Science.gov

Sample records for human energy macro

  1. High energy neutrino astronomy with MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auriemma, G.

    1985-01-01

    A large area underground detector with accurate muon tracking and directionality can be used for the search of extraterrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos. The sensitivity of the MACRO detector to possible sources of neutrinos was evaluated with a Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutrino interaction in the rock and and of the detection in the real apparatus. Two categories of possible neutrino sources are discussed in comparison with the detector sensitivity. Promising candidate objects for this search appear to be the two binary X-ray sources in the southern key Vela X1 and LMC X4, which are known to emit gamma rays up to the 10,000 TeV region.

  2. Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

  3. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed.

  4. Macro histone variants are critical for the differentiation of human pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Barrero, María J; Sese, Borja; Martí, Mercè; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-31

    We have previously shown that macro histone variants (macroH2A) are expressed at low levels in stem cells and are up-regulated during differentiation. Here we show that the knockdown of macro histone variants impaired the in vitro and in vivo differentiation of human pluripotent cells, likely through defects in the silencing of pluripotency-related genes. ChIP experiments showed that during differentiation macro histone variants are recruited to the regulatory regions of pluripotency and developmental genes marked with H3K27me3 contributing to the silencing of these genes.

  5. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of ‘why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time’, starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new ‘conceptual quantum interpretation’, including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing—light as a geometric theory—and human touching—only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle—plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects—as they occur in smaller entities—appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  6. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  7. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  8. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  9. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manne, A.S. ); Wene, C.O. Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg )

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled top-down macroeconomic'' and bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  10. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O. |

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ``top-down macroeconomic`` and ``bottom-up engineering`` perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system`s costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  11. MARKAL-MACRO: A methodology for informed energy, economy and environmental decision making. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.A.

    1995-05-16

    Since the mid-1970`s, energy system analysts have been using models to represent the complexities of interactions in energy systems to help shape policy. Since the mid-1980`s, heightened awareness has made it necessary also to consider the environmental impacts of energy policies. MARKAL is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to explore mid- to long-term responses to different technological futures, emissions limitations, and policy scenarios. MARKAL-MACRO is an extension of MARKAL that integrates these capabilities directly with a neoclassical macroeconomic growth model. By combining bottom-up engineering and top-down macroeconomic approaches in a single modeling framework, MARKAL-MACR is able to capture the interplay between the energy system, the economy and the environment, allowing the affects on demands of endogenously determined energy prices to be explored.

  12. Intravital lectin perfusion analysis of vascular permeability in human micro- and macro- blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Debbage, P L; Sölder, E; Seidl, S; Hutzler, P; Hugl, B; Ofner, D; Kreczy, A

    2001-10-01

    We previously applied intravital lectin perfusion in mouse models to elucidate mechanisms underlying vascular permeability. The present work transfers this technique to human models, analysing vascular permeability in macro- and microvessels. Human vascular endothelial surface carbohydrate biochemistry differs significantly from its murine counterpart, lacking alpha-galactosyl epitopes and expressing the L-fucose moiety in the glycocalyx; the poly-N-lactosamine glycan backbone is common to all mammals. We examined extensively lectin binding specificities in sections and in vivo, and then applied the poly-N-lactosamine-specific lectin LEA and the L-fucose-specific lectin UEA-I in human intravital perfusions. Transendothelial transport differed in macrovessels and microvessels. In microvessels of adult human fat tissue, rectal wall and rectal carcinomas, slow transendothelial transport by vesicles was followed by significant retention at the subendothelial basement membrane; paracellular passage was not observed. Passage time exceeded 1 h. Thus we found barrier mechanisms resembling those we described previously in murine tissues. In both adult and fetal macrovessels, the vena saphena magna and the umbilical vein, respectively, rapid passage across the endothelial lining was observed, the tracer localising completely in the subendothelial tissues within 15 min; vesicular transport was more rapid than in microvessels, and retention at the subendothelial basement membrane briefer.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

  14. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes. PMID:22856267

  15. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes.

  16. Rapid, Human-Induced Siltation of the Macro-Tidal Ord River Estuary, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, E.; Moore, K.; Spagnol, S.; D'Adamo, N.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2001-11-01

    Field studies on the sediment dynamics of the two arms of Cambridge Gulf, tropical Western Australia, were undertaken. The system is macro-tidal with 8 m tides. The West Arm is the estuary of the Durack and Pentecost rivers, which are largely untouched by human activities. The East Arm is the estuary of the Ord River affected by land clearing which started 100 years ago, and by two river dams constructed 30 years ago. Prior to damming of the Ord River, the natural flow in all rivers was highly seasonal, characterized by small, at times negligible, flow during the dry season, which lasts eight months, and occasional river floods during the wet season, which lasts four months. The river flow has been regulated in the East Arm as a result of damming; this resulted in suppressing large river floods. The salinity intrusion length has decreased by about 50% in the East Arm following river damming. The East Arm has silted measurably over the last 30 years, with the stream cross-sectional area decreasing by about 50%. Field and numerical studies suggest that this is due to the dam-induced suppression of large river floods, which has in turn allowed a greater amount of tidal pumping of sediment into the East Arm from Cambridge Gulf. Since tidal pumping is increasing as the system is silting, the East Arm appears to now be geomorphologically unstable as a result of human activities. Numerical studies suggest it may take as little as 100 years for the Ord River to reach a new equilibrium. Modelling suggests that this equilibrium may be characterized by a salinity intrusion length half that before damming, a channel width and depth reduced by 70%, and a much stronger tidal asymmetry characterized by an increasing size of the tidal bore. The West Arm appears to be at equilibrium since there has been no net loss or gain of sediment for the last 111 years. Tidal dynamics and river floods appear responsible for self-scouring this channel.

  17. Experimental characterisation of macro fibre composites and monolithic piezoelectric transducers for strain energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Michele; Canziani, Alfredo; Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro; Zhu, Meiling

    2012-04-01

    μCompact and lightweight energy harvesters are needed to power wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). WSNs can provide health monitoring of aircraft structures, improving safety and reducing costs by enabling predictive maintenance. A simple solution, which meets the requirements for lightness and compactness, is represented by piezoelectric generators fixed to the surface of the wing (i.e. the wing skin). Such piezoelectric patches can harvest the strain energy available when the wing is flexed, as occurs, for example, in the presence of gust loading. For this study, monolithic piezoelectric sheets and macro fibre composite (MFC) generators were fixed to plates made of two materials commonly used for aircraft wing skin: Al-2024 aluminium alloy and an epoxy-carbon fibre composite. The plates then underwent harmonically varying loading in a tensile testing machine. The power generation of the harvesters was measured at a selection of strain levels and excitation frequencies, across a range of electrical loads. The optimal electrical load, yielding maximum power extraction, was identified for each working condition. The generated power increases quadratically with the strain and linearly with the frequency. The optimal electrical load decreases with increasing frequency and is only marginally dependent on strain. Absolute values of generated power were highest with the MFC, reaching 12mW (330μW/cm2) under 1170μstrain peak-to-peak excitation at 10Hz with a 66kΩ load. Power generation densities of 600μW/cm2 were achieved under 940μstrain with the monolithic transducers at 10Hz. It is found that MFCs have a lower power density than monolithic transducers, but, being more resilient, could be a more reliable choice. The power generated and the voltage outputs are appropriate for the intended application.

  18. Hepatitis E virus ORF1 encoded macro domain protein interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin and inhibits its secretion.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Nishant Kumar; Lole, Kavita S

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the major causative agent of acute hepatitis in developing countries. Its genome has three open reading frames (ORFs)-called as ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. ORF1 encodes nonstructural polyprotein having multiple domains, namely: Methyltransferase, Y domain, Protease, Macro domain, Helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present study, we show that HEV-macro domain specifically interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin (FTL). In cultured hepatoma cells, HEV-macro domain reduces secretion of ferritin without causing any change in the expression levels of FTL. This inhibitory effect was further enhanced upon Brefeldin-A treatment. The levels of transferrin Receptor 1 or ferroportin, two important proteins in iron metabolism, remained unchanged in HEV-macro domain expressing cells. Similarly, there were no alterations in the levels of cellular labile iron pool and reactive oxygen species, indicating that HEV-macro domain does not influence cellular iron homeostasis/metabolism. As ferritin is an acute-phase protein, secreted in higher level in infected persons and HEV-macro domain has the property of reducing synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, we propose that by directly binding to FTL, macro domain prevents ferritin from entering into circulation and helps in further attenuation of the host immune response.

  19. Characterization of the effects of the human dura on macro- and micro-electrocorticographic recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, David T.; Zellmer, Erik; Gaona, Charles M.; Sharma, Mohit; Szrama, Nicholas; Hacker, Carl; Freudenburg, Zachary V.; Daitch, Amy; Moran, Daniel W.; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes implanted on the surface of the brain have recently emerged as a potential signal platform for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. While clinical ECoG electrodes are currently implanted beneath the dura, epidural electrodes could reduce the invasiveness and the potential impact of a surgical site infection. Subdural electrodes, on the other hand, while slightly more invasive, may have better signals for BCI application. Because of this balance between risk and benefit between the two electrode positions, the effect of the dura on signal quality must be determined in order to define the optimal implementation for an ECoG BCI system. Approach. This study utilized simultaneously acquired baseline recordings from epidural and subdural ECoG electrodes while patients rested. Both macro-scale (2 mm diameter electrodes with 1 cm inter-electrode distance, one patient) and micro-scale (75 µm diameter electrodes with 1 mm inter-electrode distance, four patients) ECoG electrodes were tested. Signal characteristics were evaluated to determine differences in the spectral amplitude and noise floor. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to theoretical effects produced by placing epidural and subdural ECoG contacts of different sizes within a finite element model. Main results. The analysis demonstrated that for micro-scale electrodes, subdural contacts have significantly higher spectral amplitudes and reach the noise floor at a higher frequency than epidural contacts. For macro-scale electrodes, while there are statistical differences, these differences are small in amplitude and likely do not represent differences relevant to the ability of the signals to be used in a BCI system. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate an important trade-off that should be considered in developing a chronic BCI system. While implanting electrodes under the dura is more invasive, it is associated with increased signal quality when

  20. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: from the macro- to the microscopic.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    As a discussant for the 2013 IBRC Symposium on Eating Patterns, Diet Quality and Energy Balance at Purdue University, I describe here several reflections I had on the papers as a whole. I initially focus on the keynote address by Dr. Leonard. His address suggested that the evolutionary development of Homo sapiens during the past 2 million years may have "prepared" humans to seek and consume food beyond their immediate energy needs, a predisposition that may have rendered humans particularly vulnerable to modern food environments. Additional observations include: 1) the importance of differentiating between a given appetitive variable (e.g., snacking) as a potential cause versus consequence of an outcome of interest (e.g., obesity), 2) the need to move beyond research on the consummatory phase of appetite to the anticipatory phase of appetite, and 3) the opportunity that exists to take the many obesogenic nutritional influences documented in the symposium and "turn them on their heads" to facilitate, rather than undermine, long-term weight control.

  1. Going "Macro": Exploring the Careers of Macro Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Applewhite, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    Important benefits accrue to the profession and to its vulnerable clientele when social workers hold positions with substantial community or policy influence. However, fewer social workers are holding these positions than in the past, and student preferences to pursue macro-specific training have declined. To improve the social work profession's ability to recruit and educate students interested in competing for leadership positions in human services organizations, this article analyzes data from a survey of MSW graduates of a public school of social work located in the southwestern United States and currently working as macro practitioners. Findings indicate that macro social workers can successfully compete for mid-level and top-level administrative and policy positions, and provide evidence contrary to many of the concerns students express when deciding whether to pursue a macro concentration or career. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for supporting and educating social work students interested in pursuing a macro practice career.

  2. Isolation and Culture of Human Endothelial Cells from Micro- and Macro-vessels.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The endothelium from different vascular beds exhibits a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity. Endothelial cells (EC) can be harvested easily from large vessels by mechanical removal or collagenase digestion. In particular, the human umbilical vein has been used due to its wide availability, and the study of ECs derived from it has undoubtedly greatly advanced our knowledge of vascular biology. However, the majority of the body's endothelium (>95 %) forms the microvasculature, and it is these cells providing the interface between the blood and tissues that play a critical role in the development of new blood vessels. This has led to the establishment of techniques for the isolation of microvascular ECs (MEC) from different tissues to provide more physiologically relevant in vitro models of angiogenesis and EC function.In this chapter the use of superparamagnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with anti-PECAM-1 (CD31) antibodies (PECA-beads) to culture MECs from human adipose tissue is described along with the standard methods used to characterize them. Adipose tissue is an ideal source of MECs as it is composed mainly of adipocytes with a very rich microvasculature and is easy to disaggregate. Furthermore, it can be obtained in large quantities during plastic surgery procedures. Adipose obtained at reduction mammoplasty or abdominoplasty is first dissected free of the connective tissue, minced finely, and subjected to collagenase type II digestion. The adipocytes are removed by centrifugation to obtain a microvessel rich pellet, which is further disaggregated with trypsin/EDTA solution. Following filtration to remove fragments of the connective tissue, the pellet is incubated with PECA-beads and microvessel fragments/ECs and washed and harvested using a magnet. In addition, the adaptation of this basic technique for the isolation of the human lung and stomach MECs is also described along with common methods for the preparation of large vessel endothelial cells. PMID

  3. Isolation and Culture of Human Endothelial Cells from Micro- and Macro-vessels.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The endothelium from different vascular beds exhibits a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity. Endothelial cells (EC) can be harvested easily from large vessels by mechanical removal or collagenase digestion. In particular, the human umbilical vein has been used due to its wide availability, and the study of ECs derived from it has undoubtedly greatly advanced our knowledge of vascular biology. However, the majority of the body's endothelium (>95 %) forms the microvasculature, and it is these cells providing the interface between the blood and tissues that play a critical role in the development of new blood vessels. This has led to the establishment of techniques for the isolation of microvascular ECs (MEC) from different tissues to provide more physiologically relevant in vitro models of angiogenesis and EC function.In this chapter the use of superparamagnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with anti-PECAM-1 (CD31) antibodies (PECA-beads) to culture MECs from human adipose tissue is described along with the standard methods used to characterize them. Adipose tissue is an ideal source of MECs as it is composed mainly of adipocytes with a very rich microvasculature and is easy to disaggregate. Furthermore, it can be obtained in large quantities during plastic surgery procedures. Adipose obtained at reduction mammoplasty or abdominoplasty is first dissected free of the connective tissue, minced finely, and subjected to collagenase type II digestion. The adipocytes are removed by centrifugation to obtain a microvessel rich pellet, which is further disaggregated with trypsin/EDTA solution. Following filtration to remove fragments of the connective tissue, the pellet is incubated with PECA-beads and microvessel fragments/ECs and washed and harvested using a magnet. In addition, the adaptation of this basic technique for the isolation of the human lung and stomach MECs is also described along with common methods for the preparation of large vessel endothelial cells.

  4. Double-layered models can explain macro and micro structure of human sleep.

    PubMed

    Stura, Ilaria; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Guiot, Caterina; Venturino, Ezio

    2013-04-01

    The model simulates the activity of three neural populations using a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system and, based on neuro-anatomical and neuro-physiological recent findings, assumes that a functional thalamo-cortical gate should be crossed by 'queuing' thalamic signals and that a sleep promoting substance acts as a modulator. The resultant activity accounts for the sleep stage transitions. In accordance with sleep cycles timing, the model proves to be able to reproduce the clustering and randomness of those peculiar transient synchronized EEG patterns (TSEP) described in normal human sleep and supposed to be related to the dynamic building up of NREM sleep until its stabilization against perturbations.

  5. Energy and human health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  6. Effects of macro- versus nanoporous silicon substrates on human aortic endothelial cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formentín, Pilar; Alba, María; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Pallarès, Josep; Solà, Rosà; Marsal, Lluís F.

    2014-08-01

    Human aortic endothelial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is a common, progressive, and multifactorial disease that is the clinical endpoint of an inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. Study and development of new therapies against cardiovascular disease must be tested in vitro cell models, prior to be evaluated in vivo . To this aim, new cell culture platforms are developed that allow cells to grow and respond to their environment in a realistic manner. In this work, the cell adhesion and morphology of endothelial cells are investigated on functionalized porous silicon substrates with two different pore size configurations: macroporous and nanoporous silicon. Herein, we modified the surfaces of porous silicon substrates by aminopropyl triethoxysilane, and we studied how different pore geometries induced different cellular response in the cell morphology and adhesion. The cell growth over the surface of porous silicon becomes an attractive field, especially for medical applications. Surface properties of the biomaterial are associated with cell adhesion and as well as, with proliferation, migration and differentiation.

  7. The Macro and Micro of it Is that Entropy Is the Spread of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    While entropy is often described as "disorder," it is better thought of as a measure of how spread out energy is within a system. To illustrate this interpretation of entropy to introductory college or high school students, several activities have been created. Students first study the relationship between microstates and macrostates to better understand the probabilities involved. Then, each student observes how a system evolves as energy is allowed to move within it. By studying how the class's ensemble of systems evolves, the tendency of energy to spread, rather than concentrate, can be observed. All activities require minimal equipment and provide students with a tactile and visual experience with entropy.

  8. The Macro and Micro of It Is That Entropy Is the Spread of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    While entropy is often described as "disorder," it is better thought of as a measure of how spread out energy is within a system. To illustrate this interpretation of entropy to introductory college or high school students, several activities have been created. Students first study the relationship between microstates and macrostates to…

  9. Design and application of a technologically explicit hybrid energy-economy policy model with micro and macro economic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataille, Christopher G. F.

    2005-11-01

    Are further energy efficiency gains, or more recently greenhouse gas reductions, expensive or cheap? Analysts provide conflicting advice to policy makers based on divergent modelling perspectives, a 'top-down/bottom-up debate' in which economists use equation based models that equilibrate markets by maximizing consumer welfare, and technologists use technology simulation models that minimize the financial cost of providing energy services. This thesis summarizes a long term research project to find a middle ground between these two positions that is more useful to policy makers. Starting with the individual components of a behaviourally realistic and technologically explicit simulation model (ISTUM---Inter Sectoral Technology Use Model), or "hybrid", the individual sectors of the economy are linked using a framework of micro and macro economic feedbacks. These feedbacks are taken from the economic theory that informs the computable general equilibrium (CGE) family of models. Speaking in the languages of both economists and engineers, the resulting "physical" equilibrium model of Canada (CIMS---Canadian Integrated Modeling System), equilibrates energy and end-product markets, including imports and exports, for seven regions and 15 economic sectors, including primary industry, manufacturing, transportation, commerce, residences, governmental infrastructure and the energy supply sectors. Several different policy experiments demonstrate the value-added of the model and how its results compare to top-down and bottom-up practice. In general, the results show that technical adjustments make up about half the response to simulated energy policy, and macroeconomic demand adjustments the other half. Induced technical adjustments predominate with minor policies, while the importance of macroeconomic demand adjustment increases with the strength of the policy. Results are also shown for an experiment to derive estimates of future elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and

  10. From MEMS to macro-world: a micro-milling machined wideband vibration piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we discuss a novel mechanical resonator design for the realization of vibration Energy Harvester (EH) capable to deliver power levels in the mW range. The device overcomes the typical constraint of frequency narrowband operability of standard cantilevered EHs, by exploiting a circular-shaped resonator with an increased number of mechanical Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs), leading to several resonant modes in the range of vibrations of interest (i.e. multi-modal wideband EH). The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is simulated in Ansys Worbench™, showing a significant number of resonant modes up to vibrations of around 2 kHz (modal eigenfrequencies analysis), and exhibiting levels of converted power up to a few mW at resonance (harmonic coupled-field analysis). The sole FLC mechanical structure is realized by micro-milling an Aluminum foil, while a cantilevered test structure also including PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) film sheet is assembled in order to collect first experimental feedback on generated power levels. The first lab based tests show peak-to-peak voltages of several Volts when the cantilever is stimulated with a mechanical pulse. Further developments of this work will comprise the assembly of an FLC demonstrator with PVDF pads, and its experimental testing in order to validate the simulated results.

  11. Why Macro Practice Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  12. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    PubMed

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  13. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    PubMed

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented. PMID:25570432

  14. Where macro meets micro.

    PubMed

    Berry, R Stephen; Smirnov, Boris M

    2014-06-01

    Reconciling or somehow linking the macroscopic and microscopic approaches to chemical and physical processes has been a challenge unaddressed for many years. One approach, presented here, treats the issue by examining individual phenomena well described by a macro approach that fails when applied to small systems. The key to the approach is determining the approximate system size below which the breakdown of the macro description is observable. The most developed example is the failure of the Gibbs phase rule for sufficiently small atomic clusters. Other examples, such as the onset, at sufficient size, of the insulator-to-metal transition, are discussed, as are some still more challenging phenomena.

  15. Macro and micro full field x-ray fluorescence with an X-ray pinhole camera presenting high energy and high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Francesco Paolo; Caliri, Claudia; Cosentino, Luigi; Gammino, Santo; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca; Taccetti, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    This work describes a tabletop (50 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm) full field X-ray pinhole camera (FF-XPC) presenting high energy- and high spatial-resolution. The FF-XPC consists of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled, in a coaxial geometry, to a pinhole collimator of small diameter. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is induced on the samples with an external low-power X-ray tube. The use of the CCD as an energy dispersive X-ray detector was obtained by adopting a multi-image acquisition in single photon counting and by developing a processing algorithm to be applied in real-time to each of the acquired image-frames. This approach allowed the measurement of X-ray spectra with an energy resolution down to 133 eV at the reference value of 5.9 keV. The detection of the X-ray fluorescence through the pinhole-collimator allowed the two-dimensional elemental mapping of the irradiated samples. Two magnifications (M), determined by the relative sample-pinhole-CCD distances, are used in the present setup. A low value of M (equal to 0.35×) allows the macro-FF-XRF of large area samples (up to 4 × 4 cm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 140 μm; a large magnification (M equal to 6×) is used for the micro-FF-XRF of small area samples (2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm.

  16. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 μg/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 μg/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs. PMID:25380639

  17. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 μg/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 μg/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs.

  18. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. ); Manne, A.S. ); Wene, C.O. Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg )

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled [open quotes]top-down macroeconomic[close quotes] and [open quotes]bottom-up engineering[close quotes] perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  19. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C.; Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O. |

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  20. Repository post-sealing risk analysis using MACRO. [MACRO

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.M.; Edwards, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1980-02-14

    MACRO, a code to propagate probability distributions through a set of linked models, is currently under development at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. An early version of this code, MACRO1, has been used to assess post-sealing dose to man for simple repository and site models based on actual site data.

  1. Virtual reality as a human factors design analysis tool: Macro-ergonomic application validation and assessment of the Space Station Freedom payload control area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) Applications Program has been under development at MSFC since 1989. Its objectives are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, missions operations training, and science training. A variety of activities are under way within many of these areas. One ongoing macro-ergonomic application of VR relates to the design of the Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed. Several preliminary conceptual PCA layouts have been developed and modeled in VR. Various managers and potential end users have virtually 'entered' these rooms and provided valuable feedback. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, it must be validated, or calibrated, for that class of applications. Two associated validation studies for macro-ergonomic applications are under way to help characterize possible distortions of filtering of relevant perceptions in a virtual world. In both studies, existing control rooms and their 'virtual counterparts will be empirically compared using distance and heading estimations to objects and subjective assessments. Approaches and findings of the PCA activities and details of the studies are presented.

  2. d Macro and (3)He macro production in square root of s(NN) = 130 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    PubMed

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Greiner, D; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J; de Toledo, A S; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-12-24

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d macro and (3)He macro are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the (3)He macro freeze-out volume is smaller than the d macro freeze-out volume. PMID:11800829

  3. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  4. Human action recognition using motion energy template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yanhua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Human action recognition is an active and interesting research topic in computer vision and pattern recognition field that is widely used in the real world. We proposed an approach for human activity analysis based on motion energy template (MET), a new high-level representation of video. The main idea for the MET model is that human actions could be expressed as the composition of motion energy acquired in a three-dimensional (3-D) space-time volume by using a filter bank. The motion energies were directly computed from raw video sequences, thus some problems, such as object location and segmentation, etc., are definitely avoided. Another important competitive merit of this MET method is its insensitivity to gender, hair, and clothing. We extract MET features by using the Bhattacharyya coefficient to measure the motion energy similarity between the action template video and the tested video, and then the 3-D max-pooling. Using these features as input to the support vector machine, extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, Weizmann and KTH, were carried out. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, such as variation energy image, dynamic templates and local motion pattern descriptors, the experimental results demonstrate that our MET model is competitive and promising.

  5. The cosmic ray proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the 100 TeV energy region from TeV muons and EAS atmospheric Cherenkov light observations of MACRO and EAS-TOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Stamerra, A.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolò, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Rainò, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    The primary cosmic ray (CR) proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories by means of EAS-TOP (Campo Imperatore, 2005 m a.s.l.) and MACRO (deep underground, 3100 m w.e., the surface energy threshold for a muon reaching the detector being Eμth≈1.3 TeV). The measurement is based on: (a) the selection of primaries based on their energy/nucleon (i.e., with energy/nucleon sufficient to produce a muon with energy larger than 1.3 TeV) and the reconstruction of the shower geometry by means of the muons recorded by MACRO in the deep underground laboratories; (b) the detection of the associated atmospheric Cherenkov light (C.l.) signals by means of the C.l. detector of EAS-TOP. The C.l. density at core distance r>100 m is directly related to the total primary energy E0. Proton and helium ("p + He") and proton, helium and CNO ("p + He + CNO") primaries are thus selected at E0≃80 TeV, and at E0≃250 TeV, respectively. Their flux is measured: J p+ He(80 TeV)=(1.8±0.4)×10 -6 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, and J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=(1.1±0.3)×10 -7 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, their relative weights being: J p+ He/J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=0.78±0.17 . By using the measurements of the proton spectrum obtained from the direct experiments and hadron flux data in the atmosphere, we obtain for the relative weights of the three components at 250 TeV: Jp: JHe: JCNO=(0.20±0.08):(0.58±0.19):(0.22±0.17). This corresponds to the dominance of helium over proton primaries at 100-1000 TeV, and a possible non-negligible contribution from CNO. The lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in Extensive Air Showers (EASs), which is related to the rate of energy deposit of the primary in the atmosphere, is measured for a selected proton and helium primary beam, and good agreement is found when compared with the one calculated with the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation model.

  6. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  7. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  8. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  9. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  10. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  11. Dielectric polymer: scavenging energy from human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar; Chaillout, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-01

    More and more sensors are embedded in human body for medical applications, for sport. The short lifetime of the batteries, available on the market, reveals a real problem of autonomy of these systems. A promising alternative is to scavenge the ambient energy such as the mechanical one. Up to now, few scavenging structures have operating frequencies compatible with ambient one. And, most of the developed structures are rigid and use vibration as mechanical source. For these reasons, we developed a scavenger that operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. This generator is fully flexible, light and does not hamper the human motion. Thus, we report in this paper an analytical model for dielectric generator with news electrical and mechanical characterization, and the development of an innovating application: scavenging energy from human motion. The generator is located on the knee and design to scavenge 0.1mJ per scavenging cycle at a frequency of 1Hz, enough to supply a low consumption system and with a poling voltage as low as possible to facilitate the power management. Our first prototype is a membrane with an area of 5*3cm and 31µm in thickness which scavenge 0.1mJ under 170V at constant charge Q.

  12. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  13. Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

    2014-03-01

    A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 μm (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive

  14. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  15. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-07-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  16. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  17. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  18. Energy balance of human locomotion in water.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, D; Zamparo, P; di Prampero, P E; Capelli, C; Cerretelli, P; Termin, A; Craig, A; Bushnell, D; Paschke, D; Mollendorf, J

    2003-10-01

    In this paper a complete energy balance for water locomotion is attempted with the aim of comparing different modes of transport in the aquatic environment (swimming underwater with SCUBA diving equipment, swimming at the surface: leg kicking and front crawl, kayaking and rowing). On the basis of the values of metabolic power (E), of the power needed to overcome water resistance (Wd) and of propelling efficiency (etaP=Wd/Wtot, where Wtot is the total mechanical power) as reported in the literature for each of these forms of locomotion, the energy cost per unit distance (C=E/v, where v is the velocity), the drag (performance) efficiency (etad=Wd/E) and the overall efficiency (etao=Wtot/E=etad/etaP) were calculated. As previously found for human locomotion on land, for a given metabolic power (e.g. 0.5 kW=1.43 l.min(-1) VO2) the decrease in C (from 0.88 kJ.m(-1) in SCUBA diving to 0.22 kJ.m(-1) in rowing) is associated with an increase in the speed of locomotion (from 0.6 m.s(-1) in SCUBA diving to 2.4 m.s(-1) in rowing). At variance with locomotion on land, however, the decrease in C is associated with an increase, rather than a decrease, of the total mechanical work per unit distance (Wtot, kJ.m(-1)). This is made possible by the increase of the overall efficiency of locomotion (etao=Wtot/E=Wtot/C) from the slow speeds (and loads) of swimming to the high speeds (and loads) attainable with hulls and boats (from 0.10 in SCUBA diving to 0.29 in rowing).

  19. Energy balance of human locomotion in water.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, D; Zamparo, P; di Prampero, P E; Capelli, C; Cerretelli, P; Termin, A; Craig, A; Bushnell, D; Paschke, D; Mollendorf, J

    2003-10-01

    In this paper a complete energy balance for water locomotion is attempted with the aim of comparing different modes of transport in the aquatic environment (swimming underwater with SCUBA diving equipment, swimming at the surface: leg kicking and front crawl, kayaking and rowing). On the basis of the values of metabolic power (E), of the power needed to overcome water resistance (Wd) and of propelling efficiency (etaP=Wd/Wtot, where Wtot is the total mechanical power) as reported in the literature for each of these forms of locomotion, the energy cost per unit distance (C=E/v, where v is the velocity), the drag (performance) efficiency (etad=Wd/E) and the overall efficiency (etao=Wtot/E=etad/etaP) were calculated. As previously found for human locomotion on land, for a given metabolic power (e.g. 0.5 kW=1.43 l.min(-1) VO2) the decrease in C (from 0.88 kJ.m(-1) in SCUBA diving to 0.22 kJ.m(-1) in rowing) is associated with an increase in the speed of locomotion (from 0.6 m.s(-1) in SCUBA diving to 2.4 m.s(-1) in rowing). At variance with locomotion on land, however, the decrease in C is associated with an increase, rather than a decrease, of the total mechanical work per unit distance (Wtot, kJ.m(-1)). This is made possible by the increase of the overall efficiency of locomotion (etao=Wtot/E=Wtot/C) from the slow speeds (and loads) of swimming to the high speeds (and loads) attainable with hulls and boats (from 0.10 in SCUBA diving to 0.29 in rowing). PMID:12955519

  20. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  1. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  2. Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression associates with progression of anal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Miyai, Katsumi; Sporn, Judith C; Luo, Linda; Wang, Jean Y J; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The macroH2A histone variants are epigenetic marks for inactivated chromatin. In this study, we examined the expression of macroH2A2 in anal neoplasm from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) to anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods AIN and anal SCC samples were analysed for macroH2A2 expression, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). The association of macroH2A2 expression with clinical grade, disease recurrence, overall survival and viral involvement was determined. Results macroH2A2 was expressed in normal squamous tissue and lower grade AIN (I and II). Expression was lost in 38% of high-grade AIN (III) and 71% of anal SCC (p=0.002). Patients with AIN with macroH2A2-negative lesions showed earlier recurrence than those with macroH2A2-positive neoplasm (p=0.017). With anal SCC, macroH2A2 loss was more prevalent in the HPV-negative tumours. Conclusions Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression is associated with the progression of anal neoplasm and can be used as a prognostic biomarker for high-grade AIN and SCC. PMID:26658220

  3. Measurement of neutrino oscillations in MACRO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musser, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of investigating neutrino oscillations in the proposed MACRO experiment are considered. Its sensitivity taking into account the theoretical uncertainties coming from flux calculations, geomagnetic effects and propagation through matter, and the experimental limitations.

  4. Bracing micro/macro manipulators control

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Book, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a bracing strategy for micro/macro manipulators. The bracing micro/macro manipulator can provide advantages in accurate positioning, large work-space, and contact-task capability however, in exchange for improvement in performance one must accept the complex control problem along wit the complex dynamics. This research develops a control scheme for a bracing manipulator which makes multiple contacts with the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed ideas for real world applications.

  5. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  6. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  7. Crowd macro state detection using entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Yuan, Mengqi; Su, Guofeng; Chen, Tao

    2015-08-01

    In the crowd security research area a primary concern is to identify the macro state of crowd behaviors to prevent disasters and to supervise the crowd behaviors. The entropy is used to describe the macro state of a self-organization system in physics. The entropy change indicates the system macro state change. This paper provides a method to construct crowd behavior microstates and the corresponded probability distribution using the individuals' velocity information (magnitude and direction). Then an entropy model was built up to describe the crowd behavior macro state. Simulation experiments and video detection experiments were conducted. It was verified that in the disordered state, the crowd behavior entropy is close to the theoretical maximum entropy; while in ordered state, the entropy is much lower than half of the theoretical maximum entropy. The crowd behavior macro state sudden change leads to the entropy change. The proposed entropy model is more applicable than the order parameter model in crowd behavior detection. By recognizing the entropy mutation, it is possible to detect the crowd behavior macro state automatically by utilizing cameras. Results will provide data support on crowd emergency prevention and on emergency manual intervention.

  8. Quantification of perceived macro-uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Youn; Bang, Yousun; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2011-01-01

    Macro-uniformity refers to the subjective impression of overall uniformity in the print sample. By the efforts of INCITS W1.1 team, macro-uniformity is categorized into five types of attributes: banding, streaks, mottle, gradients, and moiré patterns, and the ruler samples are generated with perceptual scales. W1.1 macro-uniformity ruler is useful for judging the levels of print defect, but it is not an easy task to reproduce the samples having the same perceptual scales at different times in different places. An objective quantification method is more helpful and convenient for developers to analyze print quality and design printing system components. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring perceived macro-uniformity for a given print using a flat-bed scanner. First, banding, 2D noise, and gradients are separately measured, and they are converted to the perceptual scales based on subjective results of each attribute. The correlation coefficients between the measured values of the attributes and the perceptual scales are 0.92, 0.97, and 0.86, respectively. Another subjective test is performed to find the relationship between the overall macro-uniformity and the three attributes. The weighting factors are obtained by the experimental result, and the final macro-uniformity grade is determined by the weighted sums of each attribute.

  9. Exploring the Links Between Macro-Level Contextual Factors and Their Influence on Nursing Workforce Composition

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2012-01-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to healthcare human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between non-nursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries. PMID:22513839

  10. Cardiac phase: Amplitude analysis using macro programming

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, K.W.; Hickey, K.A.

    1981-11-01

    The analysis of EKG gated radionuclide cardiac imaging data with Fourier amplitude and phase images is becoming a valuable clinical technique, demonstrating location, size, and severity of regional ventricular abnormalities. Not all commercially available nuclear medicine computer systems offer software for phase and amplitude analysis; however, many systems do have the capability of linear image arithmetic using simple macro commands which can easily be sequenced into stored macro-strings or programs. Using simple but accurate series approximations for the Fourier operations, macro programs have been written for a Digital Equipment Corporation Gamma-11 system to obtain phase and amplitude images from routine gated cardiac studies. In addition, dynamic cine-mode presentation of the onset of mechanical systole is generated from the phase data, using only a second set of macro programs. This approach is easily adapted to different data acquisition protocols, and can be used on any system with macro commands for image arithmetic. Key words: Fourier analysis, cardiac cycle, gated blood pool imaging, amplitude image, phase image

  11. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  12. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    PubMed

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking.

  13. Energy expenditure during human gait. I - An optimized model.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Silvia; Garcia, Isabel; Franco, Marian; Alonso-Vazquez, Ana; Ambrosio, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of multibody dynamics, a 3D large scale neuromusculoskeletal model of the human body is presented. To characterize the dynamics of skeletal muscle, a phenomenological model of energy expenditure was developed for estimating energy consumption during normal locomotion. Such model is able for predicting thermal and mechanical energy liberation under submaximal activation, muscle fiber type, and varying contractile conditions, typically observed in human motion. Future formulations of the indeterminate biomechanical problem, solved through the physiological criteria of minimization of metabolical cost of transport during gait, should consider the role of muscle groups in coordinating multijoint motion. Such an approach is presented in part II of the paper.

  14. Development of enhanced piezoelectric energy harvester induced by human motion.

    PubMed

    Minami, Y; Nakamachi, E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a high frequency piezoelectric energy harvester converted from the human low vibrated motion energy was newly developed. This hybrid energy harvester consists of the unimorph piezoelectric cantilever and a couple of permanent magnets. One magnet was attached at the end of cantilever, and the counterpart magnet was set at the end of the pendulum. The mechanical energy provided through the human walking motion, which is a typical ubiquitous presence of vibration, is converted to the electric energy via the piezoelectric cantilever vibration system. At first, we studied the energy convert mechanism and the performance of our energy harvester, where the resonance free vibration of unimorph cantilever with one permanent magnet under a rather high frequency was induced by the artificial low frequency vibration. The counterpart magnet attached on the pendulum. Next, we equipped the counterpart permanent magnet pendulum, which was fluctuated under a very low frequency by the human walking, and the piezoelectric cantilever, which had the permanent magnet at the end. The low-to-high frequency convert "hybrid system" can be characterized as an enhanced energy harvest one. We examined and obtained maximum values of voltage and power in this system, as 1.2V and 1.2 µW. Those results show the possibility to apply for the energy harvester in the portable and implantable Bio-MEMS devices.

  15. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  16. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  17. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  18. [Modern medical problems of energy exchange in humans].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P

    2013-01-01

    In a living organism 72% of energy exchange occur in the visceral organs, which comprise only 5-6% of the total body mass. The remaining energy is spent at the expense of the skin, bones, connective tissues, resting muscles. The level ofenergy expenditure determines the general physiological state of a human organism, serves for the diagnostics of various diseases, in particular, the diseases of endocrine system, the disruptions of thermoregulation, protein, carbohydrate, and lipometabolism, etc. It should be mentioned that in modern textbooks of physiology, pathophysiology, and biology the problem of energy exchange in humans and animals is given inadequate consideration. Traditionally it occupies only 2-2.5% of the content. Meanwhile, new problems of energy exchange have appeared recently, which almost never were advanced earlier. These are,for example, the reasons and mechanisms of high energy expenditure under conditions of metabolism, the significance of the coefficient of efficiency of a human organism in physiology, special processes previously unknown of the organism heat exchange with the environment, physiological and social components of human energy exchange. There is also a problem of a theoretical possibility of life without energy.

  19. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition

    PubMed Central

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people’s perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  20. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition.

    PubMed

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people's perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes.

  1. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition.

    PubMed

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people's perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  2. The Mechanics of CSCL Macro Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Hong, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Macro scripts structure collaborative learning and foster the emergence of knowledge-productive interactions such as argumentation, explanations and mutual regulation. We propose a pedagogical model for the designing of scripts and illustrate this model using three scripts. In brief, a script disturbs the natural convergence of a team and in doing…

  3. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  4. [Mineral elements in diet of pregnant and breast-feeding women. Part I. Macro minerals: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Małgorzata; Jabłoński, Edward

    2007-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation the need not only for the energy intake increases but also for some mineral elements. The basic source of mineral elements and other chemical elements for the human organism is food. For the increased need for minerals, proper selection of food products is vital and sometimes extremely difficult to do. The article covers some of the reasons for increased need for mineral elements of pregnant and feeding women. In the first part we described the proper sources of macro minerals such as Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, CIland highlighted the factors that determine their bioavailability.

  5. Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Steven H.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and “recycles” it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost. PMID:20174659

  6. The Mass Flux of Non-renewable Energy for Humanity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Edwin

    The global energy supply relies on non-renewable energy sources, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, along with nuclear power from uranium and these finite resources are located within the upper few kilometers of the Earth's crust. The total quantity of non-renewable energy resources consumed relative to the total quantity available is an essential question facing humanity. Analyses of energy consumption was conducted for the period 1800--2014 using data from the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and World Energy Production, 1800--1985 to determine the balance between non-renewable energy resources consumed and ultimately recoverable reserves. Annual energy consumption was plotted for each non-renewable resource followed by analyses to determine annual growth rates of consumption. Results indicated total energy consumption grew approximately exponentially 3.6% per year from 1800--1975 and was linear from 1975--2014. The ultimately recoverable reserves (URR) plus the total quantity consumed to date equals the total energy resource reserve prior to exploitation (7.15 x 1018 grams). Knowing the original resource quantity and the annual consumption and growth rates, we can forecast the duration of remaining resources using different scenarios. Alternatively, we can use population growth models and consumption trends to determine the per capita allocation trends and model that into the future. Alternative modeling of future resource allocation on a per capita bases suggests that resource lifetime may be significantly less than that predicted from consumption and production dynamics alone.

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    SciTech Connect

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å.

  8. Ordered Macro/Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Microspheres with Highly Crystalline Thin Shells for High-Efficiency Photoconversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Lan, Kun; Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Zhang, Pengfei; Gao, Wenjun; Wang, Jingxiu; Sun, Zhenkun; Fan, Jianwei; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-02-17

    Well ordered, uniform 3D open macro/mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres with highly crystalline anatase thin shells have been successfully synthesized by a simple solvent evaporation-driven confined self-assembly method. The 3D open macro/mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres show high energy-conversion efficiency (up to 9.5%) and remarkable photocatalytic activity (with photodegradation of 100% for methylene blue in 12 min under UV light irradiation). PMID:26708310

  9. The performance of MACRO liquid scintillator in the search for magnetic monopoles with 10^-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MACRO Collaboration; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bosio, T.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, R.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; de Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; de Marzo, C.; de Mitri, I.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Fantini, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J. T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicoló, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N. D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Rainó, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rubizzo, U.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sinev, V.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

    1997-02-01

    MACRO is designed to make a multiply redundant search for GUT magnetic monopoles over a wide velocity range. The 100 MHz pulse height recorder and synchronous encoder (PHRASE) and the energy reconstruction processor (ERP) are two components of that search, both based on the MACRO liquid scintillator. They are sensitive to monopoles with or without captured nuclei in the range beta~10^-3 to beta~1. Here, the performance of these systems is discussed, including also analysis methods and background evaluations.

  10. A compact human-powered energy harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; McEachern, Kelly M.; Arnold, David P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a fully functional, self-sufficient body-worn energy harvesting system for passively capturing energy from human motion, with the long-term vision of supplying power to portable, wearable, or even implanted electronic devices. The system requires no external power supplies and can bootstrap from zero-state-of-charge to generate electrical energy from walking, jogging and cycling; convert the induced ac voltage to a dc voltage; and then boost and regulate the dc voltage to charge a Li-ion-polymer battery. Tested under normal human activities (walking, jogging, cycling) when worn on different parts of the body, the 70 cm3 system is shown to charge a 3.7 V rechargeable battery at charge rates ranging from 33 μW to 234 μW.

  11. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut micro-biota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor so-matotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity. PMID:26257300

  12. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut microbiota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor somatotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity.

  13. Search for nuclearites using the MACRO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.

    1992-09-01

    A negative search using 1/12 of the eventual MACRO detector has yielded nuclearite flux limits of 1.1 x 10 exp -14/sq cm/sr/s for in between 10 exp -10 and 0.1 g, and 5.5 x 10 exp -15/sq cm/sr/s for m greater than 0.1 g. We have modified the formula of De Rujula and Glashow for the light yield of nuclearites to include the UV light absorbed and reemitted in the visible region, and proved that the MACRO sensitivity extends almost to the escape velocity of the earth. Our flux limit, therefore, can be used to address nuclearites that are possibly trapped in the solar system.

  14. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  15. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  16. Enhanced stopping of macro-particles in particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Ellis, I.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-15

    We derive an equation for energy transfer from relativistic charged particles to a cold background plasma appropriate for finite-size particles that are used in particle-in-cell simulation codes. Expressions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional particles are presented, with special attention given to the two-dimensional case. This energy transfer is due to the electric field of the wake set up in the background plasma by the relativistic particle. The enhanced stopping is dependent on the q{sup 2}/m, where q is the charge and m is the mass of the relativistic particle, and therefore simulation macro-particles with large charge but identical q/m will stop more rapidly. The stopping power also depends on the effective particle shape of the macro-particle. These conclusions are verified in particle-in-cell simulations. We present 2D simulations of test particles, relaxation of high-energy tails, and integrated fast ignition simulations showing that the enhanced drag on macro-particles may adversely affect the results of these simulations in a wide range of high-energy density plasma scenarios. We also describe a particle splitting algorithm which can potentially overcome this problem and show its effect in controlling the stopping of macro-particles.

  17. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-02-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility.

  18. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    PubMed Central

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net absorption was determined by quantitating the faecal excretion of energy derived from carbohydrate. The carbohydrate derived energy content of milk and stools was calculated as the difference between the measured gross energy and the sum of energy related to nitrogen and fat. Faecal loss of carbohydrate derived energy was lower in the group fed formula (1.9 (SD 1.2) kcal/kg/day) than in the group fed human milk (4.0 (SD 1.8) kcal/kg/day). Net absorption of carbohydrate derived energy was 97.0 (SD 1.9)% as opposed to 92.6 (SD 3.9)%, respectively. Within each group there was no significant relation between carbohydrate energy absorption and fat, nitrogen, or gross energy absorption. Thus, although less complete with human milk than with formula, apparent absorption of energy derived from carbohydrate seemed quite satisfactory in these preterm infants. PMID:3639729

  19. Thirst for Power: Energy, Water and Human Survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, M.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are precious resources, and they are interconnected. The energy sector uses a lot of water -- the thermoelectric power sector alone is the largest user of water in the U.S., withdrawing 200 billion gallons daily for powerplant cooling. Conversely, the water sector is responsible for over twelve percent of national energy consumption for moving, pumping, treating, and heating water. This interdependence means that droughts can cause energy shortages, and power outages can bring the water system to a halt. It also means that water efficiency is a pathway to energy efficiency and vice versa. This talk will give a big-picture overview of global energy and water trends to describe how they interact, what conflicts are looming, and how they can work together. This talk will include the vulnerabilities and cross-cutting solutions such as efficient markets and smart technologies that embed more information about resource management. It will include discussion of how population growth, economic growth, climate change, and short-sighted policies are likely to make things worse. Yet, more integrated planning with long-term sustainability in mind along with cultural shifts, advanced technologies, and better design can avert such a daunting future. Combining anecdotes and personal stories with insights into the latest science of energy and water, this talk will identify a hopeful path toward wise, long-range water-energy decisions and a more reliable and abundant future for humanity.

  20. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  1. Mice without MacroH2A Histone Variants

    PubMed Central

    Changolkar, Lakshmi N.; Costanzi, Carl; Leu, N. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    MacroH2A core histone variants have a unique structure that includes a C-terminal nonhistone domain. They are highly conserved in vertebrates and are thought to regulate gene expression. However, the nature of genes regulated by macroH2As and their biological significance remain unclear. Here, we examine macroH2A function in vivo by knocking out both macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 in the mouse. While macroH2As are not required for early development, the absence of macroH2As impairs prenatal and postnatal growth and can significantly reduce reproductive efficiency. The distributions of macroH2A.1- and macroH2A.2-containing nucleosomes show substantial overlap, as do their effects on gene expression. Our studies in fetal and adult liver indicate that macroH2As can exert large positive or negative effects on gene expression, with macroH2A.1 and macroH2A.2 acting synergistically on the expression of some genes and apparently having opposing effects on others. These effects are very specific and in the adult liver preferentially involve genes related to lipid metabolism, including the leptin receptor. MacroH2A-dependent gene regulation changes substantially in postnatal development and can be strongly affected by fasting. We propose that macroH2As produce adaptive changes to gene expression, which in the liver focus on metabolism. PMID:25312643

  2. The human component of sustainability: a study for assessing "human performances" of energy efficient construction blocks.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an applied research aimed at understanding the relevance and the applicability of human related criteria in sustainability assessment of construction materials. Under a theoretical perspective, human factors consideration is strongly encouraged by building sustainability assessment methods, but the practice demonstrates that current models for building sustainability assessment neglect ergonomic issues, especially those ones concerning the construction phase. The study starts from the observation that new construction techniques for high energy efficient external walls are characterized by elements generally heavier and bigger than traditional materials. In this case, high sustainability performances connected with energy saving could be reached only consuming high, and then not very much sustainable, human efforts during setting-up operations. The paper illustrates a practical approach for encompassing human factors in sustainability assessment of four block types for energy efficient external walls. Research steps, from block selections to bricklaying task analysis, human factors indicators and metrics formulation, data gathering and final assessment are going to be presented. Finally, open issues and further possible generalizations from the particular case study will be discussed.

  3. Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human: implications for energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fuqua, John S; Rogol, Alan D

    2013-07-01

    Complex mechanisms exist in the human to defend against adverse effects of negative energy balance. These include alterations of hormone secretion affecting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system, the adrenal axis, and the reproductive system, particularly in females. Energy deficits are least partially offset by neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating appetite and satiety. The complex feedback mechanisms reporting peripheral fat and energy stores to the central nervous system involve secretion of the peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, which act centrally on neurons in the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular area. In addition to appetite regulation, these hormones exert influences on spatially and functionally-related mechanisms regulating reproductive function, such as the kisspeptin-gonadotropin releasing hormone system. Negative energy balance often occurs partially as a result of strenuous and repetitive physical exercise. Exercise stress leads to increased cortisol secretion, but this action is mediated through the induced negative energy balance. In healthy adults with energy deficits, this exercise-induced stress appears to be more important than pure psychological stress in impairing reproductive function. Estrogen deficiency resulting from negative energy balance has important adverse effects on bone density as well as bone microarchitecture, and it may also adversely affect markers of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23415825

  4. Dynamics of energy harvesting backpack with human being interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yue; Zuo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In last ten years, a lot of researchers have begun to look into obtaining electricity from the movement between human and their backpack that occurs during walking. In this paper, an innovative, elastically-suspended backpack with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) based energy harvester is developed to generate electricity with high efficiency and reliability. Up to 28 Watts peak electrical power can be produced by the MMR based backpack energy harvester. A dynamic model for the system is presented along with experimental results. Three dual mass models for different distinct harvesters: pure viscous, non MMR, and MMR, are proposed, and a comparison in the output power and human comfort between the three models is discussed.

  5. [Energy saving and LED lamp lighting and human health].

    PubMed

    Deĭnego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new sources of high-intensity with large proportion of blue light in the spectrum revealed new risks of their influence on the function of the eye and human health, especially for children and teenagers. There is an urgent need to reconsider the research methods of vision hygiene in conditions of energy-saving and LED bulbs lighting. On the basis of a systematic approach and knowledge of the newly discovered photosensitive receptors there was built hierarchical model of the interaction of "light environment - the eye - the system of formation of visual images - the hormonal system of the person - his psycho-physiological state." This approach allowed us to develop a range of risk for the negative impact of spectrum on the functions of the eye and human health, as well as to formulate the hygiene requirements for energy-efficient high-intensity light sources.

  6. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1988-01-01

    The structural characterization of genes and elucidation of their encoded functions have become a cornerstone of modern health research, biology and biotechnology. A genome program is an organized effort to locate and identify the functions of all the genes of an organism. Beginning with the DOE-sponsored, 1986 human genome workshop at Santa Fe, the value of broadly organized efforts supporting total genome characterization became a subject of intensive study. There is now national recognition that benefits will rapidly accrue from an effective scientific infrastructure for total genome research. In the US genome research is now receiving dedicated funds. Several other nations are implementing genome programs. Supportive infrastructure is being improved through both national and international cooperation. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy (DOE) is a focused program of Resource and Technology Development, with objectives of speeding and bringing economies to the national human genome effort. This report relates the origins and progress of the Initiative.

  7. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The structural characterization of genes and elucidation of their encoded functions have become a cornerstone of modern health research, biology and biotechnology. A genome program is an organized effort to locate and identify the functions of all the genes of an organism. Beginning with the DOE-sponsored, 1986 human genome workshop at Santa Fe, the value of broadly organized efforts supporting total genome characterization became a subject of intensive study. There is now national recognition that benefits will rapidly accrue from an effective scientific infrastructure for total genome research. In the US genome research is now receiving dedicated funds. Several other nations are implementing genome programs. Supportive infrastructure is being improved through both national and international cooperation. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy (DOE) is a focused program of Resource and Technology Development, with objectives of speeding and bringing economies to the national human genome effort. This report relates the origins and progress of the Initiative. 34 refs.

  8. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  9. Emergent Behavior in the Macro World: Rigidity of Granular Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2015-03-01

    Diversity in the natural world emerges from the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting objects. The origin of collectively organized structures over the vast range of length scales from the subatomic to colloidal is the competition between energy and entropy. Thermal motion provides the mechanism for organization by allowing particles to explore the space of configurations. This well-established paradigm of emergent behavior breaks down for collections of macroscopic objects ranging from grains of sand to asteroids. In this macro-world of particulate systems, thermal motion is absent, and mechanical forces are all important. We lack understanding of the basic, unifying principles that underlie the emergence of order in this world. In this talk, I will explore the origin of rigidity of granular solids, and present a new paradigm for emergence of order in these athermal systems. This work has been supported by NSF-DMR 1409093 and by the W. M. Keck foundation

  10. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across. PMID:26318422

  11. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across.

  12. Macro Domain from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Is an Efficient ADP-ribose Binding Module: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Chuang, Chien-Ying; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The newly emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) encodes the conserved macro domain within non-structural protein 3. However, the precise biochemical function and structure of the macro domain is unclear. Using differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterized the MERS-CoV macro domain as a more efficient adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose binding module than macro domains from other CoVs. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the MERS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.43-Å resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Comparison of macro domains from MERS-CoV and other human CoVs revealed structural differences in the α1 helix alters how the conserved Asp-20 interacts with ADP-ribose and may explain the efficient binding of the MERS-CoV macro domain to ADP-ribose. This study provides structural and biophysical bases to further evaluate the role of the MERS-CoV macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design.

  13. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  14. Macro-video documentation patch tests.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christian; Kränke, Birger; Szolar-Platzer, Christiane; Aberer, Werner

    2005-04-01

    An unequivocal distinction between allergic and irritant patch test reactions is often difficult with patch tests. This study was designed to evaluate the worth of video-macro camera documentation for differentiation between allergic and irritant test reactions and to investigate whether there are characteristic clinical differences in patch test responses between metal salts and fragrances. Patch testing was performed with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix and an irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate 1% aq., on the upper back of 82 patients, with evaluation and computer-aided video documentation after 48 and 72 hr. No reliable clinicomorphological criterion was found for assessing a weak patch test reaction as being definitely allergic. Even characteristic papules and vesicles were not regularly found in allergic reactions. However, unlike fragrance mix, patch test reactions to nickel sulfate were characteristic in that they showed a heterogeneous spread and an association with hair follicle openings, independent of reaction intensity. Evaluation based on additional computer-aided video-macro camera documentation did not add further advantage for the differentiation of allergic and irritant reactions. But well-defined clinicomorphological features and reaction patterns to single test substances or even whole substance categories could be helpful additional criteria for evaluating patch test responses in clinical practice.

  15. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  16. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design. PMID:26737430

  17. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    small amounts of electricity to low-power electronic devices. These studies were focused to investigate and obtain power from different energy sources, such as vibration, light, sound, airflow, heat, waste mechanical energy and temperature variations. This research studied forms of ambient energy sources such as waste mechanical (rotational) energy from hydraulic door closers, and fitness exercise bicycles, and its conversion and storage into usable electrical energy. In both of these examples of applications, hydraulic door closers and fitness exercise bicycles, human presence is required. A person has to open the door in order for the hydraulic door closer mechanism to function. Fitness exercise bicycles need somebody to cycle the pedals to generate electricity (while burning calories.) Also vibrations, body motions, and compressions from human interactions were studied using small piezoelectric fiber composites which are capable of recovering waste mechanical energy and converting it to useful electrical energy. Based on ambient energy sources, electrical energy conversion and storage circuits were designed and tested for low power electronic applications. These sources were characterized according to energy harvesting (scavenging) methods, and power and energy density. At the end of the study, the ambient energy sources were matched with possible electronic applications as a viable energy source.

  18. Energy expenditure during human gait. II - Role of muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Silvia; Garcia, Isabel; Franco, Marian; Alonso-Vazquez, Ana; Ambrosio, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A phenomenological model of muscle energy expenditure developed in part I of the paper, is utilized as a physiological cost function to estimate the muscle forces during normal locomotion. The model takes into account muscular behaviors typically observed during human gait, such as submaximal activation, variable muscular contraction conditions and muscular fiber type. The solution of the indeterminate biomechanical problem is obtained by integrating multibody dynamics and the global static optimization technique that considers the whole motion. The results for an application case indicate the important role of muscle groups in coordinating multijoint motion with the objective of minimizing metabolic costs of transport during locomotion.

  19. Scavenging energy from human motion with tubular dielectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar

    2010-04-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion is a challenge to supply low consumption systems for sport or medical applications. A promising solution is to use electroactive polymers and especially dielectric polymers to scavenge mechanical energy during walk. In this paper, we present a tubular dielectric generator which is the first step toward an integration of these structures into textiles. For a 10cm length and under a strain of 100%, the structure is able to scavenge 1.5μJ for a poling voltage of 200V and up to 40μJ for a poling voltage of 1000V. A 30cm length structure is finally compared to our previous planar structure, and the power management module for those structures is discussed.

  20. Energy Harvesting from Human Motion Using Footstep-Induced Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Xu, R.; Seto, K.; Yeatman, E. M.; Kim, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an unobtrusive in-shoe energy harvester converting foot-strike energy into electricity to power wearable or portable devices. An air-pumped turbine system is developed to address the issues of the limited vertical deformation of shoes and the low frequency of human motion that impede harvesting energy from this source. The air pump is employed to convert the vertical foot-strike motion into airflow. The generated airflow passes through the miniaturized wind turbine whose transduction is realized by an electromagnetic generator. Energy is extracted from the generator with a higher frequency than that of footsteps, boosting the output power of the device. The turbine casing is specifically designed to enable the device to operate continuously with airflow in both directions. A prototype was fabricated and then tested under different situations. A 6 mW peak power output was obtained with a 4.9 Ω load. The achievable power from this design was estimated theoretically for understanding and further improvement.

  1. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  2. Energy futures, human values, and lifestyles: a new look at the energy crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Harman, W.W.; Schwartz, P.

    1982-01-01

    A group of SRI International scholars looks beyond the technical difficulties of the energy crisis to determine the basic reasons for the severity of our energy and environmental problems, and finds them in our individual choices of life style. The authors depict two detailed energy-use scenarios for the year 2050, using California as a model. One scenario portrays a future that is a result of our present habits in which we have squandered nearly all of the world's nonrenewable energy resources and neither conserved nor developed renewable resources. The other envisions a slower economic progress that serves long-range human goals and values. As a pacesetter, California illustrates what is possible for the entire country. 82 references, 11 figures, 64 tables.

  3. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  4. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  5. LARCMACS: A TEX macro set for typesetting NASA reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Linda H.; Mccaskill, Mary K.

    1988-01-01

    This LARCMACS user's manual describes the February 1988 version of LARCMACS, the TEX macro set used by the Technical Editing Branch (TEB) at NASA Langley Research Center. These macros were developed by the authors to facilitate the typesetting of NASA formal reports. They are also useful, however, for informal NASA reports and other technical documents such as meeting papers. LARCMACS are distributed by TEB for the convenience of the Langley TEX user community. LARCMACS contain macros for obtaining the standard double-column format for NASA reports, for typesetting tables in the ruled format traditional in NASA reports, and for typesetting difficult mathematical expressions. Each macro is described and numerous examples are included. Definitions of the LARCMACS macros are also included.

  6. Harvesting energy from the natural vibration of human walking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqing; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Su, Yuanjie; Jing, Qingsheng; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), a unique technology for harvesting ambient mechanical energy based on the triboelectric effect, has been proven to be a cost-effective, simple, and robust approach for self-powered systems. However, a general challenge is that the output current is usually low. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed TENG with integrated rhombic gridding, which greatly improved the total current output owing to the structurally multiplied unit cells connected in parallel. With the hybridization of both the contact-separation mode and sliding electrification mode among nanowire arrays and nanopores fabricated onto the surfaces of two contact plates, the newly designed TENG produces an open-circuit voltage up to 428 V, and a short-circuit current of 1.395 mA with the peak power density of 30.7 W/m(2). Relying on the TENG, a self-powered backpack was developed with a vibration-to-electric energy conversion efficiency up to 10.62(±1.19) %. And it was also demonstrated as a direct power source for instantaneously lighting 40 commercial light-emitting diodes by harvesting the vibration energy from natural human walking. The newly designed TENG can be a mobile power source for field engineers, explorers, and disaster-relief workers. PMID:24180642

  7. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  8. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour. PMID:12936049

  9. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour.

  10. Higher Energy Expenditure in Humans Predicts Natural Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Robert L.; Sievers, Maurice L.; Bennett, Peter H.; Nelson, Robert G.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Context: Higher metabolic rates increase free radical formation, which may accelerate aging and lead to early mortality. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether higher metabolic rates measured by two different methods predict early natural mortality in humans. Design: Nondiabetic healthy Pima Indian volunteers (n = 652) were admitted to an inpatient unit for approximately 7 d as part of a longitudinal study of obesity and diabetes risk factors. Vital status of study participants was determined through December 31, 2006. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (24EE) was measured in 508 individuals, resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in 384 individuals, and 240 underwent both measurements on separate days. Data for 24EE were collected in a respiratory chamber between 1985 and 2006 with a mean (sd) follow-up time of 11.1 (6.5) yr and for RMR using an open-circuit respiratory hood system between 1982 and 2006 with a mean follow-up time of 15.4 (6.3) yr. Cox regression models were used to test the effect of EE on natural mortality, controlled for age, sex, and body weight. Results: In both groups, 27 natural deaths occurred during the study period. For each 100-kcal/24 h increase in EE, the risk of natural mortality increased by 1.29 (95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.66; P < 0.05) in the 24EE group and by 1.25 (95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.55; P < 0.05) in the RMR group, after adjustment for age, sex, and body weight in proportional hazard analyses. Conclusions: Higher metabolic rates as reflected by 24EE or RMR predict early natural mortality, indicating that higher energy turnover may accelerate aging in humans. PMID:21450984

  11. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  12. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm-3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm-3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  13. Effect of Capsinoids on Energy Metabolism in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, Jose E.; Ryan, Donna H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Capsinoids are non-pungent compounds with molecular structures similar to capsaicin, which has accepted thermogenic properties. To assess the acute effect of a plant-derived preparation of capsinoids on energy metabolism, we determined resting metabolic rate and non-protein respiratory quotient after ingestion of different doses of the capsinoids. Thirteen healthy subjects received four doses of the capsinoids (1, 3, 6 and 12 mg) and placebo using a crossover, randomized, double-blind trial. After a 10-h overnight fast as inpatients, resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry for 45 min before and 120 min after ingesting capsinoids or placebo. Blood pressure and axillary temperature were measured before (-55 and -5 min) and after (60 and 120 min) dosing. Prior to dosing, mean resting metabolic rate was 6247 ± 92 kJ/d and non-protein respiratory quotient 0.86 ± 0.01. At 120 minutes after dosing, metabolic rate and non-protein respiratory quotient remained similar across the 4 capsinoids and placebo doses. Capsinoids also had no influence on blood pressure or axillary temperature. Capsinoids provided in four doses did not affect metabolic rate and fuel partitioning in humans when measured two hours after exposure. Longer exposure and higher capsinoids doses may be required to cause meaningful acute effects on energy metabolism. PMID:19671203

  14. A force-controllable macro-micro manipulator and its application to medical robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/software implementation of the algorithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported. In addition, this paper includes a discussion of medical surgery and the role that force control may play. We introduce a new class of robotic systems collectively called Robotic Enhancement Technology (RET). RET systems introduce the combination of robotic manipulation with human control to perform manipulation tasks beyond the individual capability of either human or machine. The RET class of robotic systems offers new challenges in mechanism design, control-law development, and man/machine interface design. We believe force-controllable mechanisms such as the macro-micro structure we have developed are a necessary part of RET. Work in progress in the area of RET systems and their application to minimally invasive surgery is presented, along with future research directions.

  15. Micro-Macro Scale Mixing Interactions by Intestinal Villi Enhance Absorption: a 3D Lattice-Boltzmann Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxing; Brasseur, James; Banco, Gino

    2010-11-01

    Muscle-induced villi motions may create a micro-scale flow that couples with a lumen-scale macro flow to enhance nutrient transport and absorption in the intestine. Using a 3D multiscale lattice Boltzmann model of a lid-driven cavity flow with microscale 3-D leaf and finger-like villi in pendular motion at the lower surface, we analyze the coupling between micro and macro-scale nutrient mixing and absorption at the villi surfaces. RESULTS: The villi motions enhance absorption by creating a micro-mixing layer (MML) that pumps low concentration fluid from between villi groups and attracts fluid with high concentration from the macro flow. The MML couples with the macro flow via a diffusion layer. Leaf-like villi create the strongest MML and, consequently, the highest absorption rates. The finger-like villi create a weaker MML due to the existence of flow between villi. The strength of the MML and nutrient absorption increases with villus frequency. The absorption rate also increases with villus length; however the simulations predict an optimal length close to the physiological length of villi in humans. The complex flow structure will be discussed. We conclude that the interaction between micro-scale villi-induced fluid motions and macro-scale motility-induced flow may play a significant role in intestinal absorption. Supported by NSF Grant CTS-056215.

  16. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (<10 MeV/n) secondary particles of high-LET that contribute significantly to overall radiation exposures. Track structure theories suggest that high charge and energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular

  17. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (<10 MeV/n) secondary particles of high-LET that contribute significantly to overall radiation exposures. Track structure theories suggest that high charge and energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular

  18. Mentat: An object-oriented macro data flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentat, an object-oriented macro data flow system designed to facilitate parallelism in distributed systems, is presented. The macro data flow model is a model of computation similar to the data flow model with two principal differences: the computational complexity of the actors is much greater than in traditional data flow systems, and there are persistent actors that maintain state information between executions. Mentat is a system that combines the object-oriented programming paradigm and the macro data flow model of computation. Mentat programs use a dynamic structure called a future list to represent the future of computations.

  19. Katrina: macro-ethical issues for engineers.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Byron

    2010-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst disasters in United States history. Failures within New Orleans' engineered hurricane protection system (levees and floodwalls) contributed to the severity of the event and have drawn considerable public attention. In the time since Katrina, forensic investigations have uncovered a range of issues and problems related to the engineering work. In this article, my goal is to distill from these investigations, and the related literature that has accumulated, some overarching macro-ethical issues that are relevant for all engineers. I attempt to frame these issues, using illustrative examples taken from Katrina, in a way that might be of pedagogical use and benefit for engineering educators interested in engaging their students in discussions of engineering ethics, societal impact of engineered systems, engineering design, or related topics. Some of the issues discussed are problems of unanticipated failure modes, faulty assumptions, lack or misuse of information, the importance of resiliency, the effects of time, balancing competing interests, attending to the details of interfaces, the fickleness of risk perception, and how the past constrains the present.

  20. Modeling Manganese Silicate Inclusion Composition Changes during Ladle Treatment Using FactSage Macros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Kumar, Deepoo; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2016-07-01

    This work investigated the use of FactSage macros to simulate steel-slag and steel-inclusion reaction kinetics in silicon-manganese killed steels, and predict oxide inclusion composition changes during ladle treatment. These changes were assessed experimentally using an induction furnace to simulate deoxidation and slag addition. The average steel mass transfer coefficient for the experimental setup was calculated from the analyzed aluminum pick-up by steel. Average oxide inclusion composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the physical state (solid or liquid) of oxide inclusions in selected samples. The changes in the chemical compositions of the oxide inclusions and the steel agreed with the FactSage macro simulations.

  1. INVASIVE GRASS ALTERS LITTER DECOMPOSITION BY INFLUENCING MACRO-DETRITIVORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen fertilization experiments have produced results with inconsistent rates of plant litter decomposition, a phenomenon that may be explained if the influence of animal detritivores (macro-detritivores) on litter mass loss is greater than that of microbial decomposers whose ...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  3. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  4. Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics" was held on 19 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  5. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  6. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  7. Soft tissues store and return mechanical energy in human running.

    PubMed

    Riddick, R C; Kuo, A D

    2016-02-01

    During human running, softer parts of the body may deform under load and dissipate mechanical energy. Although tissues such as the heel pad have been characterized individually, the aggregate work performed by all soft tissues during running is unknown. We therefore estimated the work performed by soft tissues (N=8 healthy adults) at running speeds ranging 2-5 m s(-1), computed as the difference between joint work performed on rigid segments, and whole-body estimates of work performed on the (non-rigid) body center of mass (COM) and peripheral to the COM. Soft tissues performed aggregate negative work, with magnitude increasing linearly with speed. The amount was about -19 J per stance phase at a nominal 3 m s(-1), accounting for more than 25% of stance phase negative work performed by the entire body. Fluctuations in soft tissue mechanical power over time resembled a damped oscillation starting at ground contact, with peak negative power comparable to that for the knee joint (about -500 W). Even the positive work from soft tissue rebound was significant, about 13 J per stance phase (about 17% of the positive work of the entire body). Assuming that the net dissipative work is offset by an equal amount of active, positive muscle work performed at 25% efficiency, soft tissue dissipation could account for about 29% of the net metabolic expenditure for running at 5 m s(-1). During running, soft tissue deformations dissipate mechanical energy that must be offset by active muscle work at non-negligible metabolic cost. PMID:26806689

  8. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  9. Polyaniline-Supported Atomic Gold Electrodes: Comparison with Macro Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Ilana; Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Under precisely controlled conditions, atomic gold electrodes with even or odd number of Au atoms per polyaniline repeat unit (Pt/PANI/AuN for 0 macro gold and PANI coated platinum electrodes by testing electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol and iso-propanol. This study allowed us to separate the behavior dominated by that of macroscopic gold in strongly alkaline medium and by that of the quantized odd–even effect of atomic gold. Within this overarching scope, there is a specific oxidation pattern attributable to the structural differences between the two isomers of propanol. The significance of this research lies in the recognition of high specific catalytic activity of atomic gold, which is at least three orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk gold for the oxidation of alcohols. It points to a substantial saving of the precious metal without the loss of catalytic activity, which is important in fuel cells and in other energy conversion device applications.

  10. Tutorial: simulating chromatography with Microsoft Excel Macros.

    PubMed

    Kadjo, Akinde; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-04-22

    Chromatography is one of the cornerstones of modern analytical chemistry; developing an instinctive feeling for how chromatography works will be invaluable to future generation of chromatographers. Specialized software programs exist that handle and manipulate chromatographic data; there are also some that simulate chromatograms. However, the algorithm details of such software are not transparent to a beginner. In contrast, how spreadsheet tools like Microsoft Excel™ work is well understood and the software is nearly universally available. We show that the simple repetition of an equilibration process at each plate (a spreadsheet row) followed by discrete movement of the mobile phase down by a row, easily automated by a subroutine (a "Macro" in Excel), readily simulates chromatography. The process is readily understood by a novice. Not only does this permit simulation of isocratic and simple single step gradient elution, linear or multistep gradients are also easily simulated. The versatility of a transparent and easily understandable computational platform further enables the simulation of complex but commonly encountered chromatographic scenarios such as the effects of nonlinear isotherms, active sites, column overloading, on-column analyte degradation, etc. These are not as easily simulated by available software. Views of the separation as it develops on the column and as it is seen by an end-column detector are both available in real time. Excel 2010™ also permits a 16-level (4-bit) color gradation of numerical values in a column/row; this permits visualization of a band migrating down the column, much as Tswett may have originally observed, but in a numerical domain. All parameters of relevance (partition constants, elution conditions, etc.) are readily changed so their effects can be examined. Illustrative Excel spreadsheets are given in the Supporting Information; these are easily modified by the user or the user can write his/her own routine.

  11. Micro-Macro Analysis of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a “classic” approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail (“micro”) to a different scale level (“macro”), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability. PMID:25635812

  12. Sex differences in energy expenditure in non-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    Key, C; Ross, C

    1999-01-01

    Female mammals bear the energetic costs of gestation and lactation. Therefore, it is often assumed that the overall energetic costs are greater for females than they are for males. However, the energetic costs to males of intrasex competition may also be considerable, particularly if males maintain a much larger body size than females. Using data from 19 non-human primates, this paper examines the relationship between male and female energetic costs both in the short term (daily energy expenditure) and the long term (the energetic cost of producing a single offspring). It is shown that the major determinant of sex differences in energetic costs is body size dimorphism. In the long term, the energetic costs are often greater for females, but, when male body size exceeds female body size by 60% or more, male energetic costs are greater than those for females. That is, in highly sexually dimorphic species the energetic costs of gestation and lactation for the females are matched by the energetic costs to the males of maintaining a large body size. PMID:10693818

  13. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure.

  14. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure. PMID:26574741

  15. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-11-15

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range.

  16. Lemons to Lemonade: How Five Challenges in Teaching Macro Practice Helped to Strengthen Our Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Joe; Sellers, Sherril; Gordon-Hempe, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Teaching macro practice can be challenging. While students have some concepts of what macro practice entails, their knowledge may be limited and sometimes inaccurate. Moreover, students may be reluctant to engage in macro change efforts. Given the scarcity of literature regarding teaching macro practice and the growing importance of it in social…

  17. Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Ogle, B M

    2000-06-01

    The importance of edible wild plants may be traced to antiquity but systematic studies are recent. Anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, food scientists, geographers, nutritionists, physicians and sociologists have investigated cultural aspects and nutrient composition of edible species. Important contributions to the diet from edible wild plants are well documented and numerous studies reveal roles played by 'lesser-known' species when meeting macro- and micronutrient needs of groups at risk, whether infants and children, pregnant and/or lactating women, or the elderly. The literature is vast and scattered but information on the macro- and micronutrient content of wild plants and their importance to the human diet appear in five kinds of publications: cultural works by social scientists, descriptions and inventories by botanists, dietary assessment studies by nutritionists, intervention programmes managed by epidemiologists and physicians, and composition data generally conducted by food scientists and chemists. Many macro- and micronutrient-dense wild species deserve greater attention but lack of adequate nutrient databases, whether by region or nation, limit educational efforts to improve diets in many Third World areas. Limited and uneven compositional data generally reflect factors of cost and personal interest in key nutrients. Whilst edible wild plants are regularly deprecated by policy makers and considered to be the 'weeds of agriculture', it would be tragic if this led to loss of ability to identify and consume these important available species. PMID:19087432

  18. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth.

  19. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  20. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  1. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  2. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  3. 50-mJ macro-pulses at 1064 nm from a diode-pumped picosecond laser system.

    PubMed

    Agnesi, A; Carrà, L; Dallocchio, P; Pirzio, F; Reali, G; Lodo, S; Piccinno, G

    2011-10-10

    Pulse-picking from a 100-mW cw mode-locked seeder, a hybrid master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system, based on Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG amplifier modules, has been developed, delivering single-pulses of 8.6 ps at 455-MHz repetition-rate, bunched into ~1-μs trains of 50 mJ ("macro-pulses"). The output beam is linearly polarized and nearly diffraction limited up to the maximum macro-pulse repetition-rate of 50 Hz. The single-pulse peak power and the macro-pulse duration and energy are quite suitable for high-energy nonlinear optical applications such as low-threshold synchronously-pumped parametric converters in the mid infrared. The impact on the overall efficiency of saturation distortion of the macro-pulse envelope as well as of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is considered. The managing of the envelope distortion compensation and of the ASE suppression by means of fast saturable absorbers is reported. PMID:21997042

  4. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  5. Nonlinear time-varying potential bistable energy harvesting from human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Shengxi; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation into nonlinear bistable energy harvesting with time-varying potential energy is presented. The motivation for examining time-varying potentials comes from the desire to harvest energy from human motion. Time-varying potential energy function of bistable oscillator with respect to the swing angle are established to derive the governing electromechanical model for harvesting vibration energy from the swaying motion during human walking or running. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the experimental potential energy function under different swing angles. Various motion speed treadmill tests are performed to demonstrate the advantage of time-varying bistable harvesters over linear and monostable ones in harvesting energy from human motion.

  6. From ``micro`` to ``macro`` internal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation dose is the amount of radiation energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing tissue. Internal dosimetry applies to assessments of dose to internal organs from penetrating radiation sources outside the body and from radionuclides taken into the body. Dosimetry is essential for correlating energy deposition with biological effects that are observed when living tissues are irradiated. Dose-response information provides the basis for radiation protection standards and risk assessment. Radiation interactions with living matter takes place on a microscopic scale, and the manifestation of damage may be evident at the cellular, multi-cellular, and even organ levels of biological organization. The relative biological effectiveness of ionization radiation is largely determined by the spatial distribution of energy deposition events within microscopic as well as macroscopic biological targets of interest. The spatial distribution of energy imparted is determined by the spatial distribution of radionuclides and properties of the emitted charged-particle radiation involved. The nonuniformity of energy deposition events in microscopic volumes, particularly from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, results in large variations in the amount of energy imparted to very small volumes or targets. Microdosimetry is the study of energy deposition events at the cellular level. Macrodosimetry is a term for conventional dose averaging at the tissue or organ level. In between is a level of dosimetry sometimes referred to as multi-cellular dosimetry. The distinction between these terms and their applications in assessment of dose from internally deposited radionuclides is described.

  7. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  8. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  9. Performance programming with the Los Alamos macro accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cort, G.

    The CCC macro facility, as extended by Version 2.0 of Softool's Change and Configuration Control Environment, offers many new and powerful features. Among these are a vastly extended suite of commands, error trapping, and structured constructs. In concert with previously existing Version 1.x features (notably the very powerful symbol substitution and parameter passage facilities), these features combine to transform the macro facility from a simple command language into an extremely flexible programming language which is suitable for developing very large and complex applications. This paper presents the results of a performance analysis of the CCC macro facility conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Neutron Research Facility. The goal of this work was to identify and evaluate major factors that can contribute to the degradation of performance of the CCC macro facility, and to develop strategies for countering their effects. In particular, we report on the Los Alamos Macro Accelerator, which can produce dramatic increases in execution speed for many applications.

  10. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  11. Stacked macro fiber piezoelectric composite generator for a spinal fusion implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobaben, Eric J.; Goetzinger, Nathan C.; Domann, John P.; Barrett-Gonzalez, Ronald; Arnold, Paul M.; Friis, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    A manufacturing method was developed to create a piezoelectric 3-layer stacked, macro fiber composite generator operating in d33 mode to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. A specimen of 9 × 17 × 9 mm thick was constructed from 800 μm diameter PZT fibers and medical grade epoxy. Electromechanical testing was performed at three stages of manufacturing to determine the influence of these processes on power generation. An average peak power of over 335 μW was generated in the heat-treated specimen during simulated human body loads. The work provides insights into manufacturing methods for lowered source impedance power generation for a variety of applications.

  12. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Svatos, M M

    1998-09-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing electron depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history electron transport package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could be tested. Most

  13. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  14. A macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8 degree-of-freedom macro-micro robot capable of performing tasks which require accurate force control. Applications such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning are a few examples of tasks which need this capability. Currently these tasks are either performed manually or with dedicated machinery because of the lack of a flexible and cost effective tool, such as a programmable force-controlled robot. The basic design and control of the macro-micro robot is described in this paper. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system.

  15. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  16. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  17. Financing health development projects: some macro-economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, A L

    1986-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the importance of macro-economic policy in health sector financing. The ways in which monetary and fiscal policy (macro-economic policy) affect interest rates, price levels and aggregate output are presented. The main portion of the paper considers a variety of methods for public financing of health and development projects. These approaches are analyzed in light of distributional and efficiency considerations. One way of increasing health sector resources is through reallocation from other sectors of the economy. The potential for redistribution from the defense to the health service industry is briefly considered. PMID:3961549

  18. Word-processor macro for restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera León, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes a Microsoft Word 97 macro designed for restriction endonuclease analysis. Selected DNA fragments in the active Word document can be analyzed through a dynamic dialog box that formats the enzyme restriction lists for further analysis. The results can be obtained in a new Word document with the name of the enzymes, number of cuts and positions. This macro has several advantages: the results can be printed in a format suitable for record keeping, no additional programs are required and it is simple to use.

  19. Correlations and Stability in Macro-Ionic Suspensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sheema

    The static correlations in highly charged colloidal and micellar suspensions, with and without added electrolyte, are examined within the context of the Ornstein-Zernike relation and choice of closure for the various species -species correlations in solution. By taking the point-ion limit for the counter -ions, and using the mean spherical approximation (MSA) for all correlations involving the point-ions, an analytic solution for the counter-ion part of the problem is obtained. This maps the macro-ion part of the problem onto a one-component problem where the macro-ions interact via a screened Coulomb potential. The contact potential and screening length are given in terms of the suspension parameters and radial distribution functions. A complete analytic solution is obtained when the MSA is used for the macro-ion ndash macro-ion correlation. The Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality is used to determine an effective macro-ion diameter and charge. Numerical solutions of the effective one-component equation in the hypemetted -chain approximation are presented. In particular, the effects of macro-ion charge, nonadditive core diameters, and added electrolyte concentration are examined. Renormalization of the effective macro-ion charge and reentrant melting in colloidal crystals are predicted. The results of this procedure are discussed in light of scattering experiments on colloidal and micellar suspensions. The dynamics of linearly sheared colloidal crystals is examined in terms of the stability of long-wavelength deviations of the macro-particle and (low Reynold number) fluid motions about the steady-state sheared motion. The periodic features of these steady states give rise to anharmonic restoring forces on deviations which vary sinusoidally in time. The dynamic stress tensor associated with these forces in assumed to be isotropic. With the assumed forces, unstable deviations are found for certain shear rates; the strain rate for which the instability first appears is

  20. Connection between micro and macro hardness pearlitic-ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duka, Edlira; Oettel, Heinrich; Dilo, Teuta

    2012-09-01

    Many physical and mechanical properties of materials are closely related to their microstructure, technologies to control the microstructure of materials have been well developed to obtain suitable properties. We measured the volume fraction of perlite and ferrite, micro Vickers hardness in pearlite and ferrite and macro hardness using different sample with different carbon content. The volume fraction of pearlite increases by increasing carbon content. By increasing carbon content, micro and macro hardness increase. We can conclude that for those conditional the mixing rule can't be use.

  1. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong-Manso, S.; Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Naadu, J. P.; Magnus-Aryitey, G. T.; Nyarko, A. K.; Boamah, D.; Awan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26495138

  2. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Frimpong-Manso, S; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Naadu, J P; Magnus-Aryitey, G T; Nyarko, A K; Boamah, D; Awan, M

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension.

  3. Macro Monte Carlo for dose calculation of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Michael K.; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Born, Ernst J.; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Manser, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Although the Monte Carlo (MC) method allows accurate dose calculation for proton radiotherapy, its usage is limited due to long computing time. In order to gain efficiency, a new macro MC (MMC) technique for proton dose calculations has been developed. The basic principle of the MMC transport is a local to global MC approach. The local simulations using GEANT4 consist of mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging perpendicularly on slabs of different thicknesses and different materials (water, air, lung, adipose, muscle, spongiosa, cortical bone). During the local simulation multiple scattering, ionization as well as elastic and inelastic interactions have been taken into account and the physical characteristics such as lateral displacement, direction distributions and energy loss have been scored for primary and secondary particles. The scored data from appropriate slabs is then used for the stepwise transport of the protons in the MMC simulation while calculating the energy loss along the path between entrance and exit position. Additionally, based on local simulations the radiation transport of neutrons and the generated ions are included into the MMC simulations for the dose calculations. In order to validate the MMC transport, calculated dose distributions using the MMC transport and GEANT4 have been compared for different mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging on different phantoms including homogeneous and inhomogeneous situations as well as on a patient CT scan. The agreement of calculated integral depth dose curves is better than 1% or 1 mm for all pencil beams and phantoms considered. For the dose profiles the agreement is within 1% or 1 mm in all phantoms for all energies and depths. The comparison of the dose distribution calculated using either GEANT4 or MMC in the patient also shows an agreement of within 1% or 1 mm. The efficiency of MMC is up to 200 times higher than for GEANT4. The very good level of agreement in the dose comparisons

  4. Energy Management for Human Service Agencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    Concerned about the effect rising energy costs would have on their local affiliates, building consultants for national social welfare agencies have been advocating the initiation of energy management and conservation programs. This manual, a three-part educational and planning tool, is a key element in a program developed to help local agencies…

  5. Sodium and potassium uptake of Ulva - application of marine macro-algae for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Sawaki, Nanase; Notoya, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    The treatment of sodium, Na, and potassium, K, presents a challenge in space agriculture material recycling, as humans require Na and plants cannot grow at high Na concentrations. Hence, we are proposing the use of marine macro-algae to harvest K and other minerals from composted human waste. Ulva was selected for this feasibility study, since it tolerates a wide range of salinity levels. Growth capability of Ulva was examined under various total salinity levels and proportions of Na and K in the incubation medium. A homeostatic feature of Ulva was found in its intra-cellular concentration of Na and K, and in the intra-cellular ratio between Na and K (at 0.58 ± 0.30, lower than that of human metabolic waste). Intracellular concentration of K in Ulva is 20 times higher than seawater. Because of these characteristics, Ulva is a good candidate species for space agriculture.

  6. Sodium and potassium uptake of Ulva - Application of marine macro-algae for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Sawaki, N.; Notoya, M.

    2009-04-01

    The treatment of sodium, Na, and potassium, K, presents a challenge in space agriculture material recycling, as humans require Na and plants cannot grow at high Na concentrations. Hence, we are proposing the use of marine macro-algae to harvest K and other minerals from composted human waste. Ulva was selected for this feasibility study, since it tolerates a wide range of salinity levels. Growth capability of Ulva was examined under various total salinity levels and proportions of Na and K in the incubation medium. A homeostatic feature of Ulva was found in its intra-cellular concentration of Na and K, and in the intra-cellular ratio between Na and K (at 0.58 ± 0.30, lower than that of human metabolic waste). Intracellular concentration of K in Ulva is 20 times higher than seawater. Because of these characteristics, Ulva is a good candidate species for space agriculture.

  7. Energy production and the risk to human health and life

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Current issues in health-risk assessment of energy production and factors in developing countries affecting risk analysis are discussed. Information is presented on the relative risks of coal and nuclear fuel cycles. (JGB)

  8. Charge dependent condensation of macro-ions at air-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Mrinal; Antonio, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordering of ions at and near air-water interfaces is a century old problem for researchers and has implications on a host of physical, chemical and biological processes. The dynamic nature of water surface and the surface fluctuations created by thermally excited capillary waves have always limited measurement of near surface ionic-distributions. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by using macro-ions of sizes larger than the capillary wave roughness ~3Å. Our attempts to measure distributions of inorganic macro-ions in the form of Keggin heteropolyanions (HPAs) of sizes ~10Å have unraveled novel charge-dependent condensation of macro-ions beneath air-water interfaces. Our results demonstrate that HPAs with -3 charges condense readily beneath air-water interfaces. This is in contrast to the absence of surface preference for HPAs with -4 charges. The similarity of HPA-HPA separations near air-water interfaces and in bulk crystal structures suggests the presence of the planar Zundel ions (H5O2+), which interact with HPAs and the water surface to facilitate the charge dependent condensation beneath the air-water interfaces.This work and the use of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, under contract No DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions…

  10. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The power MOSFET SPICE Macro-Model has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range {minus}55 to 125 {degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE .TEMP card. SPICE parameter extraction techniques for the model and model predictive accuracy are discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. An Alternative Macro-economic Model for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bryan

    1976-01-01

    Presents Michal Kalecki's macro-economic model and two-sector version of the model by Robinson and Eatwell as circular flow diagrams. Advantages of using this approach in first-year undergraduate economics programs are discussed. Available from: General Secretary, Economics Association, Room 340, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9BH,…

  12. Operationalizing Macro-Scripts in CSCL Technological Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchounikine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the technological dimensions related to the operationalization of CSCL macro-scripts. CSCL scripts are activity models that aim at enhancing the probability that knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation occur during the collaboration process. We…

  13. Reclaiming and Reimagining Macro Social Work Education: A Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Cole, Portia L.; Hopkins, Karen; Jones, Jenny L.; Kim, Youngmi; Leisey, Monica; Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Thomas, M. Lori; Weil, Marie O.; Wike, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors focus on a collective biography of 12 women social work educators, all either tenured or in tenure lines, from five different universities at the time of the study. The participants represent several aspects of macro practice including administration, planning, community practice, and policy. Beginning with reflections about coming…

  14. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  15. The USC macro data-flow simulator. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, N.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1989-10-11

    As device technology develops to the limit of speed of light, parallel processing comes into play for high performance calculation. Conventional von Neumann computation show difficulty because of its single threadness. Many hybrid models have been proposed; they are reviewed, leading to the macro data-flow model. This macro data-flow is a scheme having a multilevel of model of execution which higher model is a tagged data-flow and lower level is von Neumann. Partitioning should be carefully done. A simple simulator has been developed, executing a macro data-flow graph. Micro instructions within a macro actor can access and process those vector data from higher data-flow level. Architectural description of this simulator and some special actors supporting this hybrid model are discussed. Details of instructions are explained as user reference manual, including sample programs and statistic gathering methods. In addition to the hardware simulator, a graph simulator was developed for simple execution of data-flow graph without resource limit of hardware details.

  16. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  17. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  18. CD SEM metrology macro CD technology: beyond the average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin D.; Michelson, Di K.; Allgair, John A.; Tam, Aviram; Chase-Colin, David; Dajczman, Asaf; Adan, Ofer; Har-Zvi, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Downscaling of semiconductor fabrication technology requires an ever-tighter control of the production process. CD-SEM, being the major image-based critical dimension metrology tool, is constantly being improved in order to fulfill these requirements. One of the methods used for increasing precision is averaging over several or many (ideally identical) features, usually referred to as "Macro CD". In this paper, we show that there is much more to Macro CD technology- metrics characterizing an arbitrary array of similar features within a single SEM image-than just the average. A large amount of data is accumulated from a single scan of a SEM image, providing informative and statistically valid local process characterization. As opposed to other technologies, Macro CD not only provides extremely precise average metrics, but also allows for the reporting of full information on each of the measured features and of various statistics (such as the variability) on all currently reported CD SEM metrics. We present the mathematical background behind Macro CD technology and the opportunity for reducing number of sites for SPC, along with providing enhanced-sensitivity CD metrics.

  19. Bringing consistency to simulation of population models--Poisson simulation as a bridge between micro and macro simulation.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Leif; Sternad, Mikael

    2007-10-01

    Population models concern collections of discrete entities such as atoms, cells, humans, animals, etc., where the focus is on the number of entities in a population. Because of the complexity of such models, simulation is usually needed to reproduce their complete dynamic and stochastic behaviour. Two main types of simulation models are used for different purposes, namely micro-simulation models, where each individual is described with its particular attributes and behaviour, and macro-simulation models based on stochastic differential equations, where the population is described in aggregated terms by the number of individuals in different states. Consistency between micro- and macro-models is a crucial but often neglected aspect. This paper demonstrates how the Poisson Simulation technique can be used to produce a population macro-model consistent with the corresponding micro-model. This is accomplished by defining Poisson Simulation in strictly mathematical terms as a series of Poisson processes that generate sequences of Poisson distributions with dynamically varying parameters. The method can be applied to any population model. It provides the unique stochastic and dynamic macro-model consistent with a correct micro-model. The paper also presents a general macro form for stochastic and dynamic population models. In an appendix Poisson Simulation is compared with Markov Simulation showing a number of advantages. Especially aggregation into state variables and aggregation of many events per time-step makes Poisson Simulation orders of magnitude faster than Markov Simulation. Furthermore, you can build and execute much larger and more complicated models with Poisson Simulation than is possible with the Markov approach.

  20. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  1. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  2. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  3. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  4. Visual compression of workflow visualizations with automated detection of macro motifs.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eamonn; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Davies, Jim; Chen, Min

    2013-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the creation of 'macros' in workflow visualization as a support tool to increase the efficiency of data curation tasks. We propose computation of candidate macros based on their usage in large collections of workflows in data repositories. We describe an efficient algorithm for extracting macro motifs from workflow graphs. We discovered that the state transition information, used to identify macro candidates, characterizes the structural pattern of the macro and can be harnessed as part of the visual design of the corresponding macro glyph. This facilitates partial automation and consistency in glyph design applicable to a large set of macro glyphs. We tested this approach against a repository of biological data holding some 9,670 workflows and found that the algorithmically generated candidate macros are in keeping with domain expert expectations.

  5. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. PMID:18975768

  6. Final Report: Human Capacity Building Grant for Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sando, Wil

    2010-01-03

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprise (WSPWE), a Corporate Entity of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Oregon, developed and distributed written materials, held workshops and field trips to educate tribal members on renewable energy projects that are a possibility utilizing resources on reservation. In order to build stronger public and Tribal Council support for the development of renewable energy projects on the reservation, WSPWE conducted a 12 month public education and technical expertise development program. The objectives of this program were to: To build a knowledge base within the tribal community regarding renewable energy development potential and opportunities on reservation lands. To educate the tribal community regarding development process, impacts and benefits. To increase the technical expertise of tribal government and Tribal Council.

  7. Human Genome Program Image Gallery (from genomics.energy.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This collection contains approximately 240 images from the genome programs of DOE's Office of Science. The images are divided into galleries related to biofuels research, systems biology, and basic genomics. Each image has a title, a basic citation, and a credit or source. Most of the images are original graphics created by the Genome Management Information System (GMIS). GMIS images are recognizable by their credit line. Permission to use these graphics is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs and provide the website http://genomics.energy.gov. Other images were provided by third parties and not created by the U.S. Department of Energy. Users must contact the person listed in the credit line before using those images. The high-resolution images can be downloaded.

  8. Does water level affect benthic macro-invertebrates of a marginal lake in a tropical river-reservoir transition zone?

    PubMed

    Zerlin, R A; Henry, R

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macro-invertebrates are important components of freshwater ecosystems which are involved in ecological processes such as energy transfer between detritus and consumers and organic matter recycling. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in organism richness, diversity and density of benthic fauna during the annual cycle in Camargo Lake, a lake marginal to Paranapanema River, southeast Brazil. The correlation of environmental factors with community attributes of the macro-benthic fauna was assessed. Since Camargo Lake is connected to the river, we tested the hypothesis that water level variation is the main regulating factor of environmental variables and of the composition and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates. The results indicated that lake depth varied with rainfall, being the highest at the end of the rising water period and the lowest at the beginning of this period. The sediment granulometry was more heterogeneous at the bottom of the lake by the end of the high water period. The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna was composed by 15 taxa. The Diptera order was represented by seven taxa and had greater richness in relation to other taxa. This group was responsible for 60% of the total abundance of organisms, followed by Ephemeroptera (22%) and Anellida (16%). Significant differences were observed over time in total richness and, in density of Narapa bonettoi, Chaoborus, Ablabesmyia gr. annulata, Chironomus gigas, Larsia fittkau, and Procladius sp. 2. Total taxa richness correlated negatively with water pH, transparency, conductivity, and bottom water oxygen. Higher positive correlations were found between the densities of some taxa and bottom water oxygen, conductivity and very fine sand, silt + clay of sediment, while negative correlations were recorded with organic matter, and fine, medium and coarse sand, bottom water temperature, mean temperature and rainfall. The significant temporal difference in water level was associated

  9. Energy Utilization and Environmental Health: Methods for Prediction and Evaluation of Impact on Human Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Richard A., Ed.

    A variety of socio-economic criteria are suggested for the choice of how best to utilize energy resources. One of the most significant of these criteria is the prediction and evaluation of existing and potential human health effects of recovery and usage of various energy resources. Suggestions are made for incorporation of these methods in site…

  10. Measuring structural-functional correspondence: spatial variability of specialised brain regions after macro-anatomical alignment.

    PubMed

    Frost, Martin A; Goebel, Rainer

    2012-01-16

    The central question of the relationship between structure and function in the human brain is still not well understood. In order to investigate this fundamental relationship we create functional probabilistic maps from a large set of mapping experiments and compare the location of functionally localised regions across subjects using different whole-brain alignment schemes. To avoid the major problems associated with meta-analysis approaches, all subjects are scanned using the same paradigms, the same scanner and the same analysis pipeline. We show that an advanced, curvature driven cortex based alignment (CBA) scheme largely removes macro-anatomical variability across subjects. Remaining variability in the observed spatial location of functional regions, thus, reflects the "true" functional variability, i.e. the quantified variability is a good estimator of the underlying structural-functional correspondence. After localising 13 widely studied functional areas, we found a large variability in the degree to which functional areas respect macro-anatomical boundaries across the cortex. Some areas, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF) are strongly bound to a macro-anatomical location. Fusiform face area (FFA) on the other hand, varies in its location along the length of the fusiform gyrus even though the gyri themselves are well aligned across subjects. Language areas were found to vary greatly across subjects whilst a high degree of overlap was observed in sensory and motor areas. The observed differences in functional variability for different specialised areas suggest that a more complete estimation of the structure-function relationship across the whole cortex requires further empirical studies with an expanded test battery.

  11. Pedometer and Human Energy Balance Applications for Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Smolski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Teachers can use pedometers to facilitate inquiry learning and show students the need for mathematics in scientific investigation. The authors conducted activities with secondary students that investigated intake and expenditure components of the energy balance algorithm, which led to inquiries about pedometers and related data. By investigating…

  12. mTOR and regulation of energy homeostasis in humans.

    PubMed

    Mannaa, Marwan; Krämer, Stephanie; Boschmann, Michael; Gollasch, Maik

    2013-10-01

    Patients treated with the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus in order to slow progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed a significant reduction of body weight. Although the detailed mechanism of how mTOR inhibition interferes with body weight regulation is rather unclear, present data suggest that this effect is mediated by both central and peripheral mechanisms. These findings in ADPKD patients are in contrast to well-documented effects of hypothalamic mTOR on regulation of energy homeostasis and eating behavior in rodents. In a number of rodent models, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin induces increased food intake, which is accompanied by increased body weight. However, animal data are inconsistent. This review highlights some of the regulatory signals and key mechanisms that are important for balancing energy intake and energy expenditure with a special focus on adipose tissue-derived adipokines and their interaction with mTOR regarding local regulation of tissue perfusion and metabolism and overall systemic energy homeostasis. Specifically, clinical aspects of an impaired mTOR signaling pathway regarding the development of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus will be discussed. PMID:23756767

  13. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  14. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  15. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  16. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  17. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) use in human medical applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifei; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    A number of electromagnetic field-based technologies are available for therapeutic medical applications. These therapies can be broken down into different categories based on technical parameters employed and type of clinical application. Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) therapy is a non invasive, electromagnetic field-based therapeutic that is based on delivery of pulsed, shortwave radio frequency energy in the 13-27.12 MHz carrier frequency range, and designed for local application to a target tissue without the intended generation of deep heat. It has been studied for use in a number of clinical applications, including as a palliative treatment for both postoperative and non postoperative pain and edema, as well as in wound healing applications. This review provides an introduction to the therapy, a summary of clinical efficacy studies using the therapy in specific applications, and an overview of treatment-related safety. PMID:21554100

  18. Pedometer and Human Energy Balance Applications for Science Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Rye, James A.; Smolski, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Teachers can use pedometers to facilitate inquiry learning and show students the need for mathematics in scientific investigation. The authors conducted activities with secondary students that investigated intake and expenditure components of the energy balance algorithm, which led to inquiries about pedometers and related data. By investigating the accuracy of pedometers and variables that may impact reported step counts, students can better understand experimental design and statistical concepts. Students can also examine other data (distance walked, kilocalories expended) using multifunction pedometers and apply the concepts of correlation and regression. This topic fits well with thematic learning and responds to concerns about excess energy intake and insufficient physical activity in the U.S. population. PMID:19081754

  19. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy-in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources-is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world's natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  20. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy-in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources-is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world's natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources.

  1. Human Motion Energy Harvester for Biometric Data Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present an energy autonomous sensor system fully integrated into the heel of a shoe for biometric data monitoring. For powering the wireless sensor system a pulse-driven energy harvester was developed, which uses the acceleration-impulses from heel-strike during walking. In preparation of the device development acceleration measurements were carried out. The pulse-driven energy harvester is based on the electromagnetic conversion principle and incorporates a 4×4 coil matrix. A beam fixed at both ends is used for suspending the magnetic circuit. The geometric parameters of coil and magnetic circuit were optimized for maximum power output. For an idealized acceleration pulse with a width of 5 ms and a height of 200 m/s2 an average power output of 0.7 mW was generated using a step frequency of 1 Hz. The functionality of the self-sustained sensor system is demonstrated by measuring the temperature and step-frequency of a walking person and transmitting the data to a base station. We also found that the implementation of the suspension can have a significant impact on the harvester performance reducing the power output.

  2. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  3. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  4. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P.; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, CT; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66th,67th isoleucine and 101st,102nd leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  5. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2016-04-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66(th),67(th) isoleucine and 101(st),102(nd) leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV.

  6. Energy landscapes’: Meeting energy demands and human aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Gadocha, Sabine; Schardinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future ‘energy landscapes’ can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the ‘energy landscape’ as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions. PMID:26109751

  7. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  8. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  9. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  10. Sr, Mg cosubstituted HA porous macro-granules: potentialities as resorbable bone filler with antiosteoporotic functions.

    PubMed

    Landi, Elena; Uggeri, Jacopo; Medri, Valentina; Guizzardi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Porous macro-granules of nanostructured apatite with Ca ions partially cosubstituted with Mg and Sr ions in different ratios (SrMgHAs), were synthesized at 37°C and compared with Mg and/or Sr free apatites (MgHAs and HA). Strontium improved the Mg substitution extent in the apatite and the chemical-physical and thermal stability of the resulting cosubstituted apatite. Porous macro-granules of 400-600 micron with selected composition were tested for the ionic release in synthetic body fluid and the data were related with the results of preliminary cell investigation in vitro. As compared to the corresponding Sr-free granulate, the SrMgHA could be exploited to prolong the beneficial Mg release during the bone regeneration process. In addition the contemporary in situ supply of Sr, an antiosteoporotic and anticarie ion, could influence the quality of new hard tissues. The ionic multirelease created a more favorable environment for human osteoblasts, demonstrated by a proliferative effect for each dose tested in the range 0.1-10 mg/mL. PMID:23348958

  11. Evaluation of 3D nano-macro porous bioactive glass scaffold for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Falk, M M; Rashad, A; Saad, M M; Marques, A C; Almeida, R M; Marei, M K; Jain, H

    2011-05-01

    Recently, nano-macro dual-porous, three-dimensional (3D) glass structures were developed for use as bioscaffolds for hard tissue regeneration, but there have been concerns regarding the interconnectivity and homogeneity of nanopores in the scaffolds, as well as the cytotoxicity of the environment deep inside due to limited fluid access. Therefore, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen absorption, and TEM have been used to characterize nanopore network of the scaffolds. In parallel, viability of MG 63 human osteosarcoma cells seeded on scaffold surface was investigated by fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy methods. The results show that cells attach, migrate and penetrate inside the glass scaffold with high proliferation and viability rate. Additionally, scaffolds were implanted under the skin of a male New Zealand rabbit for in vivo animal test. Initial observations show the formation of new tissue with blood vessels and collagen fibers deep inside the implanted scaffolds with no obvious inflammatory reaction. Thus, the new nano-macro dual-porous glass structure could be a promising bioscaffold for use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for bone regeneration. PMID:21445655

  12. SMILE user's guide: a macro preprocessor for extending FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, L.H.

    1984-06-01

    SMILE is a precompiler that translates programs from a macro language into FORTRAN. It is available on the VAX-11 VMS (Virtual Memory System), the Cray-1 CTSS (Cray Time-Sharing System), and the CDC 7600 LTSS (Livermore Time-Sharing System). SMILE has supported and will continue to support the major FORTRAN compilers in use at Los Alamos. A macro library file may contain command predefinitions for a family of programs or a program being worked on by a number of coders. A selective compilation feature allows the selection of the appropriate code for each supported compiler. Rather efficient code for all systems results from an optional cleanup feature. Additional language features include multiple statements, symbolic labels, and byte support.

  13. Discrete-element method simulations: from micro to macro scales.

    PubMed

    Heyes, D M; Baxter, J; Tüzün, U; Qin, R S

    2004-09-15

    Many liquid systems encountered in environmental science are often complex mixtures of many components which place severe demands on traditional computational modelling techniques. A meso scale description is required to account adequately for their flow behaviour on the meso and macro scales. Traditional techniques of computational fluid dynamics and molecular simulation are not well suited to tackling these systems, and researchers are increasingly turning to a range of relatively new computational techniques that offer the prospect of addressing the factors relevant to multicomponent multiphase liquids on length- and time-scales between the molecular level and the macro scale. In this category, we discuss the off-lattice techniques of 'smooth particle hydrodynamics' (SPH) and 'dissipative particle dynamics' (DPD), and the grid-based techniques of 'lattice gas' and 'lattice Boltzmann' (LB). We highlight the main conceptual and technical features underpinning these methods, their strengths and weaknesses, and provide a few examples of the applications of these techniques that illustrate their utility.

  14. From micro-correlations to macro-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-11-01

    Random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure share a common value of pair-wise correlation between their different components. The symmetric correlation structure appears in a multitude of settings, e.g. mixture models. In a mixture model the components of the random vector are drawn independently from a general probability distribution that is determined by an underlying parameter, and the parameter itself is randomized. In this paper we study the overall correlation of high-dimensional random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure. Considering such a random vector, and terming its pair-wise correlation "micro-correlation", we use an asymptotic analysis to derive the random vector's "macro-correlation" : a score that takes values in the unit interval, and that quantifies the random vector's overall correlation. The method of obtaining macro-correlations from micro-correlations is then applied to a diverse collection of frameworks that demonstrate the method's wide applicability.

  15. An Integrated Planning Representation Using Macros, Abstractions, and Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltes, Jacky; MacDonald, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Planning will be an essential part of future autonomous robots and integrated intelligent systems. This paper focuses on learning problem solving knowledge in planning systems. The system is based on a common representation for macros, abstractions, and cases. Therefore, it is able to exploit both classical and case based techniques. The general operators in a successful plan derivation would be assessed for their potential usefulness, and some stored. The feasibility of this approach was studied through the implementation of a learning system for abstraction. New macros are motivated by trying to improve the operatorset. One heuristic used to improve the operator set is generating operators with more general preconditions than existing ones. This heuristic leads naturally to abstraction hierarchies. This investigation showed promising results on the towers of Hanoi problem. The paper concludes by describing methods for learning other problem solving knowledge. This knowledge can be represented by allowing operators at different levels of abstraction in a refinement.

  16. Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: a macro framework.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacquleen

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of vulnerability--defined here as the asymmetric response of disaster occurrences to hazardous events--signifies a key step towards effective disaster risk reduction and the promotion of a culture of disaster resilience. One of the reasons for not being able to do the same in a wider context is related to conceptual, definitional, and operational issues. This paper presents an operationally feasible framework for conducting this task and measures revealed macro vulnerability as a function of disaster risk and hazard probability. The probabilities of hazard and its perceived disaster risk were obtained from past data and from probability distributions. In this paper, the corresponding analytical framework is constructed using the case study of floods in Assam, India. The proposed indicator will help policymakers to draw on available macro-level data to identify the regions that are vulnerable to disasters, where micro-level disaster vulnerability assessments could be performed in greater detail.

  17. Characterization of and waste acceptance radionuclide to be reported for the 2nd macro-batch of high-level waste sludge being vitrified in the DWPF melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.L.

    2000-01-26

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is currently processing the second million gallon batch (Macro-Batch 2) of radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass for permanent geological disposal. To meet the reporting requirements as specified in the Department of Energy's Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), for the final glass product, the nonradioactive and radioactive compositions must be provided for a Macro-Batch of material. In order to meet this requirement, sludge slurry samples from Macro-Batch 2 were analyzed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This information is used to complete the necessary Production Records at DWPF so that the final glass product, resulting from Macro Batch 2, may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. This paper describes the results obtained from the analyses of the sludge slurry samples taken from Macro-Batch 2 to meet the reporting requirements of the WAPS. Twenty eight elements were identified for the nonradioactive composition and thirty one for the radioactive composition. The reportable radioisotopes range from C-14 to Cm-246.

  18. The human iliotibial band is specialized for elastic energy storage compared with the chimp fascia lata.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether the human iliotibial band (ITB) is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimpanzee fascia lata (FL). To quantify the energy storage potential of these structures, we created computer models of human and chimpanzee lower limbs based on detailed anatomical dissections. We characterized the geometry and force-length properties of the FL, tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus maximus (GMax) in four chimpanzee cadavers based on measurements of muscle architecture and moment arms about the hip and knee. We used the chimp model to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the chimp FL during bipedal walking, and compared these data with analogous estimates from a model of the human ITB, accounting for differences in body mass and lower extremity posture. We estimate that the human ITB stores 15- to 20-times more elastic energy per unit body mass and stride than the chimp FL during bipedal walking. Because chimps walk with persistent hip flexion, the TFL and portions of GMax that insert on the FL undergo smaller excursions (origin to insertion) than muscles that insert on the human ITB. Also, because a smaller fraction of GMax inserts on the chimp FL than on the human ITB, and thus its mass-normalized physiological cross-sectional area is about three times less in chimps, the chimp FL probably transmits smaller muscle forces. These data provide new evidence that the human ITB is anatomically derived compared with the chimp FL and potentially contributes to locomotor economy during bipedal locomotion.

  19. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Sean M; Bader, David A; Abadie, Kathleen V; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D; Mancini, Michael A; McGuire, Sean E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis.

  20. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bader, David A.; Abadie, Kathleen V.; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P.; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D.; Mancini, Michael A.; McGuire, Sean E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis. PMID:26192107

  1. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  2. The diagonal strip system in the Macro experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devicenzi, M.; Lipari, P.; Martellotti, G.; Pellizzoni, G.

    1988-11-01

    The Macro scintillation counter modular system with streamer tubes and track-etch detectors is presented, and the characteristics, manufacturing, and assembling of its pick-up strips are described. The strips are composed of thin conducting plates 31 mm long, spaced 2.6 mm apart, and bonded on a 1 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ribbon with a grounded metal surface on the other side of the ribbon. The manufacturing is done by bonding the aluminum elements on the PVC ribbon.

  3. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  4. Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Rascalou; Simková, Andrea; Morand, Serge; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite life history on the conditions for sympatric speciation under the so-called pleiotropic scenario. We included within-host competition in the classical Anderson and May framework assuming that individuals exploit within-host resources according to a quantitative trait. We derived the invasion fitness function of mutants considering different distributions of individuals among hosts. Although the mutant fitness depends on parameters describing the key features of macro-parasite life history, and on the relative distributions of mutant and residents in hosts, the conditions for competitive speciation of macro-parasites are exactly the same as those previously established for free-living species. As an interesting by-product, within-host competitive speciation is expected not to depend on the aggregation level of the parasites. This theoretical pattern is confirmed by comparing the speciation rate of weakly and strongly aggregated monogenean parasites.

  5. Atomic energy as an humane endeavor: Retrospective on its development

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a speech delivered in Tokyo, Japan, by the author. It covers the historical aspects of atomic energy, from the pre-fission days until present. Such pioneer experiments conducted by O. Hahn, L. Meitner, and F. Strassmann to describe barium isotopes as the result of bombardment of uranium with neutrons are discussed. The author also discussed in detail the pre-war nuclear research at Berkeley, a leading center of nuclear research. Such important events as the synthesis and identification of cobalt-60, iodine-131, and technetium-99m are also discussed. The author discussed the nuclear power as a source of electricity and the perspective on the future of nuclear power. 32 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A nephron-based model of the kidneys for macro-to-micro α-particle dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Robert F; Song, Hong; Huso, David L; Sundel, Margaret; Sgouros, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Targeted α-particle therapy is a promising treatment modality for cancer. Due to the short path-length of α-particles, the potential efficacy and toxicity of these agents is best evaluated by microscale dosimetry calculations instead of whole-organ, absorbed fraction –based dosimetry. Yet time-integrated activity (TIA), the necessary input for dosimetry, can still only be quantified reliably at the organ or macroscopic level. We describe a nephron- and cellular-based kidney dosimetry model for α-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy, more suited to the short range and high linear energy transfer of α-particle emitters, which takes as input kidney or cortex TIA and through a macro to micro model-based methodology assigns TIA to micro-level kidney substructures. We apply the model to provide nephron-level S-values for a range of isotopes allowing for pre-clinical and clinical applications according to the medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) schema. Methods We assume that the relationship between whole-organ TIA and TIA apportioned to microscale substructures as measured in an appropriate pre-clinical mammalian model also applies to the human. In both, the pre-clinical and the human model, microscale substructures are described as a collection of simple geometrical shapes akin go those used in the Cristy-Eckermann phantoms for normal organs. Anatomical parameters are taken from the literature for a human model, while murine parameters are measured, ex vivo. The murine histological slides also provide the data for volume of occupancy of the different compartments of the nephron in the kidney: glomerulus vs. proximal tubule vs. distal tubule. Monte Carlo simulations are run with activity placed in the different nephron compartments for several α-particle emitters currently under investigation in radiopharmaceutical therapy. Results The S-values were calculated for the α-emitters and their descendants between the different nephron compartments

  7. A nephron-based model of the kidneys for macro-to-micro α-particle dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Huso, David L.; Sundel, Margaret H.; Sgouros, George

    2012-07-01

    Targeted α-particle therapy is a promising treatment modality for cancer. Due to the short path-length of α-particles, the potential efficacy and toxicity of these agents is best evaluated by microscale dosimetry calculations instead of whole-organ, absorbed fraction-based dosimetry. Yet time-integrated activity (TIA), the necessary input for dosimetry, can still only be quantified reliably at the organ or macroscopic level. We describe a nephron- and cellular-based kidney dosimetry model for α-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy, more suited to the short range and high linear energy transfer of α-particle emitters, which takes as input kidney or cortex TIA and through a macro to micro model-based methodology assigns TIA to micro-level kidney substructures. We apply a geometrical model to provide nephron-level S-values for a range of isotopes allowing for pre-clinical and clinical applications according to the medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) schema. We assume that the relationship between whole-organ TIA and TIA apportioned to microscale substructures as measured in an appropriate pre-clinical mammalian model also applies to the human. In both, the pre-clinical and the human model, microscale substructures are described as a collection of simple geometrical shapes akin to those used in the Cristy-Eckerman phantoms for normal organs. Anatomical parameters are taken from the literature for a human model, while murine parameters are measured ex vivo. The murine histological slides also provide the data for volume of occupancy of the different compartments of the nephron in the kidney: glomerulus versus proximal tubule versus distal tubule. Monte Carlo simulations are run with activity placed in the different nephron compartments for several α-particle emitters currently under investigation in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The S-values were calculated for the α-emitters and their descendants between the different nephron compartments for both the

  8. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  9. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  10. [Macro-and microelements imbalance in etiology and progression of bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Lytvynets', L Ia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our work was the study of macro-and microelemensts characteristics of the state of the blood serum of children with asthma, depending on the severity. A total of 107 children aged 10 to 18 years with asthma in the acute stage. The results of the proposed asthma control test (GINA, 2011) to the level of asthma control the children were distributed as follows: 34 (31.8%)--with controlled, 47 (43.9%)--partly controlled and 26--with uncontrolled bronchial asthma. Investigation of serum trace elements were determined by atomic absobtsionnoy spectrophotometry. Found that with varying degrees of control of asthma changes were reduction of magnesium, zinc, when excessive amounts of copper and calcium. We show some dizelements in patients with nontrol bronhial asthma. The most pronounced manifestation dyzelements documented in patients with uncontrolled asthma. It is with same with uncontrolled asthma, there are marked hypoxic change, energy shortage, bronchial hyperreactivity, as a result of increasing stress level of response to an antigen, reduce antioxidant enzyme systems, immune system dysfunction. This changes in the macro-and microelement composition of the blood significantly reduce the reserves of the immune system, chronic inflammatory processes in the bronches, which exacerbates the severity of the disease, which in practice requires a differential diagnosis, comprehensive treatment based on identified dyzelements states.

  11. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  12. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  13. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part II: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Makrynitsa, Garyfallia I; Ntonti, Dioni; Marousis, Konstantinos D; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    Macro domains consist of 130-190 amino acid residues and appear to be highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. Intense research on this field has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other similar molecules, but their exact function still remains intangible. Macro domains are highly conserved in the Alphavirus genus and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a member of this genus that causes fatal encephalitis to equines and humans. In this study we report the high yield recombinant expression and preliminary solution NMR study of the macro domain of VEEV. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure predicted by TALOS+. The protein shows a unique mixed α/β-fold.

  14. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  15. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders. PMID:26053019

  16. ASHTABULA SUCCESSES--MACRO NOW OR FOREVER HOLD YOUR PIECES!

    SciTech Connect

    Altmayer, S.A.; Forschner, J.A.; Kulpa, J. P.; Spoerner, M.T.

    2003-02-27

    As facility demolition and remediation continued at the DOE Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), a DOE closure site located in Ashtabula, OH, the quantity of mixed waste increased by approximately twenty-fold from the original Site Treatment Plan estimates to over 567 m3 (20,000 cubic feet). Also, a greater variety of low-level mixed waste (MW) was identified that was suitable for alternate debris treatment like macroencapsulation (MACRO) instead of traditional shredding, stabilization, and solidification to improve the overall safety and cost-effectiveness. Macroencapsulation is required for lead and authorized for hazardous debris under the alternate debris treatment standards per 40 CFR 268.45. Several polymer encapsulation processes were being explored, developed, and deployed in the mid-1990's by various groups including the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area, DOE EM-50 Office of Science and Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, DOE Macro Working Group, DOE-Albuquerque Mixed Waste/Mobile Treatment Unit, and Envirocare of Utah, Inc. As a result, technically-proven macroencapsulation and microencapsulation processes using extruded polyethylene beads were verified as being technically acceptable for waste treatment to RCRA standards. The AEMP had a variety of waste forms where technically-proven systems were needed to perform on-site treatment of challenging mixed wastes (MW) from production operations (i.e. HEPA filters, barium salt contaminated steel) containing high concentrations of enriched uranium, graphite, salts, and RCRA metals. The AEMP continued with a technology development and deployment process to license, permit, install, and safely operate two proven polymer encapsulation systems for both RCRA microencapsulation and RCRA macroencapsulation using surplus DOE equipment from Rocky Flats to establish cost-effective mobile treatment capability. The AEMP treated approximately 16 m3 (= 579 cf) of challenging mixed wastes onsite at

  17. Topology, structures, and energy landscapes of human chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture experiments provide a rich set of data concerning the spatial organization of the genome. We use these data along with a maximum entropy approach to derive a least-biased effective energy landscape for the chromosome. Simulations of the ensemble of chromosome conformations based on the resulting information theoretic landscape not only accurately reproduce experimental contact probabilities, but also provide a picture of chromosome dynamics and topology. The topology of the simulated chromosomes is probed by computing the distribution of their knot invariants. The simulated chromosome structures are largely free of knots. Topologically associating domains are shown to be crucial for establishing these knotless structures. The simulated chromosome conformations exhibit a tendency to form fibril-like structures like those observed via light microscopy. The topologically associating domains of the interphase chromosome exhibit multistability with varying liquid crystalline ordering that may allow discrete unfolding events and the landscape is locally funneled toward “ideal” chromosome structures that represent hierarchical fibrils of fibrils. PMID:25918364

  18. Topology, structures, and energy landscapes of human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2015-05-12

    Chromosome conformation capture experiments provide a rich set of data concerning the spatial organization of the genome. We use these data along with a maximum entropy approach to derive a least-biased effective energy landscape for the chromosome. Simulations of the ensemble of chromosome conformations based on the resulting information theoretic landscape not only accurately reproduce experimental contact probabilities, but also provide a picture of chromosome dynamics and topology. The topology of the simulated chromosomes is probed by computing the distribution of their knot invariants. The simulated chromosome structures are largely free of knots. Topologically associating domains are shown to be crucial for establishing these knotless structures. The simulated chromosome conformations exhibit a tendency to form fibril-like structures like those observed via light microscopy. The topologically associating domains of the interphase chromosome exhibit multistability with varying liquid crystalline ordering that may allow discrete unfolding events and the landscape is locally funneled toward "ideal" chromosome structures that represent hierarchical fibrils of fibrils.

  19. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  20. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    PubMed

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  1. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    PubMed

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  2. Legal Requirements for Human-Health Based Appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Albert M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  3. Forster resonance energy transfer in the system of human serum albumin-xanthene dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, V. I.; Pravdin, A. B.; Melnikov, A. G.; Konstantinova, I.; Alonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    The processes of interaction of fluorescent probes: eosin and erythrosine with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied by the methods of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Extinction coefficients of probes were determined. Critical transfer radius and the energy transfer efficiency were defined by fluorescence quenching of HSA. Analysis of the excitation spectra of HSA revealed that the energy transfer process is carried out mainly between tryptophanyl and probes.

  4. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users. PMID:24961565

  5. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users.

  6. Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Collins, Steven H; Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2015-06-11

    With efficiencies derived from evolution, growth and learning, humans are very well-tuned for locomotion. Metabolic energy used during walking can be partly replaced by power input from an exoskeleton, but is it possible to reduce metabolic rate without providing an additional energy source? This would require an improvement in the efficiency of the human-machine system as a whole, and would be remarkable given the apparent optimality of human gait. Here we show that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton. We built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions. The device uses a mechanical clutch to hold a spring as it is stretched and relaxed by ankle movements when the foot is on the ground, helping to fulfil one function of the calf muscles and Achilles tendon. Unlike muscles, however, the clutch sustains force passively. The exoskeleton consumes no chemical or electrical energy and delivers no net positive mechanical work, yet reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 7.2 ± 2.6% for healthy human users under natural conditions, comparable to savings with powered devices. Improving upon walking economy in this way is analogous to altering the structure of the body such that it is more energy-effective at walking. While strong natural pressures have already shaped human locomotion, improvements in efficiency are still possible. Much remains to be learned about this seemingly simple behaviour. PMID:25830889

  7. Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Collins, Steven H; Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2015-06-11

    With efficiencies derived from evolution, growth and learning, humans are very well-tuned for locomotion. Metabolic energy used during walking can be partly replaced by power input from an exoskeleton, but is it possible to reduce metabolic rate without providing an additional energy source? This would require an improvement in the efficiency of the human-machine system as a whole, and would be remarkable given the apparent optimality of human gait. Here we show that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton. We built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions. The device uses a mechanical clutch to hold a spring as it is stretched and relaxed by ankle movements when the foot is on the ground, helping to fulfil one function of the calf muscles and Achilles tendon. Unlike muscles, however, the clutch sustains force passively. The exoskeleton consumes no chemical or electrical energy and delivers no net positive mechanical work, yet reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 7.2 ± 2.6% for healthy human users under natural conditions, comparable to savings with powered devices. Improving upon walking economy in this way is analogous to altering the structure of the body such that it is more energy-effective at walking. While strong natural pressures have already shaped human locomotion, improvements in efficiency are still possible. Much remains to be learned about this seemingly simple behaviour.

  8. Energy efficient reconcentration of diluted human urine using ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Tice, Ryan C; Kim, Younggy

    2014-11-01

    Nutrients can be recovered from source separated human urine; however, nutrient reconcentration (i.e., volume reduction of collected urine) requires energy-intensive treatment processes, making it practically difficult to utilize human urine. In this study, energy-efficient nutrient reconcentration was demonstrated using ion exchange membranes (IEMs) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) where substrate oxidation at the MEC anode provides energy for the separation of nutrient ions (e.g., NH4(+), HPO4(2-)). The rate of nutrient separation was magnified with increasing number of IEM pairs and electric voltage application (Eap). Ammonia and phosphate were reconcentrated from diluted human urine by a factor of up to 4.5 and 3.0, respectively (Eap = 1.2 V; 3-IEM pairs). The concentrating factor increased with increasing degrees of volume reduction, but it remained stationary when the volume ratio between the diluate (urine solution that is diluted in the IEM stack) and concentrate (urine solution that is reconcentrated) was 6 or greater. The energy requirement normalized by the mass of nutrient reconcentrated was 6.48 MJ/kg-N (1.80 kWh/kg-N) and 117.6 MJ/kg-P (32.7 kWh/kg-P). In addition to nutrient separation, the examined MEC reactor with three IEM pairs showed 54% removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in 47-hr batch operation. The high sulfate concentration in human urine resulted in substantial growth of both of acetate-oxidizing and H2-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria, greatly diminishing the energy recovery and Coulombic efficiency. However, the high microbial activity of sulfate reducing bacteria hardly affected the rate of nutrient reconcentration. With the capability to reconcentrate nutrients at a minimal energy consumption and simultaneous COD removal, the examined bioelectrochemical treatment method with an IEM application has a potential for practical nutrient recovery and sustainable treatment of source-separated human urine.

  9. Single fiber EMG Fiber density and its relationship to Macro EMG amplitude in reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to elucidate the relation between the Macro EMG parameters fiber density (FD) and Macro amplitude in reinnervation in the purpose to use the FD parameter as a surrogate marker for reinnervation instead of the Macro amplitude. Macro EMG with FD was performed in 278 prior polio patients. The Biceps Brachii and the Tibialis anterior muscles were investigated. FD was more sensitive for detection of signs of reinnervation but showed lesser degree of abnormality than the Macro amplitude. FD and Macro MUP amplitude showed a non-linear relation with a great variation in FD for given Macro amplitude level. The relatively smaller increase in FD compared to Macro amplitude in addition to the non-linear relationship between the FD and the Macro amplitude regarding reinnervation in prior polio can be due to technical reasons and muscle fiber hypertrophy. The FD parameter has a relation to Macro MUP amplitude but cannot alone be used as a quantitative marker of the degree of reinnervation.

  10. Contemporary social work licensure: implications for macro social work practice and education.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Linda Plitt; Hill, Katharine; Ferguson, Sarah; Fogel, Sondra; Erickson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the impact of state licensing on social work practice remains a critical concern for social work academics and professionals alike. Given the complex social problems of our times, social workers need to be prepared to intervene with the individual, in various structural dimensions, and to engage in policy debates at the core of human injustice and suffering. Currently, there is insufficient research on the impact of state licensing on the profession and on accredited social work education. The purpose of this article is to begin to address this by providing an overview of the current state of social work licensing across the United States and to analyze the implications of social work regulations as they relate to the future of macro social work practice and education.

  11. The mass-specific energy cost of human walking is set by stature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic and mechanical requirements of walking are considered to be of fundamental importance to the health, physiological function and even the evolution of modern humans. Although walking energy expenditure and gait mechanics are clearly linked, a direct quantitative relationship has not eme...

  12. Effect of fatty acids on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell energy metabolism and survival.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, Natasha; Huqi, Alda; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Mori, Jun; Paulin, Roxane; Haromy, Alois; Onay-Besikci, Arzu; Ionescu, Lavinia; Thébaud, Bernard; Michelakis, Evangelos; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Successful stem cell therapy requires the optimal proliferation, engraftment, and differentiation of stem cells into the desired cell lineage of tissues. However, stem cell therapy clinical trials to date have had limited success, suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. This includes a better understanding of stem cell energy metabolism because of the importance of energy metabolism in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. We report here the first direct evidence that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) energy metabolism is highly glycolytic with low rates of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The contribution of glycolysis to ATP production is greater than 97% in undifferentiated BMMSCs, while glucose and fatty acid oxidation combined only contribute 3% of ATP production. We also assessed the effect of physiological levels of fatty acids on human BMMSC survival and energy metabolism. We found that the saturated fatty acid palmitate induces BMMSC apoptosis and decreases proliferation, an effect prevented by the unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Interestingly, chronic exposure of human BMMSCs to physiological levels of palmitate (for 24 hr) reduces palmitate oxidation rates. This decrease in palmitate oxidation is prevented by chronic exposure of the BMMSCs to oleate. These results suggest that reducing saturated fatty acid oxidation can decrease human BMMSC proliferation and cause cell death. These results also suggest that saturated fatty acids may be involved in the long-term impairment of BMMSC survival in vivo.

  13. Scotts Valley Energy Office and Human Capacity Building that will provide energy-efficiency services and develop sustainable renewable energy projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Temashio

    2013-06-28

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO). This office will further support the mission of the Tribe's existing leadership position as the DOE Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program (TMCWEP) in creating jobs and providing tribal homes and buildings with weatherization assistance to increase energy efficiency, occupant comfort and improved indoor air quality. This office will also spearhead efforts to move the Tribe towards its further strategic energy goals of implementing renewable energy systems through specific training, resource evaluation, feasibility planning, and implementation. Human capacity building and continuing operations are two key elements of the SVEDO objectives. Therefore, the project will 1) train and employ additional Tribal members in energy efficiency, conservation and renewable resource analyses and implementation; 2) purchase materials and equipment required to implement the strategic priorities as developed by the Scotts Valley Tribe which specifically include implementing energy conservation measures and alternative energy strategies to reduce energy costs for the Tribe and its members; and 3) obtain a dedicated office and storage space for ongoing SVEDO operations.

  14. Brown and beige fat in humans: thermogenic adipocytes that control energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sidossis, Labros; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a specialized fat that dissipates energy to produce heat, plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. Two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features exist in rodents and humans: classical brown adipocytes and beige (also referred to as brite) adipocytes. While classical brown adipocytes are located mainly in dedicated BAT depots of rodents and infants, beige adipocytes sporadically reside with white adipocytes and emerge in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure, a process often referred to as "browning" of white adipose tissue. Recent studies indicate the existence of beige adipocytes in adult humans, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes. This Review aims to cover recent progress in our understanding of the anatomical, developmental, and functional characteristics of brown and beige adipocytes and discuss emerging questions, with a special emphasis on adult human BAT. PMID:25642708

  15. A short investigation of the effect of an energy harvesting backpack on the human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papatheou, Evangelos; Green, Peter; Racic, Vitomir; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Sims, Neil D.

    2012-04-01

    Exploiting human motion for the purpose of energy harvesting has been a popular idea for some time. Many of the approaches proposed can be uncomfortable or they impose a significant burden on the person's gait. In the current paper a hardware in-the-loop simulator of an energy harvesting backpack is employed in order to investigate the effect of a suspended-load backpack on the human gait. The idea is based on the energy produced by a suspended-load which moves vertically on a backpack while a person walks. The energy created from such a linear system can be maximised when it resonates with the walking frequency of the person. However, such a configuration can also cause great forces to be applied on the back of the user. The system which is presented here consists of a mass attached on a rucksack, which is controlled by a motor in order to simulate the suspended-load backpack. The advantage of this setup is the ability to test different settings, regarding the spring stiffness or the damping coefficient, of the backpack harvester, and study their effect on the energy harvesting potential, as well as on the human gait. The present contribution describes the preliminary results and analysis of the testing of the system with the help of nine male volunteers who carried it on a treadmill.

  16. Multifractal analysis of macro- and microcerebral circulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey N.; Sindeeva, Olga S.; Sindeev, Sergey S.; Pavlova, Olga N.; Abdurashitov, Arkady S.; Rybalova, Elena V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.

    2016-04-01

    Application of noninvasive optical coherent-domain methods and advanced data processing tools such as the wavelet-based multifractal formalism allows revealing effective markers of early stages of functional distortions in the dynamics of cerebral vessels. Based on experiments performed in rats we discuss a possibility to diagnose a hidden stage of the development of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We also consider responses of the cerebrovascular dynamics to a pharmacologically induced increase in the peripheral blood pressure. We report distinctions occurring at the levels of macro- and microcerebral circulation.

  17. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1992-05-01

    A power MOSFET macro-model for use with the circuit simulator SPICE has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range of {minus}55 to 125{degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with the temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE TEMP card. This report describes in detail the development of the model and the extraction algorithms used to obtain model parameters. The extraction algorithms are described in sufficient detail to allow for automated measurements which in turn allows for rapid and cost effective development of an accurate SPICE model for any power MOSFET. 22 refs.

  18. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithmsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadwick, B. A.; Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-01

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  19. Macro-actor execution on multilevel data-driven architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiot, J.L.; Najjar, W.

    1988-12-31

    The data-flow model of computation brings to multiprocessors high programmability at the expense of increased overhead. Applying the model at a higher level leads to better performance but also introduces loss of parallelism. We demonstrate here syntax directed program decomposition methods for the creation of large macro-actors in numerical algorithms. In order to alleviate some of the problems introduced by the lower resolution interpretation, we describe a multi-level of resolution and analyze the requirements for its actual hardware and software integration.

  20. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B. A. Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-15

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  1. The human iliotibial band is specialized for elastic energy storage compared with the chimp fascia lata.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether the human iliotibial band (ITB) is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimpanzee fascia lata (FL). To quantify the energy storage potential of these structures, we created computer models of human and chimpanzee lower limbs based on detailed anatomical dissections. We characterized the geometry and force-length properties of the FL, tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus maximus (GMax) in four chimpanzee cadavers based on measurements of muscle architecture and moment arms about the hip and knee. We used the chimp model to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the chimp FL during bipedal walking, and compared these data with analogous estimates from a model of the human ITB, accounting for differences in body mass and lower extremity posture. We estimate that the human ITB stores 15- to 20-times more elastic energy per unit body mass and stride than the chimp FL during bipedal walking. Because chimps walk with persistent hip flexion, the TFL and portions of GMax that insert on the FL undergo smaller excursions (origin to insertion) than muscles that insert on the human ITB. Also, because a smaller fraction of GMax inserts on the chimp FL than on the human ITB, and thus its mass-normalized physiological cross-sectional area is about three times less in chimps, the chimp FL probably transmits smaller muscle forces. These data provide new evidence that the human ITB is anatomically derived compared with the chimp FL and potentially contributes to locomotor economy during bipedal locomotion. PMID:26026035

  2. Dietary energy density is associated with increased intake in free-living humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-02-01

    Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the relation of energy density to body size and to per-meal, daily, and weekly dietary intake. High energy density was associated with greater (P < 0.001) total intake, especially of fat, when intake was correlated with energy density (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and when the daily intake of individual participants was correlated with their daily dietary density (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). These results occurred regardless of sex, low reporting, or the inclusion of drinks in the energy density calculations. High energy density was also associated with a high rate of intake (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and large meal sizes (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). However, energy density was not correlated with body size, height, weight, or body mass index. High energy density appears to be related to greater overall intake in the short-term, but there may be compensation over the long term, with no net effect on body size. PMID:14747669

  3. Energy distributions exhibited during thermal runaway of commercial lithium ion batteries used for human spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yayathi, Sandeep; Walker, William; Doughty, Daniel; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-10-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide low mass and energy dense solutions necessary for space exploration, but thermal related safety concerns impede the utilization of Li-ion technology for human applications. Experimental characterization of thermal runaway energy release with accelerated rate calorimetry supports safer thermal management systems. 'Standard' accelerated rate calorimetry setup provides means to measure the addition of energy exhibited through the body of a Li-ion cell. This study considers the total energy generated during thermal runaway as distributions between cell body and hot gases via inclusion of a unique secondary enclosure inside the calorimeter; this closed system not only contains the cell body and gaseous species, but also captures energy release associated with rapid heat transfer to the system unobserved by measurements taken on the cell body. Experiments include Boston Power Swing 5300, Samsung 18650-26F and MoliCel 18650-J Li-ion cells at varied states-of-charge. An inverse relationship between state-of-charge and onset temperature is observed. Energy contained in the cell body and gaseous species are successfully characterized; gaseous energy is minimal. Significant additional energy is measured with the heating of the secondary enclosure. Improved calorimeter apparatus including a secondary enclosure provides essential capability to measuring total energy release distributions during thermal runaway.

  4. The asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy using NARDL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, J. C.; Yang, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    The present work endeavors to explore the asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy by applying nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model for the period of January 2005 to June 2015. The obtained results indicate that the coal price has a strong asymmetric effect on China's macro economy in the long-run. Namely one percent increase in coal price leads to 0.6194 percent of the China's macro economy increase; and while the coal price is reduces by 1 percent, the China's macro economy will decrease by 0.008 percent. These data indicate that when coal price rises, the effect on China's macro economy is far greater than the price decline. In the short-run, coal price fluctuation has a positive effect on the China's macro economy.

  5. A macro actor/token implementation of production systems on a data-flow multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, A.; Gaudiot, J.-L.

    1991-12-31

    The importance of production systems in artificial intelligence has been repeatedly demonstrated by a number of expert systems. Much effort has therefore been expended on finding an efficient processing mechanism to process production systems. While data-flow principles of execution offer the promise of high programmability for numerical computations, the authors study here variable resolution actors, called macro actors, a processing mechanism for production systems. Characteristics of the production system paradigm are identified, based on which they introduce the concept of macro tokens as a companion to macro actors. A set of guidelines is identified in the context of production systems to derive well-formed macroactors from primitive micro actors. Parallel pattern matching is written in macro actors/tokens to be executed on the Macro Data-flow simulator. Simulation results demonstrate that the macro approach can be an efficient implementation of production systems.

  6. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.

  7. The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Lieberman, Daniel E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-09-18

    The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy.

  8. The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Lieberman, Daniel E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-09-18

    The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy. PMID:26162548

  9. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    PubMed

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  10. Metabolism as a tool for understanding human brain evolution: lipid energy metabolism as an example.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu Pei; Yang, Hao; Wu, Jiang Wei; Gauthier, Nicolas; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant A

    2014-12-01

    Genes and the environment both influence the metabolic processes that determine fitness. To illustrate the importance of metabolism for human brain evolution and health, we use the example of lipid energy metabolism, i.e. the use of fat (lipid) to produce energy and the advantages that this metabolic pathway provides for the brain during environmental energy shortage. We briefly describe some features of metabolism in ancestral organisms, which provided a molecular toolkit for later development. In modern humans, lipid energy metabolism is a regulated multi-organ pathway that links triglycerides in fat tissue to the mitochondria of many tissues including the brain. Three important control points are each suppressed by insulin. (1) Lipid reserves in adipose tissue are released by lipolysis during fasting and stress, producing fatty acids (FAs) which circulate in the blood and are taken up by cells. (2) FA oxidation. Mitochondrial entry is controlled by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1). Inside the mitochondria, FAs undergo beta oxidation and energy production in the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. (3) In liver mitochondria, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway produces ketone bodies for the brain and other organs. Unlike most tissues, the brain does not capture and metabolize circulating FAs for energy production. However, the brain can use ketone bodies for energy. We discuss two examples of genetic metabolic traits that may be advantageous under most conditions but deleterious in others. (1) A CPT1A variant prevalent in Inuit people may allow increased FA oxidation under nonfasting conditions but also predispose to hypoglycemic episodes. (2) The thrifty genotype theory, which holds that energy expenditure is efficient so as to maximize energy stores, predicts that these adaptations may enhance survival in periods of famine but predispose to obesity in modern dietary environments.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.

  12. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  13. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  14. Macro- to nanoscale wear prevention via molecular adsorption.

    PubMed

    Asay, David B; Dugger, Michael T; Ohlhausen, James A; Kim, Seong H

    2008-01-01

    As the size of mechanical systems shrinks from macro- to nanoscales, surface phenomena such as adhesion, friction, and wear become increasingly significant. This paper demonstrates the use of alcohol adsorption as a means of continuously replenishing the lubricating layer on the working device surfaces and elucidates the tribochemical reaction products formed in the sliding contact region. Friction and wear of native silicon oxide were studied over a wide range of length scales from macro- to nanoscales using a ball-on-flat tribometer (millimeter scale), sidewall microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tribometer (micrometer scale), and atomic force microscopy (nanometer scale). In all cases, the alcohol vapor adsorption successfully lubricated and prevented wear. Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the sliding contact region revealed that high molecular weight oligomeric species were formed via tribochemical reactions of the adsorbed linear alcohol molecules. These tribochemical products seemed to enhance the lubrication and wear prevention. In the case of sidewall MEMS tests, the lifetime of the MEMS device was radically increased via vapor-phase lubrication with alcohol.

  15. Macro- to nanoscale wear prevention via molecular adsorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seong H.; Asay, David B.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2007-04-01

    As the size of mechanical systems shrinks from macro- to nanoscales, surface phenomena such as adhesion, friction, and wear become increasingly significant. This paper demonstrates the use of alcohol adsorption as a means of continuously replenishing the lubricating layer on the working device surfaces and elucidates the tribochemical reaction products formed in the sliding contact region. Friction and wear of native silicon oxide were studied over a wide range of length scales from macro- to nanoscales using a ball-on-flat tribometer (millimeter scale), sidewall microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tribometer (micrometer scale), and atomic force microscopy (nanometer scale). In all cases, the alcohol vapor adsorption successfully lubricated and prevented wear. Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the sliding contact region revealed that high molecular weight oligomeric species were formed via tribochemical reactions of the adsorbed linear alcohol molecules. These tribochemical products seemed to enhance the lubrication and wear prevention. In the case of sidewall MEMS tests, the lifetime of the MEMS device was radically increased via vapor-phase lubrication with alcohol.

  16. Liquid-based electrostatic energy harvester with high sensitivity to human physical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Han, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Don; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-based electrostatic energy harvester that converts the mechanical energy of human-motion-induced vibrations to electrical energy. The basic design uses a conducting liquid to enhance sensitivity to human motion, the frequency of which is typically as low as several hertz; it also uses a hydrophobic coating to provide a broad frequency bandwidth. As liquid slops in accordance with external motions, proposed energy harvester shows large capacitance variations. The device was tested under various conditions with periodic and nonperiodic movements. The maximum capacitance obtained from the fabricated device was about 10 nF, whereas the minimum capacitance was 5 pF, resulting in an extremely high capacitance ratio of 2000. The hydrophobic treatment enables the fabricated device to work well for periodic motions with a frequency range of 2-5 Hz. The power generated from a human running motion at a speed of 8 km h-1 is theoretically estimated to be 35.3 µW with charge-constrained conversion and an auxiliary voltage of 1 V.

  17. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  18. Energy cost and mechanical efficiency of riding a human-powered recumbent bicycle.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Carlo; Ardigo, Luca Paolo; Schena, Federico; Zamparo, Paola

    2008-10-01

    When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify the capability of converting metabolic energy in useful mechanical work by measuring mechanical efficiency. In this study, net mechanical efficiency (eta) of riding a recumbent bicycle on flat terrain and at constant speeds (v, 5.1-10.0 m/s) was calculated dividing mechanical work (w, J/m) by the corresponding energy cost (C(c), J/m). w and C(c) increased linearly with the speed squared: w = 9.41 + 0.156 . v(2); C(c) = 39.40 + 0.563 . v(2). eta was equal to 0.257 +/- 0.0245, i.e. identical to that of concentric muscular contraction. Hence, i) eta seems unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the human-vehicle system; ii) the efficiency of transmission seems to be close to 100%, suggesting that the particular biomechanical arrangement does not impair the transformation of metabolic energy in mechanical work. When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify mechanical efficiency (eta) of locomotion. eta of riding a recumbent bicycle was calculated dividing the mechanical work to the corresponding energy cost of locomotion; it was practically identical to that of concentric muscular contraction (0.257 +/- 0.0245), suggesting that the power transmission from muscles to pedals is unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the vehicle.

  19. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204

  20. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204

  1. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-07-03

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  2. Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians

    PubMed Central

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab N.; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S.; Agraib, Lana M.; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between total energy intake and other nutrients and the development of CRC in the Jordanian population. Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary data was collected from 169 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 248 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). These control subjects were healthy and disease free. Data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between quartiles of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes with the risk of developing CRC in our study population. Results: Total energy intake was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC (OR = 2.60 for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 1.21–5.56, p-trend = 0.03). Intakes of protein (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.63–8.05, p-trend = 0.002), carbohydrates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.67–2.99, p-trend = 0.043), and percentage of energy from fat (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.38–11.70, p-trend = 0.009) significantly increased the risk for the development of CRC. Saturated fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium intake showed a significant association with the risk of developing CRC (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 2.33–11.76; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18–5.21; and OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.59–7.38, respectively), while vitamin E and caffeine intake were indicative of a protective effect against the development of CRC, OR = 0.002 (95% CI: 0.0003–0.011) and 0.023 (95%CI: 0.008–0.067), respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased risk for the development of CRC in subjects with high dietary intake of energy, protein, saturated fat, cholesterol, and

  3. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  4. An energy harvesting system for passively generating power from human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; Cheng, Shuo; Arnold, David P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a complete, self-contained energy harvesting system composed of a magnetic energy harvester, an input-powered interface circuit and a rechargeable battery. The system converts motion from daily human activities such as walking, jogging, and cycling into usable electrical energy. By using an input-powered interface circuit, the system requires no external power supplies and features zero standby power when the input motion is too small for successful energy reclamation. When attached to a person's ankle during walking, the 100 cm3 system prototype is shown to charge a 3.7 V, 65 mAh lithium-ion polymer battery at an average power of 300 µW. The design and testing of the system under other operating conditions are presented herein.

  5. Energy and architecture — An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonetti, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to provide a short overview on the complex aspects and growing concern about energy in architecture by gradually zooming into it, starting from a macro-scale analysis of building contribution in the total EU energy consumption, related policies, user behaviour's impacts and vernacular architecture techniques; then looking at the meso scale of building energy performance during its use, dynamic simulations of heat transfer and insights from a whole life cycle analysis of the energy involved during construction and disposal phases; finally, at the building element micro-scale, describing local heat transfer and human thermal comfort measurements. Conclusions gather recommendations and further scenarios where different stakeholders and techniques can play their part for a wiser and more sustainable energy use, and a better built environment for us and those to come.

  6. NREL/Habitat for Humanity Zero Energy Home: A Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-06-01

    The design of this 1,280-square-foot, three-bedroom Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed with an early version (July 22, 2004) of the BEOpt building optimization software; DOE2 and TRNSYS were used to perform additional analysis. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design toward simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques. A data acquisition system was installed in the completed home to monitor its performance.

  7. Analysis of energy density of food in relation to energy intake regulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2001-03-01

    The relationship between energy density (ED) of food and drink consumption ad libitum and energy intake (EI) was analysed. EI was taken as average daily EI over the long term, and as EI during a single meal. Moreover, the distribution of EI over three ED categories was analysed. Average daily EI was related to ED of the food and drinks when ED was strongly influenced by specific macronutrients. When ED was strongly influenced by the weight of water, it was not related to EI. During a meal subjects monitored mainly weight, and to a lesser extent, the energy content of the food ingested. Therefore, covertly manipulated ED of a meal affected EI directly. The impact of ED on EI was modulated by dietary behaviours such as restraint. Overt manipulation of ED for 6 months showed that EI was adjusted to a decreased but not to an increased ED in dietary-unrestrained subjects, and that EI was adjusted to an increased but not to a decreased ED in dietary-restrained subjects. Knowledge of ED was shown to lead to an inverse relationship between portion sizes and ED during a meal. Average daily EI consisted of a distribution of EI over the three different categories of ED, so that obese women ate more of foods with a high ED and less of foods with a low ED compared with normal weight women (and nutritional guidelines). In conclusion, ED affected daily EI by means of macronutrient specific effects. EI from a meal with an unknown ED can become inversely related to EI through learning or conditioning. Therefore, the effect of ED on EI during a single meal observation cannot be extrapolated directly to the 24 h effect on EI. With regard to the treatment of obesity, a conscious decreased consumption of foods high in ED and an increase in consumption of low-ED food is necessary to decrease and subsequently maintain body weight, particularly in subjects with a sedentary lifestyle. PMID:11299081

  8. Fish and macro-crustacean communities and their dynamics in the Severn Estuary.

    PubMed

    Henderson, P A; Bird, D J

    2010-01-01

    The species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the Severn Estuary are reviewed. The fish community is notably species rich and exceeds 100 species in total for the estuary. Standardised long-term sampling at Hinkley Point in Bridgwater Bay gives a total complement of 83 for a single locality and this number is increasing by about one new species every two years. Most of these new species are moving in from centres of population lying to the south of the estuary. Almost all species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the estuary undertake regular migrations so that they tend to move seasonally in waves up and down the estuary. For fish, both species richness and the total abundance reach a maximum in late summer and autumn. The timing of this peak varies between the upper and lower estuary. This seasonal maximum is primarily caused by the arrival of the new recruits which use the estuary as a nursery. In contrast, crustaceans tend to be at their most diverse and abundant in early to mid summer. Using a 30-year time series of fish and crustacean abundance collected at Hinkley Point it is shown that major changes in the structure of the community are now underway and there are considerable recent changes in the abundance. However, some abundant species, including sand goby, Pomatoschistus spp., whiting, Merlangius merlangus and sprat, Sprattus sprattus, the three most abundant species in the estuary, have shown no long-term trend. At present, approximately 20% of the fish and macro-crustaceans observed in Bridgwater Bay are undergoing rapid, typically exponential, change in abundance. For a numerically abundant, diverse, fauna composed of approximately 90 species such levels of change are unexpected and suggest that the system is presently far from equilibrium. In some cases, the observed changes can be related to recent warming and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The overall increase in fish abundance observed may reflect a general improvement in water

  9. Translational Targeted Proteomics Profiling of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolic Pathways in Mouse and Human Samples.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Justina C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Eunen, Karen; Niezen-Koning, Klary E; Matton, Alix; Porte, Robert J; Horvatovich, Peter; Bakker, Barbara M; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P

    2016-09-01

    Absolute measurements of protein abundance are important in the understanding of biological processes and the precise computational modeling of biological pathways. We developed targeted LC-MS/MS assays in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to quantify over 50 mitochondrial proteins in a single run. The targeted proteins cover the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Assays used isotopically labeled concatemers as internal standards designed to target murine mitochondrial proteins and their human orthologues. Most assays were also suitable to quantify the corresponding protein orthologues in rats. After exclusion of peptides that did not pass the selection criteria, we arrived at SRM assays for 55 mouse, 52 human, and 51 rat proteins. These assays were optimized in isolated mitochondrial fractions from mouse and rat liver and cultured human fibroblasts and in total liver extracts from mouse, rat, and human. The developed proteomics approach is suitable for the quantification of proteins in the mitochondrial energy metabolic pathways in mice, rats, and humans as a basis for translational research. Initial data show that the assays have great potential for elucidating the adaptive response of human patients to mutations in mitochondrial proteins in a clinical setting.

  10. Theoretical analysis of linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibrational energy harvesters for human walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltanany, Ali M.; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi; Elsayed, Nour Z.; Ebied, Mohamed R.; Ali, Mohamed G. S.

    2015-10-01

    The role of nonlinear stiffness in the performance of the piezoelectric vibrational energy harvester (pVEH) was discussed. Harmonic balance and numerical methods are applied to characterize the electromechanical response of pVEHs based on Duffing oscillator at a deterministic harmonic excitation of fundamental vibration characteristics (2 Hz, 1 m·s-2), which corresponds to human walking. Then, the response to a vibration with two harmonic waves, which has a fixed fundamental frequency (2 Hz, 1 m·s-2) and a frequency varied from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz. The numerical results obtained in this study indicate that nonlinearity does not have a significant advantage on the energy harvesting from human walking.

  11. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  12. A comparison of muscle energy models for simulating human walking in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H

    2014-04-11

    The popular Hill model for muscle activation and contractile dynamics has been extended with several different formulations for predicting the metabolic energy expenditure of human muscle actions. These extended models differ considerably in their approach to computing energy expenditure, particularly in their treatment of active lengthening and eccentric work, but their predictive abilities have never been compared. In this study, we compared the predictions of five different Hill-based muscle energy models in 3D forward dynamics simulations of normal human walking. In a data-tracking simulation that minimized muscle fatigue, the energy models predicted metabolic costs that varied over a three-fold range (2.45-7.15 J/m/kg), with the distinction arising from whether or not eccentric work was subtracted from the net heat rate in the calculation of the muscle metabolic rate. In predictive simulations that optimized neuromuscular control to minimize the metabolic cost, all five models predicted similar speeds, step lengths, and stance phase durations. However, some of the models predicted a hip circumduction strategy to minimize metabolic cost, while others did not, and the accuracy of the predicted knee and ankle angles and ground reaction forces also depended on the energy model used. The results highlights the need to clarify how eccentric work should be treated when calculating muscle energy expenditure, the difficulty in predicting realistic metabolic costs in simulated walking even with a detailed 3D musculoskeletal model, the potential for using such models to predict energetically-optimal gait modifications, and the room for improvement in existing muscle energy models and locomotion simulation frameworks.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology.

  16. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  17. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  18. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  19. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks.

    PubMed

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-09-02

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown.

  20. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown. PMID:26340633

  1. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter. PMID:27232010

  2. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter.

  3. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C.; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter.

  4. Macro management of microelectronics in India in 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Parmod K.

    1992-08-01

    Development of microelectronics is taking place at a very fast rate all over the globe, including India. New technologies are introduced at very short intervals in order to capture the consumer market. It is essential that these technologies are managed properly at the macro level in order to bring the desired results. Microelectronics plays a very vital role in office automation for achieving cost effective results in a highly competitive environment. Introduction of various facilities like laser printers, photo copiers, dictaphone-selectronic boards, electronic telexes, teleconference rooms, telephone answering machines, computer, word processors, sensors, etc. have all revolutionized the industry. Keeping the above in view, the present and future status of microelectronics, with special emphasis on its role in office automation in India, are discussed in detail in this paper.

  5. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  6. A Force-Controllable Macro-Micro Manipulator and its Application to Medical Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/sofware implemtation of the algotithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported.

  7. Engaging Students in Macro Issues through Community-Based Learning: The Policy, Practice, and Research Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sather, Paul; Weitz, Barbara; Carlson, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the revision of a curriculum that was initiated to engage and sustain students' interest in the macro dimension of social work practice. Specifically, we describe how two junior policy courses, a senior macro practice course, and a research methods course were revised to include a service learning approach. This article…

  8. Why Are Macros Not Used? A Brief Review and an Approach for Improving Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2006-01-01

    Macros are programming scripts that can be generated by recording users' actions. It appears that despite their potential for reducing monotonous work, they are under-used by non-programmers. The present paper reviews the literature on the use of macros. Included is an original study that examines the effect of adding the "search and replace"…

  9. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  10. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  11. Modulation efficiency of double-phase hologram complex light modulation macro-pixels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujin; Roh, Jinyoung; Song, Hoong; Sung, Geeyoung; An, Jungkwuen; Seo, Wontaek; Won, Kanghee; Ungnapatanin, Jesada; Jung, Myounghoon; Yoon, Yongzoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Hahn, Joonku; Kim, Hwi

    2014-09-01

    The modulation efficiency of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel that is designed for complex modulation of light waves is defined and analyzed. The scale-down of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel associated with the construction of complex spatial light modulators is discussed.

  12. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  13. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K; de Graaf, Albert A; Binsl, Thomas W; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-11-13

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible.

  14. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  15. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  16. Energy linked modifications of the radiation response in a human cerebral glioma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Dwarkanath, B.S.; Jain, V.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Effects of cellular energy metabolism on the radiation response of a cell derived from a human cerebral glioma have been studied under conditions of energy limitation produced by the presence of inhibitors of respiratory metabolism (KCN) and glycolysis (glucose analogues such as 2-DG, 5-TG, and 3-0-MG). Radiation 60Co induced DNA repair (Unscheduled DNA Synthesis) and micronuclei formation were studied as measures of radiation response. Glycolysis (lactate production) and levels of adenine and related nucleotides (UTP, GTP, ATP etc.) were measured as parameters of energy metabolism. Two 2-DG (5 mM) inhibited DNA repair and increased micronuclei frequency both in the presence and absence of respiration (KCN, 2 mM). Under similar experimental conditions, the presence of 2-DG also significantly reduced the cellular energy status. Five-TG and 3-0-MG on the other hand, neither significantly altered the energy status (sigma XTP) nor influenced the radiation response under respiratory proficient conditions. The results can be explained on the basis of a model postulating differential energy linked modulations of the repair and fixation processes acting on DNA lesions. Implications of the present results for the radiotherapy of brain tumors are discussed.

  17. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ciarán G.; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals. PMID:26627096

  18. Probing the energetics of proteins through structural perturbation: sites of regulatory energy in human hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, D W; Romeo, P H; Tsapis, A; Thillet, J; Smith, M L; Turner, B W; Ackers, G K

    1982-01-01

    The sites of energy transduction within the human hemoglobin molecule for the regulation of oxygen affinity have been determined by an extensive study of the molecule's energetic response to structural alteration at individual amino acid residues. For 22 mutant and chemically modified hemoglobins we have determined the total free energy used by the tetrameric molecule for alteration of oxygen affinity at the four binding steps. The results imply that the regulation of oxygen binding affinity is due to energy changes which are mostly localized at the alpha 1 beta 2 interface. They also indicate a high degree of "internal cooperativity" within this contact region--i.e., the structural perturbations at individual residue sites are energetically coupled. Cooperativity in ligand binding is thus a reflection of cooperativity at a deeper level--that of the protein-protein interactions within the alpha 1 beta 2 interfacial domain. Images PMID:6952235

  19. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Forde, Ciarán G; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals.

  20. Effective atomic numbers for low-energy total photon interactions in human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.C.; Leichner, P.K.; Hawkins, W.G.

    1987-09-01

    A new method is introduced in which the total photon interaction cross sections per electron of human tissues are used to define effective atomic numbers for blood, bone, brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, ovary, pancreas, spleen, and water. These effective atomic numbers are equal within 4% from 10 to 200 keV in each soft tissue, whereas for bones of different chemical compositions the variation ranges from 2.86% to 5.03%. This effective atomic number definition is less energy dependent than a previous definition based on the total photon interaction cross section per atom averaged over all elements in the tissue, from which the computed effective atomic numbers varied by as much as 50% (in bone) as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 10 to 200 keV.

  1. Effective atomic numbers for low-energy total photon interactions in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, N C; Leichner, P K; Hawkins, W G

    1987-01-01

    A new method is introduced in which the total photon interaction cross sections per electron of human tissues are used to define effective atomic numbers for blood, bone, brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, ovary, pancreas, spleen, and water. These effective atomic numbers are equal within 4% from 10 to 200 keV in each soft tissue, whereas for bones of different chemical compositions the variation ranges from 2.86% to 5.03%. This effective atomic number definition is less energy dependent than a previous definition based on the total photon interaction cross section per atom averaged over all elements in the tissue, from which the computed effective atomic numbers varied by as much as 50% (in bone) as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 10 to 200 keV.

  2. Effective atomic numbers for low-energy total photon interactions in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, N C; Leichner, P K; Hawkins, W G

    1987-01-01

    A new method is introduced in which the total photon interaction cross sections per electron of human tissues are used to define effective atomic numbers for blood, bone, brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, ovary, pancreas, spleen, and water. These effective atomic numbers are equal within 4% from 10 to 200 keV in each soft tissue, whereas for bones of different chemical compositions the variation ranges from 2.86% to 5.03%. This effective atomic number definition is less energy dependent than a previous definition based on the total photon interaction cross section per atom averaged over all elements in the tissue, from which the computed effective atomic numbers varied by as much as 50% (in bone) as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 10 to 200 keV. PMID:3683305

  3. Departure Energies, Trip Times and Entry Speeds for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    The study examines how the mission design variables departure energy, entry speed, and trip time vary for round-trip conjunction-class Mars missions. These three parameters must be balanced in order to produce a mission that is acceptable in terms of mass, cost, and risk. For the analysis, a simple, massless- planet trajectory program was employed. The premise of this work is that if the trans-Mars and trans-Earth injection stages are designed for the most stringent opportunity in the energy cycle, then there is extra energy capability in the "easier" opportunities which can be used to decrease the planetary entry speed, or shorten the trip time. Both of these effects are desirable for a human exploration program.

  4. Departure Energies, Trip Times and Entry Speeds for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    The study examines how the mission design variables departure energy, entry speed, and trip time vary for round-trip conjunction-class Mars missions. These three parameters must be balanced in order to produce a mission that is acceptable in terms of mass, cost, and risk. For the analysis, a simple, massless-planet trajectory program was employed. The premise of this work is that if the trans-Mars and trans-Earth injection stages are designed for the most stringent opportunity in the energy cycle, then there is extra energy capability in the "easier" opportunities which can be used to decrease the planetary entry speed, or shorten the trip time. Both of these effects are desirable for a human exploration program.

  5. Investigation of Pendulum Structures for Rotational Energy Harvesting from Human Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Energy Harvesting from human motion as a means of powering body-worn devices has been in the focus of research groups for several years now. This work presents a rotational inductive energy harvester that can generate a sufficient amount of energy during normal walking to power small electronic systems. Three pendulum structures and their geometrical parameters are investigated in detail through a system model and system simulations. Based on these results a prototype device is fabricated. The masses and angles between pendulum arms can be changed for the experiments. The device is tested under real-world conditions and generates an average power of up to 23.39 mW across a resistance equal to the coil resistance of the optimal pendulum configuration. A regulated power output of the total system including power management of 3.3 mW is achieved.

  6. A comprehensive framework to assess, model, and enhance the human role in conserving energy in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Elie

    Energy conservation and sustainability are subjects of great interest today, especially in the commercial building sector which is witnessing a very high and growing demand for energy. Traditionally, efforts to reduce energy consumption in this sector consisted of researching and developing energy efficient building technologies and systems. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that human actions are major determinants of building energy performance and can lead to excessive energy use even in advanced low-energy buildings. As a result, it is essential to determine if the approach to future energy reduction initiatives should remain solely technology-focused, or if a human-focused approach is also needed to complement advancements in technology and improve building operation and performance. In practice, while technology-focused solutions have been extensively researched, promoted, and adopted in commercial buildings, research efforts on the role of human actions and energy use behaviors in energy conservation remain very limited. This study fills the missing gap in literature by presenting a comprehensive framework to (1) understand and quantify the influence of human actions on building energy performance, (2) model building occupants' energy use behaviors and account for potential changes in these behaviors over time, and (3) test and optimize different human-focused energy reduction interventions to increase their adoption in commercial buildings. Results are significant and prove that human actions have a major role to play in reducing the energy intensity of the commercial building sector. This sheds the light on the need for a shift in how people currently use and control different buildings systems, as this is crucial to ensure efficient building operation and to maximize the return on investment in energy-efficient technologies. Furthermore, this study proposes methods and tools that can be applied on any individual or groups of commercial buildings

  7. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants.

  8. Incorporating human-triggered earthquake risks into energy and water policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Seeber, L.; Jacob, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake risks in urbanized regions requires an accurate assessment of both urban vulnerabilities and hazards from earthquakes, including ones whose timing might be affected by human activities. Socioeconomic risks associated with human-triggered earthquakes are often misconstrued and receive little scientific, legal, and public attention. Worldwide, more than 200 damaging earthquakes, associated with industrialization and urbanization, were documented since the 20th century. Geomechanical pollution due to large-scale geoengineering activities can advance the clock of earthquakes, trigger new seismic events or even shot down natural background seismicity. Activities include mining, hydrocarbon production, fluid injections, water reservoir impoundments and deep-well geothermal energy production. This type of geohazard has impacts on human security on a regional and national level. Some planned or considered future engineering projects raise particularly strong concerns about triggered earthquakes, such as for instance, sequestration of carbon dioxide by injecting it deep underground and large-scale natural gas production in the Marcellus shale in the Appalacian basin. Worldwide examples of earthquakes are discussed, including their associated losses of human life and monetary losses (e.g., 1989 Newcastle and Volkershausen earthquakes, 2001 Killari earthquake, 2006 Basel earthquake, 2010 Wenchuan earthquake). An overview is given on global statistics of human-triggered earthquakes, including depths and time delay of triggering. Lastly, strategies are described, including risk mitigation measures such as urban planning adaptations and seismic hazard mapping.

  9. Control of human energy expenditure by cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Peleli, Maria; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Larsen, Filip J

    2016-09-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in humans shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate, and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in vastus lateralis. Overexpression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance toward both oxidative stress, and severe hypoxia compared with control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance, and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans. PMID:27486093

  10. Control of human energy expenditure by cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Peleli, Maria; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Larsen, Filip J

    2016-09-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in humans shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate, and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in vastus lateralis. Overexpression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance toward both oxidative stress, and severe hypoxia compared with control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance, and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans.

  11. The mass-specific energy cost of human walking is set by stature.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Peter G; Smith, Bethany R; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-12-01

    The metabolic and mechanical requirements of walking are considered to be of fundamental importance to the health, physiological function and even the evolution of modern humans. Although walking energy expenditure and gait mechanics are clearly linked, a direct quantitative relationship has not emerged in more than a century of formal investigation. Here, on the basis of previous observations that children and smaller adult walkers expend more energy on a per kilogram basis than larger ones do, and the theory of dynamic similarity, we hypothesized that body length (or stature, L(b)) explains the apparent body-size dependency of human walking economy. We measured metabolic rates and gait mechanics at six speeds from 0.4 to 1.9 m s(-1) in 48 human subjects who varied by a factor of 1.5 in stature and approximately six in both age and body mass. In accordance with theoretical expectation, we found the most economical walking speeds measured (J kg(-1) m(-1)) to be dynamically equivalent (i.e. similar U, where U=velocity(2)/gravity · leg length) among smaller and larger individuals. At these speeds, stride lengths were directly proportional to stature whereas the metabolic cost per stride was largely invariant (2.74±0.12 J kg(-1) stride(-1)). The tight coupling of stature, gait mechanics and metabolic energy expenditure resulted in an inverse relationship between mass-specific transport costs and stature (E(trans)/M(b)∝L(b)(-0.95), J kg(-1) m(-1)). We conclude that humans spanning a broad range of ages, statures and masses incur the same mass-specific metabolic cost to walk a horizontal distance equal to their stature.

  12. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  13. Implementation of automated macro after develop inspection in a production lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanof, Arnold W.; Plachecki, Vincent E.; Fischer, Frank W.; Cusacovich, Marcelo; Nelson, Chris; Merrill, Mark A.

    2000-06-01

    Although the subject of frequent concern, criticism, and attention in the modern semiconductor fabrication facility, human after develop inspection (ADI) does not catch the major scrap and yield events early enough, if at all. The overall success of scrap and photo redo reduction programs over past years has resulted in residual problem levels which are difficult to improve upon -- yet still very costly. Detected 'events' are few and far-between, although evidence of their prevalence is frequently seen at subsequent inspections, or finally at probe. In the ASIC fab, they put on-time delivery to customers at risk, because individual wafer lots in an ASIC facility have a designated customer. The sampled area is limited by human throughput to less than 10% of the wafers in a lot. The visual ADI process step is unpopular among manufacturing technicians. It is often a bottleneck in the photo area. Statistically, in a photo area with capacity of 5000 wafer starts per week, only a few wafers processed per day are destined for scrap. Since wafer events occur in sporadic clusters, the photo area experiences only a few significant incidents per month. The typical operator can expect to intercept such an event less than once during several months of otherwise uneventful ADI inspection haystack.' Hence the stubbornness of our residual problem. Going beyond the statistical problem, our current manual macro-inspection equipment is engineered appropriately to ancient IC generations. A collimated, oblique-oriented light was an effective darkfield illumination source, when line widths were much larger than the wavelength of light. When line width is comparable to, or smaller than, the wavelength, the collimated light source produces scintillating diffracted colors on the wafer. Thus diffraction 'noise' significantly buries the defect 'signal' in the typical bright light visual macro inspection. In addition, there is the problem of variability between human inspectors, and the

  14. A Search for Fast Moving Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongzhi

    1995-01-01

    From Dirac monopole theory to modern GUT's (Grand Unified Theories), magnetic monopoles have attracted much attention from physicists. While Dirac had demonstrated the consistency of magnetic monopoles with quantum eletrodynamics, 't Hooft and Polyakov demonstrated the necessity of monopoles in GUT's. Furthermore, the GUT's supply more clues about magnetic monopoles, including their exceptionally heavy masses ~ 10^{16 } GeV. Both current theories and previous monopole experiments have suggested that the flux of magnetic monopoles is likely to be very small, so it is necessary to have a large area detector to search for them. This thesis presents a search for fast moving magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector. The MACRO detector is a large underground detector located at Gran Sasso, Italy. Its primary goal is to search for magnetic monopoles at a flux level beyond the Parker bound. It is underground at 3,000 meters water equivalent depth, with a nominal acceptance of 10,000 m^2 sr. It employs liquid scintillator counters, streamer tubes and track-etch detectors which can supply both independent and cross checks for fast monopole candidate events. This search is mainly based on the liquid scintillator counters with primary event selection and energy reconstruction from the ERP system. The 6.2 mus trigger time is based on the time of flight of a fast moving monopole diagonally through one supermodule with a velocity ~ 10^{-2}c. The search uses the "six-month-run" data which were taken from December of 1992 to July of 1993 with the operation of the lower part of the detector. With energy reconstruction ability up to 8 GeV with 22% error, we apply a double-face high energy requirement to reject most muon events from the data sample. We then apply the WFD, streamer tube and strip information to reject non-monopole events. The live time for this analysis is 5,300 hours, with acceptance of 4050 m^2 sr. With no fast monopole candidate event found, we establish an upper

  15. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  16. Real World Testing Of A Piezoelectric Rotational Energy Harvester For Human Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, P.; Yeatman, E. M.; Holmes, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting energy from human motion is challenging because the frequencies are generally low and random compared to industrial machinery that vibrates at much higher frequencies. One of the most promising and popular strategies to overcome this is frequency up-conversion. The transducing element is actuated at its optimal frequency of operation, higher than the source excitation frequency, through some kind of catch and release mechanism. This is beneficial for efficient power generation. Such devices have now been investigated for a few years and this paper takes a previously introduced piezoelectric rotational harvester, relying on beam plucking for the energy conversion, to the next step by testing the device during a half marathon race. The prototype and data acquisition system are described in detail and the experimental results presented. A comparison of the input excitation, based on an accelerometer readout, and the output voltage of the piezoelectric beam, recorded at the same time, confirm the successful implementation of the system. For a device functional volume of 1.85 cm3, a maximum power output of 7 μW was achieved when the system was worn on the upper arm. However, degradation of the piezoelectric material meant that the performance dropped rapidly from this initial level; this requires further research. Furthermore, the need for intermediate energy storage solutions is discussed, as human motion harvesters only generate power as long as the wearer is actually moving.

  17. Modeling and experimental investigation of an impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvester from human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sheng; Hu, Hong; He, Siyuan

    2013-10-01

    An impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvester from human motion is proposed in this paper. A high-frequency PZT-5A bimorph cantilever beam with attached proof mass at the free end was selected. A frequency up-conversion strategy was realized using impulse force generated by human motion. An aluminum prototype was attached to the leg of a person on a treadmill and measurements taken of the dissipated electric energy across multiple resistances over a range of walking speeds. The outer dimensions of this prototype are 90 mm × 40 mm × 24 mm. It has been shown that the average output voltage generated by the piezoelectric bimorph increases sequentially with a faster walking speed, the power varies with the external resistances and maximum levels occur at the optimal resistance, which is consistent with the simulation result. An open circuit voltage of 2.47 V and maximum average power of 51 μW can be achieved across a 20 kΩ external load resistance and 5 km h-1 walking speed. Experimental results reveal that the impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvesting system mounted on a person’s leg has the potential for driving wearable devices.

  18. Folded Elastic Strip-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Human Motion Energy for Multiple Applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yue; Wang, Bo; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Pu, Yanping; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-09-16

    A folded elastic strip-based triboelectric nanogenerator (FS-TENG) made from two folded double-layer elastic strips of Al/PET and PTFE/PET can achieve multiple functions by low frequency mechanical motion. A single FS-TENG with strip width of 3 cm and length of 27 cm can generate a maximum output current, open-circuit voltage, and peak power of 55 μA, 840 V, and 7.33 mW at deformation frequency of 4 Hz with amplitude of 2.5 cm, respectively. This FS-TENG can work as a weight sensor due to its good elasticity. An integrated generator assembled by four FS-TENGs (IFS-TENG) can harvest the energy of human motion like flapping hands and walking steps. In addition, the IFS-TENG combined with electromagnetically induced electricity can achieve a completely self-driven doorbell with flashing lights. Moreover, a box-like generator integrated by four IFS-TENGs inside can work in horizontal or random motion modes and can be improved to harvest energy in all directions. This work promotes the research of completely self-driven systems and energy harvesting of human motion for applications in our daily life.

  19. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  20. Bio-templated bioactive glass particles with hierarchical macro-nano porous structure and drug delivery capability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Bortuzzo, Judith A; Liu, Yufang; Li, Wei; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Roether, Judith; Lu, Miao; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-01

    Hierarchically porous bioactive glass particles (BGPs) were synthesized by a facile sol-gel process using pollen grains as the templates. The synthesized pollen-templated bioactive glass particles (PBGPs) exhibited dual macro-nano porous structure. The macro pores (∼ 1 μm) were inherited from the template of pollen grains while the nano pores (∼ 9.5 nm) were induced by the intrinsic mechanism of the sol-gel process. PBGPs possessed a high specific surface area (111.4m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.35 cm(3)/g). Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on PBGPs was detected within 3 days after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Due to their larger specific surface area and pore volume, PBGPs could be loaded with more tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) than non-templated BGPs and conventional melt-derived 45S5 BGPs. In addition, PBGPs exhibited a low initial burst release (within 10% of the loaded amount) within 18 h and a sustained release with a two-stage release pattern for up to 6 days in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The antibacterial assay confirmed that the TCH-loaded PBGPs could release TCH within 5 days, and the released TCH could reach the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Escherichia coli. MTT assay indicated that PBGPs showed non-cytotoxic effects toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells after co-culture for up to 72 h in vitro. These results showed that the biocompatible hierarchically macro-nano porous PBGPs are potential for bone regeneration and local drug delivery applications.

  1. A look at the strength of micro and macro EEG analysis for distinguishing insomnia within an HIV cohort.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Kristin M; Kang, Yu Min; Kerr, Matthew S D; Sarma, Sridevi V; Ewen, Joshua; Allen, Richard; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel M E

    2015-01-01

    HIV patients are often plagued by sleep disorders and suffer from sleep deprivation. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of the relationship between HIV status, poor sleep, overall function and future outcomes; particularly in the case of HIV patients otherwise well controlled on cART (combined anti-retroviral therapy). In this study, we compared two groups: 16 non-HIV subjects (seronegative controls) and 12 seropositive HIV patients with undetectable viral loads. We looked at sleep behavioral (macro-sleep) features and sleep spectral (micro-sleep) features obtained from human-scored overnight EEG recordings to study whether the scored EEG data can be used to distinguish between controls and HIV subjects. Specifically, the macro-sleep features were defined by sleep stages and included sleep transitions, percentage of time spent in each sleep stage, and duration of time spent in each sleep stage. The micro-sleep features were obtained from the power spectrum of the EEG signals by computing the total power across all channels and frequencies, as well as the average power in each sleep stage and across different frequency bands. While the macro features do not distinguish between the two groups, there is a significant difference and a high classification accuracy for the scoring-independent micro features. This spectral separation is interesting because evidence suggests a relationship between sleep complaints and cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients stable on cART. Furthermore, there are currently no biomarkers that predict the early development of cognitive decline in HIV patients. Thus, a micro-sleep architectural approach could serve as a biomarker to identify HIV patients vulnerable to cognitive decline, providing an avenue to explore the utility of early intervention. PMID:26737811

  2. A look at the strength of micro and macro EEG analysis for distinguishing insomnia within an HIV cohort.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Kristin M; Kang, Yu Min; Kerr, Matthew S D; Sarma, Sridevi V; Ewen, Joshua; Allen, Richard; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel M E

    2015-01-01

    HIV patients are often plagued by sleep disorders and suffer from sleep deprivation. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of the relationship between HIV status, poor sleep, overall function and future outcomes; particularly in the case of HIV patients otherwise well controlled on cART (combined anti-retroviral therapy). In this study, we compared two groups: 16 non-HIV subjects (seronegative controls) and 12 seropositive HIV patients with undetectable viral loads. We looked at sleep behavioral (macro-sleep) features and sleep spectral (micro-sleep) features obtained from human-scored overnight EEG recordings to study whether the scored EEG data can be used to distinguish between controls and HIV subjects. Specifically, the macro-sleep features were defined by sleep stages and included sleep transitions, percentage of time spent in each sleep stage, and duration of time spent in each sleep stage. The micro-sleep features were obtained from the power spectrum of the EEG signals by computing the total power across all channels and frequencies, as well as the average power in each sleep stage and across different frequency bands. While the macro features do not distinguish between the two groups, there is a significant difference and a high classification accuracy for the scoring-independent micro features. This spectral separation is interesting because evidence suggests a relationship between sleep complaints and cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients stable on cART. Furthermore, there are currently no biomarkers that predict the early development of cognitive decline in HIV patients. Thus, a micro-sleep architectural approach could serve as a biomarker to identify HIV patients vulnerable to cognitive decline, providing an avenue to explore the utility of early intervention.

  3. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  4. Electronic holographic device based on macro-pixel with local coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Woonchan; Kwon, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2015-09-01

    Holography has been regarded as one of the most ideal technique for three-dimensional (3D) display because it records and reconstructs both amplitude and phase of object wave simultaneously. Nevertheless, many people think that this technique is not suitable for commercialization due to some significant problems. In this paper, we propose an electronic holographic 3D display based on macro-pixel with local coherence. Here, the incident wave within each macro-pixel is coherent but the wave in one macro-pixel is not mutually coherent with the wave in the other macro-pixel. This concept provides amazing freedom in distribution of the pixels in modulator. The relative distance between two macro-pixels results in negligible change of interference pattern in observation space. Also it is possible to make the sub-pixels in a macro-pixel in order to enlarge the field of view (FOV). The idea has amazing effects to reduce the data capacity of the holographic display. Moreover, the dimension of the system is can be remarkably downsized by micro-optics. As a result, the holographic display will be designed to have full parallax with large FOV and screen size. We think that the macro-pixel idea is a practical solution in electronic holography since it can provide reasonable FOV and large screen size with relatively small amount of data.

  5. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Manatee County Habitat for Humanity, Ellenton, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this 18-home community, all homes are LEED Platinum and meet ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 requirements, HERS 23–53. Half way through the project, Habitat for Humanity heard about the DOE Challenge Home program and signed on, committing to build the next home, a three-bedroom, two-bath, 1,143 ft2 duplex, to Challenge Home criteria. The home is the first DOE Challenge Home in Manatee County, and was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.

  7. The macro domain protein family: structure, functions, and their potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Han, Weidong; Li, Xiaolei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    Macro domains are ancient, highly evolutionarily conserved domains that are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life. The 'macro fold' is roughly 25kDa in size and is composed of a mixed α-β fold with similarity to the P loop-containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. They function as binding modules for metabolites of NAD(+), including poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which is synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs). Although there is a high degree of sequence similarity within this family, particularly for residues that might be involved in catalysis or substrates binding, it is likely that the sequence variation that does exist among macro domains is responsible for the specificity of function of individual proteins. Recent findings have indicated that macro domain proteins are functionally promiscuous and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological functions, such as DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. Significant advances in the field of macro domain have occurred in the past few years, including biological insights and the discovery of novel signaling pathways. To provide a framework for understanding these recent findings, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the known and proposed biochemical, cellular and physiological roles of the macro domain family. Recent data that indicate a critical role of macro domain regulation for the proper progression of cellular differentiation programs will be discussed. In addition, the effect of dysregulated expression of macro domain proteins will be considered in the processes of tumorigenesis and bacterial pathogenesis. Finally, a series of observations will be highlighted that should be addressed in future efforts to develop macro domains as effective therapeutic targets.

  8. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  9. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11-30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect (<0.3%) in all tissues, while higher Z (K) had a larger effect (>3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D90) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. This work was part of an invited presentation at the ‘International Workshop on Recent Advances in Monte Carlo Techniques for Radiation Therapy’, held in Montreal, June 8-10, 2011.

  10. Effects of high-energy shockwaves on normal human fibroblasts in suspension.

    PubMed

    Kaulesar Johannes, E J; Sukul, D M; Bijma, A M; Mulder, P G

    1994-12-01

    To gain insight in the effects of shockwaves on human cells the relationship between the energy density and the number of shockwaves as well as their effect on suspensions of normal cells was studied. At energy densities of 0.37, 0.6, 0.78, and 1.20 mJ/mm2 fibroblasts were subjected to 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 shockwaves. Each test was performed three times and one sample was used as control. A decrease in viability related to the logarithm of both the number (P = 0.0000) and the energy density (P = 0.001) of the shockwaves was statistically demonstrable 1 hr after the shockwave application. The energy density of the shockwaves has less influence on the viability than the number of applied shockwaves. Seeding of viable cells 1 hr after the shockwave application showed that the decrease in the 48-hr growth potential was statistically dependent of the number of applied shockwaves only (P = 0.0007). After 24 hr no difference in the 48-hr growth potential could be demonstrated between viable shockwave-treated cells and control cells. The literature as well as our own investigations in vitro and in vivo indicate that shockwaves have a logarithmic dose-dependent destructive effect on cells in suspension, but they also seem to have a dose-dependent stimulating influence on the healing process in damaged tissues. Due to the logarithmic relationship between the viability and both the number and energy density of the applied shockwaves it might be expected that even excessive numbers of high-energy-density shockwaves don't soon lead to total destruction of all cells in the suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Energy-Aware Topology Control Strategy for Human-Centric Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meseguer, Roc; Molina, Carlos; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Santos, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mobile and ubiquitous solutions that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing increases every day. This situation has highlighted the relevance of optimizing the energy consumption of these solutions, because their operation depends on the devices' battery lifetimes. This article presents a study that intends to understand how the prediction of topology control messages in human-centric wireless sensor networks can be used to help reduce the energy consumption of the participating devices. In order to do that, five research questions have been defined and a study based on simulations was conducted to answer these questions. The obtained results help identify suitable mobile computing scenarios where the prediction of topology control messages can be used to save energy of the network nodes. These results also allow estimating the percentage of energy saving that can be expected, according to the features of the work scenario and the participants behavior. Designers of mobile collaborative applications that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing, can take advantage of these findings to increase the autonomy of their solutions. PMID:24514884

  12. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  13. Human risky choice under temporal constraints: tests of an energy-budget model.

    PubMed Central

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Locey, Matthew L; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2003-01-01

    Risk-sensitive foraging models predict that choice between fixed and variable food delays should be influenced by an organism's energy budget. To investigate whether the predictions of these models could be extended to choice in humans, risk sensitivity in 4 adults was investigated under laboratory conditions designed to model positive and negative energy budgets. Subjects chose between fixed and variable trial durations with the same mean value. An energy requirement was modeled by requiring that five trials be completed within a limited time period for points delivered at the end of the period (block of trials) to be exchanged later for money. Manipulating the duration of this time period generated positive and negative earnings budgets (or, alternatively, "time budgets"). Choices were consistent with the predictions of energy-budget models: The fixed-delay option was strongly preferred under positive earnings-budget conditions and the variable-delay option was strongly preferred under negative earnings-budget conditions. Within-block (or trial-by-trial) choices were also frequently consistent with the predictions of a dynamic optimization model, indicating that choice was simultaneously sensitive to the temporal requirements, delays associated with fixed and variable choices on the upcoming trial, cumulative delays within the block of trials, and trial position within a block. PMID:13677609

  14. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  15. Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the Upper Mara River basin, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilonzo, Fidelis; Masese, Frank O.; Van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy; Obando, Joy; Lens, Piet N. L.

    Tropical rivers display profound temporal and spatial heterogeneity in terms of environmental conditions. This aspect needs to be considered when designing a monitoring program for water quality in rivers. Therefore, the physico-chemical composition and the nutrient loading of the Upper Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and Nyangores were monitored. Initial daily, and later a weekly monitoring schedule for 4 months spanning through the wet and dry seasons was adopted. Benthic macro-invertebrates were also collected during the initial sampling to be used as indicators of water quality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the physico-chemical status and biological integrity of the Upper Mara River basin. This was achieved by examining trends in nutrient concentrations and analyzing the structure, diversity and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates in relation to varying land use patterns. Sampling sites were selected based on catchment land use and the level of human disturbance, and using historical records of previous water quality studies. River water pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, and turbidity were determined in situ. All investigated parameters except iron and manganese had concentration values within allowable limits according to Kenyan and international standards for drinking water. The Amala tributary is more mineralized and also shows higher levels of pH and EC than water from the Nyangores tributary. The latter, however, has a higher variability in both the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. The variability in TP and TN concentrations increases downstream for both tributaries and is more pronounced for TN than for TP. Macro-invertebrate assemblages responded to the changes in land use and water quality in terms of community composition and diversity. The study recommends detailed continuous monitoring of the water quality at shorter time intervals and to identify

  16. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  17. Macro- and microvascular effects of nitrous oxide in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, J. L.; Westphal, K. A.; Richardson, D. R.; Roth, G. I.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to determine the macro- and microvascular actions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the rat, and (2) to determine whether the vascular actions of N2O involved specific interaction with alpha-adrenergic receptors or opioid receptors. Systolic blood pressure, heart rat, total tail blood flow, blood cell velocity in subepidermal capillaries of the tail, and percentage of capillaries exhibiting flow were monitored in conscious rats during the administration of N2O before and after administration of clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist), prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) or naloxone (an opioid antagonist). Total tail blood flow increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner with N2O at 20% and 40% with oxygen. This action of N2O was not blocked by clonidine, prazosin, or naloxone. Capillary flow velocity increased during 20% and 40% N2O compared to 100% O2, but the changes were not statistically significant nor did they correlate with the changes in tail blood flow. These data suggest that the peripheral vascular action of N2O does not involve specific actions at alpha-adrenergic receptors or opioid receptors and may be the result of direct actions on the peripheral vasculature. PMID:1667350

  18. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  19. The micro and macro of nutrients across biological scales.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W

    2014-11-01

    During the past decade, we have gained new insights into the profound effects that essential micronutrients and macronutrients have on biological processes ranging from cellular function, to whole-organism performance, to dynamics in ecological communities, as well as to the structure and function of ecosystems. For example, disparities between intake and organismal requirements for specific nutrients are known to strongly affect animal physiological performance and impose trade-offs in the allocations of resources. However, recent findings have demonstrated that life-history allocation trade-offs and even microevolutionary dynamics may often be a result of molecular-level constraints on nutrient and metabolic processing, in which limiting reactants are routed among competing biochemical pathways. In addition, recent work has shown that complex ecological interactions between organismal physiological states such as exposure to environmental stressors and infectious pathogens can alter organismal requirements for, and, processing of, nutrients, and even alter subsequent nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Furthermore, new research is showing that such interactions, coupled with evolutionary and biogeographical constraints on the biosynthesis and availability of essential nutrients and micronutrients play an important, but still under-studied role in the structuring and functioning of ecosystems. The purpose of this introduction to the symposium "The Micro and Macro of Nutrient Effects in Animal Physiology and Ecology" is to briefly review and highlight recent research that has dramatically advanced our understanding of how nutrients in their varied forms profoundly affect and shape ecological and evolutionary processes.

  20. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  1. Portable Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection with MACRO Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, A.; Mudge, P.; Catton, P.; Balachandran, W.

    2010-02-01

    The development of portable ultrasonic guided wave transducer arrays that utilize Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) is described. Portable inspection equipment can make use of ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly screen large areas of many types of engineering structures for defects. The defect finding performance combined with the difficulty of application determines how much the engineering industry makes use of this non-destructive, non-disruptive technology. The developments with MFCs have the potential to make considerable improvements in both these aspects. MFCs are highly efficient because they use interdigital electrodes to facilitate the extensional, d33 displacement mode. Their fiber composite design allows them to be thin, lightweight, flexible and durable. The flexibility affords them conformance with curved surfaces, which can facilitate good mechanical coupling. The suitability of a given transducer for Long Range Ultrasonic Testing is governed by the nature and amplitude of the displacement that it excites/senses in the contact area of the target structure. This nature is explored for MFCs through directional sensitivity analysis and empirical testing. Housing methods that facilitate non-permanent coupling techniques are discussed. Finally, arrangements of arrays of MFCs for the guided wave inspection of plates and pipes are considered and some broad design criteria are given.

  2. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  3. A macro- and nanostructure evaluation of a novel dental implant.

    PubMed

    Tetè, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Traini, Tonino; Vinci, Raffaele; Sammartino, Gilberto; Marenzi, Gaetano; Gherlone, Enrico

    2008-09-01

    Success in implant dentistry also comes from the implant macrodesign and nanostructure of its surface. Titanium implant surface treatments have been shown to enhance osseointegration, maximize bone healing, and bone-to-implant contact for predictable clinical results. The aim of the study, was to evaluate the geometric macrodesign and the surface nanostructure of a novel dental implant full contact covering (FCC) obtained by electrochemical procedures. FCC implants were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope, profilometer, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with commercial sandblasted and sandblasted, large-grit acid-etched dental implants. Sample analysis allowed to distinguish the different implant macrodesigns, the step and the profile of the coils that cover the fixture, and the surface characteristics. FCC implant showed novel macro-characteristic of crestal module, coils, and apical zone compared with sandblasted and sandblasted and acid-etched dental implants. Moreover, the FCC nanostructure surface showed roughness values statistically higher than the 2 other surfaces, with a more homogeneity in a peaks and valleys arrangement. Finally, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis detected differences between the examined surfaces, with the presence of several contaminants according to the different treatment procedures. Research on new macrostructures and nano morphology should result in a better qualitative and quantitative osseointegration response, with a predictability of the clinical results and long-term success of the implants.

  4. Dual-template synthesis of N-doped macro/mesoporous carbon with an open-pore structure as a metal-free catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjun; Wang, Chih-Liang; Liao, Jin-Yun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted world-wide attention due to their low cost, high conversion efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Pt catalyst is usually used as the catalyst in the counter electrode of DSSCs due to its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward tri-iodide reduction. However, the high cost and scarcity of Pt prevent its large-scale application in DSSCs. It is highly desirable to replace Pt with low-cost catalysts made from earth-abundant elements. Here, we report a dual-template synthesis of N-doped macro/mesoporous carbon (macro/meso-NC) with an open-pore structure as the catalyst in the counter electrode of DSSCs. The catalytic activity of macro/meso-NC toward tri-iodide reduction has been tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and photocurrent-voltage (J-V) curves. It is found that the macro/meso-NC possesses excellent electrochemical catalytic activity with higher open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency than Pt. A high energy conversion efficiency of 7.27% has been achieved based on the metal-free macro/meso-NC, demonstrating as a promising catalyst for low-cost DSSCs.

  5. Tolerance of the human spinal cord to high energy p(66)Be(49) neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.; Ten Haken, R.K.; Mansell, J.; Yalavarthi, S.D.; Hendrickson, F.R.; Awschalom, M.

    1985-04-01

    The risk of post irradiation myelopathy was evaluated in 76 patients followed for 1-5 years after neutron irradiation of the cervical and thoracic regions. No overt myelopathy was observed. Forty-six patients received doses (central cord dose) in excess of 10 Gy, 9 received doses in excess of 12 Gy, and 5 received doses between 13 and 17 Gy, all without any evidence of spinal cord injury. A review of available literature revealed a total of 14 patients with myelopathy, 13 of whom received doses in excess of 13 Gy delivered with relatively low energy neutrons generated by the deuteron + beryllium reaction. It is concluded from these studies that the tolerance limit for the human spinal cord irradiated with high energy (p(66)Be(49)) neutrons is close to 15 Gy, above which the risk of cord injury becomes significant. Central cord doses of 13 Gy or less appear to be well tolerated with little, if any, risk of myelopathy. These conclusions are valid for a treatment time of 4 weeks or more with two or more fractions per week (9 or more fractions). The RBE for the human spinal cord irradiated under the above conditions compared with conventionally fractionated photon therapy does not exceed 4.0.

  6. Determination of human albumin in serum and urine samples by constant-energy synchronous fluorescence method.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method using constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique is proposed for the determination of human albumin without separation. In this method, no reagent was used for enhancement of the fluorescence signal of albumin in the solution. Effects of some parameters, such as energy difference between excitation and emission monochromators (ΔE), emission and excitation slit widths and scan rate of wavelength were studied and the optimum conditions were established. For this purpose factorial design and response surface method were employed for optimization of the effective parameters on the fluorescence signal. The results showed that the scan rate of the wavelength has no significant effect on the analytical signal. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.1-220.0 µg mL(-1) of albumin with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-3)  µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate measurements of albumin were calculated as 2.2%, 1.7% and 1.3% for 0.5, 10.0 and 100.0 µg mL(-1) albumin, respectively. Furthermore the proposed method has been employed for the determination of albumin in human serum and urine samples.

  7. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.

  8. Human radiation experiments: The Department of Energy roadmap to the story and the records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The role of the US Government in conducting or sponsoring human radiation experiments has become the subject of public debate. Questions have been raised about the purpose, extent, and health consequences of these studies, and about how subjects were selected. The extent to which subjects provided informed consent is also under scrutiny. To respond to these questions, the Clinton administration has directed the US Department of Energy (DOE), along with other Federal agencies, to retrieve and inventory all records that document human radiation experiments. Many such records are now publicly available and will permit an open accounting and understanding of what took place. This report summarizes the Department`s ongoing search for records about human radiation experiments. It is also a roadmap to the large universe of pertinent DOE information. DOE is working to instill greater openness--consistent with national security and other appropriate considerations--throughout its operations. A key aspect of this effort is opening DOE`s historical records to independent research and analysis.

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  10. Man's enduring technological dilemma: Prometheus, Faust, and other macro-engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Schillinger, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The author notes that we often have no choice but to use a new technology to solve problems created by another; but we must guard against the view that this process will not, in itself, give rise to new problems. What is worse, we have no way of anticipating the ratio of good and bad consequences as we introduce one technology to supersede - or ameliorate - the effects of another. Large scale can add significant additional difficulties, but need not lead to hubris. Some planners have taken advantage of economies of scale to create macroprojects that incorporate a concordance with both the natural and human ecology they touch. A new and deeper understanding of the dynamics of planning, financing, and management of macroprojects is needed. For not only those who are affected by macroprojects be bewildered in the face of change, but the planners and managers themselves are overwhelmed by the increasing unpredictability of the international political, economic and financial environment, which is the critical framework within which planning takes place. The author notes that a great deal of thought needs to be given to how to bring the two sets of considerations - the benefits and the unintended consequences - together. He feels that the founding of The American Society For Macro-Engineering last year may have been a significant step in this direction. 30 references.

  11. Every Newton Hertz: a macro to micro approach to investigating brain injury.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of concussion in contact sports provides a unique opportunity to collect data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. This paper outlines a macro to micro approach in which the organ level response of the head is analyzed through head acceleration data from human volunteers and the tissue level response is analyzed through finite element analysis of these data. The helmets of Virginia Tech football players are instrumented with multi-accelerometer measurement devices to record linear and rotational head accelerations for every impact during a game or practice. These impacts are then modeled using the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) finite element head model. Cumulative strain damage measure was investigated for the impacts resulting in the high linear and rotational accelerations. The effect of head impacts on functional performance in football players is also investigated to identify any cognitive effects from repetitive sub-concussive impacts. A better understanding of the effects of head impacts and the mechanisms of brain injury will likely result in insight to future head injury prevention methods and cellular research on brain injury.

  12. Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern effecting civilians and military personnel. Research has yielded a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI, but effective treatments have not been forthcoming. Near-infrared light (NIR) has shown promise in animal models of both TBI and stroke. Yet, it remains unclear if sufficient photonic energy can be delivered to the human brain to yield a beneficial effect. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of TBI and elaborates the physiological effects of NIR in the context of this pathophysiology. Pertinent aspects of the physical properties of NIR, particularly in regards to its interactions with tissue, provide the background for understanding this critical issue of light penetration through tissue. Our recent tissue studies demonstrate no penetration of low level NIR energy through 2 mm of skin or 3 cm of skull and brain. However, at 10–15 W, 0.45%–2.90% of 810 nm light penetrated 3 cm of tissue. A 15 W 810 nm device (continuous or non-pulsed) NIR delivered 2.9% of the surface power density. Pulsing at 10 Hz reduced the dose of light delivered to the surface by 50%, but 2.4% of the surface energy reached the depth of 3 cm. Approximately 1.22% of the energy of 980 nm light at 10–15 W penetrated to 3 cm. These data are reviewed in the context of the literature on low-power NIR penetration, wherein less than half of 1% of the surface energy could reach a depth of 1 cm. NIR in the power range of 10–15 W at 810 and 980 nm can provide fluence within the range shown to be biologically beneficial at 3 cm depth. A companion paper reviews the clinical data on the treatment of patients with chronic TBI in the context of the current literature. PMID:26346298

  13. Immunoglobulin-associated creatine kinase masquerading as macro-creatine kinase type 2 in a statin user.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ang, Yan Hoon; Neo, Siew Fong; Yin, Cecilia; Wong, Moh Sim; Leong, Sai Mun; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Macro-creatine kinase (CK) is a cause of falsely elevated CK. Macro-CK type 1 is immunoglobulin-associated CK; type 2 is polymeric mitochondrial-CK. An elderly asymptomatic lady had an elevated CK level after receiving statin therapy. Her CK gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated coexisting macro-CK type 1 and type 2 patterns. Further analysis by immunofixation and mixing this patient's serum with CK control material revealed an IgG-associated macro-CK that mimicked the electrophoretic pattern of macro-CK type 2. This highly unusual discovery suggests the possibility of the misinterpretation of macro-CK type 1 as macro-CK type 2. Falsely elevated CK is still common despite modern laboratory instrumentation and should be investigated.

  14. Macro-aspartate aminotransferase in a female with antibodies to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Collins, John; Ritter, Detlef; Bacon, Bruce R; Landt, Michael; Creer, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    Persistent elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in serum due to the presence of a macroenzyme form of AST (macro-AST) may lead to diagnostic confusion in many clinical conditions, particularly those associated with chronic liver disease. We describe a case of macro-AST arising in an adult female with a false-positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA test result that was not accompanied by other biochemical or histologic evidence of liver disease. The presence of macro-AST in serum was confirmed utilizing size-exclusion, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Protein G-agarose beads to precipitate immune complexes of AST and immunoglobulin G followed by centrifugation and AST activity measurements in the supernatant. A brief review of the clinical enzymology of AST and methods used to quantify serum macro-AST activity is provided.

  15. Macros for the Production of Simple Computer-Aided Instruction Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickey, Keith V.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of macros for simple computer-aided instruction using the Open Access integrated software from SPI (Software Products International, UK). Sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  16. IASGA: A SAS MACRO Program for Interrater Agreement Studies of Qualitative Data via a Generalizability Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mao-Neng Fred; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) MACRO for computing various indices of interrater agreement, including a new generalizability coefficient, for categorical data in a single-facet, crossed design. (Author/SLD)

  17. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  18. Macro-creatine kinase: a neglected cause of elevated creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    Aljuani, F; Tournadre, A; Cecchetti, S; Soubrier, M; Dubost, J J

    2015-04-01

    Macro-creatine kinase (macro-CK) is a neglected cause of raised CK. Over a 10-year period, we observed five cases. Three patients had macro-CK type 1. One patient with fibromyalgia underwent several explorations to find a muscular pathology; another, who had elevated CK-MB (muscle-brain fraction) activity, was referred to a cardiologist, and statin therapy was erroneously discontinued in two patients. Two patients had macro-CK type 2: a man with a neuroendocrine carcinoma and a woman with rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnosis of type 1 obviates the need to carry out pointless and expensive investigations seeking a neuromuscular or cardiac pathology, and also, the unwarranted discontinuation of statin therapy. Type 2 must prompt investigations for a neoplasm.

  19. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    PubMed

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  20. Design of macro-filter-lens with simultaneous chromatic and geometric aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Dilip K; Brown, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A macro-filter-lens design that can correct for chromatic and geometric aberrations simultaneously while providing for a long focal length is presented. The filter is easy to fabricate since it involves two spherical surfaces and a planar surface. Chromatic aberration correction is achieved by making all the rays travel the same optical distance inside the filter element (negative meniscus). Geometric aberration is corrected for by the lens element (plano-convex), which makes the output rays parallel to the optic axis. This macro-filter-lens design does not need additional macro lenses and it provides an inexpensive and optically good (aberration compensated) solution for macro imaging of objects not placed close to the camera.

  1. Micro-Macro Bilateral Control Taking into Account Scaling of Control Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susa, Shigeru; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In micro-macro bilateral control systems, it is important to use position and force scaling factors that depend on the size of the master and slave system. Moreover, it is vital for control systems to use appropriate control gains depending on the scaling ratio between master and slave response. This paper proposes a micro-macro bilateral control system based on the scaling of control gains. In this system, the control gains of the master and slave system are adjusted to appropriate values by using control gain scaling factors. These scaling factors are obtained by designing a micro-macro bilateral control system to achieve ideal reproducibility. To verify the validity of the proposed system, analytical results for the reproducibility, operationality, and stability of the proposed control system are presented in this paper. Moreover, the proposed system is used in an experimental micro-macro bilateral system, and the results are presented.

  2. Three-dimensional network macro-porous cobalt oxide as catalyst for Li-O2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chuan-tao; Huang, Bo-wen; Liao, Xiao-zhen; Liu, Xiao-min; Yang, Hui; Ma, Zi-feng

    2015-09-01

    Li-O2 cell is considered as an ideal choice for the electric vehicles due to its high energy density, but is now suffering from the large charge polarization and low practical capacity. In this context, three-dimensional network macro-porous CoO synthesized via a sol-gel method is applied as an efficient catalyst in Li-O2 cells to alleviate this situation. Compared to KB (Ketjen black EC600JD) based cells, the CoO/KB based cell exhibits much improved electrochemical performance at various current densities, including flatter discharge/charge plateau, lower polarization and higher specific capacity. In addition, the CoO/KB based cell maintains the discharge capacity up to 4500 mAh g-1CoO/KB after being cycled at 0.1 mA cm-2 for 16 days under O2 atmosphere. This excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high catalytic activity and abundant macro-pores of our home-made CoO. This strategy of designing CoO might be a feasible way to obtain the Li-O2 cell with low polarization and high capacity.

  3. Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271

  4. Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Nuebel, Esther; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Hong, Jason S; Van Horn, Christine M; Imam, Sarah S; Vergnes, Laurent; Malone, Cindy S; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. In human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiated progeny, this analysis can be challenging because of the unique cell properties, growth conditions and expense required to maintain these cell types. Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally applicable to mature cell types as well. Our approach has revealed distinct energy metabolism profiles used by hPSCs, differentiated cells, a variety of cancer cells and Rho-null cells. The protocols measure or estimate glycolysis on the basis of the extracellular acidification rate, and they measure or estimate oxidative phosphorylation on the basis of the oxygen consumption rate. Assays typically require 3 h after overnight sample preparation. Companion methods are also discussed and provided to aid researchers in developing more sophisticated experimental regimens for extended analyses of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:22576106

  5. Energy, wealth, and human development: why and how biomass pretreatment research must improve.

    PubMed

    Dale, Bruce E; Ong, Rebecca G

    2012-07-01

    A high level of human development is dependent on energy consumption (roughly 4 kW per person), and most developed countries that have reached this level have done so through the extensive use of fossil energy. However, given that fossil resources are finite, in order for developed countries to maintain their level of development and simultaneously allow developing countries to reach their potential, it is essential to develop viable renewable energy alternatives. Of particular importance are liquid fuel replacements for petroleum, the fossil resource that primarily drives commerce and economic growth. The intent of this article is to remind our fellow biofuel researchers, particularly those involved in lignocellulosic pretreatment, of these global issues and the serious nature of our work. We hope that this will inspire us to generate and report higher quality and more thorough data than has been done in the past. Only in this way can accurate comparisons and technoeconomic evaluations be made for the many different pretreatment technologies that are currently being researched. The data that primarily influence biorefinery economics can be subdivided into three main categories: yield, concentration, and rate. For these three categories we detail the specific data that should be reported for pretreatment research. In addition, there is other information that is needed to allow for a thorough comparison of pretreatment technologies. An overview of these criteria and our comparison of the current state of a number of pretreatment technologies with respect to these criteria are covered in the last section.

  6. Shifting priorities at the Department of Energy's bomb factories: protecting human and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Leschine, Thomas M; Greenberg, Michael; Karr, James R; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W

    2003-02-01

    More than 50 years of research, development, manufacture, and testing of nuclear weapons at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has left a legacy of on-site contamination that often spreads to surrounding areas. Despite substantial cleanup budgets in the last decade, the DOE's top-to-bottom review team concluded that relatively little actual cleanup has been accomplished, although milestones have been met and work packages completed. Rather than solely use regulatory constraints to direct cleanup, many people have suggested that human and ecological health should guide long-term stewardship goals of DOE-managed sites. The main questions are how ecological and human health considerations should be applied in deciding the extent of cleanup that contaminated sites should receive and how near-term and longer run considerations of costs and benefits should be balanced as cleanup decisions are made. One effort to protect ecological integrity is the designation of the largest sites as National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs). Recently, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) suggested isolating and conserving DOE sites as a policy priority because of their rich ecological diversity. A more effective long-term stewardship approach for former nuclear weapons complex sites may emerge if the guiding principles are to (1) reduce risks to human and ecological health, (2) protect cultural traditions, and (3) lower short- and long-term cleanup and remediation costs. A "net benefits" perspective that takes both near- and longer-term costs and consequences into account can help illuminate the trade-offs between expensive cleanup in the near term and the need to assure long-term protection of human health, cultural values, and high levels of biodiversity and ecological integrity that currently exist at many DOE sites.

  7. Shifting priorities at the Department of Energy's bomb factories: protecting human and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Leschine, Thomas M; Greenberg, Michael; Karr, James R; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W

    2003-02-01

    More than 50 years of research, development, manufacture, and testing of nuclear weapons at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has left a legacy of on-site contamination that often spreads to surrounding areas. Despite substantial cleanup budgets in the last decade, the DOE's top-to-bottom review team concluded that relatively little actual cleanup has been accomplished, although milestones have been met and work packages completed. Rather than solely use regulatory constraints to direct cleanup, many people have suggested that human and ecological health should guide long-term stewardship goals of DOE-managed sites. The main questions are how ecological and human health considerations should be applied in deciding the extent of cleanup that contaminated sites should receive and how near-term and longer run considerations of costs and benefits should be balanced as cleanup decisions are made. One effort to protect ecological integrity is the designation of the largest sites as National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs). Recently, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) suggested isolating and conserving DOE sites as a policy priority because of their rich ecological diversity. A more effective long-term stewardship approach for former nuclear weapons complex sites may emerge if the guiding principles are to (1) reduce risks to human and ecological health, (2) protect cultural traditions, and (3) lower short- and long-term cleanup and remediation costs. A "net benefits" perspective that takes both near- and longer-term costs and consequences into account can help illuminate the trade-offs between expensive cleanup in the near term and the need to assure long-term protection of human health, cultural values, and high levels of biodiversity and ecological integrity that currently exist at many DOE sites. PMID:12520373

  8. SPICE macro model of a spryton with MOSFETs in the avalanche mode

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, C.W.

    1994-08-01

    A SPICE macro model for a triggered vacuum gap, a sprytron, intended for use in rapid discharge circuits such as Exploding Bridge Wire (EBW) applications, is presented. Power MOSFETs in the avalanche mode are utilized as the active switching elements in the model. The macro model is compared for accuracy in predicting the time dependent switching current, switch resistance and voltage drop across the switch using several test circuits. Techniques for extracting model parameters are discussed.

  9. Method of Fabricating NASA-Standard Macro-Fiber Composite Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    High, James W.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is a flexible piezoelectric composite device designed for controlling vibrations and shape deformations in high performance aerospace structures. A complete method for fabricating the standard NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is presented in this document. When followed precisely, these procedures will yield devices with electromechanical properties identical to the standard actuator manufactured by NASA Langley Research Center.

  10. Solid waste initiative Macro Material Flow Modeling conceptual description and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach that are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability that can be used as the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. This capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. The results of this increased understanding will eventually have an impact on a variety of US federal government activities, as well as on the activities of other entities. This increased understanding will also help provide the basis for subsequent activities under the Solid Waste Initiative. The report describes current solid waste management practices and their context, defines questions of interest relating to these practices, and proposes an approach that could be employed to analyze these practices and possible alternatives to them. A preliminary review, analysis, and summary of available data to support this approach are also provided.

  11. Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal.

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Brock, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-six individuals were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. In males, but not females, the consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed. Further examination demonstrated that in males the amount of fat, protein and total energy consumed was not associated with mood; that is there was a selective relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood. It was not possible to establish whether the nature of breakfast influenced mood or the pre-existing mood influenced the choice of breakfast although both explanations are plausible. In females, however, there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood, possibly a reflection of the smaller amounts consumed. The suggestion that mood during the morning might influence food choice at mid-day was considered but no association was found.

  12. Monopole search below the Parker limit with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, G.

    1985-01-01

    The MACRO detector approved for the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy will be the first capable of performing a definitive search for super-massive grand unified theory (GUT) monopoles at a level significantly below the Parker flux limit of 10 to the minus 15th power square centimeters Sr(-1) 5(-1). GUT monopoles will move at very low velocities (V approx. 0.001 c) relative to the Earth and a multifaceted detection technique is required to assume their unambiguous identification. Calculations of scintillator response to slow monopoles and measurements of scintillation efficiency for low energy protons have shown that bare monopoles and electrically charged monopoles moving at velocities as low as 5 x .0001 c will produce detectable scintillation signals. The time-of-flight between two thick (25 cm) liquid scintillation layers separated by 4.3m will be used in conjunction with waveform digitization of signals of extended duration in each thick scintillator to provide a redundant signature for slow penetrating particles. Limited streamer tubes filled with He and n-pentane will detect bare monopoles with velocities as low as 1 x 0.0001 c by exploiting monopole induced level mixing and the Penning effect.

  13. A solid with a hierarchical tetramodal micro-meso-macro pore size distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yu; Ma, Zhen; Morris, Russell E.; Liu, Zheng; Jiao, Feng; Dai, Sheng; Bruce, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous solids have an important role in addressing some of the major energy-related problems facing society. Here we describe a porous solid, α-MnO2, with a hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution spanning the micro-, meso- and macro pore range, centred at 0.48, 4.0, 18 and 70 nm. The hierarchical tetramodal structure is generated by the presence of potassium ions in the precursor solution within the channels of the porous silica template; the size of the potassium ion templates the microporosity of α-MnO2, whereas their reactivity with silica leads to larger mesopores and macroporosity, without destroying the mesostructure of the template. The hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution influences the properties of α-MnO2 as a cathode in lithium batteries and as a catalyst, changing the behaviour, compared with its counterparts with only micropores or bimodal micro/mesopores. The approach has been extended to the preparation of LiMn2O4 with a hierarchical pore structure. PMID:23764887

  14. Tensegrity-Based Mechanosensing from Macro to Micro

    PubMed Central

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article is a summary of a lecture on cellular mechanotransduction that was presented at a symposium on “Cardiac Mechano-Electric Feedback and Arrhythmias” that convened at Oxford, England in April 2007. Although critical mechanosensitive molecules and cellular components, such as integrins, stretch-activated ion channels, and cytoskeletal filaments, have been shown to contribute to the response by which cells convert mechanical signals into a biochemical response, little is known about how they function in the structural context of living cells, tissues and organs to produce orchestrated changes in cell behavior in response to stress. Here, studies are reviewed that suggest our bodies use structural hierarchies (systems within systems) composed of interconnected extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal networks that span from the macroscale to the nanoscale to focus stresses on specific mechanotransducer molecules. A key feature of these networks is that they are in a state of isometric tension (i.e., experience a tensile prestress), which ensures that various molecular-scale mechanochemical transduction mechanisms proceed simultaneously and produce a concerted response. These features of living architecture are the same principles that govern tensegrity (tensional integrity) architecture, and mathematical models based on tensegrity are beginning to provide new and useful descriptions of living materials, including mammalian cells. This article reviews how the use of tensegrity at multiple size scales in our bodies guides mechanical force transfer from the macro to the micro, as well as how it facilitates conversion of mechanical signals into changes in ion flux, molecular binding kinetics, signal transduction, gene transcription, cell fate switching and developmental patterning. PMID:18406455

  15. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalovs, A.; Barkanov, E.; Gluhihs, S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures.

  16. Electroanalytical sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) utilising gold screen printed macro electrodes.

    PubMed

    Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We report the fabrication of gold screen printed macro electrodes which are electrochemically characterised and contrasted to polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes with their potential analytical application towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) critically explored. It is found that while these gold screen printed macro electrodes have electrode kinetics typically one order of magnitude lower than polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes as is measured via a standard redox probe, in terms of analytical sensing, these gold screen printed macro electrodes mimic polycrystalline gold in terms of their analytical performance towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI), whilst boasting additional advantages over the macro electrode due to their disposable one-shot nature and the ease of mass production. An additional advantage of these gold screen printed macro electrodes compared to polycrystalline gold is the alleviation of the requirement to potential cycle the latter to form the required gold oxide which aids in the simplification of the analytical protocol. We demonstrate that gold screen printed macro electrodes allow the low micro-molar sensing of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions over the range 10 to 1600 μM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 4.4 μM. The feasibility of the analytical protocol is also tested through chromium(VI) detection in environmental samples.

  17. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Moreau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM). Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal, and lateral) of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs) are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macro-domains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  18. Comparative binding energy (COMBINE) analysis of human neutrophil elastase inhibition by pyridone-containing trifluoromethylketones.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, C; Pastor, M; Pérez, C; Gago, F

    2001-12-01

    The complexes of human neutrophil elastase with a series of 40 N3-substituted trifluoromethylketone-based pyridone inhibitors have been modelled. The series spans three orders of magnitude in inhibition constants despite the fact that it was originally developed in an attempt to improve the oral activity of a lead compound. Ligand-receptor interaction energies calculated using molecular mechanics did not correlate well with the experimental activities. A good correlation with activity was found, however, when a COMBINE analysis of the same data was carried out, which allowed a quantitative interpretation of the modelled complexes. The essence of this method is to partition the ligand-receptor interaction energies into individual residue-based van der Waals and electrostatic contributions, and to subject the resulting energy matrix to partial least squares analysis. Incorporation of two additional descriptors representing the electrostatic energy contributions to the partial desolvation of both the receptor and the ligands improved the QSAR model, as did the replacement of the distance-dependent electrostatic contributions with solvent-screened electrostatic interactions calculated by numerically solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The model was validated both internally (cross-validation) and externally, using a set of twelve 6-phenyl-pyridopyrimidine analogs. The analysis reveals the subtle interplay of binding forces which occurs within the enzyme active site and provides objective information that can be interpreted in the light of the receptor structure. This information, gained from a series of real compounds, can be easily translated into 3D real or virtual database queries in the search for more active derivatives.

  19. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment. PMID:9203740

  20. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  1. Mechanotransduction in primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes is mediated by metabolism of energy, lipids, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zignego, Donald L; Hilmer, Jonathan K; June, Ronald K

    2015-12-16

    Chondrocytes are the sole cell type found in articular cartilage and are repeatedly subjected to mechanical loading in vivo. We hypothesized that physiological dynamic compression results in changes in energy metabolism to produce proteins for maintenance of the pericellular and extracellular matrices. The objective of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding for the short term (<30min) chondrocyte response to sub-injurious, physiological compression by analyzing metabolomic profiles for human chondrocytes harvested from femoral heads of osteoarthritic donors. Cell-seeded agarose constructs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, and dynamic compression was applied for 0, 15, or 30min. Following dynamic compression, metabolites were extracted and detected by HPLC-MS. Untargeted analyzes examined changes in global metabolomics profiles and targeted analysis examined the expression of specific metabolites related to central energy metabolism. We identified hundreds of metabolites that were regulated by applied compression, and we report the detection of 16 molecules not found in existing metabolite databases. We observed patient-specific mechanotransduction with aging dependence. Targeted studies found a transient increase in the ratio of NADP+ to NADPH and an initial decrease in the ratio of GDP to GTP, suggesting a flux of energy into the TCA cycle. By characterizing metabolomics profiles of primary chondrocytes in response to applied dynamic compression, this study provides insight into how OA chondrocytes respond to mechanical load. These results are consistent with increases in glycolytic energy utilization by mechanically induced signaling, and add substantial new data to a complex picture of how chondrocytes transduce mechanical loads.

  2. Long-working-distance fluorescence microscope with high-numerical-aperture objectives for variable-magnification imaging in live mice from macro- to subcellular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Momiyama, Masashi; Tomita, Katsuro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the development of a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope with high-numerical-aperture objectives for variable-magnification imaging in live mice from macro- to subcellular. To observe cytoplasmic and nuclear dynamics of cancer cells in the living mouse, 143B human osteosarcoma cells are labeled with green fluorescent protein in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein in the cytoplasm. These dual-color cells are injected by a vascular route in an abdominal skin flap in nude mice. The mice are then imaged with the Olympus MVX10 macroview fluorescence microscope. With the MVX10, the nuclear and cytoplasmic behavior of cancer cells trafficking in blood vessels of live mice is observed. We also image lung metastases in live mice from the macro- to the subcellular level by opening the chest wall and imaging the exposed lung in live mice. Injected splenocytes, expressing cyan fluorescent protein, could also be imaged on the lung of live mice. We demonstrate that the MVX10 microscope offers the possibility of full-range in vivo fluorescence imaging from macro- to subcellular and should enable widespread use of powerful imaging technologies enabled by genetic reporters and other fluorophores.

  3. Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon attenuation of tissues from human organs.

    PubMed

    Shivaramu

    2002-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy- absorption (Z(PEA)eff) and photon interaction (ZPI(eff)) of human organs and tissues such as cortical bone, ovary, eye lens, testis, breast tissue, adipose tissue, lung tissue, soft tissue, soft tissue, (4-component), blood (whole), brain (grey/white matter), and skeletal muscle have been calculated by a direct method in the energy region of 1 keV to 20 MeV. The ZPEAeff and ZPIeff values steadily increase, up to 8-50 keV, and steadily decrease up to 1.25-2.0 MeV for all of the substances studied. From 2.0 MeV, the values rise with the increase in energy, up to 20 MeV. Significant differences exist between the ZPIeff and ZPEAeff in the energy region of 20-400 keV and 3-20 MeV for cortical bone; 15-150 keV for soft tissue, ovary, testis, blood, brain, lung, and skeletal muscle; 15-100 keV for breast tissue, eye lens, and soft tissue (4-component); and 10-100 keV for adipose tissue. A maximum difference of 28.37% is observed at 100 keV for cortical bone, and 30.43% at 40 keV for adipose tissue. For ovary, eye lens, testis, breast tissue, lung tissue, soft tissue, soft tissue (4-component), blood (whole), brain (grey/white matter), and skeletal muscle, a maximum difference of 31.74%, 29.60%, 31.87%, 30.61%, 31.47%, 31.52%, 29.95%, 31.63%, 32.36%, and 31.42%, respectively, is seen at 50 keV. The energy positions at which the maximum of ZPEAeff and ZPIeff occurs differ. The single effective atomic number directly obtained using the program XMuDat (Z(XMUDATTeff)) are found to be higher compared to those of ZPEAeff and ZPIeff values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers, and its variation with photon energy and the possibility of defining 2 set values of effective atomic numbers below the absorption edges of elements present in the organs and tissues, are discussed.

  4. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Velasco, Manuel; Ortiz Marín, Rafael; del Rio Cidoncha, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results. PMID:24157505

  5. Induction of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts from the Los Alamos High Energy Neutron Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The space radiation field includes a broad spectrum of high energy neutrons. Interactions between these neutrons and a spacecraft, or other material, significantly contribute to the dose equivalent for astronauts. The 15 degree beam line in the Weapons Neutron Research beam at Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center generates a neutron spectrum relatively similar to that seen in space. Human foreskin fibroblast (AG1522) samples were irradiated behind 0 to 20 cm of water equivalent shielding. The cells were exposed to either a 0.05 or 0.2 Gy entrance dose. Following irradiation, micronuclei were counted to see how the water shield affects the beam and its damage to cell nuclei. Micronuclei induction was then compared with dose equivalent data provided from a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

  6. Accurate human tissue characterization for energy-efficient wireless on-body communications.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L

    2013-06-10

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead.

  7. Accurate Human Tissue Characterization for Energy-Efficient Wireless On-Body Communications

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565

  8. Health sensor for human body by using infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry

    2013-05-01

    There is a general chain of events that applies to infections. Human body infection could causes by many different types of bacteria and virus in different areas or organ systems. In general, doctor can't find out the right solution/treatment for infections unless some certain types of bacteria or virus are detected. These detecting processes, usually, take few days to one week to accomplish. However, some infections of the body may not be able to detect at first round and the patient may lose the timing to receive the proper treatment. In this works, we base on Chi's theory which is an invisible circulation system existed inside the body and propose a novel health sensor which summarizes human's infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature and find out, in minutes, the most possible area or organ system that cause the infection just like what Chi-Kung master can accomplish. Therefore, the detection process by doctor will be shortened and it raises the possibility to give the proper treatment to the patient in the earliest timing.

  9. Optimization of Azoles as Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Agents Guided by Free-Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Zeevaart, Jacob G.; Wang, Ligong; Thakur, Vinay V.; Leung, Cheryl S.; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Bailey, Christopher M.; Domaoal, Robert A.; Anderson, Karen S.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient optimization of an inactive 2-anilinyl-5-benzyloxadiazole core has been guided by free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to provide potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). An FEP “chlorine scan” was performed to identify the most promising sites for substitution of aryl hydrogens. This yielded NNRTIs 8 and 10 with activities (EC50) of 820 and 310 nM for protection of human T-cells from infection by wild-type HIV-1. FEP calculations for additional substituent modifications and change of the core heterocycle readily led to oxazoles 28 and 29, which were confirmed as highly potent anti-HIV agents with activities in the 10–20 nM range. The designed compounds were also monitored for possession of desirable pharmacological properties by use of additional computational tools. Overall, the trends predicted by the FEP calculations were well borne out by the assay results. FEP-guided lead optimization is confirmed as a valuable tool for molecular design including drug discovery; chlorine scans are particularly attractive since they are both straightforward to perform and highly informative. PMID:18588301

  10. Micronuclei induction in human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to Los Alamos high-energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Sodolak, John; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Prem; Wilkins, Richard; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    High-energy secondary neutrons, produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the atmosphere, spacecraft structure and planetary surfaces, contribute to a significant fraction to the dose equivalent in crew members and passengers during commercial aviation travel, and astronauts in space missions. The Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) neutron facility's ICE House 30L beamline is known to generate neutrons that simulate the secondary neutron spectra of earth's atmosphere. The neutron spectrum is also similar to that measured onboard spacecraft like the MIR and International Space Station (ISS). To evaluate the biological damage, we exposed human fibroblasts in vitro to the LANSCE neutron beams without degrader at an entrance dose rate of 25 mGy/h and analyzed the micronuclei (MN) induction. The cells were also placed behind a 9.9 cm water column to study the effect of shielding in the protection of neutron induced damages. It was found that the dose response in the MN frequency was linear for the samples with and without shielding and the slope of the MN yield behind the shielding was reduced by a factor of 3.5. Compared to the MN induction in human fibroblasts exposed to a γ source at a similar low dose rate, the RBE was found to be 16.7 and 10.0 for the neutrons without and with the 9.9 cm water shielding, respectively.

  11. Gait recognition based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy image for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Deng-Yuan; Lin, Ta-Wei; Hu, Wu-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for recognizing human identity using gait features based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy images (GEIs). Identity recognition by gait generally involves gait representation, extraction, and classification. In this work, a modified GEI convolved with an ensemble of Gabor wavelets is proposed as a gait feature. Principal component analysis is then used to project the Gabor-wavelet-based gait features into a lower-dimension feature space for subsequent classification. Finally, support vector machine classifiers based on a radial basis function kernel are trained and utilized to recognize human identity. The major contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) the consideration of the shadow effect to yield a more complete segmentation of gait silhouettes; (2) the utilization of motion estimation to track people when walkers overlap; and (3) the derivation of modified GEIs to extract more useful gait information. Extensive performance evaluation shows a great improvement of recognition accuracy due to the use of shadow removal, motion estimation, and gait representation using the modified GEIs and Gabor wavelets.

  12. Micronuclei Induction in Human Fibroblasts Exposed In Vitro to Los Alamos High-Energy Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, Brad; Sodolak, John; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Prem; Wilkins, Richard; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    High-energy secondary neutrons, produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the atmosphere, spacecraft structure and planetary surfaces, contribute to a significant fraction to the dose equivalent in crew members and passengers during commercial aviation travel, and astronauts in space missions. The Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) neutron facility#s ICE House 30L beamline is known to generate neutrons that simulate the secondary neutron spectra of earth#s atmosphere. The neutron spectrum is also similar to that measured onboard spacecraft like the MIR and International Space Station (ISS). To evaluate the biological damage, we exposed human fibroblasts in vitro to the LANSCE neutron beams without degrader at an entrance dose rate of 25 mGy/hr and analyzed the micronuclei (MN) induction. The cells were also placed behind a 9.9 cm water column to study effect of shielding in the protection of neutron induced damages. It was found that the dose response in the MN frequency was linear for the samples with and without shielding and the slope of the MN yield behind the shielding was reduced by a factor of 3.5. Compared to the MN induction in human fibroblasts exposed to a gamma source at a low dose rate, the RBE was found to be 16.7 and 10.0 for the neutrons without and with 9.9 cm water shielding, respectively.

  13. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  14. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  15. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  16. Zinc Binding Modulates the Entire Folding Free Energy Surface of Human Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Kayatekin, Can; Zitzewitz, Jill A.; Matthews, C. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 amino acid replacements in human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are known to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a gain-of-function neurodegenerative disease that destroys motor neurons. Supposing that aggregates of partially-folded states are primarily responsible for toxicity, the role of the structurally-important zinc ion in defining the folding free energy surface of dimeric SOD was determined by comparing the thermodynamic and kinetic folding properties of the zinc-free and zinc-bound forms of the protein. The presence of zinc was found to decrease the free energies of a peptide model of the unfolded monomer, a stable variant of the folded monomeric intermediate and the folded dimeric species. The unfolded state binds zinc weakly with a micromolar dissociation constant, and the folded monomeric intermediate and the native dimeric form both bind zinc tightly, with sub-nanomolar dissociation constants. Coupled with the strong driving force for the subunit association reaction, the shift in the populations towards more well-folded states in the presence of zinc decreases the steady-state populations of higher-energy states in SOD under expected in vivo zinc concentrations (∼nanomolar). The significant decrease in the population of partially-folded states is expected to diminish their potential for aggregation and account for the known protective effect of zinc. The ∼100-fold increase in the rate of folding of SOD in the presence of micromolar concentrations of zinc demonstrates a significant role for a pre-organized zinc-binding loop in the transition state ensemble for the rate-limiting monomer folding reaction in this β-barrel protein. PMID:18840448

  17. Energy metabolism determines the sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanide drugs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Ling-Chia; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Yin, Pen-Hui; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Lee, Hsin-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide particularly in Asia. Deregulation of cellular energetics was recently included as one of the cancer hallmarks. Compounds that target the mitochondria in cancer cells were proposed to have therapeutic potential. Biguanide drugs which inhibit mitochondrial complex I and repress mTOR signaling are clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) and were recently found to reduce the risk of HCC in T2DM patients. However, whether alteration of energy metabolism is involved in regulating the sensitivity of HCC to biguanide drugs is still unclear. In the present study, we treated four HCC cell lines with mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and oligomycin) and biguanide drugs (metformin and phenformin), and found that the HCC cells which had a higher mitochondrial respiration rate were more sensitive to these treatments; whereas the HCC cells which exhibited higher glycolysis were more resistant. When glucose was replaced by galactose in the medium, the altered energy metabolism from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration in the HCC cells enhanced the cellular sensitivity to mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanides. The energy metabolism change enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, mTOR repression and downregulation of cyclin D1 and Mcl-1 in response to the mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanides. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased mitochondrial oxidative metabolism upregulates the sensitivity of HCC to biguanide drugs. Enhancing the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in combination with biguanide drugs may be a therapeutic strategy for HCC.

  18. Dual regulation of energy metabolism by p53 in human cervix and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Román-Rosales, Alejandra; García-Villa, Enríque; López-Macay, Ambar; Pineda, Erika; Saavedra, Emma; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Ríos, Elizabeth; Gariglio, Patricio; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The role of p53 as modulator of OxPhos and glycolysis was analyzed in HeLa-L (cells containing negligible p53 protein levels) and HeLa-H (p53-overexpressing) human cervix cancer cells under normoxia and hypoxia. In normoxia, functional p53, mitochondrial enzyme contents, mitochondrial electrical potential (ΔΨm) and OxPhos flux increased in HeLa-H vs. HeLa-L cells; whereas their glycolytic enzyme contents and glycolysis flux were unchanged. OxPhos provided more than 70% of the cellular ATP and proliferation was abolished by anti-mitochondrial drugs in HeLa-H cells. In hypoxia, both cell proliferations were suppressed, but HeLa-H cells exhibited a significant decrease in OxPhos protein contents, ΔΨm and OxPhos flux. Although glycolytic function was also diminished vs. HeLa-L cells in hypoxia, glycolysis provided more than 60% of cellular ATP in HeLa-H cells. The energy metabolism phenotype of HeLa-H cells was reverted to that of HeLa-L cells by incubating with pifithrin-α, a p53-inhibitor. In normoxia, the energy metabolism phenotype of breast cancer MCF-7 cells was similar to that of HeLa-H cells, whereas p53shRNAMCF-7 cells resembled the HeLa-L cell phenotype. In hypoxia, autophagy proteins and lysosomes contents increased 2-5 times in HeLa-H cells suggesting mitophagy activation. These results indicated that under normoxia p53 up-regulated OxPhos without affecting glycolysis, whereas under hypoxia, p53 down-regulated both OxPhos (severely) and glycolysis (weakly). These p53 effects appeared mediated by the formation of p53-HIF-1α complexes. Therefore, p53 exerts a dual and contrasting regulatory role on cancer energy metabolism, depending on the O₂level.

  19. Effects of macro-pores on water flow in coastal subsurface drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Yu, Xiayang; Lu, Chunhui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Leaching through subsurface drainage systems has been widely adopted to ameliorate saline soils. The application of this method to remove salt from reclaimed lands in the coastal zone, however, may be impacted by macro-pores such as crab burrows, which are commonly distributed in the soils. We developed a three-dimensional model to investigate water flow in subsurface drainage systems affected by macro-pores distributed deterministically and randomly through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that, for subsurface drainage systems under the condition of continuous surface ponding, macro-pores increased the hydraulic head in the deep soil, which in turn reduced the hydraulic gradient between the surface and deep soil. As a consequence, water infiltration across the soil surface was inhibited. Since salt transport in the soil is dominated by advection, the flow simulation results indicated that macro-pores decreased the efficiency of salt leaching by one order of magnitude, in terms of both the elapsed time and the amount of water required to remove salt over the designed soil leaching depth (0.6 m). The reduction of the leaching efficiency was even greater in drainage systems with a layered soil stratigraphy. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that with an increased penetration depth or density of macro-pores, the leaching efficiency decreased further. The revealed impact of macro-pores on water flow represents a significant shortcoming of the salt leaching technique when applied to coastal saline soils. Future designs of soil amelioration schemes in the coastal zone should consider and aim to minimize the bypassing effect caused by macro-pores.

  20. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  1. A Ser311Cys mutation in the human dopamine receptor D2 gene is associated with reduced energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, P A; Baier, L; Jenkinson, C; Harper, I; Del Parigi, A; Bogardus, C

    2001-04-01

    Brain dopaminergic pathways play a major role in the control of movement. Absence of the murine dopamine D2 receptor gene (drd2) produces bradykinesia and hypothermia. A Ser311Cys mutation of the human DRD2 produces a marked functional impairment of the receptor and is associated with higher BMI in some populations. We hypothesized that the Ser311Cys mutation of DRD2 may inhibit energy expenditure. Here we report that total energy expenditure (doubly labeled water) measured in 89 nondiabetic Pima Indians was 244 kcal/ day lower in homozygotes for the Cys311-encoding allele when compared with those heterozygous and homozygous for the Ser311-encoding allele (P = 0.056). The 24-h resting energy expenditure (respiratory chamber) measured in 320 nondiabetic Pimas was also 87 kcal/day lower in homozygotes for the Cys311-encoding allele when compared with those heterozygous and homozygous for the Ser311-encoding allele (P = 0.026). These findings are the first evidence that a genetic mutation is associated with reduced energy expenditure in humans. Because the impact of this mutation on human obesity is small, we suggest that either the energy deficit induced is not large enough to significantly influence body weight in this population and/or that the Cys311-encoding allele is also associated with reduced energy intake.

  2. Long Wave Inundation in Discontinuous Macro-Roughness with Application to Tsunamis in Forested Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Irish, J. L.; Vittone, C.; Barkdull, M.; Long Wave Hydrodynamics; Vegetation Field Research Team

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we study inundation of tsunami-like long waves in patchy forest represented by macro-roughness patches in a large-scale laboratory wave basin. Emphasis was placed on quantifying the large-scale disturbance induced by discontinuous macro-roughness as long waves inundate the upland region. Three different macro-roughness layouts were considered, where each macro-roughness patch was represented by a staggered cylinder array: (1) six small patches on a staggered array, (2) six large patches on a staggered array, and (3) twelve small patches on a staggered array. To study planar circulation patterns during inundation, full-field surface water flows were imaged using a downward looking video camera. In addition to capturing the frontal inundation line, weakly buoyant drifters were used to track large-scale circulation. Video imagery was analyzed to extract bore position and pathlines traced by the drifters. These data sets were used to infer circulation patterns and variation in bore propagation speed as a function of macro-roughness geometry. Sonic wave gages were also positioned before and after the micro-roughness patches to provide in situ point measurement of flow depth. Preliminary findings from the experiments reveal that the macro-roughness arrays are effective in attenuating impact on the region right behind the patches and in delaying the inundation timing in the early phase of wave propagation. Compared to the layout consisting of six small patches (layout 1), the layout with the same number of larger patches (layout 2) was more effective in slowing bore propagation. However, the significant alongshore variation in the bore line induced by the macro-roughness in layout 1 was barely present for layout 2. However, since the delay of flow by the patches in the offshore side rows was combined with the incoming water in later phase, the runup level in the rear portion of inundation region became even higher than it was when there were six smaller

  3. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity. PMID:21735203

  4. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  5. A 4-kbit low-cost antifuse one-time programmable memory macro for embedded applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Li; Huicai, Zhong; Cheng, Jia; Xin, Li

    2014-05-01

    A 4-kbit low-cost one-time programmable (OTP) memory macro for embedded applications is designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. The area of the proposed 1.5 transistor (1.5T) OTP cell is 2.13 μm2, which is a 49.3% size reduction compared to the previously reported cells. The 1.5T cell is fabricated and measured and shows a large programming window without any disturbance. A novel high voltage switch (HVSW) circuit is also proposed to make sure the OTP macro, implemented in a standard CMOS process, works reliably with the high program voltage. The OTP macro is embedded in negative radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The full chip size, including the analog front-end, digital controller and the 4-kbit OTP macro, is 600 × 600 μm2. The 4-kbit OTP macro only consumes 200 × 260 μm2. The measurement shows a 100% program yield by adjusting the program time and has obvious advantages in the core area and power consumption compared to the reported 3T and 2T OTP cores.

  6. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  7. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  8. Preparation of Macro-Porous Tin Oxide for Sensing of Sulfur Compound.

    PubMed

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Sung, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Lee, Tae Jin

    2016-03-01

    Macro-porous tin oxide was prepared as an enhanced sensing material for sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide. Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a template for the formation of macro-pores. Tin chloride was used as a precursor for the synthesis of tin oxide, and was impregnated over PMMA beads using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The solid Sn/PMMA material was treated thermally for 4 h at 600 degrees C. The porous morphology of tin oxide prepared in this study was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of this material measured by the nitrogen adsorption method was approximately 56 m2/g. The crystal structure of the porous material analyzed by XRD was a typical structure of tin oxide. The response of macro-porous tin oxide as a chemical gas sensor was measured using an I-V source meter and the change in signal was observed with the repeated injection of hydrogen sulfide and air. The sensing tests for macro-porous tin oxide were carried out at 200 degrees C and the fast response of macro-porous sensing material was also confirmed.

  9. Preparation of Macro-Porous Tin Oxide for Sensing of Sulfur Compound.

    PubMed

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Sung, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Lee, Tae Jin

    2016-03-01

    Macro-porous tin oxide was prepared as an enhanced sensing material for sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide. Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a template for the formation of macro-pores. Tin chloride was used as a precursor for the synthesis of tin oxide, and was impregnated over PMMA beads using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The solid Sn/PMMA material was treated thermally for 4 h at 600 degrees C. The porous morphology of tin oxide prepared in this study was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of this material measured by the nitrogen adsorption method was approximately 56 m2/g. The crystal structure of the porous material analyzed by XRD was a typical structure of tin oxide. The response of macro-porous tin oxide as a chemical gas sensor was measured using an I-V source meter and the change in signal was observed with the repeated injection of hydrogen sulfide and air. The sensing tests for macro-porous tin oxide were carried out at 200 degrees C and the fast response of macro-porous sensing material was also confirmed. PMID:27455761

  10. Non-supervised macro segmentation of large-scale TV videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongliang; Dong, Chengyu; Wang, Lezi; Qin, Gang; Tao, Kun; Chang, Xiaofu; Dong, Yuan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel non-supervised macro segmentation algorithm is presented by detecting duplicate sequences of large-scale TV videos. Motivated by the fact that "Inter-Programs" are repeatedly inserted into the TV videos, the macro structure of the videos can be effectively and automatically generated by identifying the special sequences. There are four sections in the algorithm, namely, keyframe extraction, discrete cosine transformbased feature generation(a fixed-size 64D signature), Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH)-based frame retrieval and macro segmentation through the duplicated sequence detection and the dynamic programming. The main contributions are: (1) supply one effective and efficient algorithm for the macro segmentation in the large-scale TV videos, (2) LSH can quickly query the similar frames, and (3) the non-supervised learned duplicate sequence models are used to find the lost duplicate sequences by the dynamic programming. The algorithm has been tested in 15-day different-type TV streams. The F-measure of the system is greater than 96%. The experiments show that it is efficient and effective for the macro segmentation.

  11. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Curran, Allen R.; Nyberg, Hans A.; Marttila, Eric A.; Mason, Patrick A.; Ziriax, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm-2) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (Tamb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm-2). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature.

  12. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  13. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Willerslev, Eske

    2012-03-21

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  14. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

    2016-07-12

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  15. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  16. Early and delayed reproductive death in human cells exposed to high energy iron-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettega, D.; Calzolari, P.; Doneda, L.; Durante, M.; Tallone, L.

    For radiation protection of the astronauts it is important to know both the acute and the late effects of charged particles. Iron is the most abundant high charge and energy (HZE) specie in galactic cosmic radiation. (HZE) ions are considered to be the major contributors to equivalent dose in space, but the Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE particles has large uncertainties, expecially for late effects. We have determined early and delayed reproductive death in human fibroblast cells (AG1522) exposed to iron ion beams of energies between 0.2 and 1 GeV/n. The cells were irradiated at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (0.2 and 0.5 GeV/n) and at the AGS accelerator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven (1 GeV/n). For each beam the dose--effect curves were measured at least twice in the dose range between 0.5 and 2 Gy. 60 Co gamma rays were used as reference radiation. The following results were obtained: 1) the 1 GeV/n beam effectiveness for inactivation of the AG1522 cells is higher than that of any other beam. 2) the progeny of the irradiated cells show the presence of delayed damage in the form of reproductive death for all the beams with the 1 GeV/n being the most effective. 3) the relative biological effectiveness of the iron beams is higher for delayed compared to early reproductive death. A comparison with preliminary results obtained with 970 MeV/n Ti and 490 MeV/n Si ions will be also reported .

  17. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Ravussin, E.; Schutz, Y.; Acheson, K.J.; Baertschi, P.; Jequier, E.

    1986-05-01

    To further validate the doubly labeled water method for measurement of CO/sub 2/ production and energy expenditure in humans, we compared it with near-continuous respiratory gas exchange in nine healthy young adult males. Subjects were housed in a respiratory chamber for 4 days. Each received /sup 2/H/sub 2/(18)O at either a low (n = 6) or a moderate (n = 3) isotope dose. Low and moderate doses produced initial /sup 2/H enrichments of 5 and 10 X 10(-3) atom percent excess, respectively, and initial 18O enrichments of 2 and 2.5 X 10(-2) atom percent excess, respectively. Total body water was calculated from isotope dilution in saliva collected at 4 and 5 h after the dose. CO/sub 2/ production was calculated by the two-point method using the isotopic enrichments of urines collected just before each subject entered and left the chamber. Isotope enrichments relative to predose samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. At low isotope dose, doubly labeled water overestimated average daily energy expenditure by 8 +/- 9% (SD) (range -7 to 22%). At moderate dose the difference was reduced to +4 +/- 5% (range 0-9%). The isotope elimination curves for /sup 2/H and 18O from serial urines collected from one of the subjects showed expected diurnal variations but were otherwise quite smooth. The overestimate may be due to approximations in the corrections for isotope fractionation and isotope dilution. An alternative approach to the corrections is presented that reduces the overestimate to 1%.

  18. Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-09-01

    The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon elastic strain energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon elastic strain energy over muscle fiber work.

  19. Macro-Level Social Forces and Micro-Level Consequences: Poverty, Alternate Occupations, and Drug Dealing

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; KOTARBA, JOSEPH A.; FACKLER, JENNIFER L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of the ways in which macro-level social forces have had micro-level consequences in the New Orleans drug market. The article illustrates a clear connection between poverty and entrance into the drug market, as mitigated by race, lack of societal opportunity, lack of social capital, distressed families, and closed neighborhoods. Specifically, the research illustrates the mechanisms by which macro-level social forces intersect to legitimize drug dealing as a viable alternative method of acquiring money and social capital. These intersecting macro-level social forces, such as poverty, race, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics, ultimately constrain the life chances of those living in the inner city irrespective of personal traits, individual motivations, or private achievements. PMID:20509085

  20. Artificial neural nets in computer-aided macro motor unit potential classification.

    PubMed

    Schizas, C N; Pattichis, C S; Schofield, I S; Fawcett, P R; Middleton, L T

    1990-01-01

    The use of macro electromyography to obtain a macro motor unit potential (MMUP) is described. At least 20 potentials are measured from a single muscle to obtain a reasonable estimate of the parameters of an average motor unit potential. The MMUP data are analyzed by means of the peak-to-peak amplitude and the integral of the central 50 ms of the signal. The possibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyze the macro data in a way that makes no assumptions about the relationships between the parameters and without recourse to conventional modeling methods is discussed. The results of an analysis carried out on 820 MMUPs recorded from 41 subjects who were classified on the basis of a clinical opinion and the appearance of a muscle biopsy are presented and discussed.

  1. Structural vibration control of micro/macro-manipulator using feedforward and feedback approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Cannon, D.W.; Magee, D.P.; Book, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PDL) researchers investigated the combined use of two control approaches to minimize micro/macro-manipulator structural vibration: (1) modified input shaping and (2) inertial force active damping control. Modified input shaping (MIS) is used as a feedforward controller to modify reference input by canceling the vibratory motion. Inertial force active damping (IFAD) is applied as a feedback controller to increase the system damping and robustness to unexpected disturbances. Researchers implemented both control schemes in the PNL micro/macro flexible-link manipulator testbed collaborating with Georgia Institute of Technology. The experiments successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of two control approaches in reducing structural vibration. Based on the results of the experiments, the combined use of two controllers is recommended for a micro/macro manipulator to achieve the fastest response to commands while canceling disturbances from unexpected forces.

  2. Variation in macro and trace elements in progression of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khalid; Bawazeer, Nahla; Joy, Salini Scaria

    2014-01-01

    Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  3. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  4. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidder, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

  5. Critique of Macro Flow/Damage Surface Representations for Metal Matrix Composites Using Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidance for the formulation of robust, multiaxial, constitutive models for advanced materials is provided by addressing theoretical and experimental issues using micromechanics. The multiaxial response of metal matrix composites, depicted in terms of macro flow/damage surfaces, is predicted at room and elevated temperatures using an analytical micromechanical model that includes viscoplastic matrix response as well as fiber-matrix debonding. Macro flow/damage surfaces (i.e., debonding envelopes, matrix threshold surfaces, macro 'yield' surfaces, surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate, and surfaces of constant dissipation rate) are determined for silicon carbide/titanium in three stress spaces. Residual stresses are shown to offset the centers of the flow/damage surfaces from the origin and their shape is significantly altered by debonding. The results indicate which type of flow/damage surfaces should be characterized and what loadings applied to provide the most meaningful experimental data for guiding theoretical model development and verification.

  6. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  7. An Introduction to Macro- Level Spatial Nonstationarity: a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Siordia, Carlos; Saenz, Joseph; Tom, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity—variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes PMID:25414731

  8. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements. PMID:25162051

  9. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein. PMID:25725151

  10. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies.

  11. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, G.; Guilbaud, M.; Onillon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and the pairing and shell energies of the Thomas-Fermi model have been studied and compared. They include or not the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, the curvature energy, different forms of the Wigner term and powers of the relative neutron excess I=(N-Z)/A. Their coefficients have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses (G. Audi et al. (2003) [1]). The Coulomb diffuseness correction Z/A term or the charge exchange correction Z/A term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately but their coefficients are very unstable. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV. A large equivalent rms radius ( r=1.22-1.24 fm) or a shorter central radius may be used. An rms deviation of 0.54 MeV can be reached between the experimental and theoretical masses. The remaining differences come probably mainly from the determination of the shell and pairing energies. Mass predictions of selected expressions have been compared to 161 new experimental masses and the correct agreement allows to provide extrapolations to masses of 656 selected exotic nuclei.

  12. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets1234

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Janet A; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or an almond-containing diet for 18 d. Three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design, and diets contained 1 of 3 almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 g/d. During the final 9 d of the treatment period, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. The metabolizable energy content of the almonds was determined. Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was found to be 4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g, which is equivalent to 129 kcal/28-g serving. This is significantly less than the energy density of 6.0–6.1 kcal/g as determined by the Atwater factors, which is equivalent to an energy content of 168–170 kcal/serving. The Atwater factors, when applied to almonds, resulted in a 32% overestimation of their measured energy content. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the inaccuracies of the Atwater factors for certain applications and provides a rigorous method for determining empirically the energy value of individual foods within the context of a mixed diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01007188. PMID:22760558

  13. Human motion energy harvesting: numerical analysis of electromagnetic swing-excited structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion has constantly attracted scientific interest over recent years. A location where a harvesting device can easily and unobtrusively be integrated is the shoe sole, which also protects the device from exterior influences. In this work a numerical system model is developed, which can be used to simulate different inductive harvester geometries and predict their power output. Real world acceleration data is used as a model input. The model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink and subdivided into a mechanical and an electromagnetic model. The key features including the motion model and the calculation of the electromagnetic coupling coefficient are explained in detail and the model is briefly evaluated experimentally. A total of six inductive architectures, i.e. different cylindrical and rectangular magnet-coil arrangements, are then investigated in detail. The geometrical parameters are optimized for each architecture to find the best geometry within the size of 71 mm × 37.5 mm × 12.5 mm, which can be integrated into the sole. With the best overall design an average power output of 42.7 mW is simulated across an ohmic load of 41 Ohms. In addition to the respective best designs, the (dis-)advantages of each architecture are explained.

  14. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.; Galayko, D.

    2015-12-21

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 g{sub rms}, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm{sup 3}. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  15. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  16. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  17. From human mobility to renewable energies. Big data analysis to approach worldwide multiscale phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raischel, F.; Moreira, A.; Lind, P. G.

    2014-10-01

    We address and discuss recent trends in the analysis of big data sets, with the emphasis on studying multiscale phenomena. Applications of big data analysis in different scientific fields are described and two particular examples of multiscale phenomena are explored in more detail. The first one deals with wind power production at the scale of single wind turbines, the scale of entire wind farms and also at the scale of a whole country. Using open source data we show that the wind power production has an intermittent character at all those three scales, with implications for defining adequate strategies for stable energy production. The second example concerns the dynamics underlying human mobility, which presents different features at different scales. For that end, we analyze 12-month data of the Eduroam database within Portuguese universities, and find that, at the smallest scales, typically within a set of a few adjacent buildings, the characteristic exponents of average displacements are different from the ones found at the scale of one country or one continent.

  18. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Marty, F.; Galayko, D.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 grms, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm3. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  19. Energy homeostasis targets chromosomal reconfiguration of the human GH1 locus.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene, GH1, to assess the effect of high caloric intake on expression as well as the local chromosome structure of the intact GH1 locus. Animals exposed to 3 days of high caloric intake exhibited hyperinsulinemia without hyperglycemia and a decrease in both hGH synthesis and secretion, but no difference in endogenous production of murine GH. Efficient GH1 expression requires a long-range intrachromosomal interaction between remote enhancer sequences and the proximal promoter region through "looping" of intervening chromatin. High caloric intake disrupted this interaction and decreased both histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II occupancy at the GH1 promoter. Incorporation of physical activity muted the effects of excess caloric intake on insulin levels, GH1 promoter hyperacetylation, chromosomal architecture, and expression. These results indicate that energy homeostasis alters postnatal hGH synthesis through dynamic changes in the 3-dimensional chromatin structure of the GH1 locus, including structures required for cell type specificity during development.

  20. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications.

  1. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  2. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications. PMID:25914404

  3. A scalable piezoelectric impulse-excited energy harvester for human body excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, P.; Yeatman, E. M.; Holmes, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Harvesting energy from low-frequency and non-harmonic excitations typical of human motion presents specific challenges. While resonant devices do have an advantage in environments where the excitation frequency is constant, and while they can make use of the entire proof mass travel range in the case of excitation amplitudes that are smaller than the internal displacement limit, they are not suitable for body applications since the frequencies are random and the amplitudes tend to be larger than the device size. In this paper a piezoelectric, impulse-excited approach is presented. A cylindrical proof mass actuates an array of piezoelectric bi-morph beams through magnetic attraction. After the initial excitation these transducers are left to vibrate at their natural frequency. This increases the operational frequency range as well as the electromechanical coupling. The principle of impulse excitation is discussed and a centimetre-scale functional model is introduced as a proof of concept. The obtained data show the influence of varying the frequency, acceleration and proof mass. Finally, a commercially available integrated circuit for voltage regulation is tested. At a frequency of 2 Hz and an acceleration of 2.7 m s-2 a maximal power output of 2.1 mW was achieved.

  4. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  5. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na(+) and Mg(++), respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na(+) and K(+), in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca(++) and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na(+) and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg(++) was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca(++)/ IP was the highest, while Na(+)/K(+) revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  6. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is to…

  7. Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations

  8. Macro-ripple phase formation in bilayers composed of galactosylceramide and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Anderson, W H; Kulkarni, V S

    1995-01-01

    As determined by freeze fracture electron microscopy, increasing levels of bovine brain galactosylceramide (GalCer) altered the surface structure of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers by inducing a striking "macro-ripple" phase in the larger, multilamellar lipid vesicles at GalCer mole fractions between 0.4 and 0.8. The term "macro-ripple" phase was used to distinguish it from the P beta' ripple phase observed in saturated, symmetric-chain length phosphatidylcholines. Whereas the P beta' ripple phase displays two types of corrugations, one with a wavelength of 12-15 nm and the other with a wavelength of 25-35 nm, the macro-ripple phase occurring in GalCer/POPC dispersions was of one type with a wavelength of 100-110 nm. Also, in contrast to the extended linear arrays of adjacent ripples observed in the P beta' ripple phase, the macro-ripple phase of GalCer/POPC dispersions was interrupted frequently by packing defects resulting from double dislocations and various disclinations and, thus, appeared to be continuously twisting and turning. Control experiments verified that the macro-ripple phase was not an artifact of incomplete lipid mixing or demixing during preparation. Three different methods of lipid mixing were compared: a spray method of rapid solvent evaporation, a sublimation method of solvent removal, and solvent removal using a rotary evaporation apparatus. Control experiments also revealed that the macro-ripple phase was observed regardless of whether lipid specimens were prepared by either ultra-rapid or manual plunge freezing methods as well as either in the presence or absence of the cryo-protectant glycerol. The macro-ripple phase was always observed in mixtures that were fully annealed by incubation above the main thermal transition of both POPC and bovine brain GalCer before rapid freezing. If the GalCer mixed with POPC contained only nonhydroxy acyl chains or only 2-hydroxy acyl chains, then the occurrence of macro

  9. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  10. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  11. On the Generative Power of Multiple Context-Free Grammars and Macro Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yuki

    Several grammars of which generative power is between context-free grammar and context-sensitive grammar were proposed. Among them are macro grammar and tree adjoining grammar. Multiple context-free grammar is also a natural extension of context-free grammars, and is known to be stronger in its generative power than tree adjoining grammar and yet to be recognizable in polynomial time. In this paper, the generative power of several subclasses of variable-linear macro grammars and that of multiple context-free grammars are compared in details.

  12. Macro-ripple phase formation in bilayers composed of galactosylceramide and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E; Anderson, W H; Kulkarni, V S

    1995-04-01

    As determined by freeze fracture electron microscopy, increasing levels of bovine brain galactosylceramide (GalCer) altered the surface structure of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers by inducing a striking "macro-ripple" phase in the larger, multilamellar lipid vesicles at GalCer mole fractions between 0.4 and 0.8. The term "macro-ripple" phase was used to distinguish it from the P beta' ripple phase observed in saturated, symmetric-chain length phosphatidylcholines. Whereas the P beta' ripple phase displays two types of corrugations, one with a wavelength of 12-15 nm and the other with a wavelength of 25-35 nm, the macro-ripple phase occurring in GalCer/POPC dispersions was of one type with a wavelength of 100-110 nm. Also, in contrast to the extended linear arrays of adjacent ripples observed in the P beta' ripple phase, the macro-ripple phase of GalCer/POPC dispersions was interrupted frequently by packing defects resulting from double dislocations and various disclinations and, thus, appeared to be continuously twisting and turning. Control experiments verified that the macro-ripple phase was not an artifact of incomplete lipid mixing or demixing during preparation. Three different methods of lipid mixing were compared: a spray method of rapid solvent evaporation, a sublimation method of solvent removal, and solvent removal using a rotary evaporation apparatus. Control experiments also revealed that the macro-ripple phase was observed regardless of whether lipid specimens were prepared by either ultra-rapid or manual plunge freezing methods as well as either in the presence or absence of the cryo-protectant glycerol. The macro-ripple phase was always observed in mixtures that were fully annealed by incubation above the main thermal transition of both POPC and bovine brain GalCer before rapid freezing. If the GalCer mixed with POPC contained only nonhydroxy acyl chains or only 2-hydroxy acyl chains, then the occurrence of macro

  13. Recognizing the need for evidence-based macro practices in organizational and community settings.

    PubMed

    Netting, F; O'Connor, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The need for using evidence-based macro practices is examined. EBP is viewed as practitioners recognizing client values and then using the most promising research to guide programmatic, organizational, community, and policy activities to facilitate change. There are multiple ways to search for evidence. The nature of evidence in macro practice will look different depending on the practice situation. Being able to assess the situation and recognize the context in which one is practicing will set the stage for how EBP should be defined. A set of questions are suggested to guide decision-making regarding the use and the management of evidence.

  14. Implications of Modern Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Georgescu-Roegen's Macro-Economics: lessons from a comprehensive historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In the early 1970s, mathematician and economist Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen developed an alternative framework to macro-economics (his hourglass model) based on two principles of classical thermodynamics applied to the earth-system as a whole. The new model led him to the radical conclusion that "not only growth, but also a zero-growth state, nay, even a declining state which does not converge toward annihilation, cannot exist forever in a finite environment" (Georgescu-Roegen 1976, p.23). Georgescu-Roegen's novel approach long served as a devastating critique of standard neoclassical growth theories. It also helped establish the foundations for the new trans-disciplinary field of ecological economics. In recent decades however, it has remained unclear whether revolutionary developments in "modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics" (Kondepudi and Prigogine 1998) refute some of Georgescu-Roegen's initial conclusions and provide fundamentally new lessons for very long-term macro-economic analysis. Based on a broad historical review of literature from many fields (thermodynamics, cosmology, ecosystems ecology and economics), I argue that Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass model is largely based on old misconceptions and assumptions from 19th century thermodynamics (including an out-dated cosmology) which make it very misleading. Ironically, these assumptions (path independence and linearity of the entropy function in particular) replicate the non-evolutionary thinking he seemed to despise in his colleagues. In light of modern NET, I propose a different model. Contrary to Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass, I do not assume the path independence of the entropy function. In the new model, achieving critical free energy rate density thresholds can abruptly increase the level of complexity and maximum remaining lifespan of stock-based civilizations.

  15. A novel method of multi-scale simulation of macro-scale deformation and microstructure evolution on metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiquan; Yi, Youping; Li, Pengchuan

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, multi-scale simulation technique of metal forming is gaining significant attention for prediction of the whole deformation process and microstructure evolution of product. The advances of numerical simulation at macro-scale level on metal forming are remarkable and the commercial FEM software, such as Deform2D/3D, has found a wide application in the fields of metal forming. However, the simulation method of multi-scale has little application due to the non-linearity of microstructure evolution during forming and the difficulty of modeling at the micro-scale level. This work deals with the modeling of microstructure evolution and a new method of multi-scale simulation in forging process. The aviation material 7050 aluminum alloy has been used as example for modeling of microstructure evolution. The corresponding thermal simulated experiment has been performed on Gleeble 1500 machine. The tested specimens have been analyzed for modeling of dislocation density, nucleation and growth of recrystallization(DRX). The source program using cellular automaton (CA) method has been developed to simulate the grain nucleation and growth, in which the change of grain topology structure caused by the metal deformation was considered. The physical fields at macro-scale level such as temperature field, stress and strain fields, which can be obtained by commercial software Deform 3D, are coupled with the deformed storage energy at micro-scale level by dislocation model to realize the multi-scale simulation. This method was explained by forging process simulation of the aircraft wheel hub forging. Coupled the results of Deform 3D with CA results, the forging deformation progress and the microstructure evolution at any point of forging could be simulated. For verifying the efficiency of simulation, experiments of aircraft wheel hub forging have been done in the laboratory and the comparison of simulation and experiment result has been discussed in details.

  16. Regional Differences in Muscle Energy Metabolism in Human Muscle by 31P-Chemical Shift Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kime, Ryotaro; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Hongo, Yoshinori; Ohno, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Ayumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported significant region-dependent differences in the fiber-type composition of human skeletal muscle. It is therefore hypothesized that there is a difference between the deep and superficial parts of muscle energy metabolism during exercise. We hypothesized that the inorganic phosphate (Pi)/phosphocreatine (PCr) ratio of the superficial parts would be higher, compared with the deep parts, as the work rate increases, because the muscle fiber-type composition of the fast-type may be greater in the superficial parts compared with the deep parts. This study used two-dimensional 31Phosphorus Chemical Shift Imaging (31P-CSI) to detect differences between the deep and superficial parts of the human leg muscles during dynamic knee extension exercise. Six healthy men participated in this study (age 27±1 year, height 169.4±4.1 cm, weight 65.9±8.4 kg). The experiments were carried out with a 1.5-T superconducting magnet with a 5-in. diameter circular surface coil. The subjects performed dynamic one-legged knee extension exercise in the prone position, with the transmit-receive coil placed under the right quadriceps muscles in the magnet. The subjects pulled down an elastic rubber band attached to the ankle at a frequency of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Hz for 320 s each. The intracellular pH (pHi) was calculated from the median chemical shift of the Pi peak relative to PCr. No significant difference in Pi/PCr was observed between the deep and the superficial parts of the quadriceps muscles at rest. The Pi/PCr of the superficial parts was not significantly increased with increasing work rate. Compared with the superficial areas, the Pi/PCr of the deep parts was significantly higher (p<0.05) at 1 Hz. The pHi showed no significant difference between the two parts. These results suggest that muscle oxidative metabolism is different between deep and superficial parts of quadriceps muscles during dynamic exercise. PMID:26782194

  17. Regional Differences in Muscle Energy Metabolism in Human Muscle by 31P-Chemical Shift Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kime, Ryotaro; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Hongo, Yoshinori; Ohno, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Ayumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported significant region-dependent differences in the fiber-type composition of human skeletal muscle. It is therefore hypothesized that there is a difference between the deep and superficial parts of muscle energy metabolism during exercise. We hypothesized that the inorganic phosphate (Pi)/phosphocreatine (PCr) ratio of the superficial parts would be higher, compared with the deep parts, as the work rate increases, because the muscle fiber-type composition of the fast-type may be greater in the superficial parts compared with the deep parts. This study used two-dimensional 31Phosphorus Chemical Shift Imaging (31P-CSI) to detect differences between the deep and superficial parts of the human leg muscles during dynamic knee extension exercise. Six healthy men participated in this study (age 27±1 year, height 169.4±4.1 cm, weight 65.9±8.4 kg). The experiments were carried out with a 1.5-T superconducting magnet with a 5-in. diameter circular surface coil. The subjects performed dynamic one-legged knee extension exercise in the prone position, with the transmit-receive coil placed under the right quadriceps muscles in the magnet. The subjects pulled down an elastic rubber band attached to the ankle at a frequency of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Hz for 320 s each. The intracellular pH (pHi) was calculated from the median chemical shift of the Pi peak relative to PCr. No significant difference in Pi/PCr was observed between the deep and the superficial parts of the quadriceps muscles at rest. The Pi/PCr of the superficial parts was not significantly increased with increasing work rate. Compared with the superficial areas, the Pi/PCr of the deep parts was significantly higher (p<0.05) at 1 Hz. The pHi showed no significant difference between the two parts. These results suggest that muscle oxidative metabolism is different between deep and superficial parts of quadriceps muscles during dynamic exercise.

  18. Validation and Comparison of Two Methods to Assess Human Energy Expenditure during Free-Living Activities

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Tubic, Mirnes; Schmidt, Steffen; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Härtel, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Background The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE) via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA) and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany). Material and Methods Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years) wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Results The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min), walking fast (1.72 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (1.45 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min) and underestimated the AEE of jogging (−1.30 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (−2.46 kcal/min). The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (0.06 kcal/min) and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min) and underestimated AEE of walking fast (−0.11 kcal/min) and jogging (−0.93 kcal/min). Conclusions Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  19. Conducting Tetrad Tests of Model Fit and Contrasts of Tetrad-Nested Models: A New SAS Macro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, John R.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a SAS macro to assess model fit of structural equation models by employing a test of the model-implied vanishing tetrads. Use of this test has been limited in the past, in part due to the lack of software that fully automates the test in a user-friendly way. The current SAS macro provides a straightforward method for…

  20. Static correlations in macro-ionic suspensions: Analytic and numerical results in a hypernetted-chain-mean-spherical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sheema; Morton, Thomas L.; Ronis, David

    1987-05-01

    The static correlations in highly charged colloidal and micellar suspensions, with and without added electrolyte, are examined using the hypernetted-chain approximation (HNC) for the macro-ion-macro-ion correlations and the mean-spherical approximation for the other correlations. By taking the point-ion limit for the counter-ions, an analytic solution for the counter-ion part of the problem can be obtained; this maps the macro-ion part of the problem onto a one-component problem where the macro-ions interact via a screened Coulomb potential with the Gouy-Chapman form for the screening length and an effective charge that depends on the macro-ion-macro-ion pair correlations. Numerical solutions of the effective one-component equation in the HNC approximation are presented, and in particular, the effects of macro-ion charge, nonadditive core diameters, and added electrolyte are examined. As we show, there can be a strong renormalization of the effective macro-ion charge and reentrant melting in colloidal crystals.