiber architecture in the basal ganglia. The qualitative evaluation by experts showed that the identified tracts were in agreement with the expected anatomy. Tract-derived measurements demonstrated relatively low variability among subjects. False-negative tracts demonstrated the current limitations of both methods for clinical decision-making. Multi-fiber tractography methods combined with state-of-the-art diffusion MRI data have the

  3. The aging human cochlear nucleus: Changes in the glial fibrillary acidic protein, intracellular calcium regulatory proteins, GABA neurotransmitter and cholinergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saroj; Nag, Tapas C; Thakar, Alok; Bhardwaj, Daya N; Roy, Tara Sankar

    2014-03-01

    The human auditory system is highly susceptible to environmental and metabolic insults which further affect the biochemical and physiological milieu of the cells that may contribute to progressive, hearing loss with aging. The cochlear nucleus (CN) is populated by morphologically diverse types of neurons with discrete physiological and neurochemical properties. Between the dorsal and the ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN), the VCN is further sub-divided into the rostral (rVCN) and caudal (cVCN) sub-divisions. Although, information is available on the age related neurochemical changes in the mammalian CN similar reports on human CN is still sparse. The morphometry and semiquantitative analysis of intensity of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and nicotinic acetyl choline receptor (nAchR) beta 2 immunostaining were carried out in all three sub-divisions of the human CN from birth to 90 years. There was increased GFAP immunoreactivity in decades 2 and 3 in comparison to decade 1 in the CN. But no change was observed in rVCN from decade 4 onwards, whereas intense staining was also observed in decades 5 and 6 in cVCN and DCN. All three calcium binding proteins were highly expressed in early to middle ages, whereas a significant reduction was found in later decades in the VCN. GABA and nAchR beta 2 expressions were unchanged throughout in all the decades. The middle age may represent a critical period of onset and progression of aging changes in the CN and these alterations may add to the deterioration of hearing responses in the old age.

  4. The enigmatic mossy cell of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Mossy cells comprise a large fraction of the cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, suggesting that their function in this region is important. They are vulnerable to ischaemia, traumatic brain injury and seizures, and their loss could contribute to dentate gyrus dysfunction in such conditions. Mossy cell function has been unclear because these cells innervate both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons within the dentate gyrus, contributing to a complex circuitry. It has also been difficult to directly and selectively manipulate mossy cells to study their function. In light of the new data generated using methods to preferentially eliminate or activate mossy cells in mice, it is timely to ask whether mossy cells have become any less enigmatic than they were in the past. PMID:27466143

  5. Functioning methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B are present in human epidermal melanocytes in the cytosol and in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; Chavan, Bhaven; Gillbro, Johanna M.

    2006-03-31

    Oxidation of methionine residues by reactive oxygen (ROS) in protein structures leads to the formation of methionine sulfoxide which can consequently lead to a plethora of impaired functionality. The generation of methionine sulfoxide yields ultimately a diastereomeric mixture of the S and R sulfoxides. So far two distinct enzyme families have been identified. MSRA reduces methionine S-sulfoxide, while MSRB reduces the R-diastereomer. It has been shown that these enzymes are involved in regulation of protein function and in elimination of ROS via reversible methionine formation besides protein repair. Importantly, both enzymes require coupling to the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin electron donor system. In this report, we show for First time the expression and function of both sulfoxide reductases together with thioredoxin reductase in the cytosol as well as in the nucleus of epidermal melanocytes which are especially sensitive to ROS. Since this cell resides in the basal layer of the epidermis and its numbers and functions are reduced upon ageing and for instance also in depigmentation processes, we believe that this discovery adds an intricate repair mechanism to melanocyte homeostasis and survival.

  6. Release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus: Involvement in aloe-emodin-induced human lung non small carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Shen-Peng

    2005-03-01

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is one of the active constituents from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of lung cancer cell apoptosis-related proteins compared to those of control cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. Based on these reasons, we were interested in the change of aloe-emodin-induced total protein expression by the proteomics technique during aloe-emodin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. Our study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyze the proteins involved in aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. We found that the release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus to the cytosol and the degradation of nucleophosmin were associated with aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Our study also demonstrated that the gene expression of nucleophosmin remained unchanged after treatment with aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-caused increase in the amount of proform and fragment of nucleophosmin in cytoplasm may be one of the important events for aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells regulate mechanical properties of human degenerated nucleus pulposus cells through SDF-1/CXCR4/AKT axis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Han; Bian, Bai-Shi-Jiao; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Lan-Tao; Liu, Huan; Huang, Bo; Cui, You-Hong; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Zhou, Yue

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) has shown promise for decelerating or arresting IVD degeneration. Cellular mechanical properties play crucial roles in regulating cell-matrix interactions, potentially reflecting specific changes that occur based on cellular phenotype and behavior. However, the effect of co-culturing of MSCs with nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) on the mechanical properties of NPCs remains unknown. In our study, we demonstrated that co-culture of degenerated NPCs with MSCs resulted in significantly decreased mechanical moduli (elastic modulus, relaxed modulus, and instantaneous modulus) and increased biological activity (proliferation and expression of matrix genes) in degenerated NPCs, but not normal NPCs. SDF-1, CXCR4 ligand, was highly expressed in MSCs when co-cultured with degenerated NPCs. Inhibition of SDF-1 using CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or knocking-down CXCR4 in degenerated NPCs abolished the MSCs-induced decrease in the mechanical moduli and increased biological activity of degenerated NPCs, suggesting a crucial role for SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling. AKT and FAK inhibition attenuated the MSCs- or SDF-1-induced decrease in the mechanical moduli of degenerated NPCs. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in vitro that MSCs regulate the mechanical properties of degenerated NPCs through SDF-1/CXCR4/AKT signaling. These findings highlight a possible mechanical mechanism for MSCs-induced modulation with degenerated NPCs, which may be applicable to MSCs-based therapy for disc degeneration.

  8. Resting state functional connectivity of the basal nucleus of Meynert in humans: in comparison to the ventral striatum and the effects of age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiang-shan R.; Ide, Jaime S.; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H.; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the primary cholinergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Loss of neurons in the BNM is linked to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative conditions. Numerous animal studies described cholinergic and non-cholinergic neuronal responses in the BNM; however, work in humans has been hampered by the difficulty of defining the BNM anatomically. Here, on the basis of a previous study that delineated the BNM of post-mortem human brains in a standard stereotaxic space, we sought to examine functional connectivity of the BNM, as compared to the nucleus accumbens (or ventral striatum, VS), in a large resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data set. The BNM and VS shared but also showed a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical connectivity. Compared to the VS, the BNM showed stronger positive connectivity with the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, amygdala and midbrain, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and pre-supplementary motor area, a network of brain regions that respond to salient stimuli and orchestrate motor behavior. In contrast, compared to the BNM, the VS showed stronger positive connectivity with the ventral caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex, areas implicated in reward processing and motivated behavior. Furthermore, the BNM and VS each showed extensive negative connectivity with visual and lateral prefrontal cortices. Together, the distinct cerebral functional connectivities support the role of the BNM in arousal, saliency responses and cognitive motor control and the VS in reward related behavior. Considering the importance of BNM in age-related cognitive decline, we explored the effects of age on BNM and VS connectivities. BNM connectivity to the visual and somatomotor cortices decreases while connectivity to subcortical structures including the midbrain, thalamus, and pallidum increases with age. These findings of age-related changes of

  9. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient's somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  10. TRPV1 receptor in the human trigeminal ganglion and spinal nucleus: immunohistochemical localization and comparison with the neuropeptides CGRP and SP.

    PubMed

    Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Boi, Marianna; Poddighe, Laura; Picci, Cristina; Demontis, Roberto; Del Fiacco, Marina

    2016-12-01

    This work presents new data concerning the immunohistochemical occurrence of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptor in the human trigeminal ganglion (TG) and spinal nucleus of subjects at different ontogenetic stages, from prenatal life to postnatal old age. Comparisons are made with the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). TRPV1-like immunoreactive (LI) material was detected by western blot in homogenates of TG and medulla oblongata of subjects at prenatal and adult stages of life. Immunohistochemistry showed that expression of the TRPV1 receptor is mostly restricted to the small- and medium-sized TG neurons and to the caudal subdivision of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C). The extent of the TRPV1-LI TG neuronal subpopulation was greater in subjects at early perinatal age than at late perinatal age and in postnatal life. Centrally, the TRPV1 receptor localized to fibre tracts and punctate elements, which were mainly distributed in the spinal tract, lamina I and inner lamina II of the Sp5C, whereas stained cells were rare. The TRPV1 receptor colocalized partially with CGRP and SP in the TG, and was incompletely codistributed with both neuropeptides in the spinal tract and in the superficial laminae of the Sp5C. Substantial differences were noted with respect to the distribution of the TRPV1-LI structures described in the rat Sp5C and with respect to the temporal expression of the receptor during the development of the rat spinal dorsal horn. The distinctive localization of TRPV1-LI material supports the concept of the involvement of TRPV1 receptor in the functional activity of the protopathic compartment of the human trigeminal sensory system, i.e. the processing and neurotransmission of thermal and pain stimuli.

  11. a-Band Oscillations in Intracellular Membrane Potentials of Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Awake Rodents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ross W.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus and dentate gyrus play critical roles in processing declarative memories and spatial information. Dentate granule cells, the first relay in the trisynaptic circuit through the hippocampus, exhibit low spontaneous firing rates even during locomotion. Using intracellular recordings from dentate neurons in awake mice operating a…

  12. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression.

  13. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Advanced glycation end products regulate anabolic and catabolic activities via NLRP3-inflammasome activation in human nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yukun; Geng, Wen; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuai; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xinghuo; Kang, Liang; Yang, Cao

    2017-02-22

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is widely recognized as a cause of lower back pain, neurological dysfunction and other musculoskeletal disorders. The major inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive IL-1β production in the intervertebral disc, especially in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are unknown. In some tissues, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in NP tissues and promote its degeneration, increase oxidative stress and IL-1β secretion, resulting in disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ageing. It remains unclear whether AGEs exhibit similar effects in NP cells. In this study, we observed significant activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in NP tissues obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease compared to that with idiopathic scoliosis according to results detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Using NP cells established from healthy tissues, our in vitro study revealed that AGEs induced an inflammatory response in NP cells and a degenerative phenotype in a NLRP3-inflammasome-dependent manner related to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE)/NF-κB pathway and mitochondrial damage induced by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) activation and calcium mobilization. Among these signals, both RAGE and mitochondrial damage primed NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β activation as upstream signals of NF-κB activity, whereas mitochondrial damage was critical for the assembly of inflammasome components. These results revealed that accumulation of AGEs in NP tissue may initiate inflammation-related degeneration of the intervertebral disc via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  15. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  16. Newborn granule cells in the ageing dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Lombardi, Gabriela; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus generates neurons throughout life, but adult neurogenesis exhibits a marked age-dependent decline. Although the decrease in the rate of neurogenesis has been extensively documented in the ageing hippocampus, the specific characteristics of dentate granule cells born in such a continuously changing environment have received little attention. We have used retroviral labelling of neural progenitor cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus to study morphological properties of neurons born at different ages. Dendritic spine density was measured to estimate glutamatergic afferent connectivity. Fully mature neurons born at the age of 2 months display ∼2.3 spines μm−1 and maintain their overall morphology and spine density in 1-year-old mice. Surprisingly, granule cells born in 10-month-old mice, at which time the rate of neurogenesis has decreased by ∼40-fold, reach a density of dendritic spines similar to that of neurons born in young adulthood. Therefore, in spite of the sharp decline in cell proliferation, differentiation and overall neuronal number, the ageing hippocampus presents a suitable environment for new surviving neurons to reach a high level of complexity, comparable to that of all other dentate granule cells. PMID:18565998

  17. Massively augmented hippocampal dentate granule cell activation accompanies epilepsy development.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Christopher G; Yue, Cuiyong; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A

    2017-02-20

    In a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, multicellular calcium imaging revealed that disease emergence was accompanied by massive amplification in the normally sparse, afferent stimulation-induced activation of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Patch recordings demonstrated reductions in local inhibitory function within the dentate gyrus at time points where sparse activation was compromised. Mimicking changes in inhibitory synaptic function and transmembrane chloride regulation was sufficient to elicit the dentate gyrus circuit collapse evident during epilepsy development. Pharmacological blockade of outward chloride transport had no effect during epilepsy development, and significantly increased granule cell activation in both control and chronically epileptic animals. This apparent occlusion effect implicates reduction in chloride extrusion as a mechanism contributing to granule cell hyperactivation specifically during early epilepsy development. Glutamine plays a significant role in local synthesis of GABA in synapses. In epileptic mice, sparse granule cell activation could be restored by glutamine application, implicating compromised GABA synthesis. Glutamine had no effect on granule cell activation earlier, during epilepsy development. We conclude that compromised feedforward inhibition within the local circuit generates the massive dentate gyrus circuit hyperactivation evident in animals during and following epilepsy development. However, the mechanisms underlying this disinhibition diverge significantly as epilepsy progresses.

  18. Massively augmented hippocampal dentate granule cell activation accompanies epilepsy development

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, Christopher G.; Yue, Cuiyong; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    In a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, multicellular calcium imaging revealed that disease emergence was accompanied by massive amplification in the normally sparse, afferent stimulation-induced activation of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Patch recordings demonstrated reductions in local inhibitory function within the dentate gyrus at time points where sparse activation was compromised. Mimicking changes in inhibitory synaptic function and transmembrane chloride regulation was sufficient to elicit the dentate gyrus circuit collapse evident during epilepsy development. Pharmacological blockade of outward chloride transport had no effect during epilepsy development, and significantly increased granule cell activation in both control and chronically epileptic animals. This apparent occlusion effect implicates reduction in chloride extrusion as a mechanism contributing to granule cell hyperactivation specifically during early epilepsy development. Glutamine plays a significant role in local synthesis of GABA in synapses. In epileptic mice, sparse granule cell activation could be restored by glutamine application, implicating compromised GABA synthesis. Glutamine had no effect on granule cell activation earlier, during epilepsy development. We conclude that compromised feedforward inhibition within the local circuit generates the massive dentate gyrus circuit hyperactivation evident in animals during and following epilepsy development. However, the mechanisms underlying this disinhibition diverge significantly as epilepsy progresses. PMID:28218241

  19. Functional interactions between dentate gyrus, striatum and anterior thalamic nuclei on spatial memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Arias, J L

    2015-04-24

    The standard model of memory system consolidation supports the temporal reorganization of brain circuits underlying long-term memory storage, including interactions between the dorsal hippocampus and extra-hippocampal structures. In addition, several brain regions have been suggested to be involved in the retrieval of spatial memory. In particular, several authors reported a possible role of the ventral portion of the hippocampus together with the thalamus or the striatum in the persistence of this type of memory. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of different cortical and subcortical brain regions, and neural networks involved in spatial memory retrieval. For this purpose, we used cytochrome c oxidase quantitative histochemistry as a reliable method to measure brain oxidative metabolism. Animals were trained in a hidden platform task and tested for memory retention immediately after the last training session; one week after completing the task, they were also tested in a memory retrieval probe. Results showed that retrieval of the previously learned task was associated with increased levels of oxidative metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal and ventral striatum, the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the dentate gyrus of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The analysis of functional interactions between brain regions suggest that the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus could be involved in spatial memory retrieval. In addition, the results highlight the key role of the extended hippocampal system, thalamus and striatum in this process. Our study agrees with previous ones reporting interactions between the dorsal hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex during spatial memory retrieval. Furthermore, novel activation patterns of brain networks involving the aforementioned regions were found. These functional brain networks could underlie spatial memory retrieval evaluated in the Morris water maze task.

  20. Effect of Cryopreservation on Canine and Human Activated Nucleus Pulposus Cells: A Feasibility Study for Cell Therapy of the Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Hiyama, Akihiko; Arai, Fumiyuki; Nakajima, Daisuke; Nukaga, Tadashi; Nakai, Tomoko; Mochida, Joji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract It has been shown that coculture of bone marrow–derived stromal cells (BMSCs) with intervertebral disc (IVD) nucleus pulposus (NP) cells significantly activates the biological characteristics of NP cells in animal models and in humans. We therefore predicted that activated NP cells would be a useful graft source for cellular transplantation therapy in the treatment of degenerative IVDs. However, the activation protocol is based on fresh isolation and activation of NP cells, which limits the timing of clinical application. Cell transplantation therapy could be offered to more patients than is now possible if activated NP cells could be transplanted as and when required by the condition of the patient. No study has investigated the effect of cryopreservation on NP cells after enzymatic isolation. We investigated the effects of cryopreservation of canine and human NP cells in both cell and tissue form before coculture with autologous BMSCs. Cell viability, proliferation, glycosaminoglycan production, aggrecan transcriptional activity, colony generation, and gene expression profile of the cells after cryopreservation and subsequent coculture were analyzed. The influence of cryopreservation on cell chromosomal abnormalities and tumorigenesis was also studied. The results showed that there were no clear differences between the noncryopreserved and cryopreserved cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation capacity, and capacity to synthesize extracellular matrix. Furthermore, the cells showed no apparent chromosomal abnormalities or tumorigenic ability and exhibited similar patterns of gene expression. These findings suggest that by using cryopreservation, it may be possible to transplant activated NP cells upon request for patients' needs. PMID:23914334

  1. Disruption of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity in the human Kölliker-Fuse nucleus in victims of unexplained fetal and infant death

    PubMed Central

    Lavezzi, Anna M.; Corna, Melissa F.; Matturri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the neurotrophin brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) is required for the appropriate development of the central respiratory network, a neuronal complex in the brainstem of vital importance to sustaining life. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) is a fundamental component of this circuitry with strong implications in the pre- and postnatal breathing control. This study provides detailed account for the cytoarchitecture, the physiology and the BDNF behavior of the human KFN in perinatal age. We applied immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples (from 45 fetuses and newborns died of both known and unknown causes), to analyze BDNF, gliosis and apoptosis patterns of manifestation. The KFN showed clear signs of developmental immaturity, prevalently associated to BDNF altered expression, in high percentages of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) victims. Our results indicate that BDNF pathway dysfunctions can derange the normal KFN development so preventing the breathing control in the sudden perinatal death. The data presented here are also relevant to a better understanding of how the BDNF expression in the KFN can be involved in several human respiratory pathologies such as the Rett's and the congenital central hypoventilation syndromes. PMID:25237300

  2. The human thalamic somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] shows neuronal mechanoreceptor-like responses to optimal stimuli for peripheral mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Weiss, N; Ohara, S; Johnson, K O; Lenz, F A

    2009-02-01

    Although the response of human cutaneous mechanoreceptors to controlled stimuli is well studied, it is not clear how these peripheral signals may be reflected in neuronal activity of the human CNS. We now test the hypothesis that individual neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] respond selectively to the optimal stimulus for one of the four mechanoreceptors. The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian corpuscles (PC), vibration at 128 Hz; rapidly adapting (RA), vibration at 32 or 64 Hz; slowly adapting type 1 (SA1), edge; slowly adapting type 2 (SA2), skin stretch. Nineteen neurons had a significant response to at least one optimal stimulus, and 17 had a significantly greater response to one stimulus than to the other three, including 7 PC-related, 7 RA-like, 3 SA1-like, and 2 SA2-like neurons. One of each of the SA1- and SA2-like thalamic neurons responded to vibration with firing rates that were lower than those to edge or stretch but not significantly. Except in the case of PC-related neurons, the receptive field (RF) sizes were larger for these thalamic neurons than for the corresponding mechanoreceptor. Von Frey thresholds were higher than those for the corresponding human RA and SA1 mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that there is a convergence of pathways transmitting input from multiple mechanoreceptors of one type on single thalamic neurons via the dorsal columns. They are also consistent with the presence of primate thalamic elements of modality and somatotopic isorepresentation.

  3. Crossed Cerebellar Atrophy of the Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus in an Endothelin-1-Induced, Rodent Model of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hugh H.; Cooperrider, Jessica L.; Park, Hyun-Joo; Wathen, Connor A.; Gale, John T.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Machado, Andre G.

    2017-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a functional deficit of the cerebellar hemisphere resulting from loss of afferent input consequent to a lesion of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. It is manifested as a reduction of metabolism and blood flow and, depending on severity and duration, it can result in atrophy, a phenomenon known as crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA). While CCA has been well-demonstrated in humans, it remains poorly characterized in animal models of stroke. In this study we evaluated the effects of cerebral cortical ischemia on contralateral cerebellar anatomy using an established rodent model of chronic stroke. The effects of cortical ischemia on the cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and deep nuclei were characterized. Intracortical microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were delivered to the motor cortex of Long Evans rats to induce ischemic stroke, with animals sacrificed 6 weeks later. Naive animals served as controls. Cerebral sections and cerebellar sections including the deep nuclei were prepared for analysis with Nissl staining. Cortical ischemia was associated with significant thickness reduction of the molecular layer at the Crus 1 and parafloccular lobule (PFL), but not in fourth cerebellar lobule (4Cb), as compared to the ipsilesional cerebellar hemisphere. A significant reduction in volume and cell density of the lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN), the rodent correlate of the dentate nucleus, was also noted. The results highlight the relevance of corticopontocerebellar (CPC) projections for cerebellar metabolism and function, including its direct projections to the LCN. PMID:28261086

  4. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient’s somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  5. The Neutrophil Nucleus and Its Role in Neutrophilic Function.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo Olivieri; Aquino, Elaine Nascimento; Neves, Anne Caroline Dias; Fontes, Wagner

    2015-09-01

    The cell nucleus plays a key role in differentiation processes in eukaryotic cells. It is not the nucleus in particular, but the organization of the genes and their remodeling that provides the data for the adjustments to be made according to the medium. The neutrophil nucleus has a different morphology. It is a multi-lobed nucleus where some researchers argue no longer function. However, studies indicate that it is very probable the occurrence of chromatin remodeling during activation steps. It may be that the human neutrophil nucleus also contributes to the mobility of neutrophils through thin tissue spaces. Questions like these will be discussed in this small review. The topics include morphology of human neutrophil nucleus, maturation process and modifications of the neutrophil nucleus, neutrophil activation and chromatin modifications, causes and consequences of multi-lobulated segmented morphology, and importance of the nucleus in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

  6. Can secondary degeneration accelerate the formation of neurofibrillary tangles? A case of hemispheric infarction showing asymmetric degeneration of the substantia nigra, red nuclei, inferior olivary nuclei and dentate nuclei with concomitant changes of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, R; Oda, M; Arai, N; Shin, T; Hayashi, M

    1999-02-01

    A case of hemispheric infarction involving the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and the thalamus showed conspicuous asymmetric degeneration in the substantia nigra, red nuclei, inferior olivary nuclei and dentate nuclei with concomitant changes of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The right substantia nigra and red nucleus showed loss of neurons and proliferation of astrocytes. The right olivary nucleus was hypertrophic, while the neuronal loss and astrocytosis in the dentate nucleus were predominant on the contralateral side. Modified Gallyas-Braak staining revealed the extensive distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), threads and intraglial argyrophilic structures in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei, cerebral cortex and dentate nuclei, as well as in the affected brain stem nuclei, with a distinct predominance on the affected side. In this case, the one-sided predominance of the extended degeneration in these brain stem and cerebellar areas is considered, in addition to the PSP changes, to be due to secondary retrograde degeneration via the nigrostriatal and dentato-rubro-thalamic pathways following the hemispheric infarction, and to also be the result of disruption of the dentato-olivary fiber connections. In addition, because of the predominant distribution of NFTs on the more degenerated side, it is surmised that the formation of NFTs may be accelerated by secondary degeneration.

  7. Monosynaptic inputs to new neurons in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Carmen; Potter, Michelle C; Choi, Jiwon; Lee, Ji-Young; Stringer, Thomas P; Callaway, Edward M; Gage, Fred H; Suh, Hoonkyo; van Praag, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered important for cognition. The integration of newborn dentate gyrus granule cells into the existing network is regulated by afferent neuronal activity of unspecified origin. Here we combine rabies virus-mediated retrograde tracing with retroviral labelling of new granule cells (21, 30, 60, 90 days after injection) to selectively identify and quantify their monosynaptic inputs in vivo. Our results show that newborn granule cells receive afferents from intra-hippocampal cells (interneurons, mossy cells, area CA3 and transiently, mature granule cells) and septal cholinergic cells. Input from distal cortex (perirhinal (PRH) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC)) is sparse 21 days after injection and increases over time. Patch-clamp recordings support innervation by the LEC rather than from the medial entorhinal cortex. Mice with excitotoxic PRH/LEC lesions exhibit deficits in pattern separation but not in water maze learning. Thus, PRH/LEC input is an important functional component of new dentate gyrus neuron circuitry.

  8. Sparse activity of identified dentate granule cells during spatial exploration

    PubMed Central

    Diamantaki, Maria; Frey, Markus; Berens, Philipp; Preston-Ferrer, Patricia; Burgalossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the dentate gyrus – a key component of spatial memory circuits – granule cells (GCs) are known to be morphologically diverse and to display heterogeneous activity profiles during behavior. To resolve structure–function relationships, we juxtacellularly recorded and labeled single GCs in freely moving rats. We found that the vast majority of neurons were silent during exploration. Most active GCs displayed a characteristic spike waveform, fired at low rates and showed spatial activity. Primary dendritic parameters were sufficient for classifying neurons as active or silent with high accuracy. Our data thus support a sparse coding scheme in the dentate gyrus and provide a possible link between structural and functional heterogeneity among the GC population. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20252.001 PMID:27692065

  9. Expression of the AMPA Receptor Subunits GluR1 and GluR2 is Associated with Granule Cell Maturation in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Hagihara, Hideo; Ohira, Koji; Toyama, Keiko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The dentate gyrus produces new granule neurons throughout adulthood in mammals from rodents to humans. During granule cell maturation, defined markers are expressed in a highly regulated sequential process, which is necessary for directed neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we show that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2 are expressed in differentiated granule cells, but not in stem cells, in neonatal, and adult dentate gyrus. Using markers for neural progenitors, immature and mature granule cells, we found that GluR1 and GluR2 were expressed mainly in mature cells and in some immature cells. A time-course analysis of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining revealed that granule cells express GluR1 around 3 weeks after being generated. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, a putative animal model of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities were substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. In the granule cells of mutant mice, the expression of both presynaptic and postsynaptic markers was decreased, suggesting that GluR1 and GluR2 are also associated with synaptic maturation. Moreover, GluR1 and GluR2 were also expressed in mature granule cells of the neonatal dentate gyrus. Taken together, these findings indicate that GluR1 and GluR2 expression closely correlates with the neuronal maturation state, and that GluR1 and GluR2 are useful markers for mature granule cells in the dentate gyrus. PMID:21927594

  10. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit.

    PubMed

    Prince, Luke Y; Bacon, Travis J; Tigaret, Cezar M; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  11. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Luke Y.; Bacon, Travis J.; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval. PMID:27799909

  12. Inhibition of U4 snRNA in Human Cells Causes the Stable Retention of Polyadenylated Pre-mRNA in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hett, Anne; West, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Most human pre-mRNAs contain introns that are removed by splicing. Such a complex process needs strict control and regulation in order to prevent the expression of aberrant or unprocessed transcripts. To analyse the fate of pre-mRNAs that cannot be spliced, we inhibited splicing using an anti-sense morpholino (AMO) against U4 snRNA. As a consequence, splicing of several selected transcripts was strongly inhibited. This was accompanied by the formation of enlarged nuclear speckles containing polyadenylated RNA, splicing factors and the nuclear poly(A) binding protein. Consistently, more polyadenylated pre-mRNA could be isolated from nucleoplasmic as well as chromatin-associated RNA fractions following U4 inhibition. Further analysis demonstrated that accumulated pre-mRNAs were stable in the nucleus and that nuclear RNA degradation factors did not re-localise to nuclear speckles following splicing inhibition. The accumulation of pre-mRNA and the formation of enlarged speckles were sensitive to depletion of the 3′ end processing factor, CPSF73, suggesting a requirement for poly(A) site processing in this mechanism. Finally, we provide evidence that the pre-mRNAs produced following U4 snRNA inhibition remain competent for splicing, perhaps providing a biological explanation for their stability. These data further characterise processes ensuring the nuclear retention of pre-mRNA that cannot be spliced and suggest that, in some cases, unspliced transcripts can complete splicing sometime after their initial synthesis. PMID:24796696

  13. Inositol hexaphosphate represses telomerase activity and translocates TERT from the nucleus in mouse and human prostate cancer cells via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, Shankar; Banerjee, Partha P. . E-mail: ppb@georgetown.edu

    2006-11-03

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has anti-proliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells, including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of anti-proliferative effects of IP6 is not entirely understood. Since the activation of telomerase is crucial for cells to gain immortality and proliferation ability, we examined the role of IP6 in the regulation of telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that IP6 represses telomerase activity in mouse and human prostate cancer cells dose-dependently. In addition, IP6 prevents the translocation of TERT to the nucleus. Since phosphorylation of TERT by Akt and/or PKC{alpha} is necessary for nuclear translocation, we examined phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha} after IP6 treatments. Our results show that IP6 inhibits phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha}. These results show for the first time that IP6 represses telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells by posttranslational modification of TERT via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}.

  14. Roles of FGF-2 and TGF-beta/FGF-2 on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells towards nucleus pulposus-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaopeng; Tao, Yiqing; Wang, Jin; Liang, Chengzhen; Wang, Jun; Li, Hao; Chen, Qixin

    2015-02-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are reported to have the capability of differentiating towards nucleus pulposus (NP)-like phenotype under specific culture conditions. So far, the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and the cocktail effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and FGF-2 on MSCs remain unclear. Therefore, we designed this study to clarify these effects. MSCs were cultured in conditioned medium containing FGF-2 or TGF-beta/FGF-2, and compared with basal or TGF-beta medium. The groups with FGF-2 showed the increase of cell proliferation. Functional gene markers and novel NP markers decreased in FGF-2 group, together with functional protein expression. Pho-ERK1/2 and pho-Smad3 differed significantly in the two conditioned groups. All these results suggest FGF-2 promotes MSCs' proliferation, synergistically with TGF-beta. However, FGF-2 plays a negative role in cartilage homeostasis. We also demonstrate that FGF-2 has no positive effect in differentiating MSCs into NP-like cells, but hinders the acceleration effect of TGF-beta.

  15. Ectopic Granule Cells of the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen; Goodman, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Granule cells of the mammalian dentate gyrus normally form a discrete layer, and virtually all granule cells migrate to this location. Exceptional granule cells that are positioned incorrectly, in ‘ectopic’ locations, are rare. Although the characteristics of such ectopic granule cells appear similar in many respects to granule cells located in the granule cell layer, their rare occurrence has limited a full evaluation of their structure and function. More information about ectopic granule cells has been obtained by studying those that develop after experimental manipulations that increase their number. For example, after severe seizures, the number of ectopic granule cells located in the hilus increases dramatically. These experimentally induced ectopic granule cells may not be equivalent to normal ectopic granule cells necessarily, but the vastly increased numbers have allowed much more information to be obtained. Remarkably, the granule cells that are positioned ectopically develop intrinsic properties and an axonal projection that are similar to granule cells that are located normally, i.e., in the granule cell layer. However, dendritic structure and synaptic structure/function appear to differ. These studies have provided new insight into a rare type of granule cell in the dentate gyrus, and the plastic characteristics of dentate granule cells that appear to depend on the location of the cell body. PMID:17148946

  16. Increased dentate neurogenesis after grafting of glial restricted progenitors or neural stem cells in the aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Cai, Jingli; Coksaygan, Turhan; Rao, Mahendra S; Shetty, Ashok K

    2007-08-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) declines severely by middle age, potentially because of age-related changes in the DG microenvironment. We hypothesize that providing fresh glial restricted progenitors (GRPs) or neural stem cells (NSCs) to the aging hippocampus via grafting enriches the DG microenvironment and thereby stimulates the production of new granule cells from endogenous NSCs. The GRPs isolated from the spinal cords of embryonic day 13.5 transgenic F344 rats expressing human alkaline phosphatase gene and NSCs isolated from embryonic day 9 caudal neural tubes of Sox-2:EGFP transgenic mice were expanded in vitro and grafted into the hippocampi of middle-aged (12 months old) F344 rats. Both types of grafts survived well, and grafted NSCs in addition migrated to all layers of the hippocampus. Phenotypic characterization revealed that both GRPs and NSCs differentiated predominantly into astrocytes and oligodendrocytic progenitors. Neuronal differentiation of graft-derived cells was mostly absent except in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ), where some of the migrated NSCs but not GRPs differentiated into neurons. Analyses of the numbers of newly born neurons in the DG using 5'-bromodeoxyuridine and/or doublecortin assays, however, demonstrated considerably increased dentate neurogenesis in animals receiving grafts of GRPs or NSCs in comparison with both naïve controls and animals receiving sham-grafting surgery. Thus, both GRPs and NSCs survive well, differentiate predominantly into glia, and stimulate the endogenous NSCs in the SGZ to produce more new dentate granule cells following grafting into the aging hippocampus. Grafting of GRPs or NSCs therefore provides an attractive approach for improving neurogenesis in the aging hippocampus. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  17. Participation of the dentate-rubral pathway in the kindling model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cerón, Miguel; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Rubio, Carmen; Custodio, Verónica; González-Guevara, Edith; Castillo-Pérez, Carlos; Paz, Carlos

    2016-10-18

    Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions. We found that the kindled stage was associated with significant reductions in glutamate and GABA in the RN and that the lesions of the DN in kindled rats reversed the severity of seizures and restored the GABA levels. GAD65 , a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, was increased in kindled rats and decreased after DN lesions. GAD65 commonly appears localized at nerve terminals and synapses, and it is only activated when GABA neurotransmission occurs. Thus, it is possible that the increased expression of GAD65 found in kindled rats could be due to an exacerbated demand for GABA due to kindled seizures. It is known that GABA maintains the inhibitory tone that counterbalances neuronal excitation. The decreased expression of GAD65 found after the DN lesions indicated that the GABA-synthesizing enzyme was no longer required once it eliminated the excitatory glutamate input to the RN. We thus conclude that DN lesions and their consequent biochemical changes are capable of decreasing the generalized seizures induced by kindling stimulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Chawla, Monica K; Barnes, Carol A; Rosi, Susanna

    2013-01-23

    After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in ∼2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ∼8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats ∼50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in inhibition of recent Arc expression both when evaluated shortly after exploratory behavior as well as after longer time intervals. Together, these data demonstrate a unique kinetic profile for Arc transcription in hippocampal granule neurons following behavior that is not observed in other cell types. Among a number of possibilities, this sustained transcription may provide a mechanism that ensures that the synaptic connection weights in the sparse population of granule cells recruited during a given behavioral event are able to be modified.

  19. Epithelial cells supply Sonic Hedgehog to the perinatal dentate gyrus via transport by platelets.

    PubMed

    Choe, Youngshik; Huynh, Trung; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2015-10-12

    Dentate neural stem cells produce neurons throughout life in mammals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is critical for maintenance of these cells; however, the perinatal source of Shh is enigmatic. In the present study, we examined the role of Shh expressed by hair follicles (HFs) that expand perinatally in temporal concordance with the proliferation of Shh-responding dentate stem cells. Specific inhibition of Shh from HFs or from epithelial sources in general hindered development of Shh-responding dentate stem cells. We also found that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the perinatal dentate gyrus (DG) is leaky with stem cells in the dentate exposed to blood-born factors. In attempting to identify how Shh might be transported in blood, we found that platelets contain epithelial Shh, provide Shh to the perinatal DG and that inhibition of platelet generation reduced hedgehog-responsive dentate stem cells.

  20. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MA, XUEXIAO; LIN, YAZHOU; YANG, KUN; YUE, BIN; XIANG, HONGFEI; CHEN, BOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV-mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase-3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV-mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV-mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive

  1. Bone morphogenic protein signaling is a major determinant of dentate development.

    PubMed

    Choe, Youngshik; Kozlova, Anastasiia; Graf, Daniel; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2013-04-17

    To understand life-long neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), characterizing dentate neural stem cells and the signals controlling their development are crucial. In the present study, we show that bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) signaling is a critical regulator of embryonic dentate development, required for initiating neurogenesis in embryonic DG progenitors and required for the establishment of dentate neural stem cells postnatally. We tested the hypothesis that Bmp signaling regulates dentate development in part by controlling the expression of Lef1, a Wnt responsive transcription factor expressed in dentate stem cells and absolutely required for dentate granule cell production. Bmp activation through the Acvr1 receptor induced Lef1 expression and neurogenesis in the embryonic DG. Ectopic expression of Bmp7 in the embryonic midline increased DG neurogenesis and inhibition of local Bmp signaling decreased embryonic DG neurogenesis. Mice with selective loss of Bmp expression due to defective meningeal development or with selective conditional deletion of meningeal Bmp7 also have dentate developmental defects. Conditional deletion of Activin receptor type I (Acvr1) or Smad4 (a downstream target nuclear effector of Bmp signaling) in DG neural stem cells resulted in defects in the postnatal subgranular zone and reduced neurogenesis. These results suggest that Acvr1-mediated meningeal Bmp signaling regulates Lef1 expression in the dentate, regulating embryonic DG neurogenesis, DG neural stem cell niche formation, and maintenance.

  2. A painful cutaneous laser stimulus evokes responses from single neurons in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus ventral caudal (Vc).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Winberry, J; Liu, C C; Treede, R D; Lenz, F A

    2009-05-01

    Cutaneous application of painful radiant heat laser pulses evokes potentials (laser-evoked potentials) that can be recorded from scalp or intracranial electrodes. We have now tested the hypothesis that the response of thalamic neurons to a cutaneous laser stimulus occurs at latencies predicted by the conduction delay between the periphery and the thalamus. We have carried out recordings from human thalamic neurons in the principal sensory nucleus (ventral caudal) in patients undergoing awake surgery for the treatment of tremor. The results demonstrate that many neurons respond to the laser with early and/or late latency peaks of activity, consistent with conduction of the response to the laser stimulus through pathways from Adelta and C fibers to the thalamus. These peaks were of short duration, perhaps due to the somatotopic- and modality-specific arrangements of afferent pathways to the thalamus. The responses of these thalamic neurons to the laser stimulus sometimes included low-threshold spike (LTS) bursts of action potentials, consistent with previous studies of different painful stimuli. A prior study has demonstrated that spike trains characterized by common LTS bursts such as the intermediate (I) category spontaneously change their category more commonly than do those without LTS bursts (NG: nongrouped category) during changes in the cognitive task. Spike trains of laser-responsive neurons were more common in the I category, whereas those of laser nonresponsive neurons were more common in the NG category. Therefore neuronal spike trains in the I category may mediate shifts in endogenous or cognitive pain-related behavior.

  3. Functional nucleus pulposus-like matrix assembly by human mesenchymal stromal cells is directed by macromer concentration in photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Michelle S; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with several pathophysiologic changes of the IVD, including dehydration of the nucleus pulposus (NP). Tissue engineering strategies may be used to restore both biological and mechanical function of the IVD following removal of NP tissue during surgical intervention. Recently, photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogels were shown to support chondrogenic, NP-like extracellular matrix (ECM) elaboration by human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) when supplemented with TGF-β3; however, mechanical properties of these constructs did not reach native values. Fabrication parameters (i.e., composition, crosslinking density) can influence the bulk mechanical properties of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as cellular behavior and differentiation patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CMC macromer concentration (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % weight/volume) on bulk hydrogel properties and NP-like matrix elaboration by hMSCs. The lowest macromer concentration of 1.5 % exhibited the highest gene expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II at day 7, corresponding with the largest accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II by day 42. The ECM elaboration in the 1.5 % constructs was more homogeneously distributed compared to primarily pericellular localization in 3.5 % gels. The 1.5 % gels also displayed significant improvements in mechanical functionality by day 42 compared to earlier time points, which was not seen in the other groups. The effects of macromer concentration on matrix accumulation and organization are likely attributed to quantifiable differences in polymer crosslinking density and diffusive properties between the various hydrogel formulations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that macromer concentration of CMC hydrogels can direct hMSC matrix elaboration, such that a lower polymer concentration allows for greater NP-like ECM assembly and improvement of mechanical

  4. BMP3 Alone and Together with TGF-β Promote the Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into a Nucleus Pulposus-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaopeng; Tao, Yiqing; Liang, Chengzhen; Zhang, Yujie; Li, Hao; Chen, Qixin

    2015-08-27

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells under specific stimulatory conditions. Thus far, the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) and the cocktail effects of BMP3 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β on MSC proliferation and differentiation remain obscure. Therefore, this study was designed to clarify these unknowns. MSCs were cultured with various gradients of BMP3 and BMP3/TGF-β, and compared with cultures in basal and TGF-β media. Cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, gene expression, and signaling proteins were measured to assess the effects of BMP3 and BMP3/TGF-β on MSCs. Cell number and GAG content increased upon the addition of BMP3 in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of COL2A1, ACAN, SOX9, and KRT19 increased following induction with BMP3 and TGF-β, in contrast to that of COL1A1, ALP, OPN, and COMP. Smad3 phosphorylation was upregulated by BMP3 and TGF-β, but BMP3 did not affect the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our results reveal that BMP3 enhances MSC proliferation and differentiation into NP-like cells, as indicated by increased cell numbers and specific gene expressions, and may also cooperate with TGF-β induced positive effects. These actions are likely related to the activation of TGF-β signaling pathway.

  5. Proportion of collagen type II in the extracellular matrix promotes the differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yiqing; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Liu, Dongyu; Li, Hao; Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    During degeneration process, the catabolism of collagen type II and anabolism of collagen type I in nucleus pulposus (NP) may influence the bioactivity of transplanted cells. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) were cultured as a micromass or in a series of gradual proportion hydrogels of a mix of collagen types I and II. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were detected using CCK-8 and LDH assays respectively. The expression of differentiation-related genes and proteins, including SOX9, aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II, was examined using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Novel phenotypic genes were also detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Alcian blue and dimethylmethylene blue assays were used to investigate sulfate proteoglycan expression, and PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and Smad signaling pathways were examined by Western blotting. The results showed collagen hydrogels have good biocompatibility, and cell proliferation increased after collagen type II treatment. Expressions of SOX9, aggrecan, and collagen type II were increased in a collagen type II dependent manner. Sulfate proteoglycan synthesis increased in proportion to collagen type II concentration. Only hADMSCs highly expressed NP cell marker KRT19 in collagen type II culture. Additionally, phosphorylated Smad3, which is associated with phosphorylated ERK, was increased after collagen type II-stimulation. The concentration and type of collagen affect hADMSC differentiation into NP cells. Collagen type II significantly ameliorates hADMSC differentiation into NP cells and promotes extracellular matrix synthesis. Therefore, anabolism of collagen type I and catabolism of type II may attenuate the differentiation and biosynthesis of transplanted stem cells.

  6. N-acetyl-S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) cysteine in rat nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, and in rat and human plasma after disulfiram administration.

    PubMed

    Winefield, Robert D; Heemskerk, Anthonius A M; Kaul, Swetha; Williams, Todd D; Caspers, Michael J; Prisinzano, Thomas E; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Lunte, Craig E; Faiman, Morris D

    2015-03-25

    Disulfiram (DSF), a treatment for alcohol use disorders, has shown some clinical effectiveness in treating addiction to cocaine, nicotine, and pathological gambling. The mechanism of action of DSF for treating these addictions is unclear but it is unlikely to involve the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). DSF is a pro-drug and forms a number of metabolites, one of which is N-acetyl-S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) cysteine (DETC-NAC). Here we describe a LCMS/MS method on a QQQ type instrument to quantify DETC-NAC in plasma and intracellular fluid from mammalian brain. An internal standard, the N,N-di-isopropylcarbamoyl homolog (MIM: 291>128) is easily separable from DETC-NAC (MIM: 263>100) on C18 RP media with a methanol gradient. The method's linear range is 0.5-500 nM from plasma and dialysate salt solution with all precisions better than 10% RSD. DETC-NAC and internal standards were recovered at better than 95% from all matrices, perchloric acid precipitation (plasma) or formic acid addition (salt) and is stable in plasma or salt at low pH for up to 24 h. Stability is observed through three freeze-thaw cycles per day for 7 days. No HPLC peak area matrix effect was greater than 10%. A human plasma sample from a prior analysis for S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (CARB) was found to have DETC NAC as well. In other human plasma samples from 62.5 mg/d and 250 mg/d dosing, CARB concentration peaks at 0.3 and 4 nM at 3 h followed by DETC-NAC peaks of 11 and 70 nM 2 h later. Employing microdialysis sampling, DETC-NAC levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and plasma of rats treated with DSF reached 1.1, 2.5 and 80 nM at 6h. The correlation between the appearance and long duration of DETC-NAC concentration in rat brain and the persistence of DSF-induced changes in neurotransmitters observed by Faiman et al. (Neuropharmacology, 2013, 75C, 95-105) is discussed.

  7. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  8. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Noah M.; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG).” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity) have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data's potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23840971

  9. Morpho-physiological criteria divide dentate gyrus interneurons into classes.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Jonas A; Strüber, Michael; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Vida, Imre; Jonas, Peter; Bartos, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    GABAergic inhibitory interneurons control fundamental aspects of neuronal network function. Their functional roles are assumed to be defined by the identity of their input synapses, the architecture of their dendritic tree, the passive and active membrane properties and finally the nature of their postsynaptic targets. Indeed, interneurons display a high degree of morphological and physiological heterogeneity. However, whether their morphological and physiological characteristics are correlated and whether interneuron diversity can be described by a continuum of GABAergic cell types or by distinct classes has remained unclear. Here we perform a detailed morphological and physiological characterization of GABAergic cells in the dentate gyrus, the input region of the hippocampus. To achieve an unbiased and efficient sampling and classification we used knock-in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons and performed cluster analysis. We identified five interneuron classes, each of them characterized by a distinct set of anatomical and physiological parameters. Cross-correlation analysis further revealed a direct relation between morphological and physiological properties indicating that dentate gyrus interneurons fall into functionally distinct classes which may differentially control neuronal network activity.

  10. 17β-Estradiol Inhibites Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Apoptosis of Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells via the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Si-Dong; Liu, Sen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huan; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been widely known to induce degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) has been broadly proven for its function of suppressing cell apoptosis. The aim of this study is to explore whether 17β-E2 protects apoptosis of human NPCs induced by TNF-α via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Material/Methods NPCs were divided into four groups: control, TNF-α (100 ng/mL), TNF-α (100 ng/mL) with pretreated 17β-E2 (10 um/L), TNF-α (100 ng/mL) with pretreated 17β-E2 (10 um/L) and MK2206 (10 um/L, inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway). Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptotic incidence. Inverted phase-contrast microscopy was used to accomplish the morphological observation for apoptosis of treated cells. Additionally, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detected cell proliferation. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were applied to explore the expression of pro-caspase-3, caspase-3/p17, cleaved PARP, PARP, Akt, and phospho-Akt (p-Akt). Results First, inverted phase-contrast microscopy, CCK-8, and flow cytometry showed that TNF-α induced marked apoptosis, which was abolished by 17β-E2. Furthermore, Western blot and qRT-PCR showed that 17β-E2 protects TNF-α which can induced apoptosis by upregulating p-Akt, whereas Akt was essentially constant. Our data revealed that p-Akt expression peaked at 24 hours in a time-dependent manner (0–48 hours) after treating with TNF-α; and the p-Akt expression generally increased in a time-dependent manner (0–48 hours) after treating with TNF-α and 17β-E2. Conclusions 17β-E2 is shown to protect NPCs against TNF-α induced apoptosis by upregulating p-Akt in the PI3K/AKT pathway. 17β-E2 generally increases expression of p-Akt. PMID:27847386

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells exhibit immature nucleus pulposus cell phenotype in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cell supplementation to the herniated or degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) is a potential strategy to promote tissue regeneration and slow disc pathology. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUCMSCs) – originating from the Wharton’s jelly – remain an attractive candidate for such endeavors with their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Previously, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied as a potential source for disc tissue regeneration. However, no studies have demonstrated that MSCs can regenerate matrix with unique characteristics matching that of immature nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of the IVD. In our prior work, immature NP cells were found to express specific laminin isoforms and laminin-binding receptors that may serve as phenotypic markers for evaluating MSC differentiation to NP-like cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate these markers and matrix synthesis for HUCMSCs cultured in a laminin-rich pseudo-three-dimensional culture system. Methods HUCMSCs were seeded on top of Transwell inserts pre-coated with Matrigel™, which contained mainly laminin-111. Cells were cultured under hypoxia environment with three differentiation conditions: NP differentiation media (containing 2.5% Matrigel™ solution to provide for a pseudo-three-dimensional laminin culture system) with no serum, or the same media supplemented with either insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Cell clustering behavior, matrix production and the expression of NP-specific laminin and laminin-receptors were evaluated at days 1, 7, 13 and 21 of culture. Results Data show that a pseudo-three-dimensional culture condition (laminin-1 rich) promoted HUCMSC differentiation under no serum conditions. Starting at day 1, HUCMSCs demonstrated a cell clustering morphology similar to that of immature NP cells in situ and that observed for primary immature NP cells within the similar laminin

  12. Unique Features of the Human Brainstem and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Baizer, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is greatly expanded in the human brain. There is a parallel expansion of the cerebellum, which is interconnected with the cerebral cortex. We have asked if there are accompanying changes in the organization of pre-cerebellar brainstem structures. We have examined the cytoarchitectonic and neurochemical organization of the human medulla and pons. We studied human cases from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection, analyzing Nissl sections and sections processed for immunohistochemistry for multiple markers including the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. We have also compared the neurochemical organization of the human brainstem to that of several other species including the chimpanzee, macaque and squirrel monkey, cat, and rodent, again using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. We found that there are major differences in the human brainstem, ranging from relatively subtle differences in the neurochemical organization of structures found in each of the species studied to the emergence of altogether new structures in the human brainstem. Two aspects of human cortical organization, individual differences and left–right asymmetry, are also seen in the brainstem (principal nucleus of the inferior olive) and the cerebellum (the dentate nucleus). We suggest that uniquely human motor and cognitive abilities derive from changes at all levels of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and brainstem, and not just the cerebral cortex. PMID:24778611

  13. Seizure-Induced Motility of Differentiated Dentate Granule Cells Is Prevented by the Central Reelin Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Orcinha, Catarina; Münzner, Gert; Gerlach, Johannes; Kilias, Antje; Follo, Marie; Egert, Ulrich; Haas, Carola A.

    2016-01-01

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) represents a pathological widening of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus and it is frequently observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Recent studies in human MTLE specimens and in animal epilepsy models have shown that a decreased expression and functional inactivation of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin correlates with GCD formation, but causal evidence is still lacking. Here, we used unilateral kainate (KA) injection into the mouse hippocampus, an established MTLE animal model, to precisely map the loss of reelin mRNA-synthesizing neurons in relation to GCD along the septotemporal axis of the epileptic hippocampus. We show that reelin mRNA-producing neurons are mainly lost in the hilus and that this loss precisely correlates with the occurrence of GCD. To monitor GCD formation in real time, we used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) prepared from mice which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) primarily in differentiated dentate granule cells. Using life cell microscopy we observed that increasing doses of KA resulted in an enhanced motility of eGFP-positive granule cells. Moreover, KA treatment of OHSC resulted in a rapid loss of Reelin-producing interneurons mainly in the hilus, as observed in vivo. A detailed analysis of the migration behavior of individual eGFP-positive granule cells revealed that the majority of these neurons actively migrate toward the hilar region, where Reelin-producing neurons are lost. Treatment with KA and subsequent addition of the recombinant R3–6 Reelin fragment significantly prevented the movement of eGFP-positive granule cells. Together, these findings suggest that GCD formation is indeed triggered by a loss of Reelin in hilar interneurons. PMID:27516734

  14. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:27047348

  15. Neurons of the Dentate Molecular Layer in the Rabbit Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Bielsa, Francisco J.; Navarro-López, Juan D.; Alonso-Llosa, Gregori; Molowny, Asunción; Ponsoda, Xavier; Yajeya, Javier; López-García, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus appears as the main entrance gate for information into the hippocampus, i.e., where the perforant path axons from the entorhinal cortex synapse onto the spines and dendrites of granule cells. A few dispersed neuronal somata appear intermingled in between and probably control the flow of information in this area. In rabbits, the number of neurons in the molecular layer increases in the first week of postnatal life and then stabilizes to appear permanent and heterogeneous over the individuals’ life span, including old animals. By means of Golgi impregnations, NADPH histochemistry, immunocytochemical stainings and intracellular labelings (lucifer yellow and biocytin injections), eight neuronal morphological types have been detected in the molecular layer of developing adult and old rabbits. Six of them appear as interneurons displaying smooth dendrites and GABA immunoreactivity: those here called as globoid, vertical, small horizontal, large horizontal, inverted pyramidal and polymorphic. Additionally there are two GABA negative types: the sarmentous and ectopic granular neurons. The distribution of the somata and dendritic trees of these neurons shows preferences for a definite sublayer of the molecular layer: small horizontal, sarmentous and inverted pyramidal neurons are preferably found in the outer third of the molecular layer; vertical, globoid and polymorph neurons locate the intermediate third, while large horizontal and ectopic granular neurons occupy the inner third or the juxtagranular molecular layer. Our results reveal substantial differences in the morphology and electrophysiological behaviour between each neuronal archetype in the dentate molecular layer, allowing us to propose a new classification for this neural population. PMID:23144890

  16. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  17. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  18. Different patterns of morphological changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus accompany the differential expression of disability following nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, Eszter; Keay, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Physical and psychological trauma which results in mood disorders and the disruption of complex behaviours is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume. Clinical evaluation of neuropathic pain reveals mood and behavioural change in a significant number of patients. A rat model of neuropathic injury results in complex behavioural changes in a subpopulation (∼30%) of injured rats; these changes are co-morbid with a range of other ‘disabilities’. The specific objective of this study was to determine in rats the morphology of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in individuals with and without complex behavioural disruptions following a constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and to determine whether rats that develop disabilities following nerve injury have a reduced hippocampal volume compared with injured rats with no disabilities. The social behaviours of nerve-injured rats were evaluated before and after nerve injury. The morphology of the hippocampus of rats with and without behavioural disruptions was compared in serial histological sections. Single-housing and repeated social-interaction testing had no effect on the morphology of either the hippocampus or the dentate gyrus. Rats with transient or ongoing disability identified by behavioural disruption following sciatic nerve injury, show bilateral reductions in hippocampal volume, and lateralised reduction in the dentate gyrus (left side). Disabled rats display a combination of behavioural and physiological changes, which resemble many of the criteria used clinically to diagnose mood disorders. They also show reductions in the volume of the hippocampus similar to people with clinically diagnosed mood disorders. The sciatic nerve injury model reveals a similarity to the human neuropathic pain presentation presenting an anatomically specific focus for the investigation of the neural mechanisms underpinning the co-morbidity of chronic pain and mood disorder. PMID:25269883

  19. Injection of human umbilical tissue–derived cells into the nucleus pulposus alters the course of intervertebral disc degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Steven K.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Bechara, Bernard P.; Hartman, Robert A.; Coelho, Joao Paulo; Witt, William T.; Dong, Qing D.; Bowman, Brent W.; Bell, Kevin M.; Vo, Nam V.; Kramer, Brian C.; Kang, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Background context Patients often present to spine clinic with evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). If conservative management fails, a safe and effective injection directly into the disc might be preferable to the risks and morbidity of surgery. Purpose To determine whether injecting human umbilical tissue–derived cells (hUTC) into the nucleus pulposus (NP) might improve the course of IDD. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded placebo–controlled in vivo study. Patient sample Skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits. Outcome measures Degree of IDD based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biomechanics, and histology. Methods Thirty skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits were used in a previously validated rabbit annulotomy model for IDD. Discs L2–L3, L3–L4, and L4–L5 were surgically exposed and punctured to induce degeneration and then 3 weeks later the same discs were injected with hUTC with or without a hydrogel carrier. Serial MRIs obtained at 0, 3, 6, and 12 weeks were analyzed for evidence of degeneration qualitatively and quantitatively via NP area and MRI Index. The rabbits were sacrificed at 12 weeks and discs L4–L5 were analyzed histologically. The L3–L4 discs were fixed to a robotic arm and subjected to uniaxial compression, and viscoelastic displacement curves were generated. Results Qualitatively, the MRIs demonstrated no evidence of degeneration in the control group over the course of 12 weeks. The punctured group yielded MRIs with the evidence of disc height loss and darkening, suggestive of degeneration. The three treatment groups (cells alone, carrier alone, or cells+carrier) generated MRIs with less qualitative evidence of degeneration than the punctured group. MRI Index and area for the cell and the cell+carrier groups were significantly distinct from the punctured group at 12 weeks. The carrier group generated MRI data that fell between control and punctured values but failed to reach a statistically

  20. HUman MicroNucleus project: international database comparison for results with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes: I. Effect of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on the frequency of micronuclei.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Fenech, M; Lando, C; Lin, Y P; Ceppi, M; Chang, W P; Holland, N; Kirsch-Volders, M; Zeiger, E; Ban, S; Barale, R; Bigatti, M P; Bolognesi, C; Jia, C; Di Giorgio, M; Ferguson, L R; Fucic, A; Lima, O G; Hrelia, P; Krishnaja, A P; Lee, T K; Migliore, L; Mikhalevich, L; Mirkova, E; Mosesso, P; Müller, W U; Odagiri, Y; Scarffi, M R; Szabova, E; Vorobtsova, I; Vral, A; Zijno, A

    2001-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is well established as a standard method for monitoring chromosome damage in human populations. The first results of an analysis of pooled data from laboratories using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and participating in the HUMN (HUman MicroNucleus project) international collaborative study are presented. The effects of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on baseline micronucleated binucleate cell (MNC) frequency are evaluated, and a reference range of "normal" values against which future studies may be compared is provided. Primary data from historical records were submitted by 25 laboratories distributed in 16 countries. This resulted in a database of nearly 7000 subjects. Potentially significant differences were present in the methods used by participating laboratories, such as in the type of culture medium, the concentration of cytochalasin-B, the percentage of fetal calf serum, and in the culture method. Differences in criteria for scoring micronuclei were also evident. The overall median MNC frequency in nonexposed (i.e., normal) subjects was 6.5 per thousand and the interquartile range was between 3 and 12 per thousand. An increase in MNC frequency with age was evident in all but two laboratories. The effect of gender, although not so evident in all databases, was also present, with females having a 19% higher level of MNC frequency (95% confidence interval: 14-24%). Statistical analyses were performed using random-effects models for correlated data. Our best model, which included exposure to genotoxic factors, host factors, methods, and scoring criteria, explained 75% of the total variance, with the largest contribution attributable to laboratory methods.

  1. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  2. Normal and epilepsy-associated pathologic function of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, C.G.; Coulter, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus plays critical roles both in cognitive processing, and in regulation of the induction and propagation of pathological activity. The cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying these diverse functions overlap extensively. At the cellular level, the intrinsic properties of dentate granule cells combine to endow these neurons with a fundamental reluctance to activate, one of their hallmark traits. At the circuit level, the dentate gyrus constitutes one of the more heavily inhibited regions of the brain, with strong, fast feedforward and feedback GABAergic inhibition dominating responses to afferent activation. In pathologic states such as epilepsy, a number of alterations within the dentate gyrus combine to compromise the regulatory properties of this circuit, culminating in a collapse of its normal function. This epilepsy-associated transformation in the fundamental properties of this critical regulatory hippocampal circuit may contribute both to seizure propensity, and cognitive and emotional comorbidities characteristic of this disease state. PMID:27323942

  3. Activation of protease activated receptor 1 increases the excitability of the dentate granule neurons of hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is expressed in multiple cell types in the CNS, with the most prominent expression in glial cells. PAR1 activation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission secondary to the release of glutamate from astrocytes following activation of astrocytically-expressed PAR1. In addition, PAR1 activation exacerbates neuronal damage in multiple in vivo models of brain injury in a manner that is dependent on NMDA receptors. In the hippocampal formation, PAR1 mRNA appears to be expressed by a subset of neurons, including granule cells in the dentate gyrus. In this study we investigate the role of PAR activation in controlling neuronal excitability of dentate granule cells. We confirm that PAR1 protein is expressed in neurons of the dentate cell body layer as well as in astrocytes throughout the dentate. Activation of PAR1 receptors by the selective peptide agonist TFLLR increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a subset of acutely dissociated dentate neurons as well as non-neuronal cells. Bath application of TFLLR in acute hippocampal slices depolarized the dentate gyrus, including the hilar region in wild type but not in the PAR1-/- mice. PAR1 activation increased the frequency of action potential generation in a subset of dentate granule neurons; cells in which PAR1 activation triggered action potentials showed a significant depolarization. The activation of PAR1 by thrombin increased the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated component of EPSPs. These data suggest that activation of PAR1 during normal function or pathological conditions, such as during ischemia or hemorrhage, can increase the excitability of dentate granule cells. PMID:21827709

  4. Dentate Gyrus Development Requires ERK Activity to Maintain Progenitor Population and MAPK Pathway Feedback Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vithayathil, Joseph; Pucilowska, Joanna; Goodnough, L. Henry; Atit, Radhika P.

    2015-01-01

    The ERK/MAPK pathway is an important developmental signaling pathway. Mutations in upstream elements of this pathway result in neuro-cardio-facial cutaneous (NCFC) syndromes, which are typified by impaired neurocognitive abilities that are reliant upon hippocampal function. The role of ERK signaling during hippocampal development has not been examined and may provide critical insight into the cause of hippocampal dysfunction in NCFC syndromes. In this study, we have generated ERK1 and conditional ERK2 compound knock-out mice to determine the role of ERK signaling during development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We found that loss of both ERK1 and ERK2 resulted in 60% fewer granule cells and near complete absence of neural progenitor pools in the postnatal dentate gyrus. Loss of ERK1/2 impaired maintenance of neural progenitors as they migrate from the dentate ventricular zone to the dentate gyrus proper, resulting in premature depletion of neural progenitor cells beginning at E16.5, which prevented generation of granule cells later in development. Finally, loss of ERK2 alone does not impair development of the dentate gyrus as animals expressing only ERK1 developed a normal hippocampus. These findings establish that ERK signaling regulates maintenance of progenitor cells required for development of the dentate gyrus. PMID:25926459

  5. Reelin and Notch1 cooperate in the development of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Sibbe, Mirjam; Förster, Eckart; Basak, Onur; Taylor, Verdon; Frotscher, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a complex process in which several signaling pathways are involved and likely interact with each other. The extracellular matrix molecule Reelin is necessary both for normal development of the dentate gyrus radial glia and neuronal migration. In Reelin-deficient Reeler mice, the hippocampal radial glial scaffold fails to form, and granule cells are dispersed throughout the dentate gyrus. Here, we show that both formation of the radial glia scaffold and lamination of the dentate gyrus depend on intact Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures induced a phenotype reminiscent of the Reelin-deficient hippocampus, i.e., a reduced density of radial glia fibers and granule cell dispersion. Moreover, a Reelin-dependent rescue of the Reeler phenotype was blocked by inhibition of Notch activation. In the Reeler dentate gyrus, we found reduced Notch1 signaling; the activated Notch intracellular domain as well as the transcriptional targets, brain lipid-binding protein, and Hes5 are decreased. Disabled1, a component of the Reelin-signaling pathway colocalizes with Notch1, thus indicating a direct interaction between the Reelin- and Notch1-signaling pathways. These results suggest that Reelin enhances Notch1 signaling, thereby contributing to the formation of the radial glial scaffold and the normal development of the dentate gyrus.

  6. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P < 0·05). The mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P < 0·05). The results suggest that the individuals with missing unilateral posterior teeth exhibited greater mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method.

  7. Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus: Why the dentate gyrus?

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity after the perinatal period suggests that unique aspects of the structure and function of DG and olfactory bulb circuits allow them to benefit from the adult generation of neurons. In this review, we consider the distinctive features of the DG that may account for it being able to profit from this singular form of neural plasticity. Approaches to the problem of neurogenesis are grouped as “bottom-up,” where the phenotype of adult-born granule cells is contrasted to that of mature developmentally born granule cells, and “top-down,” where the impact of altering the amount of neurogenesis on behavior is examined. We end by considering the primary implications of these two approaches and future directions. PMID:24255101

  8. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the DG, and the so-called “mossy cells.” The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the DG network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease. PMID:23420672

  9. Actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in slices from rats with spontaneous seizures and mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, H E; Goodman, J H; Sollas, A L

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the acute actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat dentate gyrus after seizures, because previous studies have shown that BDNF has acute effects on dentate granule cell synaptic transmission, and other studies have demonstrated that BDNF expression increases in granule cells after seizures. Pilocarpine-treated rats were studied because they not only have seizures and increased BDNF expression in granule cells, but they also have reorganization of granule cell "mossy fiber" axons. This reorganization, referred to as "sprouting," involves collaterals that grow into novel areas, i.e., the inner molecular layer, where granule cell and interneuron dendrites are located. Thus, this animal model allowed us to address the effects of BDNF in the dentate gyrus after seizures, as well as the actions of BDNF on mossy fiber transmission after reorganization. In slices with sprouting, BDNF bath application enhanced responses recorded in the inner molecular layer to mossy fiber stimulation. Spontaneous bursts of granule cells occurred, and these were apparently generated at the site of the sprouted axon plexus. These effects were not accompanied by major changes in perforant path-evoked responses or paired-pulse inhibition, occurred only after prolonged (30-60 min) exposure to BDNF, and were blocked by K252a. The results suggest a preferential action of BDNF at mossy fiber synapses, even after substantial changes in the dentate gyrus network. Moreover, the results suggest that activation of trkB receptors could contribute to the hyperexcitability observed in animals with sprouting. Because human granule cells also express increased BDNF mRNA after seizures, and sprouting can occur in temporal lobe epileptics, the results may have implications for understanding temporal lobe epilepsy.

  10. In vitro and in silico investigations of disc nucleus replacement.

    PubMed

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Bashkuev, Maxim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Gloria, Antonio; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2012-08-07

    Currently, numerous hydrogels are under examination as potential nucleus replacements. The clinical success, however, depends on how well the mechanical function of the host structure is restored. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to and mechanisms by which surgery for nucleus replacements influence the mechanical behaviour of the disc. The effects of an annulus defect with and without nucleus replacement on disc height and nucleus pressure were measured using 24 ovine motion segments. The following cases were considered: intact; annulus incision repaired by suture and glue; annulus incision with removal and re-implantation of nucleus tissue repaired by suture and glue or plug. To identify the likely mechanisms observed in vitro, a finite-element model of a human disc (L4-L5) was employed. Both studies were subjected to physiological cycles of compression and recovery. A repaired annulus defect did not influence the disc behaviour in vitro, whereas additional nucleus removal and replacement substantially decreased disc stiffness and nucleus pressure. Model predictions demonstrated the substantial effects of reductions in replaced nucleus water content, bulk modulus and osmotic potential on disc height loss and pressure, similar to measurements. In these events, the compression load transfer in the disc markedly altered by substantially increasing the load on the annulus when compared with the nucleus. The success of hydrogels for nucleus replacements is not only dependent on the implant material itself but also on the restoration of the environment perturbed during surgery. The substantial effects on the disc response of disruptions owing to nucleus replacements can be simulated by reduced nucleus water content, elastic modulus and osmotic potential.

  11. In vitro and in silico investigations of disc nucleus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Bashkuev, Maxim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Gloria, Antonio; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Currently, numerous hydrogels are under examination as potential nucleus replacements. The clinical success, however, depends on how well the mechanical function of the host structure is restored. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to and mechanisms by which surgery for nucleus replacements influence the mechanical behaviour of the disc. The effects of an annulus defect with and without nucleus replacement on disc height and nucleus pressure were measured using 24 ovine motion segments. The following cases were considered: intact; annulus incision repaired by suture and glue; annulus incision with removal and re-implantation of nucleus tissue repaired by suture and glue or plug. To identify the likely mechanisms observed in vitro, a finite-element model of a human disc (L4–L5) was employed. Both studies were subjected to physiological cycles of compression and recovery. A repaired annulus defect did not influence the disc behaviour in vitro, whereas additional nucleus removal and replacement substantially decreased disc stiffness and nucleus pressure. Model predictions demonstrated the substantial effects of reductions in replaced nucleus water content, bulk modulus and osmotic potential on disc height loss and pressure, similar to measurements. In these events, the compression load transfer in the disc markedly altered by substantially increasing the load on the annulus when compared with the nucleus. The success of hydrogels for nucleus replacements is not only dependent on the implant material itself but also on the restoration of the environment perturbed during surgery. The substantial effects on the disc response of disruptions owing to nucleus replacements can be simulated by reduced nucleus water content, elastic modulus and osmotic potential. PMID:22337630

  12. Gadolinium Deposition in Humans: When Did We Learn That Gadolinium Was Deposited In Vivo?

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Altun, Ersan; Jay, Michael; Semelka, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there have been numerous major peer-reviewed publications reporting deposition of gadolinium in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus in subjects with normal renal function. This review takes a retrospective look back through the development of gadolinium-based contrast agents to describe the historical evidence of gadolinium deposition in vivo and shows that deposition in the basal ganglia should come as no surprise. Evidence for gadolinium deposition in both animal models and human patients is described. Stability differences among gadolinium contrast agents have long been recognized in vitro, and deposition of gadolinium in tissues has been described in animal models since at least 1984. The first major study that showed deposition in humans appeared in 1998 regarding patients with renal failure and in 2004 in patients with normal renal function. The historical literature indicates that gadolinium retention in healthy patients is occurring, although the clinical consequences of deposition remain unknown.

  13. Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J

    2014-01-01

    Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A−/− GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A−/− mutants, PlexinA2−/− mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A−/− mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04390.001 PMID:25313870

  14. Breaches of the pial basement membrane are associated with defective dentate gyrus development in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Miao; Feng, Gang; Hu, Huaiyu; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-11-07

    A subset of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) has central nervous system manifestations. There are good mouse models for these CMDs that include POMGnT1 knockout, POMT2 knockout and Large(myd) mice with all exhibiting defects in dentate gyrus. It is not known how the abnormal dentate gyrus is formed during the development. In this study, we conducted a detailed morphological examination of the dentate gyrus in adult and newborn POMGnT1 knockout, POMT2 knockout, and Large(myd) mice by immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopic analyses. We observed that the pial basement membrane overlying the dentate gyrus was disrupted and there was ectopia of granule cell precursors through the breached pial basement membrane. Besides these, the knockout dentate gyrus exhibited reactive gliosis in these mouse models. Thus, breaches in the pial basement membrane are associated with defective dentate gyrus development in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophies.

  15. Corruption of the Dentate Gyrus by “Dominant” Granule cells: Implications for Dentate Gyrus Function in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization and physiology of the DG and CA3 are consistent with structures that perform pattern separation and completion. We then raise a new idea related to the complex circuitry of the DG and CA3 where CA3 pyramidal cell ‘backprojections’ play a potentially important role in the sparse firing of granule cells (GCs), considered important in pattern separation. We also propose that GC axons, the mossy fibers, already known for their highly specialized structure, have a dynamic function that imparts variance – ‘mossy fiber variance’ – which is important to pattern separation and completion. Computational modeling is used to show that when a subset of GCs become ‘dominant,’ one consequence is loss of variance in the activity of mossy fiber axons and a reduction in pattern separation and completion in the model. Empirical data are then provided using an example of ‘dominant’ GCs – subsets of GCs that develop abnormally and have increased excitability. Notably, these abnormal GCs have been identified in animal models of disease where DG-dependent behaviors are impaired. Together these data provide insight into pattern separation and completion, and suggest that behavioral impairment could arise from dominance of a subset of GCs in the DG-CA3 network. PMID:26391451

  16. Corruption of the dentate gyrus by "dominant" granule cells: Implications for dentate gyrus function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Myers, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization and physiology of the DG and CA3 are consistent with structures that perform pattern separation and completion. We then raise a new idea related to the complex circuitry of the DG and CA3 where CA3 pyramidal cell 'backprojections' play a potentially important role in the sparse firing of granule cells (GCs), considered important in pattern separation. We also propose that GC axons, the mossy fibers, already known for their highly specialized structure, have a dynamic function that imparts variance--'mossy fiber variance'--which is important to pattern separation and completion. Computational modeling is used to show that when a subset of GCs become 'dominant,' one consequence is loss of variance in the activity of mossy fiber axons and a reduction in pattern separation and completion in the model. Empirical data are then provided using an example of 'dominant' GCs--subsets of GCs that develop abnormally and have increased excitability. Notably, these abnormal GCs have been identified in animal models of disease where DG-dependent behaviors are impaired. Together these data provide insight into pattern separation and completion, and suggest that behavioral impairment could arise from dominance of a subset of GCs in the DG-CA3 network.

  17. Loss of BETA2/NeuroD leads to malformation of the dentate gyrus and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Pleasure, Samuel J.; Collins, Abigail E.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Naya, Francesco J.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    BETA2/NeuroD is a homologue of the Drosophila atonal gene that is widely expressed during development in the mammalian brain and pancreas. Although studies in Xenopus suggest that BETA2/NeuroD is involved in cellular differentiation, its function in the mammalian nervous system is unclear. Here we show that mutant mice homozygous for a deletion at the BETA2/NeuroD locus fail to develop a granule cell layer within the dentate gyrus, one of the principal structures of the hippocampal formation. To understand the basis of this abnormality, we analyzed dentate gyrus development by using immunocytochemical markers in BETA2/NeuroD-deficient mice. The early cell populations in the dentate gyrus, including Cajal–Retzius cells and radial glia, are present and appear normally organized. The migration of dentate precursor cells and newly born granule cells from the neuroepithelium to the dentate gyrus remains intact. However, there is a dramatic defect in the proliferation of precursor cells once they reach the dentate and a significant delay in the differentiation of granule cells. This leads to malformation of the dentate granule cell layer and excess cell death. BETA2/NeuroD null mice also exhibit spontaneous limbic seizures associated with electrophysiological evidence of seizure activity in the hippocampus and cortex. These findings thus establish a critical role of BETA2/NeuroD in the development of a specific class of neurons. Furthermore, failure to express BETA2/NeuroD leads to a stereotyped pattern of pathological excitability of the adult central nervous system. PMID:10639171

  18. Status Epilepticus Induced Spontaneous Dentate Gyrus Spikes: In Vivo Current Source Density Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sean P.; Barrier, Sylvain; Scott, Rod C.; Lenck- Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is considered to function as an inhibitory gate limiting excitatory input to the hippocampus. Following status epilepticus (SE), this gating function is reduced and granule cells become hyper-excitable. Dentate spikes (DS) are large amplitude potentials observed in the dentate gyrus (DG) of normal animals. DS are associated with membrane depolarization of granule cells, increased activity of hilar interneurons and suppression of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell firing. Therefore, DS could act as an anti-excitatory mechanism. Because of the altered gating function of the dentate gyrus following SE, we sought to investigate how DS are affected following pilocarpine-induced SE. Two weeks following lithium-pilocarpine SE induction, hippocampal EEG was recorded in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 16-channel silicon probes under urethane anesthesia. Probes were placed dorso-ventrally to encompass either CA1-CA3 or CA1-DG layers. Large amplitude spikes were detected from EEG recordings and subject to current source density analysis. Probe placement was verified histologically to evaluate the anatomical localization of current sinks and the origin of DS. In 9 of 11 pilocarpine-treated animals and two controls, DS were confirmed with large current sinks in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. DS frequency was significantly increased in pilocarpine-treated animals compared to controls. Additionally, in pilocarpine-treated animals, DS displayed current sinks in the outer, middle and/or inner molecular layers. However, there was no difference in the frequency of events when comparing between layers. This suggests that following SE, DS can be generated by input from medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, or within the dentate gyrus. DS were associated with an increase in multiunit activity in the granule cell layer, but no change in CA1. These results suggest that following SE there is an increase in DS activity, potentially arising from hyperexcitability along the

  19. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  20. Reality of comet nucleus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The prime problem of a comet mission must be to settle whether the cometary nucleus has an actual tangible material existence, or whether it arises from some optical effect present only at times within comets. The absence of any large particles in a comet seems to be demonstrated by certain meteor showers. A feature that would seem to indicate that a comet consists primarily of a swarm of particles is that the coma in general contracts as the comet approaches the sun, roughly in proportion within the distance, and then expands again as it recedes.

  1. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  2. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  3. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Networking the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other—a complex network—and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  6. Depletion of primary cilia from mature dentate granule cells impairs hippocampus-dependent contextual memory

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soyoung; Kirschen, Gregory W.; Gu, Yan; Ge, Shaoyu

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium, a sensory organelle, regulates cell proliferation and neuronal development of dentate granule cells in the hippocampus. However, its role in the function of mature dentate granule cells remains unknown. Here we specifically depleted and disrupted ciliary proteins IFT20 and Kif3A (respectively) in mature dentate granule cells and investigated hippocampus-dependent contextual memory and long-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses. We found that depletion of IFT20 in these cells significantly impaired context-dependent fear-related memory. Furthermore, we tested synaptic plasticity of mossy fiber synapses in area CA3 and found increased long-term potentiation upon depletion of IFT20 or disruption of Kif3A. Our findings suggest a role of primary cilia in the memory function of mature dentate granule cells, which may result from abnormal mossy fiber synaptic plasticity. A direct link between the primary cilia of mature dentate granule cells and behavior will require further investigation using independent approaches to manipulate primary cilia. PMID:27678193

  7. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

  8. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.

  9. An LRRTM4-HSPG complex mediates excitatory synapse development on dentate gyrus granule cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tabrez J; Tari, Parisa Karimi; Connor, Steven A; Zhang, Peng; Dobie, Frederick A; She, Kevin; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Wang, Yu Tian; Brose, Nils; Craig, Ann Marie

    2013-08-21

    Selective synapse development determines how complex neuronal networks in the brain are formed. Complexes of postsynaptic neuroligins and LRRTMs with presynaptic neurexins contribute widely to excitatory synapse development, and mutations in these gene families increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. We find that LRRTM4 has distinct presynaptic binding partners, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are required to mediate the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4. LRRTM4 shows highly selective expression in the brain. Within the hippocampus, we detected LRRTM4 specifically at excitatory postsynaptic sites on dentate gyrus granule cells. LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells, but not CA1 pyramidal cells, exhibit reductions in excitatory synapse density and function. Furthermore, LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells show impaired activity-regulated AMPA receptor trafficking. These results identifying cell-type-specific functions and multiple presynaptic binding partners for different LRRTM family members reveal an unexpected complexity in the design and function of synapse-organizing proteins.

  10. Spatial Representations of Granule Cells and Mossy Cells of the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    GoodSmith, Douglas; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Cheng; Kim, Sang Hoon; Song, Hongjun; Burgalossi, Andrea; Christian, Kimberly M; Knierim, James J

    2017-02-08

    Granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are thought to be essential to memory function by decorrelating overlapping input patterns (pattern separation). A second excitatory cell type in the dentate gyrus, the mossy cell, forms an intricate circuit with granule cells, CA3c pyramidal cells, and local interneurons, but the influence of mossy cells on dentate function is often overlooked. Multiple tetrode recordings, supported by juxtacellular recording techniques, showed that granule cells fired very sparsely, whereas mossy cells in the hilus fired promiscuously in multiple locations and in multiple environments. The activity patterns of these cell types thus represent different environments through distinct computational mechanisms: sparse coding in granule cells and changes in firing field locations in mossy cells.

  11. The ventral hippocampus is the embryonic origin for adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangnan; Fang, Li; Fernández, Gloria; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2013-05-22

    Adult neurogenesis represents a unique form of plasticity in the dentate gyrus requiring the presence of long-lived neural stem cells (LL-NSCs). However, the embryonic origin of these LL-NSCs remains unclear. The prevailing model assumes that the dentate neuroepithelium throughout the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus generates both the LL-NSCs and embryonically produced granule neurons. Here we show that the NSCs initially originate from the ventral hippocampus during late gestation and then relocate into the dorsal hippocampus. The descendants of these cells are the source for the LL-NSCs in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Furthermore, we show that the origin of these cells and their maintenance in the dentate are controlled by distinct sources of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). The revelation of the complexity of both the embryonic origin of hippocampal LL-NSCs and the sources of Shh has important implications for the functions of LL-NSCs in the adult hippocampus.

  12. Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Madroñal, Noelia; Delgado-García, José M.; Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Köhn, Maja; Mattucci, Camilla; Jain, Apar; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Illarionova, Anna; Grinevich, Valery; Gross, Cornelius T.; Gruart, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical for the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and contextual memories. Lesions of the dentate gyrus, a principal input of the hippocampus, block memory acquisition, but it remains unclear whether this region also plays a role in memory retrieval. Here we combine cell-type specific neural inhibition with electrophysiological measurements of learning-associated plasticity in behaving mice to demonstrate that dentate gyrus granule cells are not required for memory retrieval, but instead have an unexpected role in memory maintenance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the translational potential of our findings by showing that pharmacological activation of an endogenous inhibitory receptor expressed selectively in dentate gyrus granule cells can induce a rapid loss of hippocampal memory. These findings open a new avenue for the targeted erasure of episodic and contextual memories. PMID:26988806

  13. A Developmental Study of the Cerebellar Nucleus in the Catshark, a Basal Gnathostome.

    PubMed

    Pose-Méndez, Sol; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva; Mazan, Sylvie; Anadón, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes. Three regions (subventricular, medial or central, and lateral or superficial) became recognizable in the cerebellar nucleus of this shark during development. Present genoarchitectonic and neurochemical data in embryos provide insight into the origin of the cerebellar nucleus in chondrichthyans and support a tripartite mediolateral organization of the cerebellar nucleus, as previously described in adult sharks. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ScLhx5,ScLhx9, and ScTbr1 in this shark, together with that of markers of proliferation, migration, and early differentiation of neurons, is compatible with the hypothesis that, as in mammals, different subsets of cerebellar nucleus neurons are originated from progenitors of 2 different sources: the ventricular zone of the cerebellar plate and the rhombic lip. We also present suggestive evidence that Lhx9 expression is involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning early on in gnathostome evolution, rather than representing an evolutionary innovation of the dentate nucleus in mammals, as previously hypothesized.

  14. Impaired long-term potentiation induction in dentate gyrus of calretinin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Schurmans, Stéphane; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gurden, Hirac; Lemaire, Martine; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Schwam, Valérie; Pochet, Roland; Imperato, Assunta; Böhme, Georg Andrees; Parmentier, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Calretinin (Cr) is a Ca2+ binding protein present in various populations of neurons distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We have generated Cr-deficient (Cr−/−) mice by gene targeting and have investigated the associated phenotype. Cr−/− mice were viable, and a large number of morphological, biochemical, and behavioral parameters were found unaffected. In the normal mouse hippocampus, Cr is expressed in a widely distributed subset of GABAergic interneurons and in hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus. Because both types of cells are part of local pathways innervating dentate granule cells and/or pyramidal neurons, we have explored in Cr−/− mice the synaptic transmission between the perforant pathway and granule cells and at the Schaffer commissural input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cr−/− mice showed no alteration in basal synaptic transmission, but long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the dentate gyrus. Normal LTP could be restored in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that in Cr−/− dentate gyrus an excess of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release interferes with LTP induction. Synaptic transmission and LTP were normal in CA1 area, which contains only few Cr-positive GABAergic interneurons. Cr−/− mice performed normally in spatial memory task. These results suggest that expression of Cr contributes to the control of synaptic plasticity in mouse dentate gyrus by indirectly regulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons, and that Cr−/− mice represent a useful tool to understand the role of dentate LTP in learning and memory. PMID:9294225

  15. Salubrinal Suppresses IL-17-Induced Upregulation of MMP-13 and Extracellular Matrix Degradation Through the NF-kB Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhixiao; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Yuanqiang; Liu, Yi; Li, Jingkun; Cheng, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the process of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). This study examined the effect of IL-17 on the regulation of MMP-13 and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc (IVD). We then examined whether salubrinal, a known inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation, inhibited the IL-17-induced changes mentioned above. Furthermore, we demonstrated a potential therapeutic role for salubrinal in alleviating the chronic inflammatory-dependent degenerative state commonly observed in IDD. After inflammatory distress with IL-17, RT-PCR and western blot were employed to investigate the expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (COL2A1), collagen type I (COL1A1), and aggrecan (ACAN) in nucleus pulpous (NP) tissue. Activation of the NF-kB pathway was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry following IL-17 treatment. We also examine the level of eIF2α phosphorylation after IL-17 treatment with or without salubrinal. Then, we investigated interactions of the NF-kB pathway to eIF2α phosphorylation. Moreover, we employed salubrinal and a specific inhibitor of NF-kB (BAY11-7082) to evaluate their effects on IL-17-driven regulation of MMP-13 and the ECM, as well as on the activation of NF-kB. The results showed that IL-17 increased the production of MMP-13 and decreased expression of COL2A1 and ACAN via the NF-kB pathway. Either IL-17 or salubrinal increased the level of eIF2α phosphorylation, but the effects of BAY11-7082 on the level of p-eIF2α were not detectable. BAY11-7082 and salubrinal significantly suppressed IL-17-driven intervertebral disc degeneration. Furthermore, salubrinal produced stronger effects than BAY11-7082. These results imply the potential involvement of IL-17 in IDD through activation of NF-kB signaling, which successively upregulated the expression of MMP-13 and led to the degradation of the ECM. Furthermore, salubrinal can inhibit this

  16. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line.

  17. Active dentate granule cells encode experience to promote the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Shen, Jia; Tian, Mu; Schroeder, Bryce; Wang, Jia; Man, Guoming; Wu, Song; Ge, Shaoyu

    2017-04-03

    The continuous addition of new dentate granule cells, exquisitely regulated by brain activity, renders the hippocampus plastic. However, how neural circuits encode experiences to impact the addition of adult-born neurons remains unknown. Here, we used endoscopic Ca(2+) imaging to track the real-time activity of individual dentate granule cells in freely-behaving mice. For the first time, we found that active dentate granule cells responded to a novel experience by preferentially increasing their Ca(2+) event frequency. This elevated activity, which we found to be associated with object exploration, returned to baseline by one hour in the same environment, but could be dishabituated via introduction to a novel environment. To seamlessly transition between environments, we next established a freely-controllable virtual reality system for unrestrained mice. We again observed increased firing of active neurons in a virtual enriched environment. Interestingly, multiple novel virtual experiences accumulatively increased the number of newborn neurons when compared to a single experience. Finally, optogenetic silencing of existing dentate granule cells during novel environmental exploration perturbed experience-induced neuronal addition. Together, our study shows that the adult brain conveys novel, enriched experiences to increase the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons by increasing the firing of active dentate granule cells.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAdult brains are constantly reshaping themselves from synapses to circuits as we encounter novel experiences from moment to moment. Importantly, this reshaping includes the addition of newborn hippocampal neurons. However, it remains largely unknown how our circuits encode experience-induced brain activity to govern the addition of new hippocampal neurons. By coupling in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of dentate granule neurons with a novel unrestrained virtual reality system for rodents, we discovered that a new experience rapidly

  18. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  19. Zinc chelation reduces traumatic brain injury-induced neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Bo Eun; Kim, In Yeol; Sohn, Min; Suh, Sang Won

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases hippocampal neurogenesis in the rodent brain. However, the mechanisms underlying increased neurogenesis after TBI remain unknown. Continuous neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in the adult brain. The mechanism that maintains active neurogenesis in the hippocampal area is not known. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ (mossy fiber). The mossy fiber of dentate granular cells contains high levels of chelatable zinc in their terminal vesicles, which can be released into the extracellular space during neuronal activity. Previously, our lab presented findings indicating that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia or epilepsy. Using a weight drop animal model to mimic human TBI, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after TBI. Thus, we injected a zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability twice per day for 1 week. Neuronal death was evaluated with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after TBI. The number of degenerating neurons (FJB (+)) and live neurons (NeuN (+)) was similar in vehicle and in CQ-treated rats at 1 week after TBI. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after TBI. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after TBI. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. The present study shows that zinc chelation did not prevent neurodegeneration but did reduce TBI-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal

  20. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p < 0.05). The number of astrocytes increased in the diabetic rats (24.06 +/- 9.57) compared with the controls (17.52 +/- 6.66). The densities in the treated rats (19.50 +/- 6.16) were lower than in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities. We concluded that U. dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  1. Delayed dendritic development in newly generated dentate granule cells by cell-autonomous expression of the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Giacomini, Damiana; Lombardi, Gabriela; Castaño, Eduardo M; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2013-09-01

    Neuronal connectivity and synaptic remodeling are fundamental substrates for higher brain functions. Understanding their dynamics in the mammalian allocortex emerges as a critical step to tackle the cellular basis of cognitive decline that occurs during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. In this work we have designed a novel approach to assess alterations in the dynamics of functional and structural connectivity elicited by chronic cell-autonomous overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). We have taken advantage of the fact that the hippocampus continuously generates new dentate granule cells (GCs) to probe morphofunctional development of GCs expressing different variants of hAPP in a healthy background. hAPP was expressed together with a fluorescent reporter in neural progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice by retroviral delivery. Neuronal progeny was analyzed several days post infection (dpi). Amyloidogenic cleavage products of hAPP such as the β-C terminal fragment (β-CTF) induced a substantial reduction in glutamatergic connectivity at 21 dpi, at which time new GCs undergo active growth and synaptogenesis. Interestingly, this effect was transient, since the strength of glutamatergic inputs was normal by 35 dpi. This delay in glutamatergic synaptogenesis was paralleled by a decrease in dendritic length with no changes in spine density, consistent with a protracted dendritic development without alterations in synapse formation. Finally, similar defects in newborn GC development were observed by overexpression of α-CTF, a non-amyloidogenic cleavage product of hAPP. These results indicate that hAPP can elicit protracted dendritic development independently of the amyloidogenic processing pathway.

  2. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  3. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  4. Regulation of excitatory input to inhibitory interneurons of the dentate gyrus during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Doherty, J; Dingledine, R

    1997-01-01

    The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and adenosine receptors in hypoxia-induced suppression of excitatory synaptic input to interneurons residing at the granule cell-hilus border in the dentate gyrus was investigated with the use of whole cell electrophysiological recording techniques in thin (250 microns) slices of immature rat hippocampus. Minimal stimulation evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in dentate interneurons in 68 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE) of trials during stimulation in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) and 48 +/- 3% of trials during stimulation in CA3. Hypoxic episodes, produced by switching the perfusing solution from 95% O2-5% CO2 to a solution containing 95% N2-5% CO2 for 3-5 min, rapidly and reversibly decreased the synaptic reliability, or probability of evoking an EPSC, from either input without reducing EPSC amplitude, consistent with a presynaptic suppression of transmitter release. The mGluR antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(+) MCPG; 500 microM] did not alter synaptic reliability or mean EPSC amplitude in either pathway. However, (+) MCPG significantly attenuated hypoxic suppression of input from both pathways, suggesting that mGluRs activated by release of glutamate partially mediate hypoxic suppression of EPSCs to dentate interneurons. The mGluR agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD; 100 microM) rapidly decreased the reliability of excitatory transmission from both the GCL (19 +/- 5% of control) and CA3 (39 +/- 15% of control). ACPD also increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs and evoked a slow inward current in dentate interneurons. Exogenous adenosine (10-300 microM) decreased synaptic reliability for both pathways and reduced the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, but did not cause a decrease in the mean amplitude of evoked EPSCs, consistent with a presynaptic suppression of excitatory input to dentate interneurons. Conversely, the selective adenosine

  5. In vivo 7 Tesla imaging of the dentate granule cell layer in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ivan I.; Hardy, Caitlin J.; Matsuda, Kant; Messinger, Julie; Cankurtaran, Ceylan Z.; Warren, Melina; Wiggins, Graham C.; Perry, Nissa N.; Babb, James S.; Goetz, Raymond R.; George, Ajax; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The hippocampus is central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Histology shows abnormalities in the dentate granule cell layer (DGCL), but its small size (~100 micron thickness) has precluded in vivo human studies. We used ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare DGCL morphology of schizophrenic patients to matched controls’. METHOD Bilateral hippocampi of 16 schizophrenia patients (10 male) 40.7±10.6 years old (mean ±standard deviation) were imaged at 7 Tesla MRI with heavily T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence at 232 micron in-plane resolution (0.08 μL image voxels). Fifteen matched controls (8 male, 35.6±9.4 years old) and one ex vivo post mortem hippocampus (that also underwent histopathology) were scanned with same protocol. Three blinded neuroradiologists rated each DGCL on a qualitative scale of 1 to 6 (from “not discernible” to “easily visible, appearing dark gray or black”) and mean left and right DGCL scores were compared using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS MRI identification of the DGCL was validated with histopathology. Mean right and left DGCL ratings in patients (3.2±1.0 and 3.5±1.2) were not statistically different from controls’ (3.9±1.1 and 3.8±0.8), but patients’ had a trend for lower right DGCL score (p=0.07), which was significantly associated with patient diagnosis (p=0.05). The optimal 48% sensitivity and 80% specificity for schizophrenia was achieved with a DGCL rating of ≤2. CONCLUSION Decreased contrast in the right DGCL in schizophrenia was predictive of schizophrenia diagnosis. Better utility of this metric as a schizophrenia biomarker may be achieved in future studies of patients with homogeneous disease subtypes and progression rates. PMID:23664589

  6. Cell types, lineage, and architecture of the germinal zone in the adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Seri, Bettina; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Collado-Morente, Lucia; McEwen, Bruce S; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2004-10-25

    New neurons continue to be born in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of adult mammals, including humans. Previous work has shown that astrocytes function as the progenitors of these new neurons through immature intermediate D cells. In the first part of the present study, we determined the structure of each of these progenitors and how they are organized in three dimensions. Serial-section reconstructions of the SGZ, using confocal and electron microscopy demonstrate that SGZ astrocytes form baskets that hold clusters of D cells, largely insulating them from the hilus. Two types of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing astrocytes (radial and horizontal) and three classes of doublecortin and PSA-NCAM-positive D cells (D1, D2, D3) were observed. Radial astrocytes appear to interact closely with clusters of D cells forming radial proliferative units. In the second part of this study, we show that retrovirally labeled radial astrocytes give rise to granule neurons. We also used bromodeoxyuridine and [3H]thymidine labeling to study the sequence of appearance of the different D cells after a 7-day treatment with anti-mitotics. This analysis, together with retroviral labeling data, suggest that radial astrocytes divide to generate D1 cells, which in turn divide once to form postmitotic D2 cells. D2 cells mature through a D3 stage to form new granule neurons. These observations provide a model of how the germinal zone of the adult hippocampus is organized and suggest a sequence of cellular stages in the generation of new granule neurons.

  7. Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth

    PubMed Central

    Pedroni, Andrea; Minh, Do Duc; Mallamaci, Antonello; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus are generated mainly postnatally. Between embryonic day 10 and 14, neural precursors migrate from the primary dentate matrix to the dentate gyrus where they differentiate into neurons. Neurogenesis reaches a peak at the end of the first postnatal week and it is completed at the end of the first postnatal month. This process continues at a reduced rate throughout life. Interestingly, immediately after birth, GCs exhibit a clear GABAergic phenotype. Only later they integrate the classical glutamatergic trisynaptic hippocampal circuit. Here, whole cell patch clamp recordings, in current clamp mode, were performed from immature GCs, intracellularly loaded with biocytin (in hippocampal slices from P0 to P3 old rats) in order to compare their morphological characteristics with their electrophysiological properties. The vast majority of GCs were very immature with small somata, few dendritic branches terminating with small varicosities and growth cones. In spite of their immaturity their axons reached often the cornu ammonis 3 area. Immature GCs generated, upon membrane depolarization, either rudimentary sodium spikes or more clear overshooting action potentials that fired repetitively. They exhibited also low threshold calcium spikes. In addition, most spiking neurons showed spontaneous synchronized network activity, reminiscent of giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) generated in the hippocampus by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, both depolarizing and excitatory. This early synchronized activity, absent during adult neurogenesis, may play a crucial role in the refinement of local neuronal circuits within the developing dentate gyrus. PMID:24592213

  8. Innervation from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus and the vulnerability to Zn(2).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Hanuna

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampal Zn(2+) homeostasis is critical for cognitive activity and hippocampus-dependent memory. Extracellular Zn(2+) signaling is linked to extracellular glutamate signaling and leads to intracellular Zn(2+) signaling, which is involved in cognitive activity. On the other hand, excess intracellular Zn(2+) signaling that is induced by excess glutamate signaling is involved in cognitive decline. In the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is the most vulnerable to aging and is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. The layer II of the entorhinal cortex is the most vulnerable to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. The perforant pathway provides input from the layer II to the dentate gyrus and is one of the earliest affected pathways in Alzheimer's disease. Medial perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses are vulnerable to either excess intracellular Zn(2+) or β-amyloid (Aβ)-bound zinc, which induce transient cognitive decline via attenuation of medial perforant pathway LTP. However, it is unknown whether the vulnerability to excess intracellular Zn(2+) is involved in region-specific vulnerability to aging and Alzheimer's disease. To discover a strategy to prevent short-term cognitive decline in normal aging process and the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease, the present paper deals with vulnerability of medial perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses to intracellular Zn(2+) dyshomeostasis and its possible involvement in differential vulnerability to aging and Alzheimer's disease in the hippocampal formation.

  9. Dentate granule cell modulation in freely moving rats: vigilance state effects.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Blaise, J H; Mokler, D J; Morgane, P J

    1999-04-12

    Dentate granule cell population responses to paired-pulse stimulation applied to the perforant pathway across a range of interpulse intervals (IPIs) were examined during different vigilance states-quiet waking (QW), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep-in freely moving rats at 15, 30 and 90 days of age. Using these evoked field potentials, the paired-pulse index (PPI), a measure of the type and degree of modulation of dentate granule cell excitability, was computed and shown to be altered as a function of age. Animals, 15 days old, showed significantly lower levels of early inhibition (20-40 ms IPIs), i.e., greater PPI values, during all three vigilance states when compared to both the 30- and 90-day old animals. Adult, i.e, 90-day old animals, on the other hand, showed significantly greater levels of late inhibition (300-1000 ms IPIs), i.e., lower PPI values, than the younger animals (15- and 30-day old) during QW and SWS. These results indicate that as the dentate field of the hippocampal formation matures there are significant alterations in the modulation of dentate granule cell activity.

  10. Developmental profiling of postnatal dentate gyrus progenitors provides evidence for dynamic cell-autonomous regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Jennifer A.; Yang, Cui-Ping; Kernie, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the most prominent regions in the postnatal mammalian brain where neurogenesis continues throughout life. There is tremendous speculation regarding the potential implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, though it remains unclear to what extent this ability becomes attenuated during normal aging, and what genetic changes in the progenitor population ensue over time. Using defined elements of the nestin promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse that reliably labels neural stem and early progenitors with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a combination of immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, we characterized the progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus and created a developmental profile from postnatal day 7 (P7) until 6 months of age. In addition, we demonstrate that the proliferative potential of these progenitors is controlled at least in part by cell-autonomous cues. Finally, in order to identify what may underlie these differences, we performed stem cell-specific microarrays on GFP-expressing sorted cells from isolated P7 and postnatal day 28 (P28) dentate gyrus. We identified several differentially expressed genes that may underlie the functional differences that we observe in neurosphere assays from sorted cells and differentiation assays at these different ages. These data suggest that neural progenitors from the dentate gyrus are differentially regulated by cell-autonomous factors that change over time. PMID:20014381

  11. Dentate Gyrus Local Circuit is Implicated in Learning Under Stress--a Role for Neurofascin.

    PubMed

    Zitman, Femke M P; Lucas, Morgan; Trinks, Sabine; Grosse-Ophoff, Laura; Kriebel, Martin; Volkmer, Hansjürgen; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2016-03-01

    The inhibitory synapses at the axon initial segment (AIS) of dentate gyrus granular cells are almost exclusively innervated by the axo-axonic chandelier interneurons. However, the role of chandelier neurons in local circuitry is poorly understood and controversially discussed. The cell adhesion molecule neurofascin is specifically expressed at the AIS. It is crucially required for the stabilization of axo-axonic synapses. Knockdown of neurofascin is therefore a convenient tool to interfere with chandelier input at the AIS of granular neurons of the dentate gyrus. In the current study, feedback and feedforward inhibition of granule cells was measured in the dentate gyrus after knockdown of neurofascin and concomitant reduction of axo-axonic input. Results show increased feedback inhibition as a result of neurofascin knockdown, while feedforward inhibition remained unaffected. This suggests that chandelier neurons are predominantly involved in feedback inhibition. Neurofascin knockdown rats also exhibited impaired learning under stress in the two-way shuttle avoidance task. Remarkably, this learning impairment was not accompanied by differences in electrophysiological measurements of dentate gyrus LTP. This indicates that the local circuit may be involved in (certain types) of learning.

  12. Neurotoxic Doses of Chronic Methamphetamine Trigger Retrotransposition of the Identifier Element in Rat Dorsal Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Moszczynska, Anna; Burghardt, Kyle J.; Yu, Dongyue

    2017-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH) trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID) element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or high doses of binge or chronic METH and sacrificed at three different time points thereafter. DNA methylation analysis, immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on the dorsal dentate gyrus samples. Binge METH triggered hypomethylation, while chronic METH triggered hypermethylation of the CpG-2 site. Both METH regimens were associated with increased intensities in poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1, a SINE regulatory protein)-like immunohistochemical staining in the dentate gyrus. The amplification of several ID element sequences was significantly higher in the chronic METH group than in the control group a week after METH, and they mapped to genes coding for proteins regulating cell growth and proliferation, transcription, protein function as well as for a variety of transporters. The results suggest that chronic METH induces ID element retrotransposition in the dorsal dentate gyrus and may affect hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:28272323

  13. Dentate Gyrus Is Necessary for Disambiguating Similar Object-Place Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Inah; Solivan, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objects are often remembered with their locations, which is an important aspect of event memory. Despite the well-known involvement of the hippocampus in event memory, detailed intrahippocampal mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, no experimental evidence has been provided in support of the role of the dentate gyrus (DG) in…

  14. The similarity of astrocytes number in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield of rats hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Y; Hosseini, A; Naghdi, N

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a part of hippocampal formation that it contains granule cells, which project to the pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. Astrocytes play a more active role in neuronal activity, including regulating ion flux currents, energy production, neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Astrocytes are the only cells in the brain that contain the energy molecule glycogen. The close relationship between dentate gyrus and CA3 area can cause the similarity of the number of astrocytes in these areas. In this study 5 male albino wistar rats were used. Rats were housed in large plastic cage in animal house and were maintained under standard conditions, after histological processing, The 7 microm slides of the brains were stained with PTAH staining for showing the astrocytes. This staining is specialized for astrocytes. We showed that the number of astrocytes in different (ant., mid., post) parts of dentate gyrus and CA3 of hippocampus is the same. For example, the anterior parts of two area have the most number of astrocytes and the middle parts of two area have the least number of astrocytes. We concluded that dentate gyrus and CA3 area of hippocampus have the same group of astrocytes.

  15. The control of eye movements by the cerebellar nuclei: polysynaptic projections from the fastigial, interpositus posterior and dentate nuclei to lateral rectus motoneurons in primates.

    PubMed

    Prevosto, Vincent; Graf, Werner; Ugolini, Gabriella

    2017-02-22

    Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs). We found that SIF motoneurons receive major cerebellar 'output channels' bilaterally, while oligosynaptic cerebellar innervation of MIF motoneurons is negligible and/or more indirect. Inputs originate from the fastigial nuclei di- and trisynaptically, and from a circumscribed rostral portion of the ventrolateral interpositus posterior and from the caudal pole of the dentate nuclei trisynaptically. While disynaptic cerebellar inputs to LR motoneurons stem exclusively from the caudal fastigial region involved in saccades, pursuit and convergence (via its projections to brainstem oculomotor populations), minor trisynaptic inputs from the rostral fastigial nucleus, which contributes to gaze shifts, may reflect access to vestibular and reticular eye-head control pathways. Trisynaptic inputs to LR motoneurons from the rostral ventrolateral interpositus posterior, involved in divergence (far-response), is likely mediated by projections to the supraoculomotor area, contributing to LR motoneuron activation during divergence. Trisynaptic inputs to LR motoneurons from the caudal dentate, which also innervates disynaptically the frontal and parietal eye fields, can be explained by its superior colliculus projections, and likely target saccade-related burst neurons.

  16. Partial white and grey matter protection with prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Guido; Davidson, Joanne O; Dhillon, Simerdeep K; Fraser, Mhoyra; Galinsky, Robert; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal asphyxia in preterm infants remains a significant contributor to abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recombinant human erythropoietin has potent non-haematopoietic neuroprotective properties, but there is limited evidence for protection in the preterm brain. Preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep received sham asphyxia (sham occlusion) or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min, followed by an intravenous infusion of vehicle (occlusion-vehicle) or recombinant human erythropoietin (occlusion-Epo, 5000 international units by slow push, then 832.5 IU/h), starting 30 min after asphyxia and continued until 72 h. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduced neuronal loss and numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the striatal caudate nucleus, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and thalamic medial nucleus ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle). In the white matter tracts, recombinant human erythropoietin increased total, but not immature/mature oligodendrocytes ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle), with increased cell proliferation and reduced induction of activated caspase-3, microglia and astrocytes ( P < 0.05). Finally, occlusion-Epo reduced seizure burden, with more rapid recovery of electroencephalogram power, spectral edge frequency, and carotid blood flow. In summary, prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after severe asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep was partially neuroprotective and improved electrophysiological and cerebrovascular recovery, in association with reduced apoptosis and inflammation.

  17. Disrupted Dentate Granule Cell Chloride Regulation Enhances Synaptic Excitability during Development of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Hemal R.; Weissinger, Florian; Terunuma, Miho; Carlson, Gregory C.; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Moss, Stephen J.; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition depends on the maintenance of intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]in ) at low levels. In neurons in the developing CNS, [Cl−]in is elevated, EGABA is depolarizing, and GABA consequently is excitatory. Depolarizing GABAergic synaptic responses may be recapitulated in various neuropathological conditions, including epilepsy. In the present study, rat hippocampal dentate granule cells were recorded using gramicidin perforated patch techniques at varying times (1–60 d) after an epileptogenic injury, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (STEP). In normal, non-epileptic animals, these strongly inhibited dentate granule cells act as a gate, regulating hippocampal excitation, controlling seizure initiation and/or propagation. For 2 weeks after STEP, we found that EGABA was positively shifted in granule cells. This shift in EGABA altered synaptic integration, increased granule cell excitability, and resulted in compromised “gate” function of the dentate gyrus. EGABA recovered to control values at longer latencies post-STEP (2–8 weeks), when animals had developed epilepsy. During this period of shifted EGABA, expression of the Cl− extruding K+/Cl− cotransporter, KCC2 was decreased. Application of the KCC2 blocker, furosemide, to control neurons mimicked EGABA shifts evident in granule cells post-STEP. Furthermore, post-STEP and furosemide effects interacted occlusively, both on EGABA in granule cells, and on gatekeeper function of the dentate gyrus. This suggests a shared mechanism, reduced KCC2 function. These findings demonstrate that decreased expression of KCC2 persists for weeks after an epileptogenic injury, reducing inhibitory efficacy and enhancing dentate granule cell excitability. This pathophysiological process may constitute a significant mechanism linking injury to the subsequent development of epilepsy. PMID:18094240

  18. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  19. Surface albedo of cometary nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, T.; Mukai, S.

    A variation of the albedo on the illuminated disk of a comet nucleus is estimated, taking into account the multiple reflection of incident light due to small scale roughness. The dependences of the average albedo over the illuminated disk on the degree of roughness and on the complex refractive index of the surface materials are examined. The variation estimates are compared with measurements of the nucleus albedo of Comet Halley (Reitsema et al., 1987).

  20. Differentiation and Functional Incorporation of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived GABAergic Interneurons in the Dentate Gyrus of Mice with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Maisano, Xu; Litvina, Elizabeth; Tagliatela, Stephanie; Aaron, Gloster B.; Grabel, Laura B.; Naegele, Janice R.

    2012-01-01

    Cell therapies for neurological disorders require an extensive knowledge of disease-associated neuropathology and procedures for generating neurons for transplantation. In many patients with severe acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the dentate gyrus exhibits sclerosis and GABAergic interneuron degeneration. Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic benefits can be obtained by transplanting fetal GABAergic progenitors into the dentate gyrus in rodents with TLE, but the scarcity of human fetal cells limits applicability in patient populations. By contrast, virtually limitless quantities of neural progenitors can be obtained from embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cell-based therapies for neurological repair in TLE require evidence that the transplanted neurons integrate functionally and replace cell types that degenerate. To address these issues, we transplanted mouse ES cell-derived neural progenitors (ESNPs) with ventral forebrain identities into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice with TLE and evaluated graft differentiation, mossy fiber sprouting, cellular morphology and electrophysiological properties of the transplanted neurons. Additionally we compared electrophysiological properties of the transplanted neurons to endogenous hilar interneurons in mice without TLE. The majority of transplanted ESNPs differentiated into GABAergic interneuron subtypes expressing calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin or calretinin. Global suppression of mossy fiber sprouting was not observed, however, ESNP-derived neurons formed dense axonal arborizations in the inner molecular layer and throughout the hilus. Whole-cell hippocampal slice electrophysiological recordings and morphological analyses of the transplanted neurons identified five basic types; most with strong after-hyperpolarizations and smooth or sparsely spiny dendritic morphologies resembling endogenous hippocampal interneurons. Moreover, intracellular recordings of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells via nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Hong, Xin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Yun-Tao; Bao, Jun-Ping; Liu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is known to play a critical role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the effect of TNF-α on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of TNF-α on proliferation of human NP cells. NP cells were treated with different concentrations of TNF-α. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, and expression of cyclin B1 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was analyzed using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) & propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. To identify the mechanism by which TNF-α induced proliferation of NP cells, selective inhibitors of major signaling pathways were used and Western blotting was carried out. Treatment with TNF-α increased cell viability (as determined by CCK-8 analysis) and expression of cyclin B1 and the number of Ki67-positive and S-phase NP cells, indicating enhancement of proliferation. Consistent with this, NP cell apoptosis was suppressed by TNF-α treatment. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocked TNF-α-stimulated proliferation of NP cells. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the effect of TNF-α on IVD degeneration involves promotion of the proliferation of human NP cells via the NF-κB, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways.

  2. Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2012-12-15

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

  3. Effect of early isolation on signal transfer in the entorhinal cortex-dentate-hippocampal system.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, R; Raffi, M; Ciani, E

    2006-02-01

    Deprivation of socio-sensory interactions during early life impairs brain function in adulthood. In previous investigations we showed that early isolation severely affects neuron development in several structures of the hippocampal region, including the entorhinal cortex. In the present study we investigated the effects of early isolation on signal processing along the entorhinal cortex-dentate-CA3-CA1 system, a major memory circuit of the hippocampal region. Male and female guinea-pigs were assigned at 6-7 days of age to either a social or an isolated environment. At 90-100 days of age the animals were anesthetized and field potentials were recorded from the entorhinal cortex-dentate-CA3-CA1 circuit, driven by dorsal psalterium commissural volleys. Analysis of the input-output function in the different structures showed that in isolated males there was a small reduction in the input-output function of the population excitatory postsynaptic potential and population spike evoked in layer II of the entorhinal cortex. No changes occurred in isolated females. In isolated males and females there was a reduction in the input-output function of the population excitatory postsynaptic potential and population spike evoked in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1, but this effect was larger in males. In isolated males, but not in females, the population spike/population excitatory postsynaptic potential ratio was reduced in all investigated structures, indicating that in males the size of the discharged neuron population was reduced more than due to the decreased input. Results show that isolation reduces the synaptic function in the whole entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus-CA3-CA1 system. While the entorhinal cortex was moderately impaired, the dentate-hippocampal system was more severely affected. The impairment in the signal transfer along the entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus-CA3-CA1 system was heavier in males, confirming the larger susceptibility of this sex to early experience

  4. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  5. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H.; Mu, Yangling

    2016-01-01

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience. PMID:27573822

  6. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H; Kempermann, G; Gage, F H

    1999-03-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

  7. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H.; Mu, Yangling

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of the hippocampal subfields of CA1 and the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ning, T; Bronzino, J D

    1993-09-01

    The paper discusses the use of nonlinear bispectral analysis in examining the hippocampal EEG collected at subfields of CA1 and the dentate gyrus during the vigilance state of REM sleep. The cross-bispectrum and its unique capabilities of detecting and quantifying quadratic nonlinear interactions occurring between these two hippocampal subfields are explained and demonstrated with simulation examples and EEG data. It was found in this study that quadratic nonlinear interactions exist between CA1 and the dentate gyrus in the 6-8 frequency band which dominates the theta (theta) rhythm observed in the hippocampal EEG during REM sleep. As a result, energy components around the frequency band of the second-order harmonics of theta rhythm are not totally spontaneous, but generated largely due to quadratic nonlinear interactions.

  9. Long-term adrenalectomy causes loss of dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sapolsky, R M; Stein-Behrens, B A; Armanini, M P

    1991-11-01

    A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus can be damaged by glucocorticoids, the adrenal steroids secreted during stress. Thus, considerable interest was generated by recent reports that prolonged elimination of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy (ADX) damages hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. To date, this phenomenon has only been observed in rats of peripubertal age or younger; moreover, reports differ considerably as to the magnitude of the damage induced. Therefore, we examined this issue in rats ADXd at 5 months of age. Three months later, there was a significant 26% loss of dentate neurons in a subset of rats. In agreement with these previous reports, this subset had attenuated weight gain and electrolyte imbalances, suggestive of complete removal of the adrenals and accessory adrenal tissue. As a novel observation, we also observed significant (19%) loss of CA4 pyramidal neurons. Thus, both severe under- or overexposure to glucocorticoids can be deleterious to a number of hippocampal neuron types.

  10. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGES

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; ...

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  11. Temporally selective contextual encoding in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, L.M.; Alexander, A.S.; Aimone, J.B.; Wiles, J.; Gage, F.H.; Chiba, A.A.; Quinn, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    A recent model of the hippocampus predicts that the unique properties of the dentate gyrus allow for temporal separation of events. This temporal separation is accomplished in part through the continual generation of new neurons, which, due to a transient window of hyperexcitability, could allow for preferential encoding of information present during their development. Here we obtain in vivo electrophysiological recordings and identify a cell population exhibiting activity that is selective to single contexts when rats experience a long temporal separation between context exposures during training. This selectivity is attenuated as the temporal separation between context exposures is shortened and is further attenuated when neurogenesis is reduced. Our data reveal the existence of a temporal orthogonalizing neuronal code within the dentate gyrus, a hallmark feature of episodic memory. PMID:24518986

  12. Suspension of mitotic activity in dentate gyrus of the hibernating ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Popov, Victor I; Kraev, Igor V; Ignat'ev, Dmitri A; Stewart, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4-6°C) permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX) and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  13. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; ...

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioralmore » experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.« less

  14. [The dentate gyrus neurogenesis: a common therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease and senile depression?].

    PubMed

    Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenesis persistently occurs even in the adult dentate gyrus. Since most of the anti-depression therapies increase adult neurogenesis, suppressed neurogenesis has been proposed to be one of the candidate etiologies of depression. Here we show that Cerebrolysin, an anti-dementia drug that improves the activity of daily living of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, can enhance neurogenesis and spatial learning of adult female rats. Regarding the anatomical importance of the dentate gyrus in AD pathogenesis and the frequent association of depressive symptoms in preclinical phase of AD, our finding suggests a possibility that AD involves suppressed neurogenesis causing the decreased activity of daily living. Pseudodementia might also involve suppressed neurogenesis but differ form AD since the neurodegenerative process in AD may be irreversible.

  15. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.

  16. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Cristina V; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B; Kuo, Chay T; Wadiche, Jacques I; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.

  17. VTA Projection Neurons Releasing GABA and Glutamate in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both dopamine and nondopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) project to a variety of brain regions. Here we examine nondopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA that send long-range projections to the hippocampus. Using a combination of retrograde tracers, optogenetic tools, and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTA GABAergic axons make synaptic contacts in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, where we can elicit small postsynaptic currents. Surprisingly, the currents displayed a partial sensitivity to both bicuculline and NBQX, suggesting that these mesohippocampal neurons corelease both GABA and glutamate. Finally, we show that this projection is functional in vivo and its stimulation reduces granule cell-firing rates under anesthesia. Altogether, the present results describe a novel connection between GABA and glutamate coreleasing of cells of the VTA and the dentate gyrus. This connection could be relevant for a variety of functions, including reward-related memory and neurogenesis. PMID:27648470

  18. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 6 mediated knockdown of ADAMTS4 induces long-term and effective enhancement of aggrecan in degenerative human nucleus pulposus cells: A new therapeutic approach for intervertebral disc disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenegelegn Mern, Demissew; Tschugg, Anja; Hartmann, Sebastian; Thomé, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is often accompanied by painful inflammatory and immunopathological processes, is challenging. Current IVD gene therapeutic approaches are based on adenoviral gene delivery systems, which are limited by immune reactions to their viral proteins. Their applications in IVDs near to sensitive neural structure could provoke toxicity and immunological side-effects with neurological deficits. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors, which do not express any viral gene and are not linked with any known disease in humans, are attractive therapeutic gene delivery vectors in degenerative IVDs. However, scAAV-based silencing of catabolic or inflammatory factor has not yet been investigated in human IVD cells. Therefore, we used scAAV6, the most suitable serotype for transduction of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, to knockdown the major catabolic gene (ADAMTS4) of IVD degeneration. IVD degeneration grades were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Lumbar NP tissues of degeneration grade III were removed from 12 patients by nucleotomy. NP cells were isolated and cultured with low-glucose. Titre of recombinant scAAV6 vectors targeting ADAMTS4, transduction efficiencies, transduction units, cell viabilities and expression levels of target genes were analysed using quantitative PCR, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays during 48 days of post-transduction. Transduction efficiencies between 98.2% and 37.4% and transduction units between 611 and 245 TU/cell were verified during 48 days of post-transduction (p<0.001). scAAV6-mediated knockdown of ADAMTS4 with maximum 87.7% and minimum 40.1% was confirmed on day 8 and 48 with enhanced the level of aggrecan 48.5% and 30.2% respectively (p<0.001). scAAV6

  19. Studies of dentate granule cell modulation: paired-pulse responses in freely moving rats at three ages.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Blaise, J H; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J

    1996-10-23

    Dentate granule cell population responses to paired-pulse stimulations applied to the perforant pathway across a range of interpulse intervals (IPI) were examined in freely moving rats at 15, 30, and 90 days of age. The profile of the paired-pulse index (PPI), a measure of the type and degree of modulation of dentate granule cell excitability, was shown to change significantly as a function of age.

  20. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-03-19

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The α7*nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional α7*nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2-3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2-9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of α7*nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric α7*nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific α7*nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic α7*nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating α7*nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain.

  1. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The α7⁎nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional α7⁎nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2–3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2–9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of α7⁎nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric α7⁎nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific α7⁎nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic α7⁎nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating α7⁎nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain. PMID:25553616

  2. Benzodiazepines And The Potential Trophic Effect Of Antidepressants On Dentate Gyrus Cells In Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boldrini, Maura; Butt, Tanya H.; Santiago, Adrienne N.; Tamir, Hadassah; Dwork, Andrew J.; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Arango, Victoria; Hen, René; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    Modest antidepressant response rates of mood disorders (MD) encourage benzodiazepine (BZD) co-medication with debatable benefit. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may underlie antidepressant responses, but diazepam co-administration impairs murine neuron maturation and survival in response to fluoxetine. We counted neural progenitor cells (NPCs), mitotic cells, and mature granule neurons postmortem in dentate gyrus (DG) from subjects with: untreated DSM-IV MD (n=17); antidepressant-treated MD (MD*ADT, n=10); benzodiazepine-antidepressant-treated MD (MD*ADT*BZD, n=7); no psychopathology or treatment (controls, n=18). MD*ADT*BZD had fewer granule neurons vs. MD*ADT in anterior DG and vs. controls in mid DG, and did not differ from untreated-MD in any DG subregion. MD*ADT had more granule neurons than untreated-MD in anterior and mid DG and comparable granule neuron number to controls in all dentate subregions. Untreated-MD had fewer granule neurons than controls in anterior and mid DG, and did not differ from any other group in posterior DG. MD*ADT*BZD had fewer NPCs vs. MD*ADT in mid DG. MD*ADT had more NPCs vs. untreated-MD and controls in anterior and mid DG. MD*ADT*BZD and MD*ADT had more mitotic cells in anterior DG vs. controls and untreated-MD. There were no between-group differences in mid DG in mitotic cells or in posterior DG for any cell type. Our results in mid-dentate, and to some degree anterior dentate, gyrus are consistent with murine findings that benzodiazepines counteract antidepressant-induced increases in neurogenesis by interfering with progenitor proliferation. We also confirmed, in this expanded sample, our previous finding of granule neuron deficit in untreated MD. PMID:24969726

  3. Structure of the granular layer of the rat dentate gyrus. A light microscopic and Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Seress, L; Pokorny, J

    1981-01-01

    The rat dentate gyrus was examined with the Golgi method. Cell counts were performed in Nissl-stained serial sections. The number of granule cells was 635,000 +/- 33,000. The number of basket cells in the granular layer was 3600 +/- 570. In whole dentate gyrus, the average ratio between granule and basket cells was 160-220:1. The ratio was higher in the caudal part of the dorsal and ventral blades and significantly less basket cells were found in the ventral than in the dorsal blade of dentate gyrus. 60% of all the basket cells were found at the margin between the granular layer and hilus, 35% were found in the lower half of molecular layer and 5% within the granular layer. Five types of basket cells were differentiated in Golgi sections on the basis of their location and cell morphology. The granule cells in their early development stages sent dendrites in every direction even in the hilus, but the developed granule cells never had basal dendrites. Spines were seen on the 5 days old granule cell dendrites, but the spine density was found to grow until adulthood. As a rule several axon collaterals could be seen on the granule cell axons. The whole length of granule cell dendrites totaled 2400 micron +/- 331, those of the basket cell dendrites totaled 1100 micron +/- 144. The possible role of basket cells in the regulation of the dentate gyrus granular layer was considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7333948

  4. Noradrenaline blocks potassium conductance in rat dentate granule cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haas, H L; Rose, G M

    1987-07-22

    The actions of noradrenaline and the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, were studied on the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices from rats using extra- and intracellular recording. These agents facilitated field EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) and population spikes evoked by perforant path stimulation. Intracellular recording revealed an attenuation of the long lasting afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and the accommodation of cell discharge in response to depolarizing current injection. It is suggested that beta-receptor activation blocks a calcium-dependent potassium current.

  5. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  6. Indomethacin ameliorates trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in vivo by attenuating oxidative stress in the dentate gyrus of mice.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Quynh; Nakamura, Yukary; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Yoneyama, Masanori; Nagashima, Reiko; Shiba, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Taro; Hasebe, Shigeru; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2011-01-01

    The organotin trimethyltin (TMT) is well known to cause neuronal degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice. The first purpose of the present study was to examine whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin could ameliorate neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus of mice following TMT treatment in vivo. The systemic injection into mice of TMT at 2.8 mg/kg produced activation of endogenous caspase-3 and calpain, enhanced the gene expression of COX-1 and COX-2, activated microglial cells, and caused the formation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the hippocampus. Given at 12-h post-TMT treatment, the systemic injection of indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly decreased the TMT-induced damage to neurons having active caspase-3 and single-stranded DNA in the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. The results of the α-Fodrin degradation test revealed that the post-treatment with indomethacin was effective in attenuating TMT-induced activation of endogenous caspases and calpain in the hippocampus. In TMT-treated animals, interestingly, the post-treatment with indomethacin produced not only activation of microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but also the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal in the dentate granule cell layer. Taken together, our data suggest that COX inhibition by indomethacin ameliorated TMT-induced neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus by attenuating intensive oxidative stress.

  7. Recombinant human nerve growth factor is biologically active and labels novel high-affinity binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Burton, L.E.; Bennett, G.L.; Dugich-Djordjevic, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Iodinated recombinant human nerve growth factor (125I-rhNGF) stimulated neurite formation in PC12 cell cultures with a half-maximal potency of 35-49 pg/ml, compared with 39-52 pg/ml for rhNGF. In quantitative ligand autoradiography, the in vitro equilibrium binding of 125I-rhNGF to brain sections showed a 10-fold regional variation in density and was saturable, reversible, and specifically displaced by up to 74% with rhNGF or murine NGF (muNGF). At equilibrium, 125I-rhNGF bound to these sites with high affinity and low capacity (Bmax less than or equal to 13.2 fmol/mg of protein). Calculation of 125I-rhNGF binding affinity by kinetic methods gave average Kd values of 24 and 31 pM. Computer-generated maps revealed binding in brain regions not identified previously with 125I-muNGF, including hippocampus; dentate gyrus; amygdala; paraventricular thalamus; frontal, parietal, occipital, and cingulate cortices; nucleus accumbens; olfactory tubercle; subiculum; pineal gland; and medial geniculate nucleus. NGF binding sites were distributed in a 2-fold increasing medial-lateral gradient in the caudate-putamen and a 2-fold lateral-medial gradient in the nucleus accumbens. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were also found in most areas labeled by 125I-muNGF, including the interpedunucular nucleus, cerebellum, forebrain cholinergic nuclei, caudoventral caudate-putamen, and trigeminal nerve nucleus. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were absent from areas replete with low-affinity NGF binding sites, including circumventricular organs, myelinated fiber bundles, and choroid plexus. The present analysis provides an anatomical differentiation of high-affinity 125I-rhNGF binding sites and greatly expands the number of brain structures that may respond to endogenous NGF or exogenously administered rhNGF.

  8. Cancer metastasis-suppressing peptide metastin upregulates excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Arai, Amy C; Xia, Yan-Fang; Suzuki, Erika; Kessler, Markus; Civelli, Olivier; Nothacker, Hans-Peter

    2005-11-01

    Metastin is an antimetastatic peptide encoded by the KiSS-1 gene in cancer cells. Recent studies found that metastin is a ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54, which is highly expressed in specific brain regions such as the hypothalamus and parts of the hippocampus. This study shows that activation of GPR54 by submicromolar concentrations of metastin reversibly enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal dentate granule cells in a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent manner. Synaptic enhancement by metastin was suppressed by intracellular application of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Analysis of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed an increase in the mean amplitude but no change in event frequency. This indicates that GPR54 and the mechanism responsible for the increase in EPSCs are postsynaptic. Metastin-induced synaptic potentiation was abolished by 50 microM PD98059 and 20 microM U0126, two inhibitors of the MAP kinases ERK1 and ERK2. The effect was also blocked by inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases and tyrosine kinases. RT-PCR experiments showed that both KiSS-1 and GPR54 are expressed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Metastin is thus a novel endogenous factor that modulates synaptic excitability in the dentate gyrus through mechanisms involving MAP kinases, which in turn may be controlled upstream by calcium-activated kinases and tyrosine kinases.

  9. Targeted deletion of AKAP7 in dentate granule cells impairs spatial discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Weisenhaus, Michael; Sanford, Christina A; Slack, Margaret C; Chin, Jenesa; Nachmanson, Daniela; McKennon, Alex; Castillo, Pablo E; McKnight, G Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Protein Kinase A (PKA) mediates synaptic plasticity and is widely implicated in learning and memory. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is thought to be responsible for processing and encoding distinct contextual associations in response to highly similar inputs. The mossy fiber (MF) axons of the dentate granule cells convey strong excitatory drive to CA3 pyramidal neurons and express presynaptic, PKA-dependent forms of plasticity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for the PKA anchoring protein, AKAP7, in mouse MF axons and terminals. Genetic ablation of AKAP7 specifically from dentate granule cells results in disruption of MF-CA3 LTP directly initiated by cAMP, and the AKAP7 mutant mice are selectively deficient in pattern separation behaviors. Our results suggest that the AKAP7/PKA complex in the MF projections plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity and contextual memory formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20695.001 PMID:27911261

  10. Chronically dysregulated NOTCH1 interactome in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Puhakka, Noora; Bot, Anna Maria; Vuokila, Niina; Debski, Konrad Jozef; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Pitkänen, Asla

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in several dentate gyrus-regulated disabilities. Almost nothing is known about the chronic molecular changes after TBI, and their potential as treatment targets. We hypothesized that chronic transcriptional alterations after TBI are under microRNA (miRNA) control. Expression of miRNAs and their targets in the dentate gyrus was analyzed using microarrays at 3 months after experimental TBI. Of 305 miRNAs present on the miRNA-array, 12 were downregulated (p<0.05). In parallel, 75 of their target genes were upregulated (p<0.05). A bioinformatics analysis of miRNA targets highlighted the dysregulation of the transcription factor NOTCH1 and 39 of its target genes (NOTCH1 interactome). Validation assays confirmed downregulation of miR-139-5p, upregulation of Notch1 and its activated protein, and positive enrichment of NOTCH1 target gene expression. These findings demonstrate that miRNA-based transcriptional regulation can be present at chronic time points after TBI, and highlight the NOTCH1 interactome as one of the mechanisms behind the dentate gyrus pathology-related morbidities. PMID:28273100

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark W.; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R.; Palmour, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation. PMID:27801790

  12. Chronically dysregulated NOTCH1 interactome in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, Noora; Bot, Anna Maria; Vuokila, Niina; Debski, Konrad Jozef; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Pitkänen, Asla

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in several dentate gyrus-regulated disabilities. Almost nothing is known about the chronic molecular changes after TBI, and their potential as treatment targets. We hypothesized that chronic transcriptional alterations after TBI are under microRNA (miRNA) control. Expression of miRNAs and their targets in the dentate gyrus was analyzed using microarrays at 3 months after experimental TBI. Of 305 miRNAs present on the miRNA-array, 12 were downregulated (p<0.05). In parallel, 75 of their target genes were upregulated (p<0.05). A bioinformatics analysis of miRNA targets highlighted the dysregulation of the transcription factor NOTCH1 and 39 of its target genes (NOTCH1 interactome). Validation assays confirmed downregulation of miR-139-5p, upregulation of Notch1 and its activated protein, and positive enrichment of NOTCH1 target gene expression. These findings demonstrate that miRNA-based transcriptional regulation can be present at chronic time points after TBI, and highlight the NOTCH1 interactome as one of the mechanisms behind the dentate gyrus pathology-related morbidities.

  13. Increased expression of BDNF and proliferation of dentate granule cells after bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Simone C; Stadelmann, Christine; Spreer, Annette; Brück, Wolfgang; Nau, Roland; Gerber, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells is increased after bacterial meningitis. To identify endogenous factors involved in neurogenesis, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were infected by intracerebral injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were killed 30 hours later or treated with ceftriaxone and killed 4 days after infection. Hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels were increased 2.4-fold 4 days after infection (p = 0.026). Similarly, BDNF protein levels in the hippocampal formation were higher in infected mice than in control animals (p = 0.0003). This was accompanied by an elevated proliferation of dentate granule cells (p = 0.0002). BDNF protein was located predominantly in the hippocampal CA3/4 area and the hilus of the dentate gyrus. The density of dentate granule cells expressing the BDNF receptor TrkB as well as mRNA levels of TrkB in the hippocampal formation were increased 4 days after infection (p = 0.027 and 0.0048, respectively). Conversely, NGF mRNA levels at 30 hours after infection were reduced by approximately 50% (p = 0.004). No significant changes in GDNF expression were observed. In conclusion, increased synthesis of BDNF and TrkB suggests a contribution of this neurotrophic factor to neurogenesis after bacterial meningitis.

  14. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  15. The Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome on the Dentate Gyrus and Learning and Memory in Children.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Zea-Hernandez, Johanna A; Sin, Sanghun; Graw-Panzer, Katharina; Shifteh, Keivan; Isasi, Carmen R; Wagshul, Mark E; Moran, Eileen E; Posner, Jonathan; Zimmerman, Molly E; Arens, Raanan

    2017-03-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with intermittent hypoxia and sleep loss. In children, impairments of cognitive function are important manifestations, but underlying pathology is unknown. We hypothesized that OSAS would affect the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subdivision essential to neurogenesis and cognition, and that this impact would further affect cognitive function in children. In children with OSAS (n=11) and control subjects (n=12; age and sex-matched), we performed diffusion tensor imaging and structural MRI, polysomnography, and neuropsychological assessments. We found that OSAS was associated with decreased mean diffusivity of the left dentate gyrus (P=0.002; FDR corrected; adjusting for sex, age, and BMI) showing a large effect size (partial η(2)=0.491), but not with any other structural measures across the brain. Decreased dentate gyrus mean diffusivity correlated with a higher apnea hypopnea index (Spearman's r=-0.50, P=0.008) and a greater arousal index (r=-0.44, P=0.017). OSAS did not significantly affect neuropsychological measures (P's>0.5); however, a lower verbal learning score correlated with lower dentate gyrus mean diffusivity (r=0.54, P=0.004). Path analysis demonstrated that dentate gyrus mean diffusivity mediates the impact of OSAS on the verbal learning capacity. Finally, a diagnostic accuracy of a regression model based on dentate gyrus mean diffusivity reached 85.8% (cross validated). This study demonstrates a likely pathway of effects of OSAS on neurocognitive function in children, as well as potential utility of the dentate gyrus mean diffusivity as an early marker of brain pathology in children with OSAS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTIn this study we investigate the relationships between dentate gyrus structure, hippocampus-dependent cognition, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We demonstrate lower mean diffusivity of the dentate gyrus in children with OSAS, which correlates with a lower verbal learning and

  16. Higgs and Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe

    We apply a diagrammatic approach to study Higgs boson, a color-neutral heavy particle, pro- duction in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the saturation framework without quantum evolution. We assume the strong coupling constant much smaller than one. Due to the heavy mass and colorless nature of Higgs particle, final state interactions are absent in our calculation. In order to treat the two nuclei dynamically symmetric, we use the Coulomb gauge which gives the appropriate light cone gauge for each nucleus. To further eliminate initial state interactions we choose specific prescriptions in the light cone propagators. We start the calculation from only two nucleons in each nucleus and then demonstrate how to generalize the calculation to higher orders diagrammatically. We simplify the diagrams by the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities. The resulting cross section is factorized into a product of two Weizsacker-Williams gluon distributions of the two nuclei when the transverse momentum of the produced scalar particle is around the saturation momentum. To our knowledge this is the first process where an exact analytic formula has been formed for a physical process, involving momenta on the order of the saturation momentum, in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the quasi-classical approximation. Since we have performed the calculation in an unconventional gauge choice, we further confirm our results in Feynman gauge where the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution is interpreted as a transverse momentum broadening of a hard gluons traversing a nuclear medium. The transverse momentum factorization manifests itself in light cone gauge but not so clearly in Feynman gauge. In saturation physics there are two different unintegrated gluon distributions usually encountered in the literature: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution. The first gluon distribution is constructed by solving classical Yang-Mills equation of motion in the Mc

  17. Synaptic Changes in the Dentate Gyrus of APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Revealed by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Serrais, Paula; Gonzalez, Santiago; DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have reported widespread synaptic dysfunction or loss in early stages of both Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and animal models; it is widely accepted that synapse loss is the major structural correlate of cognitive dysfunction. Elucidation of the changes that may affect synapses is crucial for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying AD, but ultrastructural preservation of human postmortem brain tissue is often poor, and classical methods for quantification of synapses have significant technical limitations. We previously observed changes in dendritic spines in plaque-free regions of the neuropil of the dentate gyrus of double-transgenic APP/PS1 (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1) model mice by light microscopy. Here, we used electron microscopy to examine possible synaptic alterations in this region. We used standard stereologic techniques to determine numbers of synapses per volume. We were able to reconstruct and analyze thousands of synapses and their 3-dimensional characteristics using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope and 3-dimensional reconstruction software (EspINA), which performs semiautomated segmentation of synapses. Our results show that both numbers of synapses per volume and synaptic morphology are affected in plaque-free regions of APP/PS1 mice. Therefore, changes in the number and morphology of synapses seem to be widespread alterations in this animal model. PMID:23584198

  18. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

  19. Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

  20. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yongying; Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-04-15

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 126}Sn+{sup 130}Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depths of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of the fusion barrier is also investigated. The fusion pocket becomes shallow for a heavy fusion system and almost disappears for heavy nearly symmetric systems, and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  1. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Sarkar, S.; Singh, G.

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  2. Effect of maternal morphine sulfate exposure on neuronal plasticity of dentate gyrus in Balb/c mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, M J; Ghafari, S; Kafshgiri, S Kaboli; Moghadam, M H Latifi; Moharri, A R

    2013-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21), 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice, the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45 +/- 4.2 and 174.51 +/- 3.1 cells in control group to 153.32 +/- 2.8 and 151.23 +/- 3.2 cells in 10000 microm2 area of granular layer in treated group (p < 0.001). In P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31 +/- 4.1 and 153.77 +/- 3.4 in control group to 138.33 +/- 4.5 and 135.13 +/- 4.3 in treated group, respectively (p < 0.001). The granular layer thickness in mb and lb area of dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p < 0.05). This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

  3. The Paracrine Effect of Degenerated Disc Cells on Healthy Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells Is Mediated by MAPK and NF-κB Pathways and Can Be Reduced by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Shi, Rui; Xie, Xin-Hui; Hong, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is thought to have a major role in the pathogenesis of disc degeneration. Studies have shown that nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) respond to one or two specific cytokines by regulating cell proliferation or matrix synthesis. However, the effects of a cocktail of factors secreted by degenerated disc cells on transplanted exogenous healthy NPCs remain unknown. Concentrations of multiple cytokines in degenerated disc tissue-conditioned medium (dCM) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the proliferation of cells in dCM. The function of exogenous NPCs cultured in dCM was evaluated by examining catabolic markers (ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), anabolic markers (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3), and the extracellular matrix protein-aggrecan (ACAN) and collagen II (COL2)-expression with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation was observed using Western blotting. Finally, we examined the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in reducing dCM-mediated exogenous NPC dysfunction. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher and TGF-β1 levels were lower in dCM compared with the control medium. Treatment with dCM increased the proliferation of healthy NPCs. NPCs exhibited significantly higher expression of ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 and decreased TIMP-2, ACAN, and COL2 expression in the dCM group in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with dCM moderately increased TIMP-1 expression and had no effect on TIMP-3 mRNA levels. The MAPK and NF-κB pathways were implicated in dCM-mediated responses of healthy NPCs. TGF-β1 partially reversed the d

  4. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  5. Checkerboard Theory of the Nucleus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2006-04-01

    The Checker Board Model (CBM) is a 2D model of the nucleus that proposes that the synchronization of the 2 outer rotating quarks in the nucleons accounts for magnetic moment of the nucleons and that the magnetic flux from the nucleons couples (weaves) into the 2D checker board array structures and this magnetic coupling in addition to electrostatic forces of the rotating and stationary quarks accounts for the apparent strong nuclear force. The symmetry of the He nucleus helps explain why this 2D structure is so stable. This model explain the mass of the proton and neutron, along with their magnetic moments and their absolute and relative sizes in terms of the above structure and predict the masses of two newly proposed quarks ^(1): the ``up'' and the ``dn'' quarks. Since the masses of the ``up'' and ``dn'' quark determined by the CBM (237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively) did not fit within the standard model as candidates for u and d, a new model (New Physics) had to be invented. This new particle physics model predicts that nature has 5 generations not 3. (1). T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000). (2). T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/

  6. Critical evaluation of the anatomical location of the Barrington nucleus: relevance for deep brain stimulation surgery of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lisette; Yuste, Jose Enrique; Carrillo-de Sauvage, María Angeles; Gómez, Aurora; Fernández-Villalba, Emiliano; Avilés-Olmos, Itciar; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Herrero, María Trinidad

    2013-09-05

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the standard surgical procedure for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) has emerged as a potential target for DBS in patients whose quality of life is compromised by freezing of gait and falls. To date, only a few groups have published their long-term clinical experience with PPN stimulation. Bearing in mind that the Barrington (Bar) nucleus and some adjacent nuclei (also known as the micturition centre) are close to the PPN and may be affected by DBS, the aim of the present study was to review the anatomical location of this structure in human and other species. To this end, the Bar nucleus area was analysed in mouse, monkey and human tissues, paying particular attention to the anatomical position in humans, where it has been largely overlooked. Results confirm that anatomical location renders the Bar nucleus susceptible to influence by the PPN DBS lead or to diffusion of electrical current. This may have an undesirable impact on the quality of life of patients.

  7. Activation of κ opioid receptors increases intrinsic excitability of dentate gyrus granule cells

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Carmel M; Schrader, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is thought to control information flow into the rest of the hippocampus. Under pathological conditions, such as epilepsy, this protective feature is circumvented and uninhibited activity flows throughout the hippocampus. Many factors can modulate excitability of the dentate gyrus and ultimately, the hippocampus. It is therefore of critical importance to understand the mechanisms involved in regulating excitability in the dentate gyrus. Dynorphin, the endogenous ligand for the kappa (κ) opioid receptor (KOR), is thought to be involved in neuromodulation in the dentate gyrus. Both dynorphin and its receptor are widely expressed in the dentate gyrus and have been implicated in epilepsy and other complex behaviours such as stress-induced deficits in learning and stress-induced depression-like behaviours. Administration of KOR agonists can prevent both the behavioural and electroencephalographic measures of seizures in several different models of epilepsy. Antagonism of the KORs also prevents stress-induced behaviours. This evidence suggests the KORs as possible therapeutic targets for various pathological conditions. In addition, KOR agonists prevent the induction of LTP. Although there are several mechanisms through which dynorphin could mediate these effects, no studies to date investigated the effects of KOR activation on intrinsic membrane properties and cell excitability. We used whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings from acute mouse hippocampus slices to investigate the effect of KOR activation on dentate gyrus granule cell excitability. The agonist U69,593 (U6, 1 μm) resulted in a lower spike threshold, a decreased latency to first spike, an increased spike half-width, and an overall increase in spike number with current injections ranging from 15 to 45 pA. There was also a reduction in the interspike interval (ISI) both early and late in the spike train, with no change in membrane potential or input resistance

  8. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus.

  9. Reduced inhibition of dentate granule cells in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2003-03-15

    Patients and models of temporal lobe epilepsy have fewer inhibitory interneurons in the dentate gyrus than controls, but it is unclear whether granule cell inhibition is reduced. We report the loss of GABAergic inhibition of granule cells in the temporal dentate gyrus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. In situ hybridization for GAD65 mRNA and immunocytochemistry for parvalbumin and somatostatin confirmed the loss of inhibitory interneurons. In epileptic rats, granule cells had prolonged EPSPs, and they discharged more action potentials than controls. Although the conductances of evoked IPSPs recorded in normal ACSF were not significantly reduced and paired-pulse responses showed enhanced inhibition of granule cells from epileptic rats, more direct measures of granule cell inhibition revealed significant deficiencies. In granule cells from epileptic rats, evoked monosynaptic IPSP conductances were <40% of controls, and the frequency of GABA(A) receptor-mediated spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) was <50% of controls. Within 3-7 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, miniature IPSC frequency had decreased, and it remained low, without functional evidence of compensatory synaptogenesis by GABAergic axons in chronically epileptic rats. Both parvalbumin- and somatostatin-immunoreactive interneuron numbers and the frequency of both fast- and slow-rising GABA(A) receptor-mediated mIPSCs were reduced, suggesting that loss of inhibitory synaptic input to granule cells occurred at both proximal/somatic and distal/dendritic sites. Reduced granule cell inhibition in the temporal dentate gyrus preceded the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures by days to weeks, so it may contribute, but is insufficient, to cause epilepsy.

  10. Structural and Functional Asymmetry in the Normal and Epileptic Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Sollas, Anne L.; Smith, Karen L.; Jackson, Meyer B.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    The rat dentate gyrus is usually described as relatively homogeneous. Here, we present anatomic and physiological data which demonstrate that there are striking differences between the supra- and infrapyramidal blades after status epilepticus and recurrent seizures. These differences appear to be an accentuation of a subtle asymmetry present in normal rats. In both pilocarpine and kainic acid models, there was greater mossy fiber sprouting in the infrapyramidal blade. This occurred primarily in the middle third of the hippocampus. Asymmetric sprouting was evident both with Timm stain as well as antisera to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). In addition, surviving NPY-immunoreactive hilar neurons were distributed preferentially in the suprapyramidal region of the hilus. Extracellular recordings from infrapyramidal sites in hippocampal slices of pilocarpine-treated rats showed larger population spikes and weaker paired-pulse inhibition in response to perforant path stimulation relative to suprapyramidal recordings. A single stimulus could evoke burst discharges in infrapyramidal granule cells but not suprapyramidal blade neurons. BDNF exposure led to spontaneous epileptiform discharges that were larger in amplitude and longer lasting in the infrapyramidal blade. Stimulation of the infrapyramidal molecular layer evoked larger responses in area CA3 than suprapyramidal stimulation. In slices from the temporal pole, in which anatomic evidence of asymmetry waned, there was little evidence of physiological asymmetry either. Of interest, some normal rats also showed signs of greater evoked responses in the infrapyramidal blade, and this could be detected with both microelectrode recording and optical imaging techniques. Although there were no signs of hyperexcitability in normal rats, the data suggest that there is some asymmetry in the normal dentate gyrus and this asymmetry is enhanced by seizures. Taken together, the results suggest that

  11. Activation of dentate hilar neurons by stimulation of the fimbria in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    It is has been shown that the major afferent input to the dentate gyrus, the perforant path, excites dentate hilar neurons. However, little is known about the other inputs to hilar cells. Therefore, we examined the responses of hilar neurons to stimulation of the fimbria. We positioned our stimulating electrodes so that granule cells were not excited antidromically by fimbria stimulation, although action potentials were easily triggered in area CA3b and CA3c pyramidal cells by such stimulation. In these experiments, fimbria stimulation evoked responses from every hilar cell tested, including examples of both of the major cell types, the spiny hilar ‘mossy’ cells (n=15) and the relatively aspiny. ‘fast-spiking’ cells (putative interneurons, n=5). Hilar cell responses consisted primarily of EPSPs that could trigger action potentials, but small IPSPs were also evoked in some cases, particularly in the fast-spiking cells. Excitation was blocked by an antagonist of the AMPA/kainate receptor subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione(CNQX, 5μM, n=5), whereas the cholinergic antagonist atropine (10μM) had no effect (n=4). When sequential intracellular recordings were made from hilar cells and area CA3 pyramidal cells in the same slice, hilar cell EPSPs began after action potentials of CA3b pyramidal cells, and stimulus strengths required to evoke hilar cell EPSPs were above threshold for area CA3b pyramidal cells. Taken together with the evidence that area CA3 pyramidal cells use an excitatory amino acid as a neurotransmitter [7, 21], and the demonstrations of area CA3 axon collaterals in the hilus [11, 16], the results raise the possibility that some area CA3 pyramidal cells excite dentate hilar neurons. PMID:8105429

  12. Models, structure, function: the transformation of cortical signals in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Acsády, László; Káli, Szabolcs

    2007-01-01

    Our central question is why the hippocampal CA3 region is the only cortical area capable of forming interference-free representations of complex environmental events (episodes), given that apparently all cortical regions have recurrent excitatory circuits with modifiable synapses, the basic substrate for autoassociative memory networks. We review evidence for the radical (but classic) view that a unique transformation of incoming cortical signals by the dentate gyrus and the subsequent faithful transfer of the resulting code by the mossy fibers are absolutely critical for the appropriate association of memory items by CA3 and, in general, for hippocampal function. In particular, at the gate of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus possesses a set of unusual properties, which selectively evolved for the task of code transformation between cortical afferents and the hippocampus. These evolutionarily conserved anatomical features enable the dentate gyrus to translate the noisy signal of the upstream cortical areas into the sparse and specific code of hippocampal formation, which is indispensable for the efficient storage and recall of multiple, multidimensional memory items. To achieve this goal the mossy fiber pathway maximally utilizes the opportunity to differentially regulate its postsynaptic partners. Selective innervation of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons by distinct terminal types creates a favorable condition to differentially regulate the short-term and long-term plasticity and the motility of various mossy terminal types. The utility of this highly dynamic system appears to be the frequency-dependent fine-tuning the excitation and inhibition evoked by the large and the small mossy terminals respectively. This will determine exactly which CA3 cell population is active and induces permanent modification in the autoassociational network of the CA3 region.

  13. Dentate granule neuron apoptosis and glia activation in murine hippocampus induced by trimethyltin exposure.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, A; Figiel, I; Kamińska, B; Zaremba, M; Wilk, S; Oderfeld-Nowak, B

    2001-09-07

    We investigated the effect of trimethyltin (TMT), a well-known neurotoxicant, on murine hippocampal neurons and glial cells. Three days following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of TMT into 1-month-old Balb/c mice at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight we detected damage of the dentate gyrus granular neurons. The dying cells displayed chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which are the most characteristic features of apoptosis. To study, if prolyl oligopeptidase is engaged in neuronal apoptosis following TMT administration, we pretreated mice with the specific inhibitor--Fmoc-Pro-ProCN in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight (i.p. injection). Three days following injection we did not observe any attenuation of neurotoxic damage, regardless of inhibitor dose, indicating the lack of prolyl oligopeptidase contribution to neuronal injury caused by TMT. The neurodegeneration was associated with reactive astrogliosis in whole hippocampus, but particularly in injured dentate gyrus. The reactive astrocytes showed an increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in ventral as well as dorsal hippocampal parts. NGF immunoreactivity was also augmented in neurons of CA3/CA4 areas, which were almost totally spared after TMT intoxication. It suggested a role for this neurotrophin in protection of pyramidal cells from loss of connection between CA3/CA4 and dentate gyrus fields. The granule neurons' death was accompanied by increased histochemical staining with isolectin B4, a marker of microglia, in the region of neurodegeneration. The microglial cells displayed ramified and ameboid morphology, characteristic of their reactive forms. Activated microglia were the main source of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta). It is possible that this cytokine may participate in neurodegeneration of granule cells. Alternatively, IL-1beta elaborated by microglia could play a role in increasing NGF expression, both in astroglia and in CA3/CA4 neurons.

  14. Structural and functional asymmetry in the normal and epileptic rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Sollas, Anne L; Smith, Karen L; Jackson, Meyer B; Goodman, Jeffrey H

    2002-12-23

    The rat dentate gyrus is usually described as relatively homogeneous. Here, we present anatomic and physiological data which demonstrate that there are striking differences between the supra- and infrapyramidal blades after status epilepticus and recurrent seizures. These differences appear to be an accentuation of a subtle asymmetry present in normal rats. In both pilocarpine and kainic acid models, there was greater mossy fiber sprouting in the infrapyramidal blade. This occurred primarily in the middle third of the hippocampus. Asymmetric sprouting was evident both with Timm stain as well as antisera to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). In addition, surviving NPY-immunoreactive hilar neurons were distributed preferentially in the suprapyramidal region of the hilus. Extracellular recordings from infrapyramidal sites in hippocampal slices of pilocarpine-treated rats showed larger population spikes and weaker paired-pulse inhibition in response to perforant path stimulation relative to suprapyramidal recordings. A single stimulus could evoke burst discharges in infrapyramidal granule cells but not suprapyramidal blade neurons. BDNF exposure led to spontaneous epileptiform discharges that were larger in amplitude and longer lasting in the infrapyramidal blade. Stimulation of the infrapyramidal molecular layer evoked larger responses in area CA3 than suprapyramidal stimulation. In slices from the temporal pole, in which anatomic evidence of asymmetry waned, there was little evidence of physiological asymmetry either. Of interest, some normal rats also showed signs of greater evoked responses in the infrapyramidal blade, and this could be detected with both microelectrode recording and optical imaging techniques. Although there were no signs of hyperexcitability in normal rats, the data suggest that there is some asymmetry in the normal dentate gyrus and this asymmetry is enhanced by seizures. Taken together, the results suggest that

  15. Restoring dentate appearance: a literature review for modern complete denture esthetics.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Despite the fact that solutions to functional and comfort problems are often available, successfully restoring the appearance of an edentulous patient remains a challenge. This review of the literature demonstrates the limited amount of useful evidence-based information available for restoration of dentate appearance in edentulous individuals. The English language peer-reviewed literature from 1880 to the present was reviewed. Articles were identified through previous literature reviews, an extensive hand search, and a search of MEDLINE using the key words esthetics and denture esthetics. Three main areas of information were found: published guidelines for achieving natural appearance, patient preference studies, and studies that have collected and analyzed anatomic norms.

  16. The paired-pulse index: a measure of hippocampal dentate granule cell modulation.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Blaise, J H; Morgane, P J

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether the paired-pulse index (PPI) is an effective measure of the modulation of dentate granule cell excitability during normal development. Paired-pulse stimulations of the perforant path were, therefore, used to construct a PPI for 15-, 30-, and 90-day old, freely moving male rats. Significant age-dependent differences in the PPI were obtained. Fifteen-day old rats showed significantly less inhibition at short interpulse intervals [interpulse interval (IPI): 20 to 30 msec), a lack of facilitation at intermediate IPIs (50 to 150 msec), and significantly less inhibition at longer IPIs (300 to 1,000 msec) than adults.

  17. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altsybeev, Igor; Kovalenko, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range). In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  18. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  19. Chronic pregabalin treatment decreases excitability of dentate gyrus and accelerates maturation of adult-born granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Augusto Abel; Coll, Lucia; Schinder, Alejandro F; Uchitel, Osvaldo Daniel; Piriz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Pregabalin (PGB) is extensively prescribed to treat neurological and neuropsychiatrical conditions such as neuropathic pain, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. Although PGB is known to bind selectively to the α2δ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, there is little understanding about how it exerts its therapeutic effects. In this article, we analyzed the effects of an in vivo chronic treatment with PGB over the physiology of dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) using ex vivo electrophysiological and morphological analysis in adult mice. We found that PGB decreases neuronal excitability of DGGCs. In addition, PGB accelerates maturation of adult-born DGGCs, an effect that would modify dentate gyrus plasticity. Together, these findings suggest that PGB reduces activity in the dentate gyrus and modulates overall network plasticity, which might contribute to its therapeutic effects. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13783.

  20. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  1. Differential regulation of synaptic inputs to dentate hilar border interneurons by metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Doherty, J; Dingledine, R

    1998-06-01

    Regulation of synaptic transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) was examined at two excitatory inputs to interneurons with cell bodies at the granule cell-hilus border in hippocampal slices taken from neonatal rats. Subgroup-selective mGluR agonists altered the reliability, or probability of transmitter release, of evoked minimal excitatory synaptic inputs and decreased the amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked with conventional stimulation. The group II-selective agonist, (2S,1R',2R',3R')-2-(2, 3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV; 1 microM), reversibly depressed the reliability of EPSCs evoked by stimulation of the dentate granule cell layer. However, DCG-IV had no significant effect on EPSCs evoked by CA3 stimulation in the majority (82%) of hilar border interneurons. Both the group III-selective agonist, -(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (-AP4; 3 microM), and the group I-selective agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; 20 microM) reversibly depressed synaptic input to interneurons from both CA3 and the granule cell layer. We conclude that multiple pharmacologically distinct mGluRs presynaptically regulate synaptic transmission at two excitatory inputs to hilar border interneurons. Further, the degree of mGluR-meditated depression of excitatory drive is greater at synapses from dentate granule cells onto interneurons than at synapses from CA3 pyramidal cells.

  2. Postischemic Anhedonia Associated with Neurodegenerative Changes in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Jiro; Uchida, Hiroto; Tezuka, Kenta; Oka, Nanae

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the major symptoms observed in the chronic stage of brain stroke such as cerebral ischemia. Its pathophysiological mechanisms, however, are not well understood. Using the transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-, 90 min) operated rats as an ischemia model in this study, we first observed that aggravation of anhedonia spontaneously occurred especially after 20 weeks of MCAO, and it was prevented by chronic antidepressants treatment (imipramine or fluvoxamine). The anhedonia specifically associated with loss of the granular neurons in the ipsilateral side of hippocampal dentate gyrus and was also prevented by an antidepressant imipramine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased apoptosis inside the granular cell layer prior to and associated with the neuronal loss, and imipramine seemed to recover the survival signal rather than suppressing the death signal to prevent neurons from apoptosis. Proliferation and development of the neural stem cells were increased transiently in the subgranular zone of both ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus within one week after MCAO and then decreased and almost ceased after 6 weeks of MCAO, while chronic imipramine treatment prevented them partially. Overall, our study suggests new insights for the mechanistic correlation between poststroke depression and the delayed neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with effective use of antidepressants on them. PMID:27057366

  3. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure

    PubMed Central

    LaSarge, Candi L.; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offset the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predicts a net increase in granule cell >> CA3 innervation. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell >> CA3 communication. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25600212

  4. Sensorimotor Intervention Recovers Noradrenaline Content in the Dentate Gyrus of Cortical Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Languren, Laura E; García-Díaz, Gabriela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Rosas-López, Laura E; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Avila-Luna, Alberto; Ramírez-Anguiano, Hayde; González-Piña, Rigoberto

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, a consensus has been reached that designates the functional and structural reorganization of synapses as the primary mechanisms underlying the process of recovery from brain injury. We have reported that pontine noradrenaline (NA) is increased in animals after cortical ablation (CA). The aim of the present study was to explore the noradrenergic and morphological response after sensorimotor intervention (SMI) in rats injured in the motor cortex. We used male Wistar adult rats allocated in four conditions: sham-operated, injured by cortical ablation, sham-operated with SMI and injured by cortical ablation with SMI. Motor and somatosensory performance was evaluated prior to and 20 days after surgery. During the intervening period, a 15-session, SMI program was implemented. Subsequently, total NA analysis in the pons and dentate gyrus (DG) was performed. All groups underwent histological analysis. Our results showed that NA content in the DG was reduced in the injured group versus control, and this reduction was reverted in the injured group that underwent SMI. Moreover, injured rats showed reduction in the number of granule cells in the DG and decreased dentate granule cell layer thickness. Notably, after SMI, the loss of granule cells was reverted. Locus coeruleus showed turgid cells in the injured rats. These results suggest that SMI elicits biochemical and structural modifications in the hippocampus that could reorganize the system and lead the recovery process, modulating structural and functional plasticity.

  5. CREB Phosphorylation Coincides with Transient Synapse Formation in the Rat Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Following Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Cormac; Gallagher, Helen C.; O'Malley, Aoibheinn; Bourke, Mary; Regan, Ciaran M.

    2000-01-01

    Spine density change in the hippocampal dentate gyrus accompanies memory consolidation and coincides with the increased expression of ribosome-rich, hyperchromatic granule cells. Although this suggests increased protein synthesis to be required for synaptic growth in the 5 to 7 h post-training period, little temporal mapping of the associated molecular mechanisms has been done. Here, we demonstrate a similar frequency of hyperchromatic cells in naïve animals and in those sacrificed 6 h post-training, suggesting a transient repression of protein synthesis in the early post-training period. Immunoblot analysis of CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus supported this view, with downregulation from basal levels observed at 2 to 3 h and at 12 h posttraining. Protein synthesis reactivation appears to be specific for de novo spine production as no change in spine frequency accompanies the immediate post-training period of depressed protein synthesis. These findings support the view that CREB-mediated gene transcription is a requirement for long-term memory consolidation and may be directly implicated in the process of synaptic growth. PMID:11486487

  6. The Lysine Acetyltransferase Activator Brpf1 Governs Dentate Gyrus Development through Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    You, Linya; Yan, Kezhi; Zhou, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hong; Bertos, Nicholas R.; Park, Morag; Wang, Edwin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis. PMID:25757017

  7. Interleukin-1 mediates long-term hippocampal dentate granule cell loss following postnatal viral infection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Anna G; Sharma, Anup; Binder, Nikolaus B; Miller, Andrew H; Pearce, Bradley D

    2010-05-01

    Viral infections of the developing CNS can cause long-term neuropathological sequela through undefined mechanisms. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta have gained attention in mediating neurodegeneration in corticohippocampal structures due to a variety of insults in adults, though there is less information on the developing brain. Little is known concerning the spatial-temporal pattern of IL-1beta induction in the developing hippocampus following live virus infection, and there are few studies addressing the long-term consequences of this cytokine induction. We report that infection of rats with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus on postnatal day 4 induces IL-1beta protein in select regions of the hippocampus on 6, 15, 21, and 45 days after infection. This infection resulted in a 71% reduction of dentate granule cell neurons by the time the rats reached mid-adulthood. We further investigated the causative role of IL-1 in this dentate granule cell loss by blocking IL-1 activity using an IL-1ra-expressing adenoviral vector administered at the time of infection. Blockade of IL-1 abrogated the infection-associated neuron loss in this vivo model. Considering that IL-1 can be triggered by multiple perinatal insults, our findings suggest that early therapy with anti-inflammatory agents that block IL-1 may be effective for reducing adulthood neuropathology.

  8. How Informative Are Spatial CA3 Representations Established by the Dentate Gyrus?

    PubMed Central

    Cerasti, Erika; Treves, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian hippocampus, the dentate gyrus (DG) is characterized by sparse and powerful unidirectional projections to CA3 pyramidal cells, the so-called mossy fibers. Mossy fiber synapses appear to duplicate, in terms of the information they convey, what CA3 cells already receive from entorhinal cortex layer II cells, which project both to the dentate gyrus and to CA3. Computational models of episodic memory have hypothesized that the function of the mossy fibers is to enforce a new, well separated pattern of activity onto CA3 cells, to represent a new memory, prevailing over the interference produced by the traces of older memories already stored on CA3 recurrent collateral connections. Can this hypothesis apply also to spatial representations, as described by recent neurophysiological recordings in rats? To address this issue quantitatively, we estimate the amount of information DG can impart on a new CA3 pattern of spatial activity, using both mathematical analysis and computer simulations of a simplified model. We confirm that, also in the spatial case, the observed sparse connectivity and level of activity are most appropriate for driving memory storage – and not to initiate retrieval. Surprisingly, the model also indicates that even when DG codes just for space, much of the information it passes on to CA3 acquires a non-spatial and episodic character, akin to that of a random number generator. It is suggested that further hippocampal processing is required to make full spatial use of DG inputs. PMID:20454678

  9. [Dissertation 25 years after date 39. Oral self-care by dentate elderly].

    PubMed

    Klüter, W J; de Baat, C

    2015-06-01

    In 1989, the dissertation 'Oral self-care for dentate elderly' was published. Among other things, the effect of an information leaflet on oral self-care was investigated in a randomised, controlled trial. The outcome of the entire intervention was positive. Subsequent to this dissertation no comparable research has been carried out in the Netherlands or abroad. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the oral self-care of dentate older people. To improve the oral (self-)care of nursing home residents, carers should be educated theoretically and practically, preferably during their professional training. With regard to older people living at home, oral healthcare providers should assess whether their oral health condition will be stable for the rest of their life, at the latest when their general health condition is beginning to deteriorate. Determining factors in this regard are a stable dentition that can easily be kept clean, particularly when oral implants are present. As soon as older people who are living at home become dependent, they will require support. Oral health care providers should, then, make sure that their practices physically accessible and should be prepared to deliver care at home.

  10. Dental visits among dentate adults with diabetes--United States, 1999 and 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-11-25

    One of the major complications of diabetes is periodontal disease, a chronic infection of tissues supporting the teeth and a major cause of tooth loss. Adults with diabetes have both a higher prevalence of periodontal disease and more severe forms of the disease, contributing to impaired quality of life and substantial oral functional disability. In addition, periodontal disease has been associated with development of glucose intolerance and poor glycemic control among adults with diabetes. Regular dental visits provide opportunities for prevention, early detection, and treatment of periodontal disease among dentate adults (i.e., those having one or more teeth); moreover, regular dental cleaning improves glycemic control in patients with poorly controlled diabetic conditions. One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to increase the proportion of persons with diabetes who have an annual dental examination to 71% (revised objective 5-15). To estimate the percentage of dentate U.S. adults aged > or =18 years with diabetes who visited a dentist within the preceding 12 months, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for 1999 and 2004. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2004, age-adjusted estimates in only seven states exceeded 71% and estimated percentages for four states and District of Columbia (DC) increased significantly from their levels in 1999. The findings underscore the need to increase awareness and support for oral health care among adults with diabetes, including support for national and state diabetes care management programs.

  11. Postischemic Anhedonia Associated with Neurodegenerative Changes in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Jiro; Uchida, Hiroto; Tezuka, Kenta; Oka, Nanae

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the major symptoms observed in the chronic stage of brain stroke such as cerebral ischemia. Its pathophysiological mechanisms, however, are not well understood. Using the transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-, 90 min) operated rats as an ischemia model in this study, we first observed that aggravation of anhedonia spontaneously occurred especially after 20 weeks of MCAO, and it was prevented by chronic antidepressants treatment (imipramine or fluvoxamine). The anhedonia specifically associated with loss of the granular neurons in the ipsilateral side of hippocampal dentate gyrus and was also prevented by an antidepressant imipramine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased apoptosis inside the granular cell layer prior to and associated with the neuronal loss, and imipramine seemed to recover the survival signal rather than suppressing the death signal to prevent neurons from apoptosis. Proliferation and development of the neural stem cells were increased transiently in the subgranular zone of both ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus within one week after MCAO and then decreased and almost ceased after 6 weeks of MCAO, while chronic imipramine treatment prevented them partially. Overall, our study suggests new insights for the mechanistic correlation between poststroke depression and the delayed neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with effective use of antidepressants on them.

  12. The role of the dorsal dentate gyrus in object and object-context recognition.

    PubMed

    Dees, Richard L; Kesner, Raymond P

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in object recognition memory using a black box and object-context recognition memory using a clear box with available cues that define a spatial context. Based on a 10 min retention interval between the study phase and the test phase, the results indicated that dDG lesioned rats are impaired when compared to controls in the object-context recognition test in the clear box. However, there were no reliable differences between the dDG lesioned rats and the control group for the object recognition test in the black box. Even though the dDG lesioned rats were more active in object exploration, the habituation gradients did not differ. These results suggest that the dentate gyrus lesioned rats are clearly impaired when there is an important contribution of context. Furthermore, based on a 24 h retention interval in the black box the dDG lesioned rats were impaired compared to controls.

  13. Housing Complexity Alters GFAP-Immunoreactive Astrocyte Morphology in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Salois, Garrick; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Rats used in research are typically housed singly in cages with limited sensory stimulation. There is substantial evidence that housing rats in these conditions lead to numerous neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Alternatively, rats can be housed in an enriched environment in which rats are housed in groups and given room for exercise and exploration. Enriched environments result in considerable neuroplasticity in the rodent brain. In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, enriched environments evoke especially profound neural changes, including increases in the number of neurons and the number of dendritic spines. However, whether changes in astrocytes, a type of glia increasingly implicated in mediating neuroplasticity, are concurrent with these neural changes remains to be investigated. In order to assess morphological changes among astrocytes of the rat dentate gyrus, piSeeDB was used to optically clear 250 μm sections of tissue labeled using GFAP immunohistochemistry. Confocal imaging and image analysis were then used to measure astrocyte morphology. Astrocytes from animals housed in EE demonstrated a reduced distance between filament branch points. Furthermore, the most complex astrocytes were significantly more complex among animals housed in EE compared to standard environments. PMID:26989515

  14. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions.

  15. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p < 0.001), a slower chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  16. Kindling-associated SV2A expression in hilar GABAergic interneurons of the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Ishihara, Shizuka; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi

    2012-02-29

    Immunohistochemical studies were performed to analyze the expressional changes in hippocampal synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) following pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling. Repeated treatments of mice with sub-convulsive PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days progressively enhanced seizure susceptibility and induced clonic convulsions in most animals examined. Topographical analysis of hippocampal SV2A-immunoreactivity revealed that SV2A was densely expressed in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus, stratum lucidum of the CA3 field and around the periphery of CA3 pyramidal neurons. PTZ kindling region-specifically increased SV2A expression in the dentate hilus without affecting that in the stratum lucidum or the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 field. Confocal laser microscopic analysis using PTZ-kindled mice illustrated that most SV2A was co-expressed with glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the cell bodies and dendrites of hilar interneurons. However, SV2A-immunoreactivity was negligibly observed in the hilar glutamatergic nerve terminals (mossy fibers) probed with the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 antibody. The present study suggests that SV2A specifically regulates hilar GABAergic neurotransmission in the kindled hippocampus probably as a compensatory or prophylactic mechanism against kindling epileptogenesis.

  17. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person’s nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student’s t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (p<0.05). There was no significant difference regarding the serum ferritin levels between dentate and edentulous patients prior to surgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention. PMID:27695053

  18. Exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Mateo, M.; Fich, M.; Massey, P.

    1988-11-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies. 30 references.

  19. Nucleus morphology of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitsema, H. J.; Delamere, W. A.; Huebner, W. F.; Keller, H. U.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Wilhelm, K.; Schmidt, H. U.; Whipple, Fred L.

    1986-01-01

    Images obtained by the Halley multicolor camera were used to determine the projected size and shape of the nucleus. The location of the terminator and numerous surface features were determined. There is good correlation between the brightest surface features and the dust jets; however, many bright features are seen which are not associated with jets. Most of the observed features are circular and appear to be related to surface elevation. The angularity of the terminator gives an indication of the three-dimensional structure of the face which was observed.

  20. Retention of concurrent taste aversion learning after electrolytic lesioning of the interpositus-dentate region of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, C; Molina, F; Puerto, A

    2000-06-23

    Lesions in the interpositus-dentate region of the cerebellum impair short-term, or concurrent, TAL. In this type of learning, animals must discriminate between two flavor stimuli presented at the same time, one of which is associated with an aversive product. The task is learned by the control animals, and within this group the animals that acquire it adequately enough (15/22, 70% criterion) retain the learned taste discrimination when they are subjected to it again after being lesioned in the interpositus-dentate region. These results suggest that the deep nuclei are essential in the concurrent TAL acquisition process, but not in its retention.

  1. NPY and VGF Immunoreactivity Increased in the Arcuate Nucleus, but Decreased in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, of Type-II Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saderi, Nadia; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Avendaño-Pradel, Rafael; Basualdo, Maria del Carmen; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Chávez-Macías, Laura; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2012-01-01

    Ample animal studies demonstrate that neuropeptides NPY and α-MSH expressed in Arcuate Nucleus and Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, modulate glucose homeostasis and food intake. In contrast is the absence of data validating these observations for human disease. Here we compare the post mortem immunoreactivity of the metabolic neuropeptides NPY, αMSH and VGF in the infundibular nucleus, and brainstem of 11 type-2 diabetic and 11 non-diabetic individuals. α-MSH, NPY and tyrosine hydroxylase in human brain are localized in the same areas as in rodent brain. The similar distribution of NPY, α-MSH and VGF indicated that these neurons in the human brain may share similar functionality as in the rodent brain. The number of NPY and VGF immuno positive cells was increased in the infundibular nucleus of diabetic subjects in comparison to non-diabetic controls. In contrast, NPY and VGF were down regulated in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius of diabetic patients. These results suggest an activation of NPY producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which, according to animal experimental studies, is related to a catabolic state and might be the basis for increased hepatic glucose production in type-2 diabetes. PMID:22808091

  2. Developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) produces a persistent impairment in long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M E; Crofton, K M

    1999-12-11

    Developmental exposure to polycholorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals. The present study sought to examine synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for some types of memory function, in animals exposed to PCBs early in development. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered either corn oil (control) or 6 mg/kg/day of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. In adult male offspring (3-6 months of age), field potentials evoked by perforant path stimulation were recorded in the dentate gyrus under urethane anesthesia. Input/output (I/O) functions were assessed by averaging the response evoked in the dentate gyrus to stimulus pulses delivered to the perforant path in an ascending intensity series. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by delivering a series of brief high frequency (400 Hz) train bursts to the perforant path at a moderate stimulus intensity and I/O functions were reassessed 1 h later. No differences in baseline synaptic population spike (PS) and minor effects on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slope amplitudes were discerned between the groups prior to train delivery. Post-train I/O functions, however, revealed a 50% decrement in the magnitude of LTP in PCB-exposed animals. These data are the first to demonstrate persistent decrements in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the intact animal following developmental exposure to PCBs. Disruption of early brain ontogeny due to developmental PCB exposure may underlie perturbations in the neurological substrates that support synaptic plasticity and contribute to deficits in LTP and learning that persist into adulthood.

  3. Efficacy of doublecortin as a marker to analyse the absolute number and dendritic growth of newly generated neurons in the adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Muddanna S; Shetty, Ashok K

    2004-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated phosphoprotein, has been recently utilized as a marker of newly born neurons in the adult dentate gyrus (DG). Nonetheless, it is unknown whether DCX exclusively labels newly formed neurons, as certain granule cells with the phenotype of differentiated neurons express DCX. We addressed the authenticity of DCX as a marker of new neurons in the adult DG by quantifying cells that are positive for 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), DCX and both BrdU and DCX in hippocampal tissues of adult rats treated with daily injections of BrdU for 12 consecutive days. We provide new evidence that neurons visualized with DCX immunostaining in the adult rat DG are new neurons that are predominantly born during the 12 days before euthanasia. This is confirmed by the robust expression of BrdU in 90% of DCX-positive neurons in the DG of animals injected with BrdU for 12 days. Furthermore, DCX expression is specific to newly generated healthy neurons, as virtually all DCX-positive cells express early neuronal antigens but lack antigens specific to glia, undifferentiated cells or apoptotic cells. As DCX expression is also robust in the dendrites, DCX immunocytochemistry of thicker sections facilitates quantification of the dendritic growth in newly born neurons. Thus, both absolute number and dendritic growth of new neurons that are generated in the adult DG over a 12-day period can be quantified reliably with DCX immunostaining. This could be particularly useful for analysing changes in dentate neurogenesis in human hippocampal tissues as a function of ageing or neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Sex difference in Onuf’s nucleus homologue in the Asian musk shrew

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Kathryn; Freeman, Louise M.

    2010-01-01

    Perineal muscles essential for copulatory functioning are innvervated by Onuf’s nucleus in humans and the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) in rats. These structures sexually differentiate as a result of developmental androgen exposure in most species examined. The homologous structure in the Asian musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a single cluster in the lateral DLN/Onuf’s position in the ventral horn of the spinal cord; these motoneurons innervate both the bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles of the musk shrew. We found the expected sex difference in motoneuron number in the shrew DLN, but not in two neighboring motoneuron clusters, the retrodorsolateral nucleus (RDLN) and ventrolateral nucleus (VLN). Male musk shrews also have significantly larger soma areas in the VLN and DLN than females, and male DLN motoneurons have significantly larger nuclei than female. The sex difference in DLN motoneuron number was evident both in raw counts and after accounting for split nuclei error. PMID:20510680

  5. Attributed relational graphs for cell nucleus segmentation in fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2013-06-01

    More rapid and accurate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research has become possible with the development of automated microscopy imaging, for which cell nucleus segmentation commonly constitutes the core step. Although several promising methods exist for segmenting the nuclei of monolayer isolated and less-confluent cells, it still remains an open problem to segment the nuclei of more-confluent cells, which tend to grow in overlayers. To address this problem, we propose a new model-based nucleus segmentation algorithm. This algorithm models how a human locates a nucleus by identifying the nucleus boundaries and piecing them together. In this algorithm, we define four types of primitives to represent nucleus boundaries at different orientations and construct an attributed relational graph on the primitives to represent their spatial relations. Then, we reduce the nucleus identification problem to finding predefined structural patterns in the constructed graph and also use the primitives in region growing to delineate the nucleus borders. Working with fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm identifies nuclei better than previous nucleus segmentation algorithms.

  6. The pedunculopontine nucleus area: critical evaluation of interspecies differences relevant for its use as a target for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mesbah; Schwabe, Kerstin; Krauss, Joachim K

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the pedunculopontine nucleus has been highlighted as a target for deep brain stimulation for the treatment of freezing of postural instability and gait disorders in Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. There is great controversy, however, as to the exact location of the optimal site for stimulation. In this review, we give an overview of anatomy and connectivity of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in rats, cats, non-human primates and humans. Additionally, we report on the behavioural changes after chemical or electrical manipulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the relation to adjacent regions of the pedunculopontine nucleus, such as the cuneiform nucleus and the subcuneiform nucleus, which together with the pedunculopontine nucleus are the main areas of the mesencephalic locomotor region and play a major role in the initiation of gait. This information is discussed with respect to the experimental designs used for research purposes directed to a better understanding of the circuitry pathway of the pedunculopontine nucleus in association with basal ganglia pathology, and with respect to deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in humans.

  7. Modulation of paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus: effects of prenatal protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Blaise, J H; Mokler, D J; Galler, J R; Morgane, P J

    1999-12-04

    Since our major hypothesis is that prenatal protein malnutrition significantly affects hippocampal neuroplasticity, this study examined the effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the modulation of dentate granule cell excitability in freely moving rats at 15, 30 and 90 days of age across the vigilance states of quiet waking (QW), slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Using paired-pulse stimulation, the paired-pulse index (PPI), a measure of the type and degree of modulation of dentate granule cell excitability elicited by stimulation of the medial perforant path, was obtained for each vigilance state at each stage of development. Four specific measures of granule cell excitability were computed, namely, PPI using both population spike amplitude (PSA) and EPSP slope measures, absolute values of PSA(1) and EPSP(1) slope. PPI values obtained at 15, 30 and 90 days of age, however, were altered during normal ontogenetic development, but not by vigilance state. At 15 days of age, the malnourished group exhibits greater early inhibition of the PPI using the PSA measure at IPIs between 20 and 30 ms regardless of vigilance state, while at 30 days of age, the malnourished group exhibits greater facilitation at IPIs between 50 and 70 ms during QW and SWS, but not during REM sleep. In the control adult (PND90) and juvenile (PND30) animal, PSA(1) values are significantly higher during SWS than in QW or REM sleep. However, for the younger malnourished animals (PND15 and PND30), PSA(1) values were found to be significantly greater during REM sleep rather than SWS. Therefore, as the animal matures, there appears to be a shift in vigilance state dependent synaptic transmission through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit from REM sleep to SWS in both control and malnourished animals, with the change occurring later in malnourished animals when compared to control ones. Furthermore, our findings suggests that prenatal protein malnutrition significantly alters

  8. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2) has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO) mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that adult neurogenesis

  9. Dentate Gyrus-Specific Knockdown of Adult Neurogenesis Impairs Spatial and Object Recognition Memory in Adult Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Clark, Robert E.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clemenson, Gregory D., Jr.; Consiglio, Antonella; Lie, D. Chichung; Squire, Larry R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    New granule cells are born throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Given the fundamental role of the hippocampus in processes underlying certain forms of learning and memory, it has been speculated that newborn granule cells contribute to cognition. However, previous strategies aiming to causally link newborn neurons…

  10. Prolonged protein deprivation differentially affects calretinin- and parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hipólito-Reis, José; Pereira, Pedro Alberto; Andrade, José Paulo; Cardoso, Armando

    2013-10-25

    Protein deprivation is a detrimental nutritional state that induces several deleterious changes in the rat hippocampal formation. In this study, we compared the effects of protein deprivation in the number of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive and calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive interneurons of the dentate gyrus, which are involved in the control of calcium homeostasis and fine tuning of the hippocampal circuits. Two month-old rats were randomly assigned to control and low-protein diet groups. The rats of the latter group were fed with a low-protein diet (8% casein) for 6 months. All animals were perfused at 8 months of age. The number of neurons expressing CR in the molecular layer and in the hilus of dentate gyrus was reduced in protein-deprived rats. Conversely, protein deprivation increased the number of PV-containing interneurons in the dentate granule cell layer and hilus. These results support the view that protein deprivation may disturb calcium homeostasis, leading to neuronal death including GABAergic interneurons expressing CR. In the other hand, the up-regulation of PV cells may reflect a protective mechanism to counteract the calcium overload and protect the remaining neurons of the dentate gyrus.

  11. Restoration of mossy fiber projection in slice co-cultures of dislocated dentate gyrus and degranulated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gaiarsa, J L; Heimrich, B

    1995-05-26

    Regional specificity of the mossy fiber projection is a well described feature of hippocampal intrinsic connectivity. Possible mechanisms involved in the formation of this specific projection include attraction molecules localized in the target area or repulsive cues preventing from ingrowth in non-target areas. To test this hypothesis, using organotypic co-cultures of dentate gyrus and irradiated degranulated hippocampal slices, we have disrupted the pathway normally taken by mossy fibers. The dentate gyrus explant was ectopically placed facing the alveus/stratum oriens of the irradiated hippocampal slice forcing the mossy fibers to cross the stratum oriens to reach their target area. Extensive plexuses of labeled mossy fibers were observed in the hilus and adjacent pyramidal cell layer of non-irradiated dentate gyrus explants. A few mossy fibers crossed the border between the co-cultures and reached their specific termination area in the irradiated hippocampus where they formed characteristic multiple synaptic contacts on their target cells. In addition to mossy fibers, numerous thin and varicose non-mossy fibers invade all parts of the co-cultured hippocampus establishing symmetric synapses. From these data we assume that mossy fiber axons emerging from dislocated non-irradiated dentate gyrus explants find their normal termination zone in the co-cultured degranulated hippocampal slice even if they are forced to run an unusual pathway. These results support the idea that an attraction signal arising from the target area is involved in the formation of this specific projection.

  12. Roles of afadin in the formation of the cellular architecture of the mouse hippocampus and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Muneaki; Maruo, Tomohiko; Kaito, Aika; Wang, Shujie; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Mandai, Kenji; Takai, Yoshimi

    2017-03-01

    The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecules nectins and its binding protein afadin play roles in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses which are formed between the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells. We showed here that in the afadin-deficient hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus granules cells and the CA3, CA2, and CA1 pyramidal cells were abnormally located; the mossy fiber trajectory was abnormally elongated; the CA3 pyramidal cells were abnormally differentiated; and the densities of the presynaptic boutons on the mossy fibers and the apical dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells were decreased. These results indicate that afadin plays roles not only in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses but also in the formation of the cellular architecture of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus.

  13. D1/D5 Receptors and Histone Deacetylation Mediate the Gateway Effect of LTP in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yan-You; Lavine, Amir; Kandel, Denise B.; Yin, Deqi; Colnaghi, Luca; Drisaldi, Bettina; Kandel, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is critical for spatial memory and is also thought to be involved in the formation of drug-related associative memory. Here, we attempt to test an aspect of the Gateway Hypothesis, by studying the effect of consecutive exposure to nicotine and cocaine on long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the DG. We…

  14. 5-HT1a Receptor Antagonists Block Perforant Path-Dentate LTP Induced in Novel, but Not Familiar, Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Jones, Floretta L.; Do, Viet H.; Dieguez, Dario, Jr.; Derrick, Brian E.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest roles for monoamines in modulating long-term potentiation (LTP). Previously, we reported that both induction and maintenance of perforant path-dentate gyrus LTP is enhanced when induced while animals explore novel environments. Here we investigate the contribution of serotonin and 5-HT1a receptors to the novelty-mediated…

  15. Reduced tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus contributes to chronic stress-induced impairments in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vallent; MacKenzie, Georgina; Hooper, Andrew; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that stress impacts the underlying processes of learning and memory. The effects of stress on memory are thought to involve, at least in part, effects on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to stress. Chronic stress induces hippocampal alterations, including but not limited to dendritic atrophy and decreased neurogenesis, which are thought to contribute to chronic stress-induced hippocampal dysfunction and deficits in learning and memory. Changes in synaptic transmission, including changes in GABAergic inhibition, have been documented following chronic stress. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated shifts in EGABA in CA1 pyramidal neurons following chronic stress, compromising GABAergic transmission and increasing excitability of these neurons. Interestingly, here we demonstrate that these alterations are unique to CA1 pyramidal neurons, since we do not observe shifts in EGABA following chronic stress in dentate gyrus granule cells. Following chronic stress, there is a decrease in the expression of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) δ subunit and tonic GABAergic inhibition in dentate gyrus granule cells, whereas there is an increase in the phasic component of GABAergic inhibition, evident by an increase in the peak amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). Given the numerous changes observed in the hippocampus following stress, it is difficult to pinpoint the pertinent contributing pathophysiological factors. Here we directly assess the impact of a reduction in tonic GABAergic inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells on learning and memory using a mouse model with a decrease in GABAA R δ subunit expression specifically in dentate gyrus granule cells (Gabrd/Pomc mice). Reduced GABAA R δ subunit expression and function in dentate gyrus granule cells is sufficient to induce deficits in learning and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that the reduction in GABAA R δ subunit-mediated tonic inhibition

  16. CP-154,526 Modifies CREB Phosphorylation and Thioredoxin-1 Expression in the Dentate Gyrus following Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Camejo, Daymi M; Almela, Pilar; Jiménez, Ana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Sevilla, Francisca; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts as neuro-regulator of the behavioral and emotional integration of environmental and endogenous stimuli associated with drug dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a functional protein controlling the redox status of several proteins, which is involved in addictive processes. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the rewarding properties of morphine by using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We also investigate the effects of the CRF1R antagonist, CP-154,526, on the morphine CPP-induced activation of CRF neurons, CREB phosphorylation and Trx expression in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dentate gyrus (DG) of the mice brain. CP-154,526 abolished the acquisition of morphine CPP and the increase of CRF/pCREB positive neurons in PVN. Moreover, this CRF1R antagonist prevented morphine-induced CRF-immunoreactive fibers in DG, as well as the increase in pCREB expression in both the PVN and DG. In addition, morphine exposure induced an increase in Trx-1 expression in DG without any alterations in PVN. We also observed that the majority of pCREB positive neurons in DG co-expressed Trx-1, suggesting that Trx-1 could activate CREB in the DG, a brain region involved in memory consolidation. Altogether, these results support the idea that CRF1R antagonist blocked Trx-1 expression and pCREB/Trx-1 co-localization, indicating a critical role of CRF, through CRF1R, in molecular changes involved in morphine associated behaviors.

  17. The nondecussating pathway of the dentatorubrothalamic tract in humans: human connectome-based tractographic study and microdissection validation.

    PubMed

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) is the major efferent cerebellar pathway arising from the dentate nucleus (DN) and decussating to the contralateral red nucleus (RN) and thalamus. Surprisingly, hemispheric cerebellar output influences bilateral limb movements. In animals, uncrossed projections from the DN to the ipsilateral RN and thalamus may explain this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy of the dentatorubrothalamic connections in humans. METHODS The authors applied advanced deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (Q1-Q3 release, WU-Minn HCP consortium) and validated the results with microsurgical dissection of cadaveric brains prepared according to Klingler's method. RESULTS The authors identified the "classic" decussating DRTT and a corresponding nondecussating path (the nondecussating DRTT, nd-DRTT). Within each of these 2 tracts some fibers stop at the level of the RN, forming the dentatorubro tract and the nondecussating dentatorubro tract. The left nd-DRTT encompasses 21.7% of the tracts and 24.9% of the volume of the left superior cerebellar peduncle, and the right nd-DRTT encompasses 20.2% of the tracts and 28.4% of the volume of the right superior cerebellar peduncle. CONCLUSIONS The connections of the DN with the RN and thalamus are bilateral, not ipsilateral only. This affords a potential anatomical substrate for bilateral limb motor effects originating in a single cerebellar hemisphere under physiological conditions, and for bilateral limb motor impairment in hemispheric cerebellar lesions such as ischemic stroke and hemorrhage, and after resection of hemispheric tumors and arteriovenous malformations. Furthermore, when a lesion is located on the course of the dentatorubrothalamic system, a careful preoperative tractographic analysis of the relationship of the DRTT, nd-DRTT, and the lesion should be performed in order to tailor the surgical approach properly

  18. Projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The mouse precuneiform nucleus has been proposed as the midbrain locomotion center, a function ascribed to its caudal neighbor, cuneiform nucleus, in the rat, cat and other species. The present study investigated the projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse using retrograde tracer injections (fluoro-gold) into the precuneiform nucleus and anterograde tracer injections (biotinylated dextran amine) into the central amygdaloid nucleus. The entire central amygdaloid nucleus except the rostral pole had retrogradely labeled neurons, especially in the middle portion where labeled neurons were densely packed. Anterogradely labeled amygdaloid fibers approached the precuneiform nucleus from the area ventrolateral to it and terminated in the entire precuneiform nucleus. Labeled fibers were also found in laminae 5 and 6 in the upper cervical cord on the ipsilateral side. The present study is the first demonstration of projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus. This projection may underpin the role of the precuneiform nucleus in the modulation of the cardiovascular activity.

  19. Dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells contribute to pattern separation by controlling sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Chavlis, Spyridon; Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, nonverlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon. To investigate whether and how the dendrites of GCs contribute to pattern separation, we build a simplified, biologically relevant, computational model of the DG. Our model suggests that the presence of GC dendrites is associated with high pattern separation efficiency while their atrophy leads to increased excitability and performance impairments. These impairments can be rescued by restoring GC sparsity to control levels through various manipulations. We predict that dendrites contribute to pattern separation as a mechanism for controlling sparsity. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27784124

  20. Separation or binding? Role of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal mnemonic processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Jung, Min Whan

    2017-02-04

    As a major component of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit, the dentate gyrus (DG) relays inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the CA3 subregion. Although the anatomy of the DG is well characterized, its contribution to hippocampal mnemonic processing is still unclear. A currently popular theory proposes that the primary function of the DG is to orthogonalize incoming input patterns into non-overlapping patterns (pattern separation). We critically review the available data and conclude that the theoretical support and empirical evidence for this theory are not strong. We then review an alternative theory that posits a role for the DG in binding together different types of incoming sensory information. We conclude that 'binding' better captures the contribution of the DG to memory encoding than 'pattern separation'.

  1. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  2. Experience-dependent remodeling of basket cell networks in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Pieraut, Simon; Gounko, Natalia; Sando, Richard; Dang, Westley; Rebboah, Elisabeth; Panda, Satchidananda; Madisen, Linda; Zeng, Hongkui; Maximov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The structural organization of neural circuits is strongly influenced by experience, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We found that, in the developing dentate gyrus (DG), excitatory drive promotes the somatic innervation of principal granule cells (GCs) by parvalbumin (PV)-positive basket cells. By contrast, presynaptic differentiation of GCs and interneuron sub-types that inhibit GC dendrites is largely resistant to loss of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The networks of PV basket cells in the DG are regulated by vesicular release from projection entorhinal cortical neurons and, at least in part, by NMDA receptors in interneurons. Finally, we present evidence that glutamatergic inputs and NMDA receptors regulate these networks through a presynaptic mechanism that appears to control the branching of interneuron axons. Our results provide insights into how cortical activity tunes the inhibition in a subcortical circuit, and reveal new principles of interneuron plasticity. PMID:25277456

  3. NCS-1 in the dentate gyrus promotes exploration, synaptic plasticity, and rapid acquisition of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Saab, Bechara J; Georgiou, John; Nath, Arup; Lee, Frank J S; Wang, Min; Michalon, Aubin; Liu, Fang; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Roder, John C

    2009-09-10

    The molecular underpinnings of exploration and its link to learning and memory remain poorly understood. Here we show that inducible, modest overexpression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) selectively in the adult murine dentate gyrus (DG) promotes a specific form of exploratory behavior. The mice also display a selective facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the medial perforant path and a selective enhancement in rapid-acquisition spatial memory, phenotypes that are reversed by direct application of a cell-permeant peptide (DNIP) designed to interfere with NCS-1 binding to the dopamine type-2 receptor (D2R). Moreover, the DNIP and the D2R-selective antagonist L-741,626 attenuated exploratory behavior, DG LTP, and spatial memory in control mice. These data demonstrate a role for NCS-1 and D2R in DG plasticity and provide insight for understanding how the DG contributes to the origin of exploration and spatial memory acquisition.

  4. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  5. Differential control of learning and anxiety along the dorsoventral axis of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Mazen A; Drew, Liam J; Burghardt, Nesha S; Costantini, Daniel O; Tannenholz, Lindsay; Ahmari, Susanne E; Zeng, Hongkui; Fenton, André A; Hen, René

    2013-03-06

    The dentate gyrus (DG), in addition to its role in learning and memory, is increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we show that, dependent on their position along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus, DG granule cells (GCs) control specific features of anxiety and contextual learning. Using optogenetic techniques to either elevate or decrease GC activity, we demonstrate that GCs in the dorsal DG control exploratory drive and encoding, not retrieval, of contextual fear memories. In contrast, elevating the activity of GCs in the ventral DG has no effect on contextual learning but powerfully suppresses innate anxiety. These results suggest that strategies aimed at modulating the excitability of the ventral DG may be beneficial for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. Role of the dentate gyrus in mediating object-spatial configuration recognition.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P; Taylor, James O; Hoge, Jennifer; Andy, Ford

    2015-02-01

    In the present study the effects of dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) lesions in rats were tested on recognition memory tasks based on the interaction between objects, features of objects, and spatial features. The results indicated that the rats with dDG lesions did not differ from controls in recognition for a change within object feature configuration and object recognition tasks. In contrast, there was a deficit for the dDG lesioned rats relative to controls in recognition for a change within object-spatial feature configuration, complex object-place feature configuration and spatial recognition tasks. It is suggested that the dDG subregion of the hippocampus supports object-place and complex object-place feature information via a conjunctive encoding process.

  7. Granule cell hyperexcitability in the early post-traumatic rat dentate gyrus: the ‘irritable mossy cell’ hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Bender, Roland; Frotscher, Michael; Ross, Stephen T; Hollrigel, Greg S; Toth, Zsolt; Soltesz, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    Cytochemical and in vitro whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to investigate granule cell hyperexcitability in the dentate gyrus 1 week after fluid percussion head trauma. The percentage decrease in the number of hilar interneurones labelled with either GAD67 or parvalbumin mRNA probes following trauma was not different from the decrease in the total population of hilar cells, indicating no preferential survival of interneurones with respect to the non-GABAergic hilar cells, i.e. the mossy cells. Dentate granule cells following trauma showed enhanced action potential discharges, and longer-lasting depolarizations, in response to perforant path stimulation, in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. There was no post-traumatic alteration in the perforant path-evoked monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), or in the intrinsic properties of granule cells. However, after trauma, the monosynaptic EPSC was followed by late, polysynaptic EPSCs, which were not present in controls. The late EPSCs in granule cells from fluid percussion-injured rats were not blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), but were eliminated by both the non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 53655. In addition, the late EPSCs were not present in low (0·5 mM) extracellular calcium, and they were also eliminated by the removal of the dentate hilus from the slice. Mossy hilar cells in the traumatic dentate gyrus responded with significantly enhanced, prolonged trains of action potential discharges to perforant path stimulation. These data indicate that surviving mossy cells play a crucial role in the hyperexcitable responses of the post-traumatic dentate gyrus. PMID:10747187

  8. Granule cell hyperexcitability in the early post-traumatic rat dentate gyrus: the 'irritable mossy cell' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Santhakumar, V; Bender, R; Frotscher, M; Ross, S T; Hollrigel, G S; Toth, Z; Soltesz, I

    2000-04-01

    1. Cytochemical and in vitro whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to investigate granule cell hyperexcitability in the dentate gyrus 1 week after fluid percussion head trauma. 2. The percentage decrease in the number of hilar interneurones labelled with either GAD67 or parvalbumin mRNA probes following trauma was not different from the decrease in the total population of hilar cells, indicating no preferential survival of interneurones with respect to the non-GABAergic hilar cells, i.e. the mossy cells. 3. Dentate granule cells following trauma showed enhanced action potential discharges, and longer-lasting depolarizations, in response to perforant path stimulation, in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. 4. There was no post-traumatic alteration in the perforant path-evoked monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), or in the intrinsic properties of granule cells. However, after trauma, the monosynaptic EPSC was followed by late, polysynaptic EPSCs, which were not present in controls. 5. The late EPSCs in granule cells from fluid percussion-injured rats were not blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), but were eliminated by both the non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 53655. 6. In addition, the late EPSCs were not present in low (0.5 mM) extracellular calcium, and they were also eliminated by the removal of the dentate hilus from the slice. 7. Mossy hilar cells in the traumatic dentate gyrus responded with significantly enhanced, prolonged trains of action potential discharges to perforant path stimulation. 8. These data indicate that surviving mossy cells play a crucial role in the hyperexcitable responses of the post-traumatic dentate gyrus.

  9. Altered morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cell presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals following conditional deletion of TrkB.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C; Kotloski, Robert J; Walter, Cynthia; Hughes, Maya; McNamara, James O

    2008-01-01

    Dentate granule cells play a critical role in the function of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry in health and disease. Dentate granule cells are situated to regulate the flow of information into the hippocampus, a structure required for normal learning and memory. Correspondingly, impaired granule cell function leads to memory deficits, and, interestingly, altered granule cell connectivity may contribute to the hyperexcitability of limbic epilepsy. It is important, therefore, to understand the molecular determinants of synaptic connectivity of these neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB are expressed at high levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and are implicated in regulating neuronal development, neuronal plasticity, learning, and the development of epilepsy. Whether and how TrkB regulates granule cell structure, however, is incompletely understood. To begin to elucidate the role of TrkB in regulating granule cell morphology, here we examine conditional TrkB knockout mice crossed to mice expressing green fluorescent protein in subsets of dentate granule cells. In stratum lucidum, where granule cell mossy fiber axons project, the density of giant mossy fiber boutons was unchanged, suggesting similar output to CA3 pyramidal cell targets. However, filopodial extensions of giant boutons, which contact inhibitory interneurons, were increased in number in TrkB knockout mice relative to wildtype controls, predicting enhanced feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramidal cells. In knockout animals, dentate granule cells possessed fewer primary dendrites and enlarged dendritic spines, indicative of disrupted excitatory synaptic input to the granule cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that TrkB is required for development and/or maintenance of normal synaptic connectivity of the granule cells, thereby implying an important role for TrkB in the function of the granule cells and hippocampal circuitry.

  10. Status epilepticus enhances tonic GABA currents and depolarizes GABA reversal potential in dentate fast-spiking basket cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiandong; Proddutur, Archana; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Ito, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with loss of interneurons and inhibitory dysfunction in the dentate gyrus. While status epilepticus (SE) leads to changes in granule cell inhibition, whether dentate basket cells critical for regulating granule cell feedforward and feedback inhibition express tonic GABA currents (IGABA) and undergo changes in inhibition after SE is not known. We find that interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin in the hilar-subgranular region express GABAA receptor (GABAAR) δ-subunits, which are known to underlie tonic IGABA. Dentate fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) demonstrate baseline tonic IGABA blocked by GABAAR antagonists. In morphologically and physiologically identified FS-BCs, tonic IGABA is enhanced 1 wk after pilocarpine-induced SE, despite simultaneous reduction in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency. Amplitude of tonic IGABA in control and post-SE FS-BCs is enhanced by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), demonstrating the contribution of GABAAR δ-subunits. Whereas FS-BC resting membrane potential is unchanged after SE, perforated-patch recordings from FS-BCs show that the reversal potential for GABA currents (EGABA) is depolarized after SE. In model FS-BCs, increasing tonic GABA conductance decreased excitability when EGABA was shunting and increased excitability when EGABA was depolarizing. Although simulated focal afferent activation evoked seizurelike activity in model dentate networks with FS-BC tonic GABA conductance and shunting EGABA, excitability of identical networks with depolarizing FS-BC EGABA showed lower activity levels. Thus, together, post-SE changes in tonic IGABA and EGABA maintain homeostasis of FS-BC activity and limit increases in dentate excitability. These findings have implications for normal FS-BC function and can inform studies examining comorbidities and therapeutics following SE. PMID:23324316

  11. A million-plus neuron model of the hippocampal dentate gyrus: Dependency of spatio-temporal network dynamics on topography.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust, non-random pattern of spiking best described as spatiotemporal "clustering". To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters", we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatio-temporal distribution of clustered firing. These results uncover a functional organization of perforant path afferents to the dentate gyrus not previously recognized: topography-dependent clusters of granule cell activity as "functional units" that organize the processing of entorhinal signals.

  12. Increased synaptic inhibition in dentate gyrus of mice with reduced levels of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Olofsdotter, K; Lindvall, O; Asztély, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of endogenous neurotrophins for inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. Heterozygous knockout (+/-) mice or neurotrophin scavenging proteins were used to reduce the levels of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. Patch-clamp recordings from dentate granule cells in brain slices showed that the frequency, but not the kinetics or amplitude, of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents was modulated in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- compared to wild-type (+/+) mice. Furthermore, paired-pulse depression of evoked inhibitory synaptic responses was increased in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- mice. Similar results were obtained in brain slices from brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/+ mice incubated with tyrosine receptor kinase B-immunoglobulin G, which scavenges endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The increased inhibitory synaptic activity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor +/- mice was accompanied by decreased excitability of the granule cells. No differences in the frequency, amplitude or kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were seen between neurotrophin-3 +/- and +/+ mice. From these results we suggest that endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, has acute modulatory effects on synaptic inhibition onto dentate granule cells. The site of action seems to be located presynaptically, i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the properties of inhibitory interneurons, leading to increased excitability of dentate granule cells. We propose that through this mechanism, brain-derived neurotrophic factor can change the gating/filtering properties of the dentate gyrus for incoming information from the entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. This will have consequences for the recruitment of hippocampal neural circuitries both under physiological and pathological conditions, such as epileptogenesis.

  13. Neural injury alters proliferation and integration of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perederiy, Julia V.; Luikart, Bryan W.; Washburn, Eric K.; Schnell, Eric; Westbrook, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Neural plasticity following brain injury illustrates the potential for regeneration in the central nervous system. Lesioning of the perforant path, which innervates the outer 2/3rds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, was one of the first models to demonstrate structural plasticity of mature granule cells (Parnavelas, 1974; Caceres and Steward, 1983; Diekmann et al., 1996). The dentate gyrus also harbors a continuously proliferating population of neuronal precursors that can integrate into functional circuits and show enhanced short-term plasticity (Schmidt-Hieber et al., 2004; Abrous et al., 2005). To examine the response of adult-generated granule cells to unilateral complete transection of the perforant path in vivo, we tracked these cells using transgenic POMC-EGFP mice or by retroviral expression of GFP. Lesioning triggered a marked proliferation of newborn neurons. Subsequently, the dendrites of newborn neurons showed reduced complexity within the denervated zone, but dendritic spines still formed in the absence of glutamatergic nerve terminals. Electron micrographs confirmed the lack of intact presynaptic terminals apposing spines on mature cells and on newborn neurons. Newborn neurons, but not mature granule cells, had a higher density of dendritic spines in the inner molecular layer post-lesion, accompanied by an increase in miniature EPSC amplitudes and rise times. Our results indicate that injury causes an increase in newborn neurons and lamina-specific synaptic reorganization, indicative of enhanced plasticity. The presence of de novo dendritic spines in the denervated zone suggests that the post-lesion environment provides the necessary signals for spine formation. PMID:23486947

  14. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 mutation induces immaturity of the dentate granule cells of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Recently, increases in anxiety-related behaviors and epilepsy have been observed in SNAP-25 knock-in (KI) mice, which have a single amino acid substitution of Ala for Ser187. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in this mutant remain unknown. Results In this study, we found that a significant number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells was histologically and electrophysiologically similar to immature DG neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult mutants, a phenomenon termed the “immature DG” (iDG). SNAP-25 KI mice and other mice possessing the iDG phenotype, i.e., alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous mice, Schnurri-2 knockout mice, and mice treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine, showed similar molecular expression patterns, with over 100 genes similarly altered. A working memory deficit was also identified in mutant mice during a spontaneous forced alternation task using a modified T-maze, a behavioral task known to be dependent on hippocampal function. Chronic treatments with the antiepileptic drug valproate abolished the iDG phenotype and the working memory deficit in mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the substitution of Ala for Ser187 in SNAP-25 induces the iDG phenotype, which can also be caused by epilepsy, and led to a severe working memory deficit. In addition, the iDG phenotype in adulthood is likely an endophenotype for at least a part of some common psychiatric disorders. PMID:23497716

  15. The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 is localized at excitatory synapses in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Puente, Nagore; Reguero, Leire; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Canduela, Miren-Josune; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Ramos-Uriarte, Almudena; Fernández-Espejo, Emilio; Grandes, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that plays an important role in pain perception and modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in the brain. TRPV1 function must lay on its anatomical distribution in the peripheral and central nervous system regions involved in the physiological roles of the channel. However, the anatomical localization of TRPV1 is well established in the periphery, but in the brain it is a matter of debate. While some studies support the presence of TRPV1 in several brain regions, recent evidences suggest a restricted distribution of the channel in the central nervous system. To investigate to what extent central TRPV1 function stands on a precise brain distribution of the channel, we examined the mouse hippocampal dentate molecular layer (ML) where TRPV1 mediates long-term synaptic plasticity. Using pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for high resolution electron microscopy, we show that TRPV1 immunoparticles are highly concentrated in postsynaptic dendritic spines to asymmetric perforant path synapses in the outer 2/3 of the ML. However, TRPV1 is poorly expressed at the excitatory hilar mossy cell synapses in the inner 1/3 of this layer. Importantly, the TRPV1 pattern distribution disappeared in the ML of TRPV1-knockout mice. Taken together, these findings support the notion of the presence of TRPV1 in a brain region where the channel has been shown to have a functional role, such as the perforant path synapses in the hippocampal dentate ML.

  16. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  17. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt Signaling Blocks Exercise-Mediated Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Veyrac, Alexandra; Dufour, Franck; Horwood, Jennifer; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and enhances synaptic plasticity. The antiapoptotic kinase, Akt has also been shown to be phosphorylated following voluntary exercise; however, it remains unknown whether the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is involved in exercise-induced neurogenesis and the associated facilitation of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the potential role of this signaling pathway in exercise-induced neurogenesis and LTP in the dentate gyrus rats were infused with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 or vehicle control solution (icv) via osmotic minipumps and exercised in a running wheel for 10 days. Newborn cells in the dentate gyrus were date-labelled with BrdU on the last 3 days of exercise. Then, they were either returned to the home cage for 2 weeks to assess exercise-induced LTP and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, or were killed on the last day of exercise to assess proliferation and activation of the PI3K-Akt cascade using western blotting. Conclusions/Significance Exercise increases cell proliferation and promotes survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Immediately after exercise, we found that Akt and three downstream targets, BAD, GSK3β and FOXO1 were activated. LY294002 blocked exercise-induced phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target proteins. This had no effect on exercise-induced cell proliferation, but it abolished most of the beneficial effect of exercise on the survival of newly generated dentate gyrus neurons and prevented exercise-induced increase in dentate gyrus LTP. These results suggest that activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role via an antiapoptotic function in promoting survival of newly formed granule cells generated during exercise and the associated increase in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:19936256

  18. Autoradiographic distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in the human brain using [3H]mesulergine: comparison to other mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cora, Francisco J; Pazos, Angel

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of this investigation was to delineate the distribution of the 5-HT7 receptor in human brain. Autoradiographic studies in guinea-pig and rat brain were also carried out in order to revisit and compare the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in different mammalian species.Binding studies were performed in rat frontal cortex membranes using 10 nM [3H]mesulergine in the presence of raclopride (10 μM) and DOI (0.8 μM). Under these conditions, a binding site with pharmacological characteristics consistent with those of the 5-HT7 receptors was identified (rank order of binding affinity values: 5-CT>5-HT>5-MeOT>mesulergine ≈methiothepin>8-OH-DPAT=spiperone ≈(+)-butaclamol≫imipramine ≈(±)-pindolol≫ondansetron ≈clonidine ≈prazosin).The autoradiographic studies revealed that the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors throughout the human brain was heterogenous. High densities were found over the caudate and putamen nuclei, the pyramidal layer of the CA2 field of the hippocampus, the centromedial thalamic nucleus, and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The inner layer of the frontal cortex, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the subthalamic nucleus and superior colliculus, among others, presented intermediate concentrations of 5-HT7 receptors. A similar brain anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors was observed in all three mammalian species studied.By using [3H]mesulergine, we have mapped for the first time the anatomical distribution of 5-HT7 receptors in the human brain, overcoming the limitations previously found in radiometric studies with other radioligands, and also revisiting the distribution in guinea-pig and rat brain. PMID:14656806

  19. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Jessica S; Francis, W Loren; Eliason, Travis D; Bredbenner, Todd L; Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with the

  20. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Jessica S.; Francis, W. Loren; Eliason, Travis D.; Bredbenner, Todd L.; Stemper, Brian D.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3–L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3–L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with

  1. NEURON SPECIFIC α-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CEREBELLUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING CEREBELLAR ROLES IN NEUROLOGIC DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    SCHAMBRA, U. B.; MACKENSEN, G. B.; STAFFORD-SMITH, M.; HAINES, D. E.; SCHWINN, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest novel functional roles for cerebellar involvement in a number of neurologic diseases. Function of cerebellar neurons is known to be modulated by norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors. The distribution of adrenergic receptor subtypes has been described in experimental animals, but corroboration of such studies in the human cerebellum, necessary for drug treatment, is still lacking. In the present work we studied cell-specific localizations of α1 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α1a, α1b, α1d), and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α2a, α2b, α2c) by in situ hybridization on cryostat sections of human cerebellum (cortical layers and dentate nucleus). We observed unique neuron-specific α1 adrenergic receptor and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype distribution in human cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex expresses mRNA encoding all six α adrenergic receptor subtypes, whereas dentate nucleus neurons express all subtype mRNAs, except α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA. All Purkinje cells label strongly for α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Additionally, Purkinje cells of the anterior lobe vermis (lobules I to V) and uvula/tonsil (lobules IX/HIX) express α1a and α2c subtypes, and Purkinje cells in the ansiform lobule (lobule HVII) and uvula/tonsil express α1b and α2c adrenergic receptor subtypes. Basket cells show a strong signal for α1a, moderate signal for α2a and light label for α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. In stellate cells, besides a strong label of α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA in all and moderate label of α2b message in select stellate cells, the inner stellate cells are also moderately positive for α1b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Granule and Golgi cells express high levels of α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNAs. These data contribute new information regarding specific location of adrenergic receptor subtypes in human cerebellar neurons. We discuss our observations in terms of possible modulatory roles of adrenergic

  2. Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Li, Bo; Si, Fangwei; Phillip, Jude M.; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. However, the mechanics and forces that shape the nucleus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. We develop a mathematical model that systematically analyzes the evolution of nuclear shape and volume. The analysis suggests that the pressure difference across the nuclear envelope, which is influenced by changes in cell volume and regulated by microtubules and actin filaments, is a major factor determining nuclear morphology. Our results show that physical and chemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment directly influence nuclear morphology and suggest that there is a direct link between the environment and gene regulation. PMID:26243474

  3. Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Li, Bo; Si, Fangwei; Phillip, Jude M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2015-09-15

    Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. However, the mechanics and forces that shape the nucleus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. We develop a mathematical model that systematically analyzes the evolution of nuclear shape and volume. The analysis suggests that the pressure difference across the nuclear envelope, which is influenced by changes in cell volume and regulated by microtubules and actin filaments, is a major factor determining nuclear morphology. Our results show that physical and chemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment directly influence nuclear morphology and suggest that there is a direct link between the environment and gene regulation.

  4. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function.

  5. Nucleus accumbens invulnerability to methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Donald M; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Thomas, David M

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages neurons and nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. Emerging studies of human Meth addicts using both postmortem analyses of brain tissue and noninvasive imaging studies of intact brains have confirmed that Meth causes persistent structural abnormalities. Animal and human studies have also defined a number of significant functional problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with long-term Meth abuse. This review summarizes the salient features of Meth-induced neurotoxicity with a focus on the dopamine (DA) neuronal system. DA nerve endings in the caudate-putamen (CPu) are damaged by Meth in a highly delimited manner. Even within the CPu, damage is remarkably heterogeneous, with ventral and lateral aspects showing the greatest deficits. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is largely spared the damage that accompanies binge Meth intoxication, but relatively subtle changes in the disposition of DA in its nerve endings can lead to dramatic increases in Meth-induced toxicity in the CPu and overcome the normal resistance of the NAc to damage. In contrast to the CPu, where DA neuronal deficiencies are persistent, alterations in the NAc show a partial recovery. Animal models have been indispensable in studies of the causes and consequences of Meth neurotoxicity and in the development of new therapies. This research has shown that increases in cytoplasmic DA dramatically broaden the neurotoxic profile of Meth to include brain structures not normally targeted for damage. The resistance of the NAc to Meth-induced neurotoxicity and its ability to recover reveal a fundamentally different neuroplasticity by comparison to the CPu. Recruitment of the NAc as a target of Meth neurotoxicity by alterations in DA homeostasis is significant in light of the numerous important roles played by this brain structure.

  6. Differential expression of cytoskeletal proteins in the dendrites of parvalbumin-positive interneurons versus granule cells in the adult rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    de Haas Ratzliff, A; Soltesz, I

    2000-01-01

    Parvalbumin-positive interneurons and granule cells of the dentate gyrus exhibit characteristic differences in morphological, cytochemical, physiological, and pathophysiological properties. Several of these defining features, including dendritic morphology, spine density, and sensitivity to insults, are likely to be influenced by the neuronal cytoskeleton. The data in this paper demonstrate striking differences in the expression levels of all three neurofilament triplet proteins, as well as alpha-internexin and beta-tubulin III, between the parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dentate granule cells. Therefore, the molecular composition of intermediate filaments and microtubules in the dendritic domain of parvalbumin-positive dentate interneurons is distinct from the cytoskeleton of neighboring granule cells, indicating the existence of highly cell type-specific cytoskeletal architecture within the dentate gyrus.

  7. Palmitoylethanolamide protects dentate gyrus granule cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Kreutz, Susanne; Böttger, Charlotte; Benz, Alexander; Maronde, Erik; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2011-02-01

    Endocannabinoids like 2-arachidonoylglycerol strongly modulate the complex machinery of secondary neuronal damage and are shown to improve neuronal survival after excitotoxic lesion. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), the naturally occurring fatty acid amide of ethanolamine and palmitic acid, is an endogenous lipid known to mimic several effects of endocannabinoids even without binding to cannabinoid receptors. Here we show that PEA (0.001-1 μM) and the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (Wy-14,643; 0.1-1 μM) reduced the number of microglial cells and protected dentate gyrus granule cells in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Treatment with the PPAR-alpha antagonist N-((2S)-2-(((1Z)-1-Methyl-3-oxo-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)prop-1-enyl)amino)-3-(4-(2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)propanamide (GW6471; 0.05-5 μM) blocked PEA-mediated neuroprotection and reduction of microglial cell numbers whereas the PPAR-gamma antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide (GW9662; 0.01-1 μM) showed no effects. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed a strong PPAR-alpha immunoreaction in BV-2 microglial cells and in HT22 hippocampal cells. Intensity and location of PPAR-alpha immunoreaction remained constant during stimulation with PEA (0.01 μM; 1-36 h). In conclusion our data provide evidence that (1) PEA counteracted excitotoxically induced secondary neuronal damage of dentate gyrus granule cells, (2) PPAR-alpha but not PPAR-gamma is the endogenous binding site for PEA-mediated neuroprotection, and (3) PEA may activate PPAR-alpha in microglial cells and hippocampal neurons to exert its neuroprotective effects. In addition to classical endocannabinoids, PEA-mediated PPAR-alpha activation represents a possible target for therapeutic interventions to mitigate symptoms of secondary neuronal damage.

  8. Recurrent mossy fibers preferentially innervate parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the granule cell layer of the rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Ibáñez, J M; Martínez-Guijarro, F J; Freund, T F

    2000-09-28

    Detection of vesicular zinc and immunohistochemistry against markers for different interneuron subsets were combined to study the postsynaptic target selection of zinc-containing recurrent mossy fiber collaterals in the dentate gyrus. Mossy fiber collaterals in the granule cell layer selectively innervated parvalbumin-containing cells, with numerous contacts per cell, whereas the granule cells were avoided. Under the electron microscope, those boutons made asymmetrical contacts on dendrites and somata. These findings suggest that, in addition to the hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) interneurons, the basket and chandelier cells also receive a powerful feed-back drive from the granule cells, and thereby are able to control population synchrony in the dentate gyrus. On the other hand, the amount of monosynaptic excitatory feed-back among granule cells is shown to be negligible.

  9. Doublecortin (DCX) is not Essential for Survival and Differentiation of Newborn Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Jagroop; Xi, Yanwei; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Germain, Johanne; Francis, Fiona; Lagace, Diane C.

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX) is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX. PMID:26793044

  10. The Possible Roles of the Dentate Granule Cell’s Leptin and Other Ciliary Receptors in Alzheimer’s Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James F.; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Armato, Ubaldo; Chakravarthy, Balu

    2015-01-01

    Dentate-gyral granule cells in the hippocampus plus dentate gyrus memory-recording/retrieving machine, unlike most other neurons in the brain, are continuously being generated in the adult brain with the important task of separating overlapping patterns of data streaming in from the outside world via the entorhinal cortex. This “adult neurogenesis” is driven by tools in the mature granule cell’s cilium. Here we report our discovery of leptin’s LepRb receptor in this cilium. In addition, we discuss how ciliary LepRb signaling might be involved with ciliary p75NTR and SSTR3 receptors in adult neurogenesis and memory formation as well as attenuation of Alzheimer’s neuropathology by reducing the production of its toxic amyloid-β-derived drivers. PMID:26184316

  11. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  12. Excitability changes within transverse lamellae of dentate granule cells and their longitudinal spread following orthodromic or antidromic activation.

    PubMed

    Lømo, Terje

    2009-07-01

    The functional organization of the perforant path input to the dentate gyrus of the exposed hippocampus was studied in adult rabbits anesthetized with urethane and chloralose. Electrical stimulation of perforant path fibers caused excitation of granule cells along narrow, nearly transverse strips (lamellae) of tissue. Stimulation of granule cell axons (mossy fibers) in CA3 caused antidromic activation of granule cells along similar strips. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed marked changes in granule cell excitability both within a lamella (on-line) and for several mm off-line along the septo-temporal axis of the dentate gyrus. After the first pulse, granule cells were inhibited for up to about 100 ms and then facilitated for up to hundreds of ms. Feedback activity along mossy fiber collaterals exciting local inhibitory and excitatory neurons appeared to dominate in producing on- and off-line inhibition and facilitation. Neurons mediating these effects could be inhibitory basket cells and other inhibitory interneurons targeting granule cells on- and off-line. In addition, excitatory mossy cells with far reaching, longitudinally running axons could affect off-line granule cells by exciting them directly or inhibit them indirectly by exciting local inhibitory interneurons. A scheme for dentate gyrus function is proposed whereby information to the dentate gyrus becomes split into interacting transverse strips of neuronal assemblies along which temporal processing occurs. A matrix of neuronal assemblies thus arises within which fragments of events and experiences is stored through the plasticity of synapses within and between the assemblies. Similar fragments may then be recognized at later times allowing memories of the whole to be created by pattern completion at subsequent computational stages in the hippocampus.

  13. Inhibition of Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Does not Affect Dendritic Homeostasis of Cultured Mouse Dentate Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Gerlind; Galanis, Christos; Strehl, Andreas; Hick, Meike; Schiener, Sabine; Lenz, Maximilian; Deller, Thomas; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). While a firm link between PAR1-activation and functional synaptic and intrinsic neuronal properties exists, studies on the role of PAR1 in neural structural plasticity are scarce. The physiological function of PAR1 in the brain remains not well understood. We here sought to determine whether prolonged pharmacologic PAR1-inhibition affects dendritic morphologies of hippocampal neurons. To address this question we employed live-cell microscopy of mouse dentate granule cell dendrites in 3-week old entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures prepared from Thy1-GFP mice. A subset of cultures were treated with the PAR1-inhibitor SCH79797 (1 μM; up to 3 weeks). No major effects of PAR1-inhibition on static and dynamic parameters of dentate granule cell dendrites were detected under control conditions. Granule cells of PAR1-deficient slice cultures showed unaltered dendritic morphologies, dendritic spine densities and excitatory synaptic strength. Furthermore, we report that PAR1-inhibition does not prevent dendritic retraction following partial deafferentation in vitro. Consistent with this finding, no major changes in PAR1-mRNA levels were detected in the denervated dentate gyrus (DG). We conclude that neural PAR1 is not involved in regulating the steady-state dynamics or deafferentation-induced adaptive changes of cultured dentate granule cell dendrites. These results indicate that drugs targeting neural PAR1-signals may not affect the stability and structural integrity of neuronal networks in healthy brain regions. PMID:27378862

  14. Maximum bite force following unilateral implant-supported prosthetic treatment: within-subject comparison to opposite dentate side.

    PubMed

    Al-Omiri, M K; Sghaireen, M G; Alhijawi, M M; Alzoubi, I A; Lynch, C D; Lynch, E

    2014-08-01

    Bite force is a significant component of chewing and masticatory function. The literature lacks studies that compare bite force values of implant-supported fixed bridges to natural dentition within same subjects. The objective of the study was to assess maximum occlusal bite force (MBF) among patients with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis and compare it to their opposite dentate side and also to determine the effect of gender, age and Body Mass Index (BMI) on maximum occlusal bite force. Forty patients (20 males and 20 females, mean age = 42.7 ± 9.6 years) with an implant-supported fixed prosthetic rehabilitation on one side and dentate on the other side were recruited into this study. Participants' MBF were measured bilaterally at the first molar region using a digital hydraulic occlusal force gauge (GM10). The measurements were repeated three times (with 45 s intervals between times) for each side, and the highest value of the bite force (MBF) was recorded for each side. The mean MBF was 577.9 N at the implant-supported prosthesis side and 595.1 N at the dentate side. The average MBF was higher at the dentulous side (P < 0.05). Maximum occlusal bite force was higher in males and participants with higher weight and height. However, BMI was not significantly related to MBF values. Maximum occlusal bite force values at the dentate side were slightly (3%) but significantly higher than MBF at implant-supported prosthesis side. Males, taller patients and patients with higher weights had higher MBF values. Body mass index was not significantly related to MBF values.

  15. A Nucleus-Imaging Probe That Selectively Stabilizes a Minor Conformation of c-MYC G-quadruplex and Down-regulates c-MYC Transcription in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Deepanjan; Debnath, Manish; Mandal, Samir; Bessi, Irene; Schwalbe, Harald; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The c-MYC proto-oncogene is a regulator of fundamental cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The development of novel c-MYC inhibitors that can act by targeting the c-MYC DNA G-quadruplex at the level of transcription would provide potential insight into structure-based design of small molecules and lead to a promising arena for cancer therapy. Herein we report our finding that two simple bis-triazolylcarbazole derivatives can inhibit c-MYC transcription, possibly by stabilizing the c-MYC G-quadruplex. These compounds are prepared using a facile and modular approach based on Cu(I) catalysed azide and alkyne cycloaddition. A carbazole ligand with carboxamide side chains is found to be microenvironment-sensitive and highly selective for “turn-on” detection of c-MYC quadruplex over duplex DNA. This fluorescent probe is applicable to visualize the cellular nucleus in living cells. Interestingly, the ligand binds to c-MYC in an asymmetric fashion and selects the minor-populated conformer via conformational selection. PMID:26286633

  16. Characterisation and theoretical investigation of the electronic properties and second-order nonlinearity of some three dentate salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, M; Khandar, A A; Sheikshoaie, I

    2000-07-01

    A series of asymmetric three dentate salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands 1-4 (Scheme 1) has been synthesized and their structures, electronic properties and second order nonlinearities are investigated using the AM1 Hamiltonian SCF-MO methods. The analysis of MOs indicates that the O(2) atom could be the coordination site if the ligands were monodentate. In addition, the atomic orbitals on the O(9) atom have no contributions to the frontier MOs of the anionic form of these three dentate ligands. The Mulliken populations reveal that the coordination sites N(6) and O(9) possess different character in generation of the Schiff base complexes. The molecular first-order hyperpolarizability value of ligands was calculated using finite field method. Generally the presence of the methoxy group as third dentate play a major role in increasing the second harmonic generation (SHG) responses of three dentate ligands. Comparison of the NLO properties of two dentate with three dentate salicylaldiminine-based ligands reveals that the presence of -NO2 and -OCH3 groups as R1 and R2 substituents enhance the second-order nonlinear optic properties of these type ligands.

  17. Characterisation and theoretical investigation of the electronic properties and second-order nonlinearity of some three dentate salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali-Heravi, M.; Khandar, A. A.; Sheikshoaie, I.

    2000-07-01

    A series of asymmetric three dentate salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands 1- 4 ( Scheme 1) has been synthesized and their structures, electronic properties and second order nonlinearities are investigated using the AM1 Hamiltonian SCF-MO methods. The analysis of MOs indicates that the O(2) atom could be the coordination site if the ligands were monodentate. In addition, the atomic orbitals on the O(9) atom have no contributions to the frontier MOs of the anionic form of these three dentate ligands. The Mulliken populations reveal that the coordination sites N(6) and O(9) possess different character in generation of the Schiff base complexes. The molecular first-order hyperpolarizability value of ligands was calculated using finite field method. Generally the presence of the methoxy group as third dentate play a major role in increasing the second harmonic generation (SHG) responses of three dentate ligands. Comparison of the NLO properties of two dentate with three dentate salicylaldiminine-based ligands reveals that the presence of NO 2 and OCH 3 groups as R 1 and R 2 substituents enhance the second-order nonlinear optic properties of these type ligands.

  18. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias.

  19. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Fredrik; Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S; Arleo, Angelo; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes) in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  20. The TLC: a novel auditory nucleus of the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora

    2007-11-28

    We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning the midbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter. It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep superior colliculus and the most medial region of the inferior colliculus. The TLC differs from the neighboring nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray by its distinct connections and cytoarchitecture. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings show that TLC neurons respond to auditory stimuli with physiologic properties that differ from those of neurons in the inferior or superior colliculi. We have identified the TLC in rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, nonhuman primates, and humans, which indicates that the nucleus is conserved across mammals. The discovery of the TLC reveals an unexpected level of longitudinal organization in the mammalian tectum and raises questions as to the participation of this mesencephalic region in essential, yet completely unexplored, aspects of multisensory and/or sensorimotor integration.

  1. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-03-22

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus.

  2. Effect of chronic stress on short and long-term plasticity in dentate gyrus; study of recovery and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, M; Hosseini, N; Nasimi, A

    2014-11-07

    Stress dramatically affects synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, disrupts paired-pulse facilitation and impairs long-term potentiation (LTP). This study was performed to find the effects of chronic restraint stress and recovery period on excitability, paired-pulse response, LTP and to find probable adaptation to very long stress in the dentate gyrus. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of Control, Rest-Stress (21 days stress), Stress-Rest (recovery) and Stress-Stress (42 days stress: adaptation). Chronic restraint stress was applied 6-h/day. Input-output functions, paired-pulse responses and LTP were recorded from the dentate gyrus while stimulating the perforant pathway. We found that chronic stress attenuated the responsiveness, paired-pulse response and LTP in the dentate gyrus. A 21-day recovery period, after the stress, improved all the three responses toward normal, indicating reversibility of these stress-related hippocampal changes. There was no significant adaptation to very long stress, probably due to severity of stress.

  3. Low-Dose Sevoflurane Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Facilitates the Development of Dentate Gyrus-Dependent Learning in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4–6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. PMID:25873307

  4. Estradiol and soy extract increase the production of new cells in the dentate gyrus of old rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, Margarita; Salazar, Veronica; Castillo, Carmen; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    In young rodents, estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. However, it is unknown if the old brain retains this response to estradiol. Here we assessed the generation of new cells in the dentate gyrus of old rats after administration of estradiol or a soy extract, since soy is used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. In a first experiment, 12-month-old animals were ovariectomized and studied at 14, 18 or 22 months of age. The production of new cells, assessed by the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), was similar in 14- and 18-month-old rats. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-immunoreactive cells at 22 months of age. In a second experiment, 22-month-old ovariectomized animals were treated for 10 weeks with a weekly s.c. injection of 150 microg estradiol valerianate or with 60 mg/kg per day soy extract added to the drinking water. Both treatments increased significantly the production of new cells in the dentate gyrus. These findings indicate that the brains of old rats retain the ability to increase the production of new cells in response to estradiol and soy extracts.

  5. Modulation of paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus: effects of normal maturation and vigilance state.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J H; Bronzino, J D

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effect of normal development and vigilance state on the modulation of dentate granule cell activity in the freely moving rat at 15, 30, and 90 days of age across three vigilance states: quiet waking, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep. Using paired-pulse stimulation, the paired-pulse index (PPI) was obtained for the dentate evoked field potentials elicited by the stimulation of the medial perforant path. Although significant differences in PPI values were observed during development, no significant vigilance state related changes were obtained. Preweaning infant rats, i.e., 15-day old, exhibited significantly less early (interpulse intervals, IPI= 20-50 ms) and late (IPI = 300-1,000 ms) inhibition, and less facilitation (IPI = 50-150 ms) when compared to the 90-day old adult rats during all three vigilance states. PPI values obtained from the 30-day old group fell intermediate between the 15- and 90-day old animals. These changes in PPI values provide a quantitative measure of changes in the modulation of dentate granule cell excitability during normal maturation. They can now can be used to evaluate the impact of various insults, such as prenatal protein malnutrition or neonatal stress, on hippocampal development.

  6. Effects of stimulus frequency and age on bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J Harry; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the frequency-dependent transition from homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) to long-term potentiation (LTP) at the lateral perforant pathway/dentate gyrus synapse in adult (90 days of age) and immature (15 days of age) awake, freely moving rats. Dentate-evoked field potentials were recorded and analyzed using the population spike amplitude and the field EPSP slope measures following sustained stimulation (900 pulses) of the lateral perforant pathway at various frequencies (1, 3, 7, 30, 50, or 200 Hz). Our results indicate that both the strength and the direction (LTP or LTD) of synaptic plasticity vary as a function of activation frequency: sustained low-frequency stimulation ranging from 1 to 7 Hz results in depression of activated synapses, whereas high-frequency stimulation (30-200 Hz) produces potentiation. In addition, a significant (P < 0.01) ontogenetic shift in the frequency of transition from LTD to LTP was observed; the transition frequency in immature animals was significantly lower than that obtained in adult animals. These observations agree strongly with the prediction of the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro theory of synapse modification, indicating perhaps a neurophysiological basis for this theoretical model of learning in the dentate gyrus of awake behaving rats.

  7. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on kindling-induced alterations in dentate granule cell excitability. II. Paired-pulse measures.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J; Galler, J R

    1991-05-01

    The effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on kindling-induced changes in inhibitory modulation of dentate granule cell activity were examined by analysis of extracellular field potentials recorded from the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in response to paired-pulse stimulation of the perforant pathway in freely-moving rats. Since we have shown that kindling results in enhanced synaptic transmission at the level of the perforant path/granule cell synapse (see preceding paper), we sought to determine if the kindling process might induce changes in inhibitory modulation of granule cell excitability which could be involved in the slower acquisition of the kindled state we have previously reported in malnourished animals. Beginning at 120-150 days of age, the response of dentate granule cells to paired-pulse stimulation of the perforant path was examined at interpulse intervals (IPIs) ranging from 20-1000 ms. A paired-pulse index (PPI) was constructed based on the mean percent change in population spike amplitudes of the two responses resulting from application of the pulse pair. PPI measures obtained during the kindling process were compared with individual prekindling measures to determine the mean percent change in excitatory/inhibitory modulation of granule cell activity. Significant inhibition of the second population response was apparent at all IPIs tested for both diet groups following the first kindled afterdischarge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Modeling the Nonlinear Properties of the in vitro Hippocampal Perforant Path-Dentate System Using Multielectrode Array Technology

    PubMed Central

    Courellis, Spiros H.; Gholmieh, Ghassan I.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2009-01-01

    A modeling approach to characterize the nonlinear dynamic transformations of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is presented and experimentally validated. The dentate gyrus is the first region of the hippocampus which receives and integrates sensory information via the perforant path. The perforant path is composed of two distinct pathways: 1) the lateral path and 2) the medial perforant path. The proposed approach examines and captures the short-term dynamic characteristics of these two pathways using a nonparametric, third-order Poisson–Volterra model. The nonlinear characteristics of the two pathways are represented by Poisson–Volterra kernels, which are quantitative descriptors of the nonlinear dynamic transformations. The kernels were computed with experimental data from in vitro hippocampal slices. The electrophysiological activity was measured with custom-made multielectrode arrays, which allowed selective stimulation with random impulse trains and simultaneous recordings of extracellular field potential activity. The results demonstrate that this mathematically rigorous approach is suitable for the multipathway complexity of the hippocampus and yields interpretable models that have excellent predictive capabilities. The resulting models not only accurately predict previously reported electrophysiological descriptors, such as paired pulses, but more important, can be used to predict the electrophysiological activity of dentate granule cells to arbitrary stimulation patterns at the perforant path. PMID:18270006

  9. Stereotactic injection of cerebrospinal fluid from anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis into rat dentate gyrus impairs NMDA receptor function.

    PubMed

    Würdemann, Till; Kersten, Maxi; Tokay, Tursonjan; Guli, Xiati; Kober, Maria; Rohde, Marco; Porath, Katrin; Sellmann, Tina; Bien, Christian G; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-02-15

    Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized in patients with otherwise unexplained encephalopathy with epilepsy. Among these, patients with anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis present epileptic seizures, memory deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. However, the functional consequences of such autoantibodies are poorly understood. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of this disease, we stereotactically injected either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from three anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients or commercially available anti-NMDAR1 into the dentate gyrus of adult female rats. Control animals were injected with either CSF obtained from three epilepsy patients (ganglioglioma, posttraumatic epilepsy, focal cortical dysplasia) lacking anti-NMDAR or saline. Intracellular recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells showed a significant reduction of the NMDAR-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDAR-EPSPs) in animals treated with anti-NMDAR. As a consequence of this, action potential firing in these cells by NMDAR-EPSPs was significantly impaired. Long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus was also significantly reduced in rats injected with anti-NMDAR as compared to control animals. This was accompanied by a significantly impaired learning performance in the Morris water maze hidden platform task when the animals had been injected with anti-NMDAR antibody-containing CSF. Our findings suggest that anti-NMDAR lead to reduced NMDAR function in vivo which could contribute to the memory impairment found in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  10. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  11. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  12. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  13. BFKL Pomeron calculus: solution to equations for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the saturation domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Carlos; Levin, Eugene; Meneses, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we solve the equation for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the BFKL Pomeron calculus, suggested by Braun [1-3]. We find these solutions analytically at high energies as well as numerically in the entire region of energies inside the saturation region. The semi-classical approximation is used to select out the infinite set of the parasite solutions. The nucleus-nucleus cross sections at high energy are estimated and compared with the Glauber-Gribov approach. It turns out that the exact formula gives the estimates that are very close to the ones based on Glauber-Gribov formula which is important for the practical applications.

  14. Effects of aging and caloric restriction on dentate gyrus synapses and glutamate receptor subunits

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Isabel G.; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Linville, M. Constance; Pang, Hui; Tucker, Elizabeth M.; Riddle, David R.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related degenerative processes throughout the body. It is less clear, however, whether CR has a similar effect in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, an area important for learning and memory processes that often are compromised in aging. In order to evaluate the effect of CR on synapses across lifespan, we quantified synapses stereologically in the middle molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) of young, middle aged, and old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a CR diet from 4 months of age. The results indicate that synapses are maintained across lifespan in both AL and CR rats. In light of this stability, we addressed whether aging and CR influence neurotransmitter receptor levels by measuring subunits of NMDA (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and AMPA (GluR1, GluR2) receptors in the DG of a second cohort of AL and CR rats across lifespan. The results reveal that the NR1 and GluR1 subunits decline with age in AL, but not CR rats. The absence of an aging-related decline in these subunits in CR rats, however, does not arise from increased levels in old CR rats. Instead, it is due to subunit decreases in young CR rats to levels that are sustained in CR rats throughout lifespan, but that are reached in AL rats only in old age. PMID:17433502

  15. Reconstruction of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials in the dentate gyrus from amperometric biosensor signals.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Alessandro; Marinesco, Stéphane; Pain, Frédéric; Meiller, Anne; Gurden, Hirac

    2012-04-30

    A new feasible and reproducible method to reconstruct local field potentials from amperometric biosensor signals is presented. It is based on the least-square fit of the current response of the biosensor electrode to a voltage step by the use of two time constants. After determination of the electrode impedance, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse FFT are performed to convert the recorded amperometric signals into voltage and trace the local field potentials using a resistor-capacitor circuit-based model. We applied this method to reconstruct field evoked potentials from currents recorded by a lactate biosensor in the rat dentate gyrus after stimulation of the perforant pathway in vivo. Initial slope of the reconstructed field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was used in order to demonstrate long term potentiation induced by high frequency stimulation of the perforant path. Our results show that reconstructing evoked potentials from amperometric recordings is a reliable method to obtain in vivo electrophysiological and amperometric information simultaneously from the same electrode in order to understand how chemical compounds vary with and modulate the dynamics of brain activity.

  16. Differential Recruitment of Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Types by Commissural Versus Perforant Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Lee, Cheng-Ta; Tai, Ming-Hong; Lien, Cheng-Chang

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons (INs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) provide inhibitory control to granule cell (GC) activity and thus gate incoming signals to the hippocampus. However, how various IN subtypes inhibit GCs in response to different excitatory input pathways remains mostly unknown. By using electrophysiology and optogenetics, we investigated neurotransmission of the hilar commissural pathway (COM) and the medial perforant path (MPP) to the DG in acutely prepared mouse slices. We found that the short-term dynamics of excitatory COM-GC and MPP-GC synapses was similar, but that the dynamics of COM- and MPP-mediated inhibition measured in GCs was remarkably different, during theta-frequency stimulation. This resulted in the increased inhibition-excitation (I/E) ratios in single GCs for COM stimulation, but decreased I/E ratios for MPP stimulation. Further analysis of pathway-specific responses in identified INs revealed that basket cell-like INs, total molecular layer- and molecular layer-like cells, received greater excitation and were more reliably recruited by the COM than by the MPP inputs. In contrast, hilar perforant path-associated and hilar commissural-associational pathway-related-like cells were minimally activated by both inputs. These results demonstrate that distinct IN subtypes are preferentially recruited by different inputs to the DG, and reveal their relative contributions in COM-mediated feedforward inhibition.

  17. Kindling induces transient fast inhibition in the dentate gyrus--CA3 projection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R; Heinemann, U

    2001-04-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) send a strong glutamatergic projection, the mossy fibre tract, toward the hippocampal CA3 field, where it excites pyramidal cells and neighbouring inhibitory interneurons. Despite their excitatory nature, granule cells contain small amounts of GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), the main synthetic enzyme for the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy results in transient upregulation of GAD and GABA in granule cells, giving rise to the speculation that following overexcitation, mossy fibres exert an inhibitory effect by release of GABA. We therefore stimulated the DG and recorded synaptic potentials from CA3 pyramidal cells in brain slices from kindled and control rats. In both preparations, DG stimulation caused excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)/inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) sequences. These potentials could be completely blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists in control rats, while in the kindled rats, a bicuculline-sensitive fast IPSP remained, with an onset latency similar to that of the control EPSP. Interestingly, this IPSP disappeared 1 month after the last seizure. When synaptic responses were evoked by high-frequency stimulation, EPSPs in normal rats readily summate to evoke action potentials. In slices from kindled rats, a summation of IPSPs overrides that of the EPSPs and reduces the probability of evoking action potentials. Our data show for the first time that kindling induces functionally relevant activity-dependent expression of fast inhibition onto pyramidal cells, coming from the DG, that can limit CA3 excitation in a frequency-dependent manner.

  18. Methamphetamine decreases dentate gyrus stem cell self-renewal and shifts the differentiation towards neuronal fate.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Sofia; Lasgi, Charlène; Benstaali, Caroline; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Agasse, Fabienne; Silva, Ana Paula

    2014-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse that negatively interferes with neurogenesis. In fact, we have previously shown that METH triggers stem/progenitor cell death and decreases neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG). Still, little is known regarding its effect on DG stem cell properties. Herein, we investigate the impact of METH on mice DG stem/progenitor cell self-renewal functions. METH (10nM) decreased DG stem cell self-renewal, while 1nM delayed cell cycle in the G0/G1-to-S phase transition and increased the number of quiescent cells (G0 phase), which correlated with a decrease in cyclin E, pEGFR and pERK1/2 protein levels. Importantly, both drug concentrations (1 or 10nM) did not induce cell death. In accordance with the impairment of self-renewal capacity, METH (10nM) decreased Sox2(+)/Sox2(+) while increased Sox2(-)/Sox2(-) pairs of daughter cells. This effect relied on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling, which was prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10μM). Moreover, METH (10nM) increased doublecortin (DCX) protein levels consistent with neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, METH alters DG stem cell properties by delaying cell cycle and decreasing self-renewal capacities, mechanisms that may contribute to DG neurogenesis impairment followed by cognitive deficits verified in METH consumers.

  19. In vivo evidence of hippocampal dentate gyrus expansion in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria A; Longoni, Giulia; Pagani, Elisabetta; Boffa, Giacomo; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Martino, Gianvito; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Using MR-based radial mapping, we assessed morphological alterations of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed different stages of the disease and the association of DG alterations with hippocampal-related cognitive functions. Using high-resolution morphological imaging, hippocampal radial mapping analysis was performed in 28 relapsing-remitting (RR), 34 secondary progressive, and 26 benign MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC). Between-groups differences of DG radial distance (from surface points to the central core of the hippocampus) and correlations with clinical, neuropsychological, and radiological measures were evaluated using surface-based mesh modeling. Compared with HC, all MS clinical phenotypes revealed a larger radial distance of the DG, which was more marked on the left side. Radial distance enlargement was more pronounced in RRMS patients compared with the other disease clinical phenotypes and was inversely correlated to disease duration. Radial distance enlargement was correlated with higher T2 lesion volume and a better cognitive performance in RRMS and with a poor cognitive performance in secondary progressive and benign MS patients. Surface expansion of the DG might represent an inflammation-induced neurogenic (reactive) process of the subgranular zone of the hippocampus primarily aimed at rescuing the functional competence of hippocampal circuitry.

  20. Properties of doublecortin expressing neurons in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Spampanato, Jay; Sullivan, Robert K; Turpin, Fabrice R; Bartlett, Perry F; Sah, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a neurogenic zone where neurons continue to be born throughout life, mature and integrate into the local circuitry. In adults, this generation of new neurons is thought to contribute to learning and memory formation. As newborn neurons mature, they undergo a developmental sequence in which different stages of development are marked by expression of different proteins. Doublecortin (DCX) is an early marker that is expressed in immature granule cells that are beginning migration and dendritic growth but is turned off before neurons reach maturity. In the present study, we use a mouse strain in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under the control of the DCX promoter. We show that these neurons have high input resistances and some cells can discharge trains of action potentials. In mature granule cells, action potentials are followed by a slow afterhyperpolarization that is absent in EGFP-positive neurons. EGFP-positive neurons had a lower spine density than mature neurons and stimulation of either the medial or lateral perforant pathway activated dual component glutamatergic synapses that had both AMPA and NMDA receptors. NMDA receptors present at these synapses had slow kinetics and were blocked by ifenprodil, indicative of high GluN2B subunit content. These results show that EGFP-positive neurons in the DCX-EGFP mice are functionally immature both in their firing properties and excitatory synapses.

  1. Sustained increase in adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus after transient brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; Zhang, Mingguang; Sun, Chifei; Cai, Yuqun; You, Yan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-13

    It is known that the number of newly generated neurons is increased in the young and adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) after transient brain ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether increase in neurogenesis in the adult DG induced by ischemic stroke is transient or sustained. We here reported that from 2 weeks to 6 months after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), there were more doublecortin positive (DCX+) cells in the ipsilateral compared to the sham-control and contralateral DG of the adult rat. After the S-phase marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 days after MCAO to label newly generated cells, a large number of BrdU-labeled neuroblasts differentiated into mature granular neurons. These BrdU-labeled neurons survived for at least 6 months. When BrdU was injected 6 weeks after injury, there were still more newly generated neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the ipsilateral DG. Altogether, our data indicate that transient brain ischemia initiates a prolonged increase in neurogenesis and promotes the normal development of the newly generated neurons in the adult DG.

  2. Developmental hypothyroidism abolishes bilateral differences in sonic hedgehog gene control in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Abe, Hajime; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism disrupt rat hippocampal neurogenesis. We previously showed that exposing mouse offspring to manganese permanently disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and abolishes the asymmetric distribution of cells expressing Mid1, a molecule regulated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The present study examined the involvement of Shh signaling on the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats with hypothyroidism. Pregnant rats were treated with methimazole (MMI) at 0 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestation day 10-21 days after delivery (developmental hypothyroidism). Adult male rats were treated with MMI in the same manner from postnatal day (PND) 46 to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Developmental hypothyroidism reduced the number of Mid1(+) cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of offspring on PND 21, and consequently abolished the normal asymmetric predominance of Mid1(+) cells on the right side through the adult stage. In control animals, Shh was expressed in a subpopulation of hilar neurons, showing asymmetric distribution with left side predominance on PND 21; however, this asymmetry did not continue through the adult stage. Developmental hypothyroidism increased Shh(+) neurons bilaterally and abolished the asymmetric distribution pattern on PND 21. Adult hypothyroidism also disrupted the asymmetric distribution of Mid1(+) cells but did not affect the distribution of Shh(+) hilar neurons. The results suggest that the hippocampal neurogenesis disruption seen in hypothyroidism involves changes in asymmetric Shh(+) neuron distribution in developmental hypothyroidism and altered Mid1 expression in both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism.

  3. Deletion of lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 reduces neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Matas-Rico, Elisa; García-Diaz, Beatriz; Llebrez-Zayas, Pedro; López-Barroso, Diana; Santín, Luis; Pedraza, Carmen; Smith-Fernández, Anibal; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; Tellez, Teresa; Redondo; Chun, Jerold; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in certain regions of the adult brain including the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus wherein its regulation is essential, particularly in relation to learning, stress and modulation of mood. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular signaling phospholipid with important neural regulatory properties mediated by specific G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-5. LPA1 is highly expressed in the developing neurogenic ventricular zone wherein it is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis, and, by extension may play a role in adult neurogenesis as well. By means of the analyses of a variant of the original LPA1-null mutant mouse, termed the Malaga variant or “maLPA1-null,” which has recently been reported to have defective neurogenesis within the embryonic cerebral cortex, we report here a role for LPA1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proliferation, differentiation and survival of newly formed neurons are defective in the absence of LPA1 under normal conditions and following exposure to enriched environment and voluntary exercise. Furthermore, analysis of trophic factors in maLPA1-null mice demonstrated alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin growth factor 1 levels after enrichment and exercise. Morphological analyses of doublecortin positive cells revealed the anomalous prevalence of bipolar cells in the subgranular zone, supporting the operation of LPA1 signaling pathways in normal proliferation, maturation and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:18708146

  4. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the awake freely behaving mouse

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, Jessica L.; Masino, Susan A.; Blaise, J. Harry

    2008-01-01

    There is significant interest in in vivo synaptic plasticity in mice due to the many relevant genetic mutants now available. Nevertheless, use of in vivo models remains limited. To date long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied infrequently, and long-term depression (LTD) has not been characterized in the mouse in vivo. Herein we describe protocols and improved methodologies we developed to record hippocampal synaptic plasticity reliably from the dentate gyrus of the awake freely behaving mouse. Seven days prior to recording, we implanted microelectrodes encapsulated within a lightweight, low-profile headstage assembly. On the day of recording, we induced either LTP or LTD in the awake freely behaving animal and monitored subsequent changes in population spike amplitude for at least 24 hrs. Using this protocol we attained 80% success in inducing and maintaining either LTP or LTD. Recording from a chronic implant using this improved methodology is best suited to reveal naturally occurring brain activity, and avoids both acute effects of local electrode insertion and drifts in neuronal excitability associated with anesthesia. Ultimately a reliable freely behaving mouse model of bidirectional synaptic plasticity is invaluable for full characterization of genetic models of disease states and manipulations of the mechanisms implicated in learning and memory. PMID:17875326

  5. Neonatal isolation enhances hippocampal dentate response to tetanization in freely moving juvenile male rats.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Hoffman, J H; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Bronzino, J D

    1995-12-01

    The impact of early neonatal isolation on measures of hippocampal neuronal plasticity was examined in freely moving male rats at 30 days of age. Beginning on Postnatal (PN) Day 2, one-half of pups from each experimental litter were individually isolated from the nest, dam, and siblings for a period of 1 h per day over PN Days 2-9, while their siblings remained in the nest. In addition, randomly selected litters served as unhandled controls. On PN Day 26 all pups were weaned and chronically implanted for recording of evoked field potentials and induction of hippocampal longterm potentiation. At 30 days of age, pups from the three treatment groups (isolated, nonisolated siblings, and unhandled controls) were tested for their ability to establish and maintain long-term potentiation across the perforant path/hippocampal dentate granule cell synapse. Changes in population EPSP slope and population spike amplitude (PSA) recorded following tetanization were used to assess the effects of neonatal isolation of hippocampal response measures. No significant between-group differences were obtained for input/output response curves constructed prior to tetanization. All three groups showed immediate and significant enhancement of the PSA measure at 15 min posttetanization. The level of PSA enhancement obtained from previously isolated pups was significantly greater than that obtained from both the nonisolated sibling and unhandled control groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A.; Hubens, Chantal J.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  7. Increases in doublecortin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus following extinction of heroin-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Megan P; Wischerath, Kelly C; Lacrosse, Amber L; Olive, M Foster

    2012-01-01

    Adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus play a role in various forms of learning and memory. However, adult born neurons in the DG, while still at an immature stage, exhibit unique electrophysiological properties and are also functionally implicated in learning and memory processes. We investigated the effects of extinction of drug-seeking behavior on the formation of immature neurons in the DG as assessed by quantification of doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity. Rats were allowed to self-administer heroin (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) for 12 days and then subjected either to 10 days of extinction training or forced abstinence. We also examined extinction responding patterns following heroin self-administration in glial fibrillary acidic protein thymidine kinase (GFAP-tk) transgenic mice, which have been previously demonstrated to show reduced formation of immature and mature neurons in the DG following treatment with ganciclovir (GCV). We found that extinction training increased DCX immunoreactivity in the dorsal DG as compared with animals undergoing forced abstinence, and that GCV-treated GFAP-tk mice displayed impaired extinction learning as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that extinction of drug-seeking behavior increases the formation of immature neurons in the DG and that these neurons may play a functional role in extinction learning.

  8. Retrieval of morphine-associated context induces cFos in dentate gyrus neurons.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Phillip D; Raghavan, Ramya K; Yun, Sanghee; Latchney, Sarah E; McGovern, Mary-Katherin; García, Emily F; Birnbaum, Shari G; Eisch, Amelia J

    2015-04-01

    Addiction has been proposed to emerge from associations between the drug and the reward-associated contexts. This associative learning has a cellular correlate, as there are more cFos+ neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) after psychostimulant conditioned place preference (CPP) versus saline controls. However, it is unknown whether morphine CPP leads to a similar DG activation, or whether DG activation is due to locomotion, handling, pharmacological effects, or-as data from contextual fear learning suggests-exposure to the drug-associated context. To explore this, we employed an unbiased, counterbalanced, and shortened CPP design that led to place preference and more DG cFos+ cells. Next, mice underwent morphine CPP but were then sequestered into the morphine-paired (conditioned stimulus+ [CS+]) or saline-paired (CS-) context on test day. Morphine-paired mice sequestered to CS+ had ∼30% more DG cFos+ cells than saline-paired mice. Furthermore, Bregma analysis revealed morphine-paired mice had more cFos+ cells in CS+ compared to CS- controls. Notably, there was no significant difference in DG cFos+ cell number after handling alone or after receiving morphine in home cage. Thus, retrieval of morphine-associated context is accompanied by activation of hippocampal DG granule cell neurons.

  9. Effects of lead exposure on dendrite and spine development in hippocampal dentate gyrus areas of rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Ge, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lead exposure has been implicated in the impairment of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) areas of rats. However, whether the degradation of physiological properties is based on the morphological alteration of granule neurons in DG areas remains elusive. Here, we examined the dendritic branch extension and spine formation of granule neurons after lead exposure during development in rats. Dendritic morphology was studied using Golgi-Cox stain method, which was followed by Sholl analysis at postnatal days 14 and 21. Our results indicated that, for both ages, lead exposure significantly decreased the total dendritic length and spine density of granule neurons in the DG of the rat hippocampus. Further branch order analysis revealed that the decrease of dendritic length was observed only at the second branch order. Moreover, there were obvious deficits in the proportion and size of mushroom-type spines. These deficits in spine formation and maturity were accompanied by a decrease in Arc/Arg3.1 expression. Our present findings are the first to show that developmental lead exposure disturbs branch and spine formation in hippocampal DG areas. Arc/Arg3.1 may have a critical role in the disruption of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity in lead-exposed rats.

  10. [Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life for dentate diabetics].

    PubMed

    Drumond-Santana, Trícia; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Santana, Taciana Drumond

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of periodontal disease on quality of life in diabetics. A total of 159 dentate diabetic individuals registered at the Municipal Hospital in Itaúna, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined and interviewed. The clinical periodontal parameters recorded were: gingival bleeding, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The OHIP-14 form was used to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life. In relation to periodontal status, 15.7% of individuals were healthy, 35.2% presented gingivitis, and 49.1% periodontitis (27.7% in the mild-to-moderate and 21.4% in the advanced stages). Association between diagnosis of periodontal disease and impact on quality of life was significant in individuals with periodontitis (p < 0.001). Gingival bleeding, probing depth, and clinical attachment level > 4mm were associated with intensely negative impact on quality of life (p = 0.013, p < 0.001, and p = 0.012 respectively). Diabetics with mild-to-moderate and advanced periodontitis had more negative impact on quality of life than those who were periodontally healthy or with gingivitis.

  11. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  12. Impaired neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus is associated with pattern separation deficits: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    The separation of input patterns received from the entorhinal cortex (EC) by the dentate gyrus (DG) is a well-known critical step of information processing in the hippocampus. Although the role of interneurons in separation pattern efficiency of the DG has been theoretically known, the balance of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons and interneurons as well as its potential role in information processing in the DG is not fully understood. In this work, we study separation efficiency of the DG for different rates of neurogenesis of interneurons and excitatory neurons using a novel computational model in which we assume an increase in the synaptic efficacy between excitatory neurons and interneurons and then its decay over time. Information processing in the EC and DG was simulated as information flow in a two layer feed-forward neural network. The neurogenesis rate was modeled as the percentage of new born neurons added to the neuronal population in each time bin. The results show an important role of an optimal neurogenesis rate of interneurons and excitatory neurons in the DG in efficient separation of inputs from the EC in pattern separation tasks. The model predicts that any deviation of the optimal values of neurogenesis rates leads to different decreased levels of the separation deficits of the DG which influences its function to encode memory.

  13. Sleep deprivation reduces proliferation of cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rats

    PubMed Central

    guzmán-marín, Ruben; Suntsova, Natalia; Stewart, Darya R; Gong, Hui; Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus gives rise to progenitor cells, which have the potential to differentiate into neurons. To date it is not known whether sleep or sleep loss has any effect on proliferation of cells in the DG. Male rats were implanted for polysomnographic recording, and divided into treadmill sleep-deprived (SD), treadmill control (TC) and cage control (CC) groups. SD and TC rats were kept for 96 h on a treadmill that moved either for 3 s on/12 s off (SD group) or for 15 min on/60 min off (TC group) to equate total movement but permit sustained rest periods in TC animals. To label proliferating cells the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected after the first 48 h of the experimental procedure in all groups (50 mg kg−1, i.p.). The percentage of time awake per day was 93.2 % in the SD group vs. 59.6 % in the TC group and 49.9 % in the CC group (P < 0.001). Stereological analysis showed that the number of BrdU-positive cells in the DG of the dorsal hippocampus was reduced by 54 % in the SD group in comparison with the TC and by 68 % in comparison with the CC group. These results suggest that sleep deprivation reduces proliferation of cells in the DG of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:12679377

  14. Differential and converging molecular mechanisms of antidepressants' action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Patrício, Patrícia; Mateus-Pinheiro, António; Irmler, Martin; Alves, Nuno D; Machado-Santos, Ana R; Morais, Mónica; Correia, Joana S; Korostynski, Michal; Piechota, Marcin; Stoffel, Rainer; Beckers, Johannes; Bessa, João M; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sousa, Nuno; Pinto, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is a highly prevalent, multidimensional disorder. Although several classes of antidepressants (ADs) are currently available, treatment efficacy is limited, and relapse rates are high; thus, there is a need to find better therapeutic strategies. Neuroplastic changes in brain regions such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) accompany depression and its amelioration with ADs. In this study, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) rat model of depression was used to determine the molecular mediators of chronic stress and the targets of four ADs with different pharmacological profiles (fluoxetine, imipramine, tianeptine, and agomelatine) in the hippocampal DG. All ADs, except agomelatine, reversed the depression-like behavior and neuroplastic changes produced by uCMS. Chronic stress induced significant molecular changes that were generally reversed by fluoxetine, imipramine, and tianeptine. Fluoxetine primarily acted on neurons to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory response genes and increased a set of genes involved in cell metabolism. Similarities were found between the molecular actions and targets of imipramine and tianeptine that activated pathways related to cellular protection. Agomelatine presented a unique profile, with pronounced effects on genes related to Rho-GTPase-related pathways in oligodendrocytes and neurons. These differential molecular signatures of ADs studied contribute to our understanding of the processes implicated in the onset and treatment of depression-like symptoms.

  15. Mossy fiber synaptic transmission: communication from the dentate gyrus to area CA3.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, David B; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Communication between the dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus proper is transmitted via axons of granule cells--the mossy fiber (MF) pathway. In this review we discuss and compare the properties of transmitter release from the MFs onto pyramidal neurons and interneurons. An examination of the anatomical connectivity from DG to CA3 reveals a surprising interplay between excitation and inhibition for this circuit. In this respect it is particularly relevant that the major targets of the MFs are interneurons and that the consequence of MF input into CA3 may be inhibitory or excitatory, conditionally dependent on the frequency of input and modulatory regulation. This is further complicated by the properties of transmitter release from the MFs where a large number of co-localized transmitters, including GABAergic inhibitory transmitter release, and the effects of presynaptic modulation finely tune transmitter release. A picture emerges that extends beyond the hypothesis that the MFs are simply "detonators" of CA3 pyramidal neurons; the properties of synaptic information flow from the DG have more subtle and complex influences on the CA3 network.

  16. Tonic Inhibitory Control of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells by α5-Containing GABAA Receptors Reduces Memory Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowska, Ewa D.; Benke, Dietmar; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Sigal, Maksim; Keist, Ruth; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.; Pearce, Robert A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Interference between similar or overlapping memories formed at different times poses an important challenge on the hippocampal declarative memory system. Difficulties in managing interference are at the core of disabling cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Computational models have suggested that, in the normal brain, the sparse activation of the dentate gyrus granule cells maintained by tonic inhibitory control enables pattern separation, an orthogonalization process that allows distinct representations of memories despite interference. To test this mechanistic hypothesis, we generated mice with significantly reduced expression of the α5-containing GABAA (α5-GABAARs) receptors selectively in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (α5DGKO mice). α5DGKO mice had reduced tonic inhibition of the granule cells without any change in fast phasic inhibition and showed increased activation in the dentate gyrus when presented with novel stimuli. α5DGKO mice showed impairments in cognitive tasks characterized by high interference, without any deficiencies in low-interference tasks, suggesting specific impairment of pattern separation. Reduction of fast phasic inhibition in the dentate gyrus through granule cell-selective knock-out of α2-GABAARs or the knock-out of the α5-GABAARs in the downstream CA3 area did not detract from pattern separation abilities, which confirms the anatomical and molecular specificity of the findings. In addition to lending empirical support to computational hypotheses, our findings have implications for the treatment of interference-related cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly considering the availability of pharmacological agents selectively targeting α5-GABAARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Interference between similar memories poses a significant limitation on the hippocampal declarative memory system, and impaired interference management is a cognitive symptom in many disorders. Thus, understanding

  17. Dynamical evolution of comet nucleus rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Sidorenko, V. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.

    2001-11-01

    The rotational dynamics of outgassing cometary nuclei are investigated analytically using dynamical systems theory. We develop a general theory for the averaged evolution of a comet nucleus rotation state assuming that the nucleus is a spheroid (either prolate or oblate) and that the outgassing torques are a function of solar insolation and heliocentric distance. The resulting solutions are a function of the comet outgassing properties, its heliocentric orbit, and the assumed distribution of active regions on its surface. We find that the long-term evolution of the comet nucleus rotation is a strong function of the distribution of active regions over its surface. Specifically, we find that a comet nucleus with a uniformly active surface will tend towards a rotation state with a nutation angle of ~ 55 degrees and an angular momentum perpendicular to the sun-perihelion direction. Conversely, a comet nucleus with an isolated active region will tend towards a zero nutation angle with its symmetry axis and angular momentum aligned parallel to the sun-perihelion direction. For active surface regions between these extremes we find 4 qualitatively different dynamical outcomes. In all cases, the theory predicts that the comet nucleus angular momentum will have a secular increase, a phenomenon that could contribute to nucleus splitting of active comets. These results can be used to discriminate between competing theories of comet outgassing based on a nucelus' rotation state. They also allow for a range of plausible a priori constraints to be placed on a comet's rotation state to aid in the interpretation of its outgassing structure. This work was supported by the NASA JURRISS program under Grant NAG5-8715. AIN, AAV and VVS acknowledge support from Russian Foundation for Basic research via Grants 00-01-00538 and 00-01-0174 respectively. DJS acknowledges support from the PG&G program via Grant NAG5-9017.

  18. Construction of dentate bonded TiO2-CdSe heterostructures with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties: versatile labels toward photoelectrochemical and electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Picheng; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Wu, Dan; Ren, Xiang; Yang, Jiaojiao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-01-14

    A facile synthetic route for TiO2-CdSe heterostructures was proposed based on dentate binding of TiO2 to carboxyl. Carboxyl functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CF-CdSe QDs) were successfully bonded onto TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), which could significantly improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 NPs. This is ascribed to the fact that CdSe QDs with a narrow band gap could be stimulated under visible light irradiation, and the energy levels of TiO2 NPs and CF-CdSe QDs are aligned with an electrolyte solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images revealed the heterostructures of the TiO2-CdSe composites. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis exhibited that the prepared TiO2-CdSe heterostructures have improved light absorption, charge separation efficiency and electron transfer ability in the visible light region. TiO2-CdSe heterostructures were used as versatile labels for fabrication of PEC and electrochemical immunosensors, and human immune globulin G (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. The immunosensor showed high sensitivity, a low detection limit and a wide linear range, which could be applied in practical serum sample analysis. The constructed TiO2-CdSe heterostructures would have potential applications in photocatalysis, aptasensors, cytosensors and other areas of nanotechnology.

  19. A free-radical scavenger protects the neural progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular zone of the hippocampus from cell death after X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Ogura, Masatoshi; Natsume, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2010-11-12

    It has been elucidated that cognitive dysfunction following cranial radiotherapy might be linked to the oxidative stress-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis that is mediated by proliferating neural stem or progenitor cells. The novel free-radical scavenger edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. Previously, we reported that the free-radical scavenger, edaravone, which is currently used to treat patients with brain ischemia, protected cultured human neural stem cells (NSCs) from radiation-induced cell death; the protective effect was observed more significantly in NSCs than in brain tumor cells. Here, in animal models, we demonstrate that edaravone protects neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from cell death after irradiation. Moreover, edaravone protected spatial memory retention deficits as determined by Morris water maze tests. Our study may shed some light on the beneficial effects of free-radical scavengers in impaired neurogenesis following cranial radiation therapy.

  20. Deletion of the Mouse Homolog of CACNA1C Disrupts Discrete Forms of Hippocampal-Dependent Memory and Neurogenesis within the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ryan Z.; Fisher, Grace L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in various forms of learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. Within the hippocampus, the LVGCC subtype, CaV1.2 is prominently expressed throughout the dentate gyrus. Despite the apparent high levels of CaV1.2 expression in the dentate gyrus, the role of CaV1.2 in hippocampal- and dentate gyrus-associated forms of learning remain unknown. To address this question, we examined alternate forms of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory in mice lacking the mouse ortholog of CACNA1C (Cacna1c), which encodes CaV1.2, with dentate gyrus function implicated in difficult forms of each task. We found that while the deletion of CaV1.2 did not impair the acquisition of fear of a conditioned context, mice lacking CaV1.2 exhibited deficits in the ability to discriminate between two contexts, one in which the mice were conditioned and one in which they were not. Similarly, CaV1.2 knock-out mice exhibited normal acquisition and recall of the location of the hidden platform in a standard Morris water maze, but were unable to form a memory of the platform location when the task was made more difficult by restricting the number of available spatial cues. Within the dentate gyrus, pan-neuronal deletion of CaV1.2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and the numbers of doublecortin-positive adult-born neurons, implicating CaV1.2 in adult neurogenesis. These results suggest that CaV1.2 is important for dentate gyrus-associated tasks and may mediate these forms of learning via a role in adult neurogenesis and cell proliferation within the dentate gyrus. PMID:27957527

  1. Gene expression profiling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in an adult toxicity study captures a variety of neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in rat models of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Ayako; Saito, Fumiyo; Akane, Hirotoshi; Akahori, Yumi; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that developmental hypothyroidism changed the expression of genes in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region where adult neurogenesis is known to occur. In the present study, we performed brain region-specific global gene expression profiling in an adult rat hypothyroidism model to see if it reflected the developmental neurotoxicity we saw in the developmental hypothyroidism model. Starting when male rats were 5 weeks old, we administered 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at a doses of 0, 0.1 and 10 mg kg(-1) body weight by gavage for 28 days. We selected four brain regions to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues: hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We observed significant alterations in the expression of genes related to neural development (Eph family genes and Robo3) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus and in the expression of genes related to myelination (Plp1 and Mbp) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We observed only minor changes in the expression of these genes in the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We used real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to confirm Chrdl1, Hes5, Mbp, Plp1, Slit1, Robo3 and the Eph family transcript expression changes. The most significant changes in gene expression were found in the dentate gyrus. Considering that the gene expression profile of the adult dentate gyrus closely related to neurogenesis, 28-day toxicity studies looking at gene expression changes in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus may also detect possible developmental neurotoxic effects.

  2. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was <1 year (estimate -0.0013, standard error = 0.0005, P = 0.023). This association did not differ between individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin

  3. Reduced excitatory drive onto interneurons in the dentate gyrus after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Doherty, J; Dingledine, R

    2001-03-15

    Impaired GABAergic inhibition may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability in epilepsy. We used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to demonstrate that regulation of excitatory synaptic drive onto GABAergic interneurons is impaired during epileptogenesis. Synaptic input from granule cells (GCs), perforant path, and CA3 inputs onto hilar border interneurons of the dentate gyrus were examined in rat hippocampal slices during the latent period (1-8 d) after induction of status epilepticus (SE). Short-term depression (STD) of GC inputs to interneurons induced by brief (500-800 msec), repetitive (5-20 Hz) stimulation, as well as paired-pulse depression at both GC and CA3 inputs to interneurons, were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in SE-experienced rats. In contrast, we found no significant differences between SE-experienced and age-matched control rats in the properties of minimal EPSCs evoked at low frequency (0.3 Hz). Consistent with reduced GABAergic inhibition onto granule cells, paired-pulse depression of perforant path-evoked granule cell population spikes was lost in SE-experienced rats. Enhanced STD was partially mediated by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, because the selective antagonist, 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid, attenuated STD in SE-experienced rats but had no effect on STD of GC inputs in the normal adult rat. The group II mGluR agonist, (2S',1R',2R',3R')-2-(2,3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (1 micrometer), produced a greater depression of GC input to hilar border interneurons in SE-experienced rats than in controls. These results indicate that, in the SE-experienced rat, excitatory drive to hilar border inhibitory interneurons is weakened through a use-dependent mechanism involving group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  4. Maturation of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the freely moving rat.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Abu-Hasaballah, K; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J

    1994-08-01

    The ability of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse of the hippocampal formation to establish and maintain enhanced levels of synaptic transmission in response to tetanization (long-term potentiation, LTP) was investigated in freely moving rats at 15, 30, and 90 days of age. Measures of 1) the slope of the population excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), and 2) the population spike amplitude (PSA) obtained before, and at several times following tetanization, were used to evaluate the magnitude and duration of LTP as a function of age. Significant enhancement of both EPSP slope and PSA measures was obtained from animals of all three ages in response to perforant path tetanization. The initial degree of enhancement was essentially the same across the age groups, ranging from +27% to +38% of pretetanization levels for EPSP slope measures and +60% to +75% of pretetanization levels for PSA measures, obtained 15 min after tetanization. The duration of this enhancement obtained from animals of the preweaning group was significantly longer than that obtained from either 30- or 90-day-old animals. Enhanced measures of both EPSP slope and PSA decayed to baseline levels in these older animals 18 to 24 h after tetanization, while animals tetanized at 15 days of age maintained potentiated levels of both measures for a period of 5 days following tetanization. Tetanization of 15-day-old animals resulted in a significant reduction in the latency to EPSP onset without affecting the time-based relationships among the other measured parameters, which included latency of the population spike onset, population spike minimum, and population spike offset.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Polsani L; Bhoria, Mohaneesh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various gingival biotypes and to corroborate gingival thickness and gingival biotypes across tooth type, site, and gender. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across systemically healthy subjects. A systematic clinical evaluation for gingival biotypes and gingival thicknesses was recorded by modified Iwanson’s gauge, to the nearest 0.1 mm, probing the gingival sulcus at the midfacial aspect of maxillary and mandibular central incisors and first molars. All measurements were made across a total of 920 sites in 115 subjects (69 female and 46 male) based on gingival transparency and were statistically analyzed. Results: A significant agreement on the reproducibility of the measurements was noted. The median overall gingival thickness was recorded at 0.75 mm with interquantile difference of 0.39 mm. The thin biotype variant showed across the ranges of 0.3 to 0.6 mm of gingival thicknesses and thick biotype variant across the ranges of 1.0 to 1.2 mm, with more prevalence in anterior and posterior site respectively. Moreover, for gingi-val thickness of 0.7 mm, the probe visibility showed tendency toward both thin/thick biotype variant in both anterior and posterior segments. The disposition of male participants toward thick biotype and female participants toward the thin biotype variant has been noted. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, our data support the traditional hypothesis of two main gingival biotypes as distinguishable by gingival transparency. In addition, we provide evidence of existence of intermediate biotypes with respect to gingival thickness. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determination of biotype and can be implicated in many dental operative procedures. How to cite this article: Rathee M, Rao PL, Bhoria M. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016

  6. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Fenzl, Thomas; Polta, Stephanie A.; von Wolff, Gregor; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Eder, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC) theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus highly effectively generates waves of neuronal activity which propagate through the entire trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampus (“HTC-Waves”). This flow of activity, which we also demonstrate in vivo, critically depends on frequency facilitation of mossy fiber to CA3 synaptic transmission. The HTC-Waves are rapidly boosted by the cognitive enhancer caffeine (5 μM) and the stress hormone corticosterone (100 nM). They precisely follow the rhythm of the EC input, involve high-frequency firing (>100 Hz) of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and induce NMDA receptor-dependent CA1 LTP within a few seconds. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that synchronous theta-rhythmical spiking of EC stellate cells, as occurring during EC theta oscillations, has the capacity to drive induction of CA1 LTP via the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway. Moreover, we present data pointing to a basic filter mechanism of the hippocampus regarding EC inputs and describe a methodology to reveal alterations in the “input–output relationship” of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. PMID:22988432

  7. Dentate gyrus is necessary for disambiguating similar object-place representations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Solivan, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objects are often remembered with their locations, which is an important aspect of event memory. Despite the well-known involvement of the hippocampus in event memory, detailed intrahippocampal mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, no experimental evidence has been provided in support of the role of the dentate gyrus (DG) in disambiguating such events, even though computational models suggest otherwise. In the current study, rats encountered multiple objects in different locations and were required to discriminate the object-place paired associates for reward. Specifically, two different objects appeared in one of two locations (arms in a radial maze) that were relatively close to each other. Different objects were rewarded depending on the arm in which the objects appeared. The rats with colchicine-based, dorsal DG (dDG) lesions showed severe and sustained impairment in disambiguating the objects compared with controls (Experiment 1). The dDG-lesioned rats were normal, however, in discriminating four different objects presented (Experiment 2) in the same locations as in Experiment 1. Finally, when the two different objects used in Experiment 1 were presented at two remote locations (Experiment 3) involving less overlap between arm-associated contextual cues, the dDG-lesioned animals showed initial deficits in discriminating the objects, but gradually relearned the task, in contrast to the sustained deficits observed in Experiment 1. These results collectively suggest that the DG is necessary when the similarity is maximal between object-place paired associates due to overlapping object and/or spatial information, whereas its role becomes minimal as the overlap in either object or spatial information decreases. PMID:20421312

  8. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  9. Scopolamine impairs behavioural function and arginine metabolism in the rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Knox, Logan T; Jing, Yu; Fleete, Michael S; Collie, Nicola D; Zhang, Hu; Liu, Ping

    2011-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory loss. It has been shown that the cholinergic neurotransmission deficit is one of the neurochemical characteristics of AD, and that L-arginine and its metabolites also play a prominent role in AD pathogenesis. Scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, blocks cholinergic neurotransmission and impairs behavioural function, including learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of scopolamine on animals' behavioural performance and L-arginine metabolism in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of scopolamine (0.8 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) and tested in the Y-maze, open field, water maze and elevated plus maze 30 min post-treatment. After completion of the behavioural testing, the CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus (DG) sub-regions of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex were harvested to measure the activity and protein expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase, and the levels of L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, glutamate and GABA. Scopolamine treated rats displayed reduced alternation and exploratory behaviour, increased swimming speed and impaired spatial learning and memory. There were significantly decreased NOS activity, increased arginase activity, and increased L-ornithine and putrescine levels in the DG, but not other regions examined, in the scopolamine treated rats as compared to the controls. These findings suggest that scopolamine impairs behavioural function and alters L-arginine metabolism in the DG sub-region of the hippocampus specifically. The underlying mechanisms of it remain to be explored further.

  10. Morphological changes among hippocampal dentate granule cells exposed to early kindling-epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shatrunjai P.; He, Xiaoping; McNamara, James O.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with changes in the morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cells. These changes are evident in numerous models that are associated with substantial neuron loss and spontaneous recurrent seizures. By contrast, previous studies have shown that in the kindling model, it is possible to administer a limited number of stimulations sufficient to produce a lifelong enhanced sensitivity to stimulus evoked seizures without associated spontaneous seizures and minimal neuronal loss. Here we examined whether stimulation of the amygdala sufficient to evoke five convulsive seizures (class IV or greater on Racine’s scale) produce morphological changes similar to those observed in models of epilepsy associated with substantial cell loss. The morphology of GFP-expressing granule cells from Thy-1 GFP mice was examined either one day or one month after the last evoked seizure. Interestingly, significant reductions in dendritic spine density were evident one day after the last seizure, the magnitude of which had diminished by one month. Further, there was an increase in the thickness of the granule cell layer one day after the last evoked seizure, which was absent a month later. We also observed an increase in the area of the proximal axon, which again returned to control levels a month later. No differences in the number of basal dendrites were detected at either time point. These findings demonstrate that the early stages of kindling epileptogenesis produce transient changes in the granule cell body layer thickness, molecular layer spine density and axon proximal area, but do not produce striking rearrangements of granule cell structure. PMID:23893783

  11. DREADD in parvalbumin interneurons of the dentate gyrus modulates anxiety, social interaction and memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Zou, D; Chen, L; Deng, D; Jiang, D; Dong, F; McSweeney, C; Zhou, Y; Liu, L; Chen, G; Wu, Y; Mao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PVpositive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3DGq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus.

  12. A ketogenic diet reduces long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Koranda, Jessica L; Ruskin, David N; Masino, Susan A; Blaise, J Harry

    2011-08-01

    Ketogenic diets are very low in carbohydrates and can reduce epileptic seizures significantly. This dietary therapy is particularly effective in pediatric and drug-resistant epilepsy. Hypothesized anticonvulsant mechanisms of ketogenic diets focus on increased inhibition and/or decreased excitability/excitation. Either of these consequences might not only reduce seizures, but also could affect normal brain function and synaptic plasticity. Here, we characterized effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal long-term potentiation, a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity. Adult male rats were placed on a control or ketogenic diet for 3 wk before recording. To maintain the most physiological conditions possible, we assessed synaptic transmission and plasticity using chronic in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals. Rats underwent stereotaxic surgery to chronically implant a recording electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and a stimulating electrode in the perforant path; they recovered for 1 wk. After habituation and stable baseline recording, 5-Hz theta-burst stimulation was delivered to induce long-term potentiation. All animals showed successful plasticity, demonstrating that potentiation was not blocked by the ketogenic diet. Compared with rats fed a control diet, rats fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated significantly diminished long-term potentiation. This decreased potentiation lasted for at least 48 h. Reduced potentiation in ketogenic diet-fed rats is consistent with a general increase in neuronal inhibition (or decrease in excitability) and decreased seizure susceptibility. A better understanding of the effects of ketogenic diets on synaptic plasticity and learning is important, as diet-based therapy is often prescribed to children with epilepsy.

  13. Intra- and interregional cortical interactions related to sharp-wave ripples and dentate spikes.

    PubMed

    Headley, Drew B; Kanta, Vasiliki; Paré, Denis

    2017-02-01

    The hippocampus generates population events termed sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs). While little is known about DSs, SWR-related hippocampal discharges during sleep are thought to replay prior waking activity, reactivating the cortical networks that encoded the initial experience. During slow-wave sleep, such reactivations likely occur during up-states, when most cortical neurons are depolarized. However, most studies have examined the relationship between SWRs and up-states measured in single neocortical regions. As a result, it is currently unclear whether SWRs are associated with particular patterns of widely distributed cortical activity. Additionally, no such investigation has been carried out for DSs. The present study addressed these questions by recording SWRs and DSs from the dorsal hippocampus simultaneously with prefrontal, sensory (visual and auditory), perirhinal, and entorhinal cortices in naturally sleeping rats. We found that SWRs and DSs were associated with up-states in all cortical regions. Up-states coinciding with DSs and SWRs exhibited increased unit activity, power in the gamma band, and intraregional gamma coherence. Unexpectedly, interregional gamma coherence rose much more strongly in relation to DSs than to SWRs. Whereas the increase in gamma coherence was time locked to DSs, that seen in relation to SWRs was not. These observations suggest that SWRs are related to the strength of up-state activation within individual regions throughout the neocortex but not so much to gamma coherence between different regions. Perhaps more importantly, DSs coincided with stronger periods of interregional gamma coherence, suggesting that they play a more important role than previously assumed.

  14. Assessment of the association between dentate status and self-rated general health

    PubMed Central

    Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Aiming at preparing the basis for evidence-based dental public health policy making in Slovenia, the objective of the study was to assess the strength of association between oral health status measured by the number of missing teeth and self-rated health (SRH). Methods The study was designed as a pooled individual-level data study from four national cross-sectional studies carried out in the period 2001-2012, based on CINDI Health Monitor methodology. Altogether, 34,412 participants were included. A logistic regression model with poor SRH as observed outcome and the number of teeth as explanatory factor (adjusted for selected biologic, socio-economic and health factors) was proposed. Results In the sample, women represented 55.7% and men 44.3%, median age was 45 years. Persons with more missing teeth more likely rated their health as poor. The association was persistent even when different confounding variables were included in the model. In the group with 1-5 missing teeth, in comparison to the group with none missing teeth, OR was 1.23 (p=0.049), whereas for the group with 6-10 missing teeth, OR was 1.32 (p=0.019); for the group with >10 missing teeth, but not all, OR was 1.77 (p<0.001), and for the group with all missing teeth, OR was 2.19 (p<0.001). Conclusions Study results showed clear association of SRH with dentate status, which confirms the oral-general health connection. This indicates the need for the development of proper dental public health policies for better oral health, and presents a new view on the importance of preserving teeth. PMID:28289473

  15. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  16. Different forms of oestrogen rapidly upregulate cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barha, C K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M

    2009-03-01

    Oestrogens are known to exert significant structural and functional effects in the hippocampus of adult rodents. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus retains the ability to produce neurones throughout adulthood and 17beta-oestradiol has been shown to influence hippocampal neurogenesis in adult female rats. The effects of other oestrogens, such as oestrone and 17alpha-oestradiol, on neurogenesis have not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 17beta-oestradiol, oestradiol benzoate, oestrone, and 17alpha-oestradiol on cell proliferation in ovariectomised adult female rats at two different time points. Young ovariectomised female rats were injected with one of the oestrogens at one of three doses. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to the hormone for 4 h and, in Experiment 2, rats were exposed to the hormone for 30 min prior to 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injection to label proliferating cells and their progeny. We found that young ovariectomised females responded with increased cell proliferation to most oestrogens, except oestradiol benzoate, after 30 min of exposure. However, administration of oestrogens for a longer time interval was ineffective at increasing cell proliferation. After 30 min, 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone increased cell proliferation at low (0.3 microg) and high (10 microg) doses, whereas 17alpha-oestradiol increased cell proliferation at medium (1 microg) and high doses. The results of the present study indicate that different oestrogens rapidly increase cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, possibly through a nonclassical, nongenomic mechanism. Future experiments should focus on further elucidating the specific pathways utilised by each oestrogen. These results have important therapeutic implications because it may be possible to use 17alpha-oestradiol and lower doses of oestrogens in hormone replacement therapies.

  17. Dentate gyrus network dysfunctions precede the symptomatic phase in a genetic mouse model of seizures

    PubMed Central

    Toader, Oana; Forte, Nicola; Orlando, Marta; Ferrea, Enrico; Raimondi, Andrea; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio; Medrihan, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal circuit disturbances that lead to hyperexcitability in the cortico-hippocampal network are one of the landmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The dentate gyrus (DG) network plays an important role in regulating the excitability of the entire hippocampus by filtering and integrating information received via the perforant path. Here, we investigated possible epileptogenic abnormalities in the function of the DG neuronal network in the Synapsin II (Syn II) knockout mouse (Syn II−/−), a genetic mouse model of epilepsy. Syn II is a presynaptic protein whose deletion in mice reproducibly leads to generalized seizures starting at the age of 2 months. We made use of a high-resolution microelectrode array (4096 electrodes) and patch-clamp recordings, and found that in acute hippocampal slices of young pre-symptomatic (3–6 week-old) Syn II−/− mice excitatory synaptic output of the mossy fibers is reduced. Moreover, we showed that the main excitatory neurons present in the polymorphic layer of the DG, hilar mossy cells, display a reduced excitability. We also provide evidence of a predominantly inhibitory regulatory output from mossy cells to granule cells, through feed-forward inhibition, and show that the excitatory-inhibitory ratio is increased in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic Syn II−/− mice. These results support the key role of the hilar mossy neurons in maintaining the normal excitability of the hippocampal network and show that the late epileptic phenotype of the Syn II−/− mice is preceded by neuronal circuitry dysfunctions. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the Syn II−/− mice and open the possibility for early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. PMID:24009558

  18. DREADD in Parvalbumin Interneurons of the Dentate Gyrus Modulates Anxiety, Social Interaction and Memory Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, D.; Chen, L.; Deng, D.; Jiang, D.; Dong, F.; McSweeney, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PV-positive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3D-Gq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus. PMID:26733123

  19. Bidirectional modulation of GABAergic transmission by cholecystokinin in hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells of juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Lei, Saobo

    2006-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) interacts with two types of G protein-coupled receptors in the brain: CCK-A and CCK-B receptors. Both CCK and CCK-B receptors are widely distributed in the hippocampal formation, but the functions of CCK there have been poorly understood. In the present study, we initially examined the effects of CCK on GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the hippocampal formation and then explored the underlying cellular mechanisms by focusing on the dentate gyrus region, where the highest levels of CCK-binding sites have been detected. Our results indicate that activation of CCK-B receptors initially and transiently increased spontaneous IPSC (sIPSC) frequency, followed by a persistent reduction. The effects of CCK were more evident in juvenile rats, suggesting that they are developmentally regulated. Cholecystokinin failed to modulate the miniature IPSCs recorded in the presence of TTX and the amplitude of the evoked IPSCs, but produced a transient increase followed by a reduction in action potential firing frequency recorded from GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that CCK acts by modulating the excitability of the interneurons to regulate GABA release. Cholecystokinin reduced the amplitude of the after-hyperpolarization of the action potentials, and application of paxilline or charybdotoxin considerably reduced CCK-mediated modulation of sIPSC frequency, suggesting that the effects of CCK are related to the inhibition of Ca2+-activated K+ currents (IK(Ca)). The effects of CCK were independent of the functions of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ release, protein kinase C or phospholipase A2, suggesting a direct coupling between the G proteins of CCK-B receptors and IK(Ca). Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying CCK-mediated modulation of GABA release. PMID:16455686

  20. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  1. The Effects of Disease Models of Nuclear Actin Polymerization on the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A.; Yuen, Michaela; Parilla, Megan; Cooper, Sandra T.; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-01-01

    Actin plays a crucial role in regulating multiple processes within the nucleus, including transcription and chromatin organization. However, the polymerization state of nuclear actin remains controversial, and there is no evidence for persistent actin filaments in a normal interphase nucleus. Further, several disease pathologies are characterized by polymerization of nuclear actin into stable filaments or rods. These include filaments that stain with phalloidin, resulting from point mutations in skeletal α-actin, detected in the human skeletal disease intranuclear rod myopathy, and cofilin/actin rods that form in response to cellular stressors like heatshock. To further elucidate the effects of these pathological actin structures, we examined the nucleus in both cell culture models as well as isolated human tissues. We find these actin structures alter the distribution of both RNA polymerase II and chromatin. Our data suggest that nuclear actin filaments result in disruption of nuclear organization, which may contribute to the disease pathology. PMID:27774069

  2. Genetic sex and the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell: original data and a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jordan E; Cao, Jinyan; Dorris, David M; Meitzen, John

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences are widespread across vertebrate nervous systems. Such differences are sometimes reflected in the neural substrate via neuroanatomical differences in brain region volume. One brain region that displays sex differences in its associated functions and pathologies is the striatum, including the caudate-putamen (dorsal striatum), nucleus accumbens core and shell (ventral striatum). The extent to which these differences can be attributed to alterations in volume is unclear. We thus tested whether the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core, and nucleus accumbens shell differed by region, sex, and hemisphere in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. As a positive control for detecting sex differences in brain region volume, we measured the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area (SDN-POA). As expected, SDN-POA volume was larger in males than in females. No sex differences were detected in the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core or shell. Nucleus accumbens core volume was larger in the right than left hemisphere across males and females. These findings complement previous reports of lateralized nucleus accumbens volume in humans, and suggest that this may possibly be driven via hemispheric differences in nucleus accumbens core volume. In contrast, striatal sex differences seem to be mediated by factors other than striatal region volume. This conclusion is presented within the context of a detailed review of studies addressing sex differences and similarities in striatal neuroanatomy.

  3. Nucleus model for periodic Comet Tempel 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    Observational data obtained primarily during 1988 are analyzed and synthesized to develop a comprehensive physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2, one of the best studied members of Jupiter's family of short-period comets. It is confirmed that a previous investigation provided reliable information on the comet's spin-axis orientation, which implies and obliquity of 54 degrees of the orbit plane to the equatorial plane and which appears to have varied little - if at all - with time. This conclusion is critical for fitting a triaxial ellipsoid to approximate the figure of the nucleus.

  4. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M.; Bosch, G. E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  5. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  6. Chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus enhances recovery of motor function after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Andre G.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Schuster, Daniel; Butler, Robert S.; Rezai, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Novel neurorehabilitative strategies are needed to improve motor outcomes following stroke. Based on the disynaptic excitatory projections of the dentatothalamocortical pathway to the motor cortex as well as anterior and posterior cortical areas, we hypothesize that chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional dentate (lateral cerebellar) nucleus output can enhance motor recovery after ischemia via augmentation of perilesional cortical excitability. Seventy five Wistar rats were pre-trained in the Montoya staircase task and subsequently suffered left cerebral ischemia with the 3-vessel occlusion model. All survivors underwent stereotactic right lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) implantation of bipolar electrodes. Rats were then randomized to 4 groups: LCN stimulation at 10 pps, 20 pps, 50 pps or sham stimulation, which was delivered for a period of six weeks. Performance on the Montoya task was re-assessed over the last four weeks of the stimulation period. On the right (contralesional) side, motor performance of the groups undergoing sham, 10 pps, 20 pps and 50 pps stimulation was, respectively, 2.5± 2.7; 2.1 ± 2.5; 6.0 ± 3.9 (p<0.01) and 4.5 ± 3.5 pellets. There was no difference on the left (ipsilesional) side motor performance among the sham or stimulation groups, varying from 15.9 ± 6.7 to 17.2 ± 2.1 pellets. We conclude that contralesional chronic electrical stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus at 20 pps but not at 10 or 50 pps improves motor recovery in rats following ischemic strokes. This effect is likely to be mediated by increased perilesional cortical excitability via chronic activation of the dentatothalamocortical pathway. PMID:19445910

  7. MDMA-induced loss of parvalbumin interneurons within the dentate gyrus is mediated by 5HT2A and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stuart A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-08-15

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes a rapid and robust release of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Recently, it was shown that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dorsal hippocampus, which is dependent on serotonin release and 5HT2A/2C receptor activation. The increased extracellular glutamate concentration coincides with a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons of the dentate gyrus region. Given the known susceptibility of PV interneurons to excitotoxicity, we examined whether MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate in the dentate gyrus are necessary for the loss of PV cells in rats. Extracellular glutamate concentrations increased in the dentate gyrus during systemic and local administration of MDMA. Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during systemic injections of MDMA, prevented the loss of PV-IR interneurons seen 10 days after MDMA exposure. Local administration of MDL100907, a selective 5HT2A receptor antagonist, prevented the increases in glutamate caused by reverse dialysis of MDMA directly into the dentate gyrus and prevented the reduction of PV-IR. These findings provide evidence that MDMA causes decreases in PV within the dentate gyrus through a 5HT2A receptor-mediated increase in glutamate and subsequent NMDA receptor activation.

  8. Prolonged protein deprivation, but not food restriction, affects parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Castro, João Paulo; Pereira, Pedro Alberto; Andrade, José Paulo

    2013-07-19

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation to malnutrition. In this study, we compared the effects of food restriction and protein malnutrition in the total number of neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons, which are related to the control of calcium homeostasis and fine tuning of the hippocampal circuits. Two month-old rats were randomly assigned to control, food-restricted and low-protein diet groups. After 6 months, 10 rats from the low-protein diet group were selected at random and fed with a normal protein diet for 2 months. The total number of granule and hilar cells was reduced in protein-deprived rats and the nutritional reestablishment with a normal protein diet did not recover neuron numbers. Protein deprivation increased the number of PV-IR interneurons in the granule cell layer and hilus, but their number returned to values similar to controls after nutritional rehabilitation. Food restriction did not affect the total number of neurons or the density of PV-IR interneurons in the dentate gyrus. These results support the view that protein deprivation may disturb calcium homeostasis, leading to neuronal death. The up-regulation of PV-IR cells may reflect a protective mechanism to counteract the calcium overload and protect the remaining neurons of the dentate gyrus. This imbalance in cell-ratio favoring GABAergic interneurons may justify some learning and memory impairments described in protein-deprived animals. This contrast between the results of food restriction and protein deprivation should be further analyzed in future studies.

  9. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Kireev, R A; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2013-08-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) for 10 weeks (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was subjected to melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for the same time. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. All rats were killed by decapitation at more than 24 month of age and dentate gyri of the hippocampi were collected. Aging in the dentate gyrus was associated with an increase in apoptosis promoting markers (Bax, Bad and AIF) and with the reduction of some anti-apoptotic ones (XIAP, NIAP, Mcl-1). Expressions of sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1 and 2) as well as levels of HSP 70 were decreased in the dentate gyrus of old rats. GH treatment was able to reduce the pro/anti-apoptotic ratio to levels observed in young animals and also to increase SIRT2. Melatonin reduced also expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bax, Bad and AIF), and increased levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 proteins and SIRT1. Both treatments were able to reduce apoptosis and to enhance survival markers in this part of the hippocampus.

  10. Expansion of the dentate mossy fiber-CA3 projection in the BDNF-enriched mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Isgor, Ceylan; Pare, Christopher; McDole, Brittnee; Coombs, Paulette; Guthrie, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Structural changes that alter hippocampal functional circuitry are implicated in learning impairments, mood disorders and epilepsy. Reorganization of mossy fiber (MF) axons from dentate granule cells is one such form of plasticity. Increased neurotrophin signaling is proposed to underlie MF plasticity, and there is evidence to support a mechanistic role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this process. Transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in forebrain under the α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promoter (TgBDNF mice) exhibit spatial learning deficits at 2–3 months of age, followed by the emergence of spontaneous seizures at ~6 months. These behavioral changes suggest that chronic increases in BDNF progressively disrupt hippocampal functional organization. To determine if the dentate MF pathway is structurally altered in this strain, the present study employed Timm staining and design-based stereology to compare MF distribution and projection volumes in transgenic and wild-type mice at 2–3 months, and at 6–7 months. Mice in the latter age group were assessed for seizure vulnerability with a low dose of pilocarpine given 2 hrs before euthanasia. At 2–3 months, TgBDNF mice showed moderate expansion of CA3-projecting MFs (~20%), with increased volumes measured in the suprapyramidal (SP-MF) and intra/infrapyramidal (IIP-MF) compartments. At 6–7 months, a subset of transgenic mice exhibited increased seizure susceptibility, along with an increase in IIP-MF volume (~30%). No evidence of MF sprouting was seen in the inner molecular layer. Additional stereological analyses demonstrated significant increases in molecular layer (ML) volume in TgBDNF mice at both ages, as well as an increase in granule cell number by 8 months of age. Collectively, these results indicate that sustained increases in endogenous BDNF modify dentate structural organization over time, and may thereby contribute to the development of pro-epileptic circuitry. PMID

  11. Differential gene expression in dentate granule cells in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Nicole G.; Wang, Yu; Hulette, Christine M.; Halvorsen, Matt; Cronin, Kenneth D.; Walley, Nicole M.; Haglund, Michael M.; Radtke, Rodney A.; Pate Skene, J. H.; Sinha, Saurabh R.; Heinzen, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common neuropathological finding in medically intractable cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis to show that next-generation sequencing methods can produce interpretable genomic data from RNA collected from small homogenous cell populations and to shed light on the transcriptional changes associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Methods RNA was extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared and amplified from dentate granule cells that had been harvested by laser capture microdissection from surgically resected hippocampi from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Sequencing libraries were sequenced, and the resulting sequencing reads were aligned to the reference genome. Differential expression analysis was used to ascertain expression differences between patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Results Greater than 90% of the RNA-Seq reads aligned to the reference. There was high concordance between transcriptional profiles obtained for duplicate samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the presence or absence of hippocampal sclerosis was the main determinant of the variance within the data. Among the genes upregulated in the hippocampal sclerosis samples, there was significant enrichment for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Significance By analyzing the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells from surgically resected hippocampal specimens from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis, we have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencing methods for producing biologically relevant results from small populations of homogeneous cells, and have provided insight on the transcriptional changes associated with this pathology

  12. Insulin/PI3K signaling protects dentate neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolu; Yao, Hang; Douglas, Robert M; Gu, Xiang Q; Wang, Juan; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2010-01-01

    It is known that ischemia/reperfusion induces neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in a subregion-dependent manner. This study investigated the mechanism of selective resistance/vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) using mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures. Analysis of propidium iodide uptake showed that OGD-induced duration- and subregion-dependent neuronal injury. When compared with the CA1-3 subregions, dentate neuronal survival was more sensitive to inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling under basal conditions. Dentate neuronal sensitivity to PI3K/Akt signaling activation was inversely related to its vulnerability to OGD-induced injury; insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pre-treatment conferred neuroprotection to dentate neurons via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. In contrast, CA1 and CA3 neurons were less sensitive to disruptions of endogenous PI3K/Akt signaling and protective effects of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, but more vulnerable to OGD. OGD-induced injury in CA1 was reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptor or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and was prevented by blocking NMDA receptor in the presence of insulin. The CA2 subregion was distinctive in its response to glutamate, OGD, and insulin, compared with other CA subregions. CA2 neurons were sensitive to the protective effects of insulin against OGD-induced injury, but more resistant to glutamate. Distinctive distribution of insulin receptor beta and basal phospho-Akt was detected in our slice cultures. Our results suggest a role for insulin signaling in subregional resistance/vulnerability to cerebral ischemia.