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Sample records for human engineering considerations

  1. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  2. STV engine design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) engine design criteria and issues; (2) design requirements for man rating; (3) test requirements for man rating; (4) design requirements for space basing; (5) engine operation requirements; (6) health monitoring; (7) lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) feed system; (8) lunar excursion vehicle (LEV) propellant system; (9) area ratio gimbal angle limits; (10) reaction control system; and (11) engine configuration and characteristics. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  3. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  4. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The term ``radioecology`` has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ``engineering radioecology``, seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology.

  5. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  6. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  7. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  8. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  9. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  10. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  11. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  12. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  13. Human factors considerations for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Even with traditional system design and development programs military systems are developed that end up being difficult for the target audience to use. Over the years the military has learned to incorporate human factors considerations and requirements in system requirements documents in order to minimize this problem. However in today's environment of procuring GOTS/COTS equipment to quickly field a needed capability, the human factors aspects are not always considered or they may have to be traded for other considerations. This occurs for a variety of reasons with the driving reason being the willingness of commanders and agencies to trade capabilities for speed of fielding. This paper addresses human factors considerations that should be observed in the design of unattended ground sensors (UGS) at the component, equipment and system levels. This is not an abstract paper on human factors engineering but an examination of current trends and applications. Lessons learned from recent fieldings and example designs from the Harris Falcon Watch system are provided. What Harris has found is that design considerations, development schedules, understanding of the target audience and the mission scenarios, and training are all key factors in determining whether a system will be found to have utility by a broad spectrum of users.

  14. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  15. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  16. Considerations on Educating Engineers in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of sustainability to engineers will follow similar paths to that of environmental engineering. There is a strong feeling that environmental engineering is a discipline unto itself, requiring knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, hydrology, toxicology, modelling and law. However, environmental engineering can also be encompassed…

  17. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  18. Engine design considerations for 2nd generation supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental and economic goals projected for advanced supersonic transports will require revolutionary improvements in propulsion systems. Variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate unique components and advanced technologies show promise in meeting these goals. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting conceptual design studies of variable cycle engine concepts under NASA sponsorship. This paper reviews some of the design considerations for these engine concepts. Emphasis is placed on jet noise abatement, reduction of emissions, performance improvements, installation considerations, hot-section characteristics and control system requirements. Two representative variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate these basic design considerations are described.

  19. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  20. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  1. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  2. Engineering considerations applied to starshade repointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-07-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure (SRP) has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  3. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

    2012-01-27

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

  4. Viking Mars hydrazine terminal descent engine thermal design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, C. R.; Morrisey, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of some of the more significant thermal design considerations employed in the development and qualification of the monopropellant hydrazine terminal descent engines on the Viking Mars lander spacecraft. The terminal descent engine operates in a blowdown and throttling mode, which results in an operating thrust range of 638 to 90 lbf. Martian entry thermal design boundary conditions are described, along with resulting radiative and conductive engine thermal isolation hardware. Test results are presented, showing engine thermal design performance as compared with specified requirements. General engine materials of construction are described, along with Hastelloy B shell structural characteristics, which were extended to 2000 F by test and are compared with limited existing MIL-HDBK-5 data. Subscale test results are presented, showing the maximum catalyst bed cylinder design temperature of 1970 F. Test results also are presented, showing local reactor internal convective heat-transfer coefficients. Such data are unique, since the engine employs a completely radial flow catalyst bed design. This design approach is the first of its kind in the monopropellant hydrazine gas generator field to be flight qualified.

  5. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p < .001, and increased following participation in a design curriculum, M diff = 1.32, t(133) = 7.60, p < .001 and Mdiff = 0.79, t(124) = 4.19, p < .001 respectively. Structural models also showed that students perceive team inclusion and feedback as significant contributors to their self-efficacy beliefs, while team diversity was not related to self-efficacy. Separate models for each predictor demonstrated good fit. Recommendations are made based on the corresponding nature of engineering design self

  6. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-24

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient.

  7. Some ocean engineering considerations in the design of OTEC plants

    SciTech Connect

    McGuiness, T.

    1982-08-01

    An alternate energy resource using the temperature differences between warm surface waters and cool bottom waters of the world's oceans, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the solar energy potential of nearequatorial water masses and can be applied to generate electrical energy as a baseload augmentation of landside power plants or to process energy-intensive products at sea. Designs of OTEC plants include concepts of floating barge or shipshape structures with large (up to 100-foot diameter, 3,000 feet in length) pipes used to intake cool bottom waters and platforms located in 300-foot water depths similar to oil drilling rigs, also with a pipe to ingest cool waters, but in this case the pipe is laid on continental shelf areas in 25/sup 0/-30/sup 0/ slopes attaining a length of several miles. The ocean engineering design considerations, problem areas, and proposed solutions to data regarding various OTEC plant concepts are the topic of this presentation.

  8. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  9. Revisiting the quantum Szilard engine with fully quantum considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai; Zou, Jian; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2012-12-15

    By considering level shifting during the insertion process we revisit the quantum Szilard engine (QSZE) with fully quantum consideration. We derive the general expressions of the heat absorbed from thermal bath and the total work done to the environment by the system in a cycle with two different cyclic strategies. We find that only the quantum information contributes to the absorbed heat, and the classical information acts like a feedback controller and has no direct effect on the absorbed heat. This is the first demonstration of the different effects of quantum information and classical information for extracting heat from the bath in the QSZE. Moreover, when the well width L{yields}{infinity} or the temperature of the bath T{yields}{infinity} the QSZE reduces to the classical Szilard engine (CSZE), and the total work satisfies the relation W{sub tot}=k{sub B}Tln2 as obtained by Sang Wook Kim et al. [S.W. Kim, T. Sagawa, S. De Liberato, M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 070401] for one particle case. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time analyze the QSZE by considering energy level shifts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Find different roles played by classical and quantum information in the QSZE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of work extracted depends on the cyclic strategies of the QSZE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verify that the QSZE will reduce to the CSZE in the classical limits.

  10. Human factors considerations for contraindication alerts.

    PubMed

    van der Sijs, Heleen; Baboe, Imtiaaz; Phansalkar, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Alert fatigue is a ubiquitous problem in clinical decision support systems. Several remedies to alert fatigue have been proposed including improving the specificity of alerts and compliance with human factors principles. Human factors principles that are relevant for drug safety alerting have been identified and operationalized for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), resulting in a previously developed and validated quantitative instrument. Such an instrument is lacking for contraindications. This study describes the operationalization of human factors principles for contraindication alerting. Thirty items associated with 10 human factors principles are included in the instrument: 4 items are new, 5 are similar, and 21 are equal to the DDI-instrument. The instrument was further operationalized to a test protocol. Three independent persons used the test protocol. Inter-rater reliability indicated moderate agreement (κ=0.540) It is feasible to test the implementation of human factors in contraindication alert design with the newly developed instrument.

  11. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  12. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits.

  13. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  14. ANTHROPOMETRY AND HUMAN ENGINEERING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    de l’armee de l’air francaise; Sheldon types and success in flight performance; Adapting the aeroplane to the pilot; Instrument dials, instrument...establishment of a longitudinal study of the medical and psychological aspects of the U.S. naval aviator; Somatotyping ; Human factors in aircraft design.

  15. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  16. Tissue engineering a human phalanx.

    PubMed

    Landis, W J; Chubinskaya, S; Tokui, T; Wada, Y; Isogai, N; Jacquet, R

    2016-03-21

    A principal purpose of tissue engineering is the augmentation, repair or replacement of diseased or injured human tissue. This study was undertaken to determine whether human biopsies as a cell source could be utilized for successful engineering of human phalanges consisting of both bone and cartilage. This paper reports the use of cadaveric human chondrocytes and periosteum as a model for the development of phalanx constructs. Two factors, osteogenic protein-1 [OP-1/bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7)], alone or combined with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), were examined for their potential enhancement of chondrocytes and their secreted extracellular matrices. Design of the study included culture of chondrocytes and periosteum on biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds and subsequent implantation in athymic nu/nu (nude) mice for 5, 20, 40 and 60 weeks. Engineered constructs retrieved from mice were characterized with regard to genotype and phenotype as a function of developmental (implantation) time. Assessments included gross observation, X-ray radiography or microcomputed tomography, histology and gene expression. The resulting data showed that human cell-scaffold constructs could be successfully developed over 60 weeks, despite variability in donor age. Cartilage formation of the distal phalanx models enhanced with both OP-1 and IGF-1 yielded more cells and extracellular matrix (collagen and proteoglycans) than control chondrocytes without added factors. Summary data demonstrated that human distal phalanx models utilizing cadaveric chondrocytes and periosteum were successfully fabricated and OP-1 and OP-1/IGF-1 accelerated construct development and mineralization. The results suggest that similar engineering and transplantation of human autologous tissues in patients are clinically feasible. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Genome engineering in human cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Minjung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing in human cells is of great value in research, medicine, and biotechnology. Programmable nucleases including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases recognize a specific target sequence and make a double-strand break at that site, which can result in gene disruption, gene insertion, gene correction, or chromosomal rearrangements. The target sequence complexities of these programmable nucleases are higher than 3.2 mega base pairs, the size of the haploid human genome. Here, we briefly introduce the structure of the human genome and the characteristics of each programmable nuclease, and review their applications in human cells including pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we discuss various delivery methods for nucleases, programmable nickases, and enrichment of gene-edited human cells, all of which facilitate efficient and precise genome editing in human cells.

  18. Design considerations for the CELSS test facility engineering development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, M.; Borchers, B.; Drews, M.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program has the goal of developing life support systems for humans in space based on the use of higher plants. The program has supported research at universities with a primary focus of increasing the productivity of candidate crop plants. To understand the effects of the space environment on plant productivity, the CELSS Test Facility (CTF) has been developed as an instrument that will permit the evaluation of plant productivity on Space Station Freedom. The CFT will maintain specific environmental conditions and collect data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation over the growth period of several crop plants grown sequentially from seed to harvest. To better understand the systems needed to support plants and maintain the evironmental conditions required by CTF, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is being constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in the Advanced Life Support Division. The EDU will provide the means of testing and evaluating hardware solutions to CTF requirements. This paper reviews the CTF science and functional requirements, and provides a description of the EDU objectives, design approach, subsystem descriptions, and some of the technology tools employed in accomplishing the design.

  19. Failure Modes and Predictive Diagnostics Considerations for Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    Collacott, R. A., Mechanical Fault Diagnosis and Condition Monitoring. Halstead Press: New York, 1977. 9. Maynard, K. P., et al, Application of Double...engines contributing to reduced readiness and increased maintenance costs. These faults can be addressed and studied using scaled testing to build the...bed is used for experimental collection of healthy, seeded fault , and transitional fault test data from the diesel engine and driveline components. The

  20. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  1. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  2. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat.

  3. Engineered autonomous human variable domains

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Tessier, Peter M.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2017-01-01

    The complex multi-chain architecture of antibodies has spurred interest in smaller derivatives that retain specificity but can be more easily produced in bacteria. Domain antibodies consisting of single variable domains are the smallest antibody fragments and have been shown to possess enhanced ability to target epitopes that are difficult to access using multidomain antibodies. However, in contrast to natural camelid antibody domains, human variable domains typically suffer from low stability and high propensity to aggregate. This review summarizes strategies to improve the biophysical properties of heavy chain variable domains from human antibodies with an emphasis on aggregation resistance. Several protein engineering approaches have targeted antibody frameworks and complementarity determining regions to stabilize the native state and prevent aggregation of the denatured state. Recent findings enable the construction of highly diverse libraries enriched in aggregation-resistant variants that are expected to provide binders to diverse antigens. Engineered domain antibodies possess unique advantages in expression, epitope preference and flexibility of formatting over conventional immunoreagents and are a promising class of antibody fragments for biomedical development. PMID:27655414

  4. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the viewer’s eyes must converge at one distance, VSG , but must accommodate at another, fSG. Such a conflict causes the viewer to reconcile the two...the binocular fDV fSG p disparity vSG Right-eye View Left-eye View Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces RTO-MP

  5. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  6. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  7. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  8. Of mice and microflora: considerations for genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Treuting, P M; Clifford, C B; Sellers, R S; Brayton, C F

    2012-01-01

    The phenotype of genetically engineered mice is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors that include the microflora of the mouse. The impact a particular microbe has on a mouse reflects the host-microbe interaction within the context of the mouse genotype and environment. Although often considered a confounding variable, many host-microbe interactions have resulted in the generation of novel model systems and characterization of new microbial agents. Microbes associated with overt disease in mice have been the historical focus of the laboratory animal medical and pathology community and literature. The advent of genetic engineering and the complex of mouse models have revealed previously unknown or disregarded agents that now oblige the attention of the biomedical research community. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate how phenotypes can be affected by microflora by focusing on the infectious diseases present in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) colonies of our collective institutions and by reviewing important agents that are rarely seen in most research facilities today. The goal is to introduce the concept of the role of microflora on phenotypes and in translational research using GEM models.

  9. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking.

  10. Particle engineering in pharmaceutical solids processing: surface energy considerations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daryl R

    2015-01-01

    During the past 10 years particle engineering in the pharmaceutical industry has become a topic of increasing importance. Engineers and pharmacists need to understand and control a range of key unit manufacturing operations such as milling, granulation, crystallisation, powder mixing and dry powder inhaled drugs which can be very challenging. It has now become very clear that in many of these particle processing operations, the surface energy of the starting, intermediate or final products is a key factor in understanding the processing operation and or the final product performance. This review will consider the surface energy and surface energy heterogeneity of crystalline solids, methods for the measurement of surface energy, effects of milling on powder surface energy, adhesion and cohesion on powder mixtures, crystal habits and surface energy, surface energy and powder granulation processes, performance of DPI systems and finally crystallisation conditions and surface energy. This review will conclude that the importance of surface energy as a significant factor in understanding the performance of many particulate pharmaceutical products and processes has now been clearly established. It is still nevertheless, work in progress both in terms of development of methods and establishing the limits for when surface energy is the key variable of relevance.

  11. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K{sub d}, is a description of a dissolved substance`s tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K{sub d}S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K{sub d}S for cesium are in the range of 100 m{ell}/g up to 10,000 m{ell}/g. K{sub d}S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  12. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K[sub d], is a description of a dissolved substance's tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K[sub d]S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K[sub d]S for cesium are in the range of 100 m[ell]/g up to 10,000 m[ell]/g. K[sub d]S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  13. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations

    PubMed Central

    Leong, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example. PMID:19005702

  14. Material considerations for the fusion engineering device (FED) pump limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, J. R.; Cramer, B. A.; Davisson, J. P.; Mantz, H. C.

    A mechanical pump limiter is provided in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) to establish the plasma edge, to exhaust plasma particles, to handle a significant fraction of the plasma heat load, and to protect the first wall from large particle and energy fluxes. Various protective surface materials were evaluated for applicability to the limiter. Bare metal and armor tile design concepts were considered. The protective surface concept selected for the baseline FED limiter consists of graphite tiles brazed to a water cooled copper substrate. Graphite and copper were selected because of their resistance to damage at high heat fluxes, the low atomic number of graphite and the potential for reliable brazing of copper and graphite.

  15. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  16. Engineering nucleases for gene targeting: safety and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Katia; Podevin, Nancy; Breyer, Didier; Carroll, Dana; Herman, Philippe

    2014-01-25

    Nuclease-based gene targeting (NBGT) represents a significant breakthrough in targeted genome editing since it is applicable from single-celled protozoa to human, including several species of economic importance. Along with the fast progress in NBGT and the increasing availability of customized nucleases, more data are available about off-target effects associated with the use of this approach. We discuss how NBGT may offer a new perspective for genetic modification, we address some aspects crucial for a safety improvement of the corresponding techniques and we also briefly relate the use of NBGT applications and products to the regulatory oversight.

  17. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  18. Launch Deployment Assembly Human Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the human engineering analysis performed by the Systems Branch in support of the 6A cargo element design. The human engineering analysis is limited to the extra vehicular activities (EVA) which are involved in removal of various cargo items from the LDA and specific activities concerning deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS).

  19. Engineering considerations in the design of an ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Kempson, G E; Freeman, M A; Tuke, M A

    1975-05-01

    A prothesis has been designed to replace the articulating surfaces of the human ankle joint. The prothesis is in two parts, each forming a segment of a right circular cylinder with a single axis of rotation. The concave tibial component is manufactured from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and the talar component is manufactured from medical grade stainless steel. It is likely, however, that the talar component will be commercially manufactured from cobalt chrome alloy (Vitallium or Vinertia). The two components are secured to the cancellous bone by polymethylmethacrylate bone cement and laboratory tests have indicated that the bond should be strong enough to withstand the loads encountered at the ankle joint in vivo. The tests have also shown that the stability and strength of the ankle are not seriously reduced by implantation of the prosthesis. Laboratory wear tests and clinical experience over the last two years encourage optimism over the long term performance of the prothesis.

  20. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  1. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D; Brown, J E; Beresford, N A

    2010-06-01

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  2. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  3. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  4. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  5. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  6. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  7. Moderating Effects of Employee Expectancies on the Relationship between Leadership Consideration and Job Performance of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren

    1974-01-01

    Ninety-four engineers were asked to describe their supervisors' leadership style, to indicate their expectancies whether performing effectively in their jobs would lead to job rewards and the valence of these rewards. Results indicated that leader consideration and employee expectancies operate in joint fashions to affect job performance. (Author)

  8. Cost/feasibility considerations for off-shore engineering/construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, R.K.; Harrison, J.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Considerable construction activity is now occurring in areas of the world where in-country engineering/construction capability is limited. This limitation requires the use of off-shore capabilities in conjunction with local engineering contractors (LEC's) to satisfy local legal requirements for use of on-shore services. While LEC's can provide the advantage of relatively inexpensive labor, it also brings the challenge of managing an international team given the difference in productivity and cultures. Procurement of equipment worldwide also has advantages and disadvantages. Government regulations relative to equipment purchased off-shore can be complex. Shipping considerations are significant when the existing infrastructure is taken into account, particularly when modular construction techniques are utilized. Understanding the contractual and documentation required takes a major effort. This paper addresses the complexities of off-shore engineering/construction from a management and cost perspective.

  9. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  10. Physiological and Biomechanical Considerations for a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness - ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  11. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  12. Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness--ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  13. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    integrated research and development effort between NASA's Human Research Program (HRP), engineering and human factors groups. Packaging food to extend shelf life and waste management will be important components of vehicle subsystem design.

  14. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  15. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  16. Human Factors Engineering. Student Supplement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Psychologists as Division 21 of the APA . It seems fitting, now that engineering psychology has been recognized as a viable entity, that we examine this new...34INFIC 161ST SCALE ___________ P CIUUIOIC POP40 3 SMTCPWONSI OARIA C0" NORMA . IN. AIDS AMU Ls". PLA0D 11aw Lu". FILM PACK CLR so. RAW MOTIVE LIS mm’ 7

  17. Considerations about the specific impulse of an antimatter-based thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vulpetti, G.; Pecchioli, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Starting from both consolidated and new experimental data about the annihilation at rest of antiproton nucleons, and reconsidering the antimatter engine-design concepts that have been developed during the last 5-6 years, the practical limits of specific impulse are considered for classes of potential antimatter thrusters. The aim of this paper is to quantify considerations strongly related to the several different types of particles released by annihilation and the near-future technology. Major results from such an analysis are: (1) solid-shell gaseous-core engine specific impulses higher than 1000 s (the solid-core engine limit) may be attained only by appreciably decreasing the annihilation gamma-ray energy absorbed by the engine shells and, hence, by the propellant; and (2) specific impulses higher than about 6600 s cannot be achieved by a thermal engine because the annihilation charged-product engine energy efficiency to the gamma-ray engine energy-efficiency ratio is limited to about 40. Realistic value of this ratio is a maximum specific impluse of about 5800 s. 15 refs.

  18. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  19. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970’s and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals. PMID:26500908

  20. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava

    2015-09-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970's and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals.

  1. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  2. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    representing the government, the military, academe, and private industry were surveyed to identify those tools that are most frequently used or viewed...tools by HFE researchers and practitioners within the academic, industrial , and military settings. % .. J. &@ossion For XTIS GR&&I DTIC TAS 0...267 E. Human Factors Engineering Tools Questionnaire .. ......... . 279 F. Listing of Industry , Government, and Academe

  3. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  4. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  5. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies.

  6. Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Randall S.; Lorson, Monique; Ross, Jason W.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Walters, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are used widely as models of human disease, their utility as models has been enhanced by genetic engineering. Initially, transgenes were added randomly to the genome, but with the application of homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, now most any genetic change that can be envisioned can be completed. To date these genetic modifications have resulted in animals that have the potential to provide new insights into human diseases for which a good animal model did not exist previously. These new animal models should provide the preclinical data for treatments that are developed for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, diabetes, and organ failure. These new models will help to uncover aspects and treatments of these diseases that were otherwise unattainable. The focus of this review is to describe genetically engineered pigs that have resulted in models of human diseases. PMID:25387017

  7. Stochastic heat engine with the consideration of inertial effects and shortcuts to adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Z. C.

    2014-05-01

    When a Brownian particle in contact with a heat bath at a constant temperature is controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential, its distribution function can be rigorously derived from the Kramers equation with the consideration of the inertial effect of the Brownian particle. Based on this rigorous solution and the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity, we construct a stochastic heat engine by employing the time-dependent harmonic potential to manipulate the Brownian particle to complete a thermodynamic cycle. We find that the efficiency at maximum power of this stochastic heat engine is equal to 1-√Tc/Th , where Tc and Th are the temperatures of the cold bath and the hot one in the thermodynamic cycle, respectively.

  8. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Warren L; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q; Liu, X Sherry; Guo, X Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-02-23

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a "biomimetic" scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle-in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries-to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions.

  9. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  10. An Empirical Methodology for Engineering Human Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Human factors engineering HFI ...................................... Human factors integration HMI .................................... Human...AIRPRINT AFRL/RH INCOSE Defense Acquisition Guide MANPRINT IEEE SMC ACM UK HFI Program Manpower X X X X X X X Personnel X X X “Personal...systems engineering human systems integration NATO, some use USAF, ISO HFI Human factors integration Confused with HSI, but only the interface

  11. Systems integrated human engineering on the Navy's rapid acquisition of manufactured parts/test and integration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaway, Glen R.

    1987-01-01

    Human Engineering in many projects is at best a limited support function. In this Navy project the Human Engineering function is an integral component of the systems design and development process. Human Engineering is a member of the systems design organization. This ensures that people considerations are: (1) identified early in the project; (2) accounted for in the specifications; (3) incorporated into the design; and (4) the tested product meets the needs and expectations of the people while meeting the overall systems requirements. The project exemplifies achievements that can be made by the symbiosis between systems designers, engineers and Human Engineering. This approach increases Human Engineering's effectiveness and value to a project because it becomes an accepted, contributing team member. It is an approach to doing Human Engineering that should be considered for most projects. The functional and organizational issues giving this approach strength are described.

  12. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  13. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  14. Considerations of human's long stay in closed systems.

    PubMed

    Ashida, A

    1994-07-01

    Conditions for long stay of human in closed systems with material circulation, such as space stations and lunar bases, are discussed compared with the current human's life style on earth in the light of human cultural history. Impact on the life-style in the closed ecological system lies on meals and hygiene systems. A key to resolve problems in a new life-style in a closed system lies on mental aspects relating to a new life culture. Necessary items to be developed are shown in order to realize comfortable life in the closed system.

  15. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science.

  16. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  17. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  18. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  19. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  20. [Legal and philosophical considerations about cloning in human reproduction].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, V

    1999-01-01

    The birth of Dolly the sheep has served to rekindle the debate on the lawfulness of cloning for human reproduction. Although the normative response has been unanimous thus far in sanctioning such use, the matter of the limits to this is widely debated. In this article the author examines the reasons underpinning the limits imposed: is cloning for human reproduction unlawful in itself of does everything depend on the aim pursued? The issue is addressed from the standpoint of the apparent clash in law between the right to reproduce and freedom of research, on the one hand, and--on the other--the right to be conceived in a given manner. Particular attention is paid to the question of the lawfulness of two instances of human embryo division, namely, for in vitro fertilization and for preimplantation diagnosis.

  1. Human low vision image warping - Channel matching considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Smith, Alan T.; Loshin, David S.

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the possibility that a video image may productively be warped prior to presentation to a low vision patient. This could form part of a prosthesis for certain field defects. We have done preliminary quantitative studies on some notions that may be valid in calculating the image warpings. We hope the results will help make best use of time to be spent with human subjects, by guiding the selection of parameters and their range to be investigated. We liken a warping optimization to opening the largest number of spatial channels between the pixels of an input imager and resolution cells in the visual system. Some important effects are not quantified that will require human evaluation, such as local 'squashing' of the image, taken as the ratio of eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the transformation. The results indicate that the method shows quantitative promise. These results have identified some geometric transformations to evaluate further with human subjects.

  2. Considerations for human-machine interfaces in tele-operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Curt

    1991-01-01

    Numerous factors impact on the efficiency of tele-operative manipulative work. Generally, these are related to the physical environment of the tele-operator and how he interfaces with robotic control consoles. The capabilities of the operator can be influenced by considerations such as temperature, eye strain, body fatigue, and boredom created by repetitive work tasks. In addition, the successful combination of man and machine will, in part, be determined by the configuration of the visual and physical interfaces available to the teleoperator. The design and operation of system components such as full-scale and mini-master manipulator controllers, servo joysticks, and video monitors will have a direct impact on operational efficiency. As a result, the local environment and the interaction of the operator with the robotic control console have a substantial effect on mission productivity.

  3. Theoretical considerations for mapping activation in human cardiac fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2013-06-01

    Defining mechanisms for cardiac fibrillation is challenging because, in contrast to other arrhythmias, fibrillation exhibits complex non-repeatability in spatiotemporal activation but paradoxically exhibits conserved spatial gradients in rate, dominant frequency, and electrical propagation. Unlike animal models, in which fibrillation can be mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution using optical dyes or arrays of contact electrodes, mapping of cardiac fibrillation in patients is constrained practically to lower resolutions or smaller fields-of-view. In many animal models, atrial fibrillation is maintained by localized electrical rotors and focal sources. However, until recently, few studies had revealed localized sources in human fibrillation, so that the impact of mapping constraints on the ability to identify rotors or focal sources in humans was not described. Here, we determine the minimum spatial and temporal resolutions theoretically required to detect rigidly rotating spiral waves and focal sources, then extend these requirements for spiral waves in computer simulations. Finally, we apply our results to clinical data acquired during human atrial fibrillation using a novel technique termed focal impulse and rotor mapping (FIRM). Our results provide theoretical justification and clinical demonstration that FIRM meets the spatio-temporal resolution requirements to reliably identify rotors and focal sources for human atrial fibrillation.

  4. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  5. Use of human engineering standards in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.; Armstrong, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a research study intended to assess the impact of present human engineering standards on product design. The approach consisted of three basic steps: a comparison of two display panels to determine if, in fact, products designed to the same standards are truly standardized; a review of two existing standards to determine how well their information can be used to solve design problems; and a survey of human factors specialists to assess their opinions about standards. It is shown that standards have less than the desired influence on product design. This is evidenced by a lack of standardization between hardware designed under common standards, by deficiencies within the standards that detract from their usefulness and encourage users to ignore them, and by the respondents of the survey who consider standards less valuable than other reference sources for design implementation. Recommendations aimed at enhancing the use of standards are set forth.

  6. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  7. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  8. Surgical, ethical, and psychosocial considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furr, Allen; Hardy, Mark A; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-19

    Transplanting a head and brain is perhaps the final frontier of organ transplantation. The goal of body-to-head transplantation (BHT) is to sustain the life of individuals who suffer from terminal disease, but whose head and brain are healthy. Ideally BHT could provide a lifesaving treatment for several conditions where none currently exists. BHT is no ordinary experiment, to transfer a head to another body involves extraordinarily complex medical challenges as well as ethical and existential dilemmas that were previously confined to the imagination of writers of fiction. The possibility of replacing an incurably ill body with a healthy one tests not only our surgical limits, but also the social and psychological boundaries of physical life and alters what we recognize life to be. The purpose of this target article, the complementary manuscript focused on immunological issues in BHT, and the accompanying Commentaries by scholars and practitioners in medicine, immunology, and bioethics is to review major surgical and psychosocial-ethical and immunological considerations surrounding body-to-head transplantation. We hope that together these ideas will provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the possibilities and challenges associated with BHT and initiate professional discussion and debate through which this new frontier in medicine is considered and approached.

  9. Shortened Engineered Human Antibody CH2 Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Qi; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) constant CH2 domain is critical for antibody effector functions. Isolated CH2 domains are promising scaffolds for construction of libraries containing diverse binders that could also confer some effector functions. We have shown previously that an isolated human CH2 domain is relatively unstable to thermally induced unfolding, but its stability can be improved by engineering an additional disulfide bond (Gong, R., Vu, B. K., Feng, Y., Prieto, D. A., Dyba, M. A., Walsh, J. D., Prabakaran, P., Veenstra, T. D., Tarasov, S. G., Ishima, R., and Dimitrov, D. S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 14203–14210). We have hypothesized that the stability of this engineered antibody domain could be further increased by removing unstructured residues. To test our hypothesis, we removed the seven N-terminal residues that are in a random coil as suggested by our analysis of the isolated CH2 crystal structure and NMR data. The resulting shortened engineered CH2 (m01s) was highly soluble, monomeric, and remarkably stable, with a melting temperature (Tm) of 82.6 °C, which is about 10 and 30 °C higher than those of the original stabilized CH2 (m01) and CH2, respectively. m01s and m01 were more resistant to protease digestion than CH2. A newly identified anti-CH2 antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope bound to m01s significantly better (>10-fold higher affinity) than to CH2 and slightly better than to m01. m01s bound to a recombinant soluble human neonatal Fc receptor at pH 6.0 more strongly than CH2. These data suggest that shortening the m01 N terminus significantly increases stability without disrupting its conformation and that our approach for increasing stability and decreasing size by removing unstructured regions may also apply to other proteins. PMID:21669873

  10. Community members as recruiters of human subjects: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research.

  11. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and the substance abuser: public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Fernandez, F

    1994-05-01

    Until recently, the abuse of intravenous drugs was perceived as a problem of the United States, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was seen mainly as a sexually transmitted disease that tended to affect homosexuals from industrialized nations. However, these perceptions are no longer valid. At present, the abuse of intravenous drugs constitutes the second most common cause of AIDS in the United States and in Europe. This trend has led to a review of the current strategies in the fight against infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We analyzed the current epidemiologic trends regarding infection with HIV; we examined the behavioral manifestations of intravenous drug users, particularly from a sexual point of view; and finally, we reviewed the most relevant governmental public policy positions related to drug abuse, specially that focusing on "damage control."

  13. Medical error and human factors engineering: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Gawron, Valerie J; Drury, Colin G; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Berger, Roseanne C

    2006-01-01

    The goal of human factors engineering is to optimize the relationship between humans and systems by studying human behavior, abilities, and limitations and using this knowledge to design systems for safe and effective human use. With the assumption that the human component of any system will inevitably produce errors, human factors engineers design systems and human/machine interfaces that are robust enough to reduce error rates and the effect of the inevitable error within the system. In this article, we review the extent and nature of medical error and then discuss human factors engineering tools that have potential applicability. These tools include taxonomies of human and system error and error data collection and analysis methods. Finally, we describe studies that have examined medical error, and on the basis of these studies, present conclusions about how human factors engineering can significantly reduce medical errors and their effects.

  14. Role of Human Factors and Engineering Psychology in Undergraduate and Graduate Engineering Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Jesse Rebol

    2010-12-01

    The engineering discipline is a profession of acquiring and applying technical knowledge, and the focus of engineering psychology is to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency with which human activities are conducted. Having human factors and engineering psychology be a permanent part of the engineering curriculum will make students aware of them, so they can learn from past experiences and avoid making the same mistakes their peers made. (Should be close to 200 words)

  15. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  16. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179

  17. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  18. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  19. Human papillomavirus: burden of illness and treatment cost considerations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Paul A; Tung, Mun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    The monetary and personal costs to society of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are enormous. In order to make a comparison of different treatment methods we reviewed the entire literature on HPV treatment from January 1966 to December 2003 using MEDLINE, with particular reference to published meta-analyses, randomized controlled and comparative studies. Patient-applied therapies offer patients the possibility of convenient and, on the whole, pain-free treatment. Podofilox (podophyllotoxin) and salicylic acid for genital and extragenital warts, respectively, have the additional advantage of being the most cost-effective treatments and, on this basis, they are to be commended as appropriate first-line agents. The second-line treatment of choice for common warts is cryotherapy. For recalcitrant common warts possible options include inosine pranobex with cryotherapy or electrosurgery, imiquimod with paring and occlusion, intralesional bleomycin, or diphencyprone. Alternative first-line and second-line treatments for genital warts would be either some form of surgical removal or imiquimod. The first option may be the cheapest but this has to be balanced against a degree of post-operative morbidity. Limited data from comparative studies do not show any clear difference in efficacy between cryotherapy, trichloroacetic acid, scissor excision, electrosurgery, and laser surgery in the treatment of genital warts, and the cost effectiveness of these therapies is probably similar to that of imiquimod. Cryotherapy and trichloroacetic acid are relatively expensive and inconvenient for patients and should be reserved as third-line treatments with certain exceptions, such as cryotherapy for meatal warts. The duration of treatment is significantly related to the number of warts present, the area covered by the warts, and the length of time the warts have been present. For recalcitrant anogenital warts third-line treatment options that show promise include surgery in combination

  20. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  1. Engineered human dicentric chromosomes show centromere plasticity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Anne W; Gustashaw, Karen M; Willard, Huntington F

    2005-01-01

    The centromere is essential for the faithful distribution of a cell's genetic material to subsequent generations. Despite intense scrutiny, the precise genetic and epigenetic basis for centromere function is still unknown. Here, we have used engineered dicentric human chromosomes to investigate mammalian centromere structure and function. We describe three classes of dicentric chromosomes isolated in different cell lines: functionally monocentric chromosomes, in which one of the two genetically identical centromeres is consistently inactivated; functionally dicentric chromosomes, in which both centromeres are consistently active; and dicentric chromosomes heterogeneous with respect to centromere activity. A study of serial single cell clones from heterogeneous cell lines revealed that while centromere activity is usually clonal, the centromere state (i.e. functionally monocentric or dicentric) in some lines can switch within a growing population of cells. Because pulsed field gel analysis indicated that the DNA at the centromeres of these chromosomes did not change detectably, this switching of the centromere state is most likely due to epigenetic changes. Inactivation of one of the two active centromeres in a functionally dicentric chromosome was observed in a percentage of cells after treatment with Trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylation. This study provides evidence that the activity of human centromeres, while largely stable, can be subject to dynamic change, most likely due to epigenetic modification.

  2. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  3. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  4. A systems engineering view of the human in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the human as an 'engineered' system provides a starting point for determining human requirements and performance on an equivalent basis with technological systems. The human as an engineered system with performance requirements is defined to consist of four subsystems: cognitive, psychological, biomechanical, and biomedical. It is suggested that the treatment of the psychological subsystem as one that modulates the efficiency and quality of human performance offers a particular approach for examining and characterizing psychological effects.

  5. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  6. Engineering Retina from Human Retinal Progenitors (Cell Lines)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Retinal degeneration resulting in the loss of photoreceptors is the leading cause of blindness. Several therapeutic protocols are under consideration for treatment of this disease. Tissue replacement is one such strategy currently being explored. However, availability of tissues for transplant poses a major obstacle. Another strategy with great potential is the use of adult stem cells, which could be expanded in culture and then utilized to engineer retinal tissue. In this study, we have explored a spontaneously immortalized human retinal progenitor cell line for its potential in retinal engineering using rotary cultures to generate three-dimensional (3D) structures. Retinal progenitors cultured alone or cocultured with retinal pigment epithelial cells form aggregates. The aggregate size increases between days 1 and 10. The cells grown as a 3D culture rotary system, which promotes cell–cell interaction, retain a spectrum of differentiation capability. Photoreceptor differentiation in these cultures is confirmed by significant upregulation of rhodopsin and AaNat, an enzyme implicated in melatonin synthesis (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis). Photoreceptor induction and differentiation is further attested to by the upregulation of rod transcription factor Nrl, Nr2e3, expression of interstitial retinal binding protein, and rhodopsin kinase by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Differentiation toward other cell lineages is confirmed by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in amacrine cells, thy 1.1 expression in ganglion cells and calbindin, and GNB3 expression in cone cells. The capability of retinal progenitors to give rise to several retinal cell types when grown as aggregated cells in rotary culture offers hope that progenitor stem cells under appropriate culture conditions will be valuable to engineer retinal constructs, which could be further tested for their transplant potential. The fidelity with which this multipotential cell

  7. Integrating the human element into the systems engineering process and MBSE methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, Michael Samir.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the challenges related to the increasing size and complexity of systems, organizations have recognized the need to integrate human considerations in the beginning stages of systems development. Human Systems Integration (HSI) seeks to accomplish this objective by incorporating human factors within systems engineering (SE) processes and methodologies, which is the focus of this paper. A representative set of HSI methods from multiple sources are organized, analyzed, and mapped to the systems engineering Vee-model. These methods are then consolidated and evaluated against the SE process and Models-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to determine where and how they could integrate within systems development activities in the form of specific enhancements. Overall conclusions based on these evaluations are presented and future research areas are proposed.

  8. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  9. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering.

  10. System/subsystem engineering interface considerations and R and D requirements for IEF/QED engine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bussard, Robert W.; Froning, H. D. Jr.

    1998-01-15

    Extremely advanced space propulsion systems, based on use of inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) light-weight, high-power fusion energy sources (FES), use p{sup 11}B reactions for radiation-free production of energetic charged particles. These can be converted directly to electrical power to heat propellant by injection of sub-relativistic e-beams (REB) into propellant in magnetically-insulated thrust (BMT) chamber. This paper presents an examination of engineering interfaces and limits important in each major subsystem of a complete IEF engine system. In the FES, the principal limit is high voltage standoff and arcing; in the REB e-beam transport stability and limits on diode emission are of concern, while main BMT problems include e-beam injection, coupling to propellant plasma, and suppression of plasma-to-structure heat transfer. In the complete QED engine system the principal problem is maintenance of vehicle charge neutrality. Potential engineering solutions for each of these are defined and examined and their limits determined. An R and D program to address and resolve these (and allied) issues has been shown to require about 3-3.5 B over 14-17 years, to yield a full-scale prototype QED engine system, at 5000 MWe with I{sub sp}>2500 sec at F{approx_equal}40,000 kgf (400 kN)

  11. System/subsystem engineering interface considerations and R&D requirements for IEF/QED engine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Froning, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    Extremely advanced space propulsion systems, based on use of inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) light-weight, high-power fusion energy sources (FES), use p11B reactions for radiation-free production of energetic charged particles. These can be converted directly to electrical power to heat propellant by injection of sub-relativistic e-beams (REB) into propellant in magnetically-insulated thrust (BMT) chamber. This paper presents an examination of engineering interfaces and limits important in each major subsystem of a complete IEF engine system. In the FES, the principal limit is high voltage standoff and arcing; in the REB e-beam transport stability and limits on diode emission are of concern, while main BMT problems include e-beam injection, coupling to propellant plasma, and suppression of plasma-to-structure heat transfer. In the complete QED engine system the principal problem is maintenance of vehicle charge neutrality. Potential engineering solutions for each of these are defined and examined and their limits determined. An R&D program to address and resolve these (and allied) issues has been shown to require about #3-3.5 B over 14-17 years, to yield a full-scale prototype QED engine system, at 5000 MWe with Isp>2500 sec at F~40,000 kgf (400 kN).

  12. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  13. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display.

  14. Inspiring engineering minds to advance human health: the Henry Samueli School of Engineering's Department of BME.

    PubMed

    Lee, Abraham; Wirtanen, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The growth of biomedical engineering at The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) has been rapid since the Center for Biomedical Engineering was first formed in 1998 [and was later renamed as the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in 2002]. Our current mission statement, “Inspiring Engineering Minds to Advance Human Health,” serves as a reminder of why we exist, what we do, and the core principles that we value and by which we abide. BME exists to advance the state of human health via engineering innovation and practices. To attain our goal, we are empowering our faculty to inspire and mobilize our students to address health problems. We treasure the human being, particularly the human mind and health. We believe that BME is where minds are nurtured, challenged, and disciplined, and it is also where the health of the human is held as a core mission value that deserves our utmost priority (Figure 1). Advancing human health is not a theoretical practice; it requires bridging between disciplines (engineering and medicine) and between communities (academic and industry).

  15. On "bettering humanity" in science and engineering education.

    PubMed

    Stieb, James A

    2007-06-01

    Authors such as Krishnasamy Selvan argue that "all human endeavors including engineering and science" have a single primary objective: "bettering humanity." They favor discussing "the history of science and measurement uncertainty." This paper respectfully disagrees and argues that "human endeavors including engineering and science" should not pursue "bettering humanity" as their primary objective. Instead these efforts should first pursue individual betterment. One cannot better humanity without knowing what that means. However, there is no one unified theory of what is to the betterment of humanity. Simultaneously, there is no one field (neither science, nor engineering, nor philosophy) entitled to rule univocally. Perhaps if theorists tended their own gardens, the common weal would be tended thereby.

  16. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  17. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  18. Considerations on the external combustion system of the Stirling hot gas engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, F.

    1983-01-01

    After an introduction on the Stirling engine the external combustion system as well as the general loss division and efficiencies are described. The requirements for the combustion system and different variants of the combustion system are compared and discussed.

  19. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  20. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016.

  1. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  2. Profile of the Engineer of 2001: The Engineer's Full Human Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihlman, Tor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a change in engineering education emphasizing human responsibility for environment, natural resources and reactions concerning technology. Describes the Swedish education system and a change in the curricula at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. (Author/YP)

  3. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  4. Ethical considerations for biomedical scientists and engineers: issues for the rank and file.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, K B

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering is inextricably linked with the fields of medicine and surgery. Yet, while physicians and surgeons, nurses, and other medical professionals receive instruction in ethics during their training and must abide by certain codes of ethics during their practice, those engaged in biomedical science and engineering typically receive no formal training in ethics. In fact, the little contact that many biomedical science and engineering professionals have with ethics occurs either when they participate in government-funded research or submit articles for publication in certain journals. Thus, there is a need for biomedical scientists and engineers as a group to become more aware of ethics. Moreover, recent advances in biomedical technology and the ever-increasing use of new devices virtually guarantee that biomedical science and engineering will become even more important in the future. Although they are rarely in direct contact with patients, biomedical scientists and engineers must become aware of ethics in order to be able to deal with the complex ethical issues that arise from our society's increasing reliance on biomedical technology. In this brief communication, the need for ethical awareness among workers in biomedical science and engineering is discussed in terms of certain conflicts that arise in the workaday world of the biomedical scientist in a complex, modern society. It is also recognized that inasmuch as workers in the many branches of bioengineering are not regulated like their counterparts in medicine and surgery, perhaps academic institutions and professional societies are best equipped to heighten ethical awareness among workers in this important field.

  5. Human factors engineering for designing the next in medicine.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fuji

    2007-01-01

    Good design of emerging medical technology in an increasingly complex clinical and technological environment requires an understanding of the context of use, workload, and environment as well as appreciation for ease of use, fit into clinical workflow, and the need for user feedback in the design process. This is where human factors engineering can come into play for good design. Human factors engineering involves the application of principles about human behaviors, abilities, and limitations to the design of tools, devices, environments, and training in order to optimize human performance and safety. The human factors engineering process should be an integral part of the emerging technology development process and needs to be included upfront. This can help ensure that the new product is safe, functional, natural to use, seamlessly integrated into existing clinical workflow, and embraced by users to be incorporated into practice for maximum benefit to patient safety and healthcare quality.

  6. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  7. Macrophages modulate engineered human tissues for enhanced vascularization and healing

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Kara L.; Freytes, Donald O.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is increasingly based on recapitulating human physiology, through integration of biological principles into engineering designs. In spite of all progress in engineering functional human tissues, we are just beginning to develop effective methods for establishing blood perfusion and controlling the inflammatory factors following implantation into the host. Functional vasculature largely determines tissue survival and function in vivo. The inflammatory response is a major regulator of vascularization and overall functionality of engineered tissues, through the activity of different types of macrophages and the cytokines they secrete. We discuss cell-scaffold-bioreactor systems for harnessing the inflammatory response for enhanced tissue vascularization and healing. To this end, inert scaffolds that have been considered for many decades a “gold standard” in regenerative medicine are beginning to be replaced by a new generation of “smart” tissue engineering systems designed to actively mediate tissue survival and function. PMID:25331098

  8. Arctic Engineering--Through Human Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, W. H. C.

    Adopting technology to people and examining projects through the eyes of those concerned are two ways new technology and engineering can be installed and successfully operated under the adverse conditions of northern Canada and in the face of predicted labor shortages in the 1980's. Adopting a more flexible technology provides the opportunity for…

  9. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  10. Introducing Decision Making under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmopoulou, Georgia; Jog, Chintamani; Freeman, Margaret; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Engineering graduates will face challenges at the workplace that even their peers who graduated a few years ago were not expected to face. One such major challenge is the management and operation of companies and plants under conditions of uncertainty and the need to make decisions in competitive situations. Modern developments in…

  11. Thermal Load Considerations for Detonative Combustion-Based Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, H. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to assess methods for, and performance implications of, cooling the passages (tubes) of a pulse detonation-based combustor conceptually installed in the core of a gas turbine engine typical of regional aircraft. Temperature-limited material stress criteria were developed from common-sense engineering practice, and available material properties. Validated, one-dimensional, numerical simulations were then used to explore a variety of cooling methods and establish whether or not they met the established criteria. Simulation output data from successful schemes were averaged and used in a cycle-deck engine simulation in order to assess the impact of the cooling method on overall performance. Results were compared to both a baseline engine equipped with a constant-pressure combustor and to one equipped with an idealized detonative combustor. Major findings indicate that thermal loads in these devices are large, but potentially manageable. However, the impact on performance can be substantial. Nearly one half of the ideally possible specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction is lost due to cooling of the tubes. Details of the analysis are described, limitations are presented, and implications are discussed.

  12. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication.

  13. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  14. Human factors engineering approaches to patient identification armband design.

    PubMed

    Probst, C Adam; Wolf, Laurie; Bollini, Mara; Xiao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The task of patient identification is performed many times each day by nurses and other members of the care team. Armbands are used for both direct verification and barcode scanning during patient identification. Armbands and information layout are critical to reducing patient identification errors and dangerous workarounds. We report the effort at two large, integrated healthcare systems that employed human factors engineering approaches to the information layout design of new patient identification armbands. The different methods used illustrate potential pathways to obtain standardized armbands across healthcare systems that incorporate human factors principles. By extension, how the designs have been adopted provides examples of how to incorporate human factors engineering into key clinical processes.

  15. Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases.

    PubMed

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-07-07

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that TALENs employing the specific architectures described here mediate site-specific genome modification in human pluripotent cells with similar efficiency and precision as do zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs).

  16. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  17. Ethical Considerations in Mandatory Disclosure of Data Acquired While Caring for Human Trafficking Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Patrick L; Dash, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate data on the prevalence and psychological effects of human trafficking as well as treatment outcomes for survivors are essential for measuring the impact of interventions and generating better understanding of this phenomenon. However, such data are difficult to obtain. A legal mandate for health care professionals to report trafficking opens opportunities for advancing our work in the field of human trafficking but also poses risks to survivors seeking services. In this article, we provide an analysis of some critical ethical considerations for the development and implementation of a mandatory reporting policy and offer recommendations for the ethical implementation of such a policy.

  18. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  19. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  20. Towards a richer debate on tissue engineering: a consideration on the basis of NEST-ethics.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, A J M; van Hoek, M E C; van Leeuwen, E; van der Burg, S; Dekkers, W J M

    2013-09-01

    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or "NEST-ethics"). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering the NEST-ethics arguments that deal directly with technology, we can generally conclude that consequentialist arguments are by far the most prominently featured in discussions of TE. In addition, many papers discuss principles, rights and duties relevant to aspects of TE, both in a positive and in a critical sense. Justice arguments are only sporadically made, some "good life" arguments are used, others less so (such as the explicit articulation of perceived limits, or the technology as a technological fix for a social problem). Missing topics in the discussion, at least from the perspective of NEST-ethics, are second "level" arguments-those referring to techno-moral change connected to tissue engineering. Currently, the discussion about tissue engineering mostly focuses on its so-called "hard impacts"-quantifiable risks and benefits of the technology. Its "soft impacts"-effects that cannot easily be quantified, such as changes to experience, habits and perceptions, should receive more attention.

  1. Free-piston Stirling engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Government is evaluating power requirements for future space applications. As power requirements increase solar or nuclear dynamic systems become increasingly attractive. Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (AC, DC, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper will review potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. Currently free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power applications is being developed under contract with NASA-Lewis Research Center. This paper will also briefly outline the program and recent progress.

  2. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  3. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  4. Genetically Engineered Humanized Mouse Models for Preclinical Antibody Studies

    PubMed Central

    Proetzel, Gabriele; Wiles, Michael V.; Roopenian, Derry C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetic engineering has vastly improved our capabilities to create animal models relevant in preclinical research. With the recent advances in gene-editing technologies, it is now possible to very rapidly create highly tunable mouse models as needs arise. Here, we provide an overview of genetic engineering methods, as well as the development of humanized neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) models and their use for monoclonal antibody in vivo studies. PMID:24150980

  5. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  6. Engineering considerations for integrating laser angioplasty with ultrasound diagnostics in a single device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passafaro, James D.; Zalesky, Paul J.

    1990-07-01

    The application of direct laser energy for the ablation of atherosclerotic plaque has been investigated extensively. It has been recognized that the need for an onboard guidance capability which can direct the laser energy is essential for controlled plaque removal. Intravascular ultrasound represents one approach for identifying diseased tissue and directing laser therapy. The design of a catheter with combined laser and ultrasound capabilities is discussed. The design considers the optical and acoustical requirements. In addition, vascular anatomical constraints and their impact on the mechanical aspects of the device configuration are considered. The optical considerations dictate safe and predictable high energy laser transmission. The acoustic requirements consider material properties and ultrasonic beam resolution. The vascular anatomy imposes constraints on maximum catheter size and it requires a means for conventional delivery of the device to the targeted lesion.

  7. Biomechanical forces in the skeleton and their relevance to bone metastasis: biology and engineering considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Maureen; Fischbach, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer related-deaths. However, the effect of skeleton-associated biomechanical signals on the initiation, progression, and therapy response of breast cancer bone metastasis is largely unknown. This review seeks to highlight possible functional connections between skeletal mechanical signals and breast cancer bone metastasis and their contribution to clinical outcome. It provides an introduction to the physical and biological signals underlying bone functional adaptation and discusses the modulatory roles of mechanical loading and breast cancer metastasis in this process. Following a definition of biophysical design criteria, in vitro and in vivo approaches from the fields of bone biomechanics and tissue engineering will be reviewed that may be suitable to investigate breast cancer bone metastasis as a function of varied mechano-signaling. Finally, an outlook of future opportunities and challenges associated with this newly emerging field will be provided. PMID:25174311

  8. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  9. Engineering geology considerations for park planning, Antelope Island State Park, Davis County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, Suzanne; Case, William F.; King, Jon K.; Willis, Grant C.

    2000-01-01

    Report: 00-1 In the mid-1980s, historically high levels of Great Salt Lake caused damage to park facilities on Antelope Island and destroyed the causeway linking the park to the mainland. Information on the engineering geology of Antelope Islandcan be used to improve park facilities and reduce the risk from geologic hazards and poor construction conditions. Certain characteristics of the geologic environment need to be considered in park planning. During wet cycles, Great Salt Lake may reach static levels of 4,217 feet (1,285.3 m), and wave- and wind-elevated levels locally may reach 6.5 feet (2 m) higher. A probabilistic assessment of the earthquake ground-shaking hazard along the Wasatch Front indicates that peak ground accelerations of approximately 0.20 to 0.30 g have a one-in-ten chance of being exceeded in 50 years on the island. A slope-failure hazard exists locally in colluvial and Lake Bonneville deposits, along the modern shore, and beneath cliffs. Flash-flood and debris-flow hazards exist on alluvial fans. Areas in the southern two-thirds of the island may have a relatively high potential for radon emission. Particular soil types on the island may be expansive, compressible, erodible, impermeable, or susceptible to liquefaction or hydrocompaction. The distribution of most geologic hazards can be defined, and many locations on the island have conditions suitable for construction. Lacustrine sand and gravel deposits are wide-spread and have engineering characteristics that are generally favorable for foundations. However, facilities and roads built close to the modern shoreline may be susceptible to lake flooding and erosion, slope failures, shallow ground water, and burial by active sand dunes. Well-graded (poorly sorted) alluvial-fan deposits are generally most suitable for wastewater disposal, although they may be subject to flooding or be underlain by low-permeability, fine-grained lacustrine deposits.

  10. Engineered LINE-1 retrotransposition in nondividing human neurons.

    PubMed

    Macia, Angela; Widmann, Thomas J; Heras, Sara R; Ayllon, Veronica; Sanchez, Laura; Benkaddour-Boumzaouad, Meriem; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Rubio, Alejandro; Amador-Cubero, Suyapa; Blanco-Jimenez, Eva; Garcia-Castro, Javier; Menendez, Pablo; Ng, Philip; Muotri, Alysson R; Goodier, John L; Garcia-Perez, Jose L

    2017-03-01

    Half the human genome is made of transposable elements (TEs), whose ongoing activity continues to impact our genome. LINE-1 (or L1) is an autonomous non-LTR retrotransposon in the human genome, comprising 17% of its genomic mass and containing an average of 80-100 active L1s per average genome that provide a source of inter-individual variation. New LINE-1 insertions are thought to accumulate mostly during human embryogenesis. Surprisingly, the activity of L1s can further impact the somatic human brain genome. However, it is currently unknown whether L1 can retrotranspose in other somatic healthy tissues or if L1 mobilization is restricted to neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) in the human brain. Here, we took advantage of an engineered L1 retrotransposition assay to analyze L1 mobilization rates in human mesenchymal (MSCs) and hematopoietic (HSCs) somatic stem cells. Notably, we have observed that L1 expression and engineered retrotransposition is much lower in both MSCs and HSCs when compared to NPCs. Remarkably, we have further demonstrated for the first time that engineered L1s can retrotranspose efficiently in mature nondividing neuronal cells. Thus, these findings suggest that the degree of somatic mosaicism and the impact of L1 retrotransposition in the human brain is likely much higher than previously thought.

  11. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Human factors considerations for the use of color in display systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demars, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Identified and assessed are those human factor considerations impacting an operator's ability to perform when information is displayed in color as contrasted to monochrome (black and white only). The findings provide valuable guidelines for the assessment of the advantages (and disadvantages) of using a color display system. The use of color provides an additional sensory channel (color perception) which is not available with black and white. The degree to which one can exploit the use of this channel is highly dependent on available display technology, mission information display requirements, and acceptable operational modes.

  13. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  14. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-01-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

  15. Analysis of engineered nanomaterials in complex matrices (environment and biota): general considerations and conceptual case studies.

    PubMed

    von der Kammer, Frank; Ferguson, P Lee; Holden, Patricia A; Masion, Armand; Rogers, Kim R; Klaine, Stephen J; Koelmans, Albert A; Horne, Nina; Unrine, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media. Analysis of ENMs differs from traditional chemical analysis because both chemical and physical forms must be considered. Because ENMs are present as colloidal systems, their physicochemical properties are dependent on their surroundings. Therefore, the simple act of trying to isolate, observe, and quantify ENMs may change their physicochemical properties, making analysis extremely susceptible to artifacts. Many analytical techniques applied in materials science and other chemical/biological/physical disciplines may be applied to ENM analysis as well; however, environmental and biological studies may require that methods be adapted to work at low concentrations in complex matrices. The most pressing research needs are the development of techniques for extraction, cleanup, separation, and sample storage that introduce minimal artifacts to increase the speed, sensitivity, and specificity of analytical techniques, as well as the development of techniques that can differentiate between abundant, naturally occurring particles, and manufactured nanoparticles.

  16. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment.

  17. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Semantic Considerations for an Evolving Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Katari, Ravi; Peloso, Andrea; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) are rapidly evolving fields that are often obscured by a dense cloud of hype and commercialization potential. We find, in the literature and general commentary, that several of the associated terms are casually referenced in varying contexts that ultimately result in the blurring of the distinguishing boundaries which define them. “TE” and “RM” are often used interchangeably, though some experts vehemently argue that they, in fact, represent different conceptual entities. Nevertheless, contemporary scientists have a general idea of the experiments and milestones that can be classified within either or both categories. Given the groundbreaking achievements reported within the past decade and consequent watershed potential of this field, we feel that it would be useful to properly contextualize these terms semantically and historically. In this concept paper, we explore the various definitions proposed in the literature and emphasize that ambiguous terminology can lead to misplaced apprehension. We assert that the central motifs of both concepts have existed within the surgical sciences long before their appearance as terms in the scientific literature. PMID:25629029

  18. Experimental Design Considerations for In Vitro Non-Natural Glycan Display via Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tan, Elaine; Almaraz, Ruben T; Khanna, Hargun S; Du, Jian; Yarema, Kevin J

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) refers to a technique where non-natural monosaccharide analogs are introduced into living biological systems. Once inside a cell, these compounds intercept a targeted biosynthetic glycosylation pathway and in turn are metabolically incorporated into cell-surface-displayed oligosaccharides where they can modulate a host of biological activities or be exploited as "tags" for bio-orthogonal and chemoselective ligation reactions. Undertaking a MOE experiment can be a daunting task based on the growing repertoire of analogs now available and the ever increasing number of metabolic pathways that can be targeted; therefore, a major emphasis of this article is to describe a general approach for analog design and selection and then provide protocols to ensure safe and efficacious analog usage by cells. Once cell-surface glycans have been successfully remodeled by MOE methodology, the stage is set for probing changes to the myriad cellular responses modulated by these versatile molecules. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 2:171-194 © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Implications of the new Food and Drug Administration draft guidance on human factors engineering for diabetes device manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Stephen B; Drucker, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses the implications of the new Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance on human factors and usability engineering for the development of diabetes-related devices. Important considerations include the challenge of identifying users, when the user population is so dramatically broad, and the challenge of identifying use environments when the same can be said for use environments. Another important consideration is that diabetes-related devices, unlike many other medical devices, are used constantly as part of the user's lifestyle--adding complexity to the focus on human factors and ease of use emphasized by the draft guidance.

  20. Space nuclear power: technology, policy, and risk considerations in human missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedensen, V P

    1998-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy between potential needs for nuclear propulsion and power systems for the human exploration of Mars and the current status of R&D funding, public opinion, and governmental support for these technologies. Mission planners and spacecraft designers, energized by the recent claims of possible discovery of life on Mars and responding to increased public interest in the human exploration of Mars, frequently propose nuclear reactors and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for interplanetary spacecraft propulsion and for power supply on the surface of Mars. These plans and designs typically assume that reactors will be available "on-the-shelf," and do not take the extensive R&D costs required to develop such reactors into consideration. However, it is likely that current U.S. policies, if unchanged, will prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors and large RTGs in response to a perceived risk by the public.

  1. Human Factors Engineering and School Furniture: A Circular Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A search reveals only six articles that concern human-factors engineering as it relates to student furniture. Contacts with five school-furniture manufacturers disclose that designs were basically unaltered for years and are claimed to reflect what schools want in furniture. Proposes recommendations to design and secure furniture to meet students'…

  2. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 1995 Special Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities: MIL- STD -1472D Checklist Lockheed...a sequential listing of all major MIL- STD -1472D Section 5.0 paragraph headings. The main paragraph headings serve as easy reminders to make sure no

  3. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the “tele” component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy), necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications. PMID:27429262

  4. Biotechnology and law: biotechnology patents. Special considerations on the inventions with human material.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    The EC and the US differ considerably in their ruling on the patentability of biotechnological inventions apart from some exceptions. The most extreme positions in either direction with regard to the individual biotechnological inventions mark the margins of the scope which the WTO members may use for the ratification of Art. 27 TRIPS. Rulings which are not in accordance with Art. 27 TRIPS remain without consideration. In the most important point both WTO member agree: Human beings are not patentable. Other regulations could be considered, but one may assume that no member of the WTO intends to make use thereof. Thus the scope involving this option is only a theoretical one. The situation is different when it comes to the components of the human body. These may, provided they are produced artificially or are separated from the human body, be patented. According to the regulations in the US, this applies to all components with the exception of totipotent stem cells. They may be exempted from patenting entirely or their patenting is linked to far reaching conditions. As an example should be named here the regulation of the EPA for patenting gene sequences. The scope of this area is, thus, very great and allows for many options of applying the regulations of Art. 27 TRIPS. With regard to patenting procedures for cloning human beings, the scope is unlimited. These procedures may either be completely excluded from patenting as in the EC or may be considered patentable independent of their purpose as in the US. The same applies to procedures for gathering human stem cells in the US. Exempting procedures with regard to human genes or DNA sequences are, however, only possible in special cases, as for example in the EC with regard to procedures for altering the genetic identity of the germline of human beings. However, the interpretation of general patentability preconditions allows to influence the patenting of such procedures. This means, though, that the scope for

  5. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  6. Graphane/fluorographene bilayer: considerable C-H···F-C hydrogen bonding and effective band structure engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafei; Li, Fengyu; Chen, Zhongfang

    2012-07-11

    Systematic density functional theory (DFT) computations revealed the existence of considerable C-H···F-C bonding between the experimentally realized graphane and fluorographene layers. The unique C-H···F-C bonds define the conformation of graphane/fluorographene (G/FG) bilayer and contribute to its stability. Interestingly, G/FG bilayer has an energy gap (0.5 eV) much lower than those of individual graphane and fluorographene. The binding strength of G/FG bilayer can be significantly enhanced by applying appropriate external electric field (E-field). Especially, changing the direction and strength of E-field can effectively modulate the energy gap of G/FG bilayer, and correspondingly causes a semiconductor-metal transition. These findings open new opportunities in fabricating new electronics and opto-electronics devices based on G/FG bilayer, and call for more efforts in using weak interactions for band structure engineering.

  7. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, G. )

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement.

  8. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search?

  9. Improving the human-computer interface: a human factors engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, A V

    1998-01-01

    Human factors engineering involves the application of information about human behavior and characteristics in the design and testing of products, systems, and environments. A computing system's interface is developed on the basis of potential users' capabilities and limitations, the users' tasks, and the environment in which those tasks are performed. When human factors engineers work with users, subject-matter experts, and developers to design and test a system, they analyze and document users' tasks and requirements and develop prototype designs. Usability studies are conducted and user errors are analyzed to identify problems and develop recommendations for improving the human-computer interface.

  10. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent

  11. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  12. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  13. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration - Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George; Adams, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the following considerations for human factors engineering during long duration human space flight: gravitational adaptation, 2-D to 3-D adaptation, handles, exercise posture, and space ergonomics. The presentation argues that there is an urgent need to advance research is these areas in preparation for future manned missions.

  14. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  15. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  16. Computational human factors in human-machine engineering - The Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration (A3I) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartzell, E. James; Lakowske, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    The A3I program is a joint US Army-NASA exploratory program to develop a rational predictive methodology for helicopter cockpit system design, including mission requirements and training-system implications, that integrates human factors engineering with other vehicle system design disciplines at an early stage in the development process. The program will produce a prototye human factors/computer-aided engineering (HF/CAE) workstation suite for use by design professionals. This interactive environment will include computational and expert systems for the analysis and estimation of the impact of cockpit design and mission specification on system performance by considering the performance consequences from the human component of the system, especially as an integral part of the overall system operation, and from the very beginning of the design process. The central issues of pilot workload, performance, and training needs, and appropriate uses of automation are interrelated to affect all integrated design considerations in future man-machine systems. The goal is to aid designers in understanding these complex interactions and in optimally matching human capabilities with advanced cockpit systems.

  17. Ion transport in the zebrafish kidney from a human disease angle: possibilities, considerations, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Simone; Arjona, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Unique experimental advantages, such as its embryonic/larval transparency, high-throughput nature, and ease of genetic modification, underpin the rapid emergence of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent model in biomedical research. Particularly in the field of nephrology, the zebrafish provides a promising model for studying the physiological implications of human solute transport processes along consecutive nephron segments. However, although the zebrafish might be considered a valuable model for numerous renal ion transport diseases and functional studies of many channels and transporters, not all human renal electrolyte transport mechanisms and human diseases can be modeled in the zebrafish. With this review, we explore the ontogeny of zebrafish renal ion transport, its nephron structure and function, and thereby demonstrate the clinical translational value of this model. By critical assessment of genomic and amino acid conservation of human proteins involved in renal ion handling (channels, transporters, and claudins), kidney and nephron segment conservation, and renal electrolyte transport physiology in the zebrafish, we provide researchers and nephrologists with an indication of the possibilities and considerations of the zebrafish as a model for human renal ion transport. Combined with advanced techniques envisioned for the future, implementation of the zebrafish might expand beyond unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie distinct genetic or environmentally, i.e., pharmacological and lifestyle, induced renal transport deficits. Specifically, the ease of drug administration and the exploitation of improved genetic approaches might argue for the adoption of the zebrafish as a model for preclinical personalized medicine for distinct renal diseases and renal electrolyte transport proteins.

  18. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    mission prior to a Mars surface mission should be initiated. 3. A well-planned set of science objectives for a future human-landed mission to Mars is essential in order to sustain coordination among the science and human spaceflight communities. In particular, while it is clear how humans on the surface of Mars would significantly accelerate the pace of the search for past life, it is unclear how humans would play a role in (and not serve as a hindrance to) the search for extant life. Further study should be supported. 4. Sustained formal collaboration among Mars scientists, engineers, technologists, and teams developing scenarios for Mars exploration should be supported. The human and robotic sides of the Mars exploration community need to become further engaged with each other, particularly as we enter a potential period of dual-purpose (science + human precursor) missions. Central to this era is generating mutual support for a Mars sample return architecture as a goal that has crucial value to both the human preparatory program and planetary science.

  19. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  20. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies. PMID:27347935

  1. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-06-24

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies.

  2. Protecting clinical research and human participants: considerations for domestic and foreign clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Beach, Judith E

    2002-01-01

    In recent years there has been a shift in focus from national and international "Ethics Influentials" related to the approval of life-saving therapies to a national and international reassessment of the conduct of clinical trials and human subject protection. Due to intense and ongoing pressure from several groups (including the media, patients and families, tort lawyers, patient advocacy groups, ethicists, and government advisory bodies), there are several initiatives underway to revise ethical standards for the conduct of clinical trials. This article discusses the need for an integrated approach to improving the ethical conduct of clinical trials as well as the need to promote the equally important ethical consideration of efficient approval of safe and effective life-saving medical therapies.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  4. Tissue engineered humanized bone supports human hematopoiesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Nowlan, Bianca; Barbier, Valerie; Thibaudeau, Laure; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Hooper, John D; Loessner, Daniela; Clements, Judith A; Russell, Pamela J; Pettit, Allison R; Winkler, Ingrid G; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Advances in tissue-engineering have resulted in a versatile tool-box to specifically design a tailored microenvironment for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in order to study diseases that develop within this setting. However, most current in vivo models fail to recapitulate the biological processes seen in humans. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to engineer humanized bone constructs that are able to recapitulate the morphological features and biological functions of the HSC niches. Ectopic implantation of biodegradable composite scaffolds cultured for 4 weeks with human mesenchymal progenitor cells and loaded with rhBMP-7 resulted in the development of a chimeric bone organ including a large number of human mesenchymal cells which were shown to be metabolically active and capable of establishing a humanized microenvironment supportive of the homing and maintenance of human HSCs. A syngeneic mouse-to-mouse transplantation assay was used to prove the functionality of the tissue-engineered ossicles. We predict that the ability to tissue engineer a morphologically intact and functional large-volume bone organ with a humanized bone marrow compartment will help to further elucidate physiological or pathological interactions between human HSCs and their native niches.

  5. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  6. Concise review: Human cell engineering: cellular reprogramming and genome editing.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prashant; Cheng, Linzhao

    2012-01-01

    Cell engineering is defined here as the collective ability to both reset and edit the genome of a mammalian cell. Until recently, this had been extremely challenging to achieve as nontransformed human cells are significantly refractory to both these processes. The recent success in reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells that are self-renewable in culture, coupled with our increasing ability to effect precise and predesigned genomic editing, now readily permits cellular changes at both the genetic and epigenetic levels. These dual capabilities also make possible the generation of genetically matched, disease-free stem cells from patients for regenerative medicine. The objective of this review is to summarize the key enabling developments on these two rapidly evolving research fronts in human cell engineering, highlight unresolved issues, and outline potential future research directions.

  7. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  8. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 3, containing sections on Human Language Processing, Operator Motion Control, Effects of Environmental Stressors, Display Interfaces, and Control Interfaces (Real/Virtual).

  9. Department Of Defense Design Criteria Standard: Human Engineering. Notice 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-05

    AMSC N/A AREA HFAC DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICE OF CHANGE METRIC MIL- STD -1472F...NOTICE 1 05 December 2003 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DESIGN CRITERIA STANDARD HUMAN ENGINEERING TO ALL HOLDERS OF MIL- STD -1472F: 1. THE...FOLLOWING PAGES OF MIL- STD -1472F HAVE BEEN REVISED AND SUPERSEDE THE PAGES LISTED: NEW PAGE DATE SUPERSEDED PAGE DATE 1 31 July 2003 1 23 August 1999

  10. Handbook of human engineering design data for reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marton, T.; Rudek, F. P.; Miller, R. A.; Norman, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    A Handbook is presented for the use of engineers, designers, and human factors specialists during the developmental and detailed design phases of manned spacecraft programs. Detailed and diverse quantified data on man's capabilities and tolerances for survival and productive effort in the extraterrestrial environment are provided. Quantified data and information on the space environment as well as the characteristics of the vehicular or residential environment required to support man in outer space are also given.

  11. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  12. TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaki

    We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

  13. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  14. Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masayuki; Matano, Mami; Nanki, Kosaku; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks.

  15. Next-generation sequencing in the analysis of human microbiota: essential considerations for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2010-12-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) presents an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. It offers for the first time a basis for detailed temporal and spatial analysis, with the potential to revolutionize our understanding of many clinically important systems. However, while advances continue to be made in areas such as PCR amplification for NGS, sequencing protocols, and data analysis, in many cases the quality of the data generated is undermined by a failure to address fundamental aspects of experimental design. While little is added in terms of time or cost by the analysis of repeat samples, the exclusion of DNA from dead bacterial cells and the extracellular matrix, the use of efficient nucleic acid extraction methodologies, and the implementation of safeguards to minimize the introduction of contaminating nucleic acids, such considerations are essential in achieving an accurate representation of the system being studied. In this review, the chronic bacterial infections that characterize lower respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients are used as an example system to examine the implications of a failure to address these issues when designing NGS-based analysis of human-associated microbiota. Further, ways in which the impact of these factors can be minimized are discussed.

  16. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  17. Relevance and safety of telomerase for human tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Rebecca Y.; Blum, Juliana L.; Hearn, Bevin; Lebow, Benjamin; Niklason, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system. Although we previously demonstrated that vessels engineered with telomerase-expressing SMC had improved mechanics over those grown with control cells, it is critical to assess the phenotypic impact of telomerase expression in donor cells, because telomerase up-regulation is observed in >95% of human malignancies. To study the impact of telomerase in tissue engineering, expression of hTERT was retrovirally induced in SMC from eight elderly patients and one young donor. In hTERT SMC, significant lifespan extension beyond that of control was achieved without population doubling time acceleration. Karyotype changes were seen in both control and hTERT SMC but were not clonal nor representative of cancerous change. hTERT cells also failed to show evidence of neoplastic transformation in functional assays of tumorigenicity. In addition, the impact of donor age on cellular behavior, particularly the synthetic capability of SMC, was not affected by hTERT expression. Hence, this tissue engineering model system highlights the impact of donor age on cellular synthetic function that appears to be independent of lifespan extension by hTERT. PMID:16477025

  18. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current ‘state of knowledge’. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

  19. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  20. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    SciTech Connect

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  1. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  2. Engineering of human hepatic tissue with functional vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Takanori; Koike, Naoto; Sekine, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Ryoji; Amiya, Takeru; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Although absolute organ shortage highlights the needs of alternative organ sources for regenerative medicine, the generation of a three-dimensional (3D) and complex vital organ, such as well-vascularized liver, remains a challenge. To this end, tissue engineering holds great promise; however, this approach is significantly limited by the failure of early vascularization in vivo after implantation. Here, we established a stable 3D in vitro pre-vascularization platform to generate human hepatic tissue after implantation in vivo. Human fetal liver cells (hFLCs) were mixed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and were implanted into a collagen/fibronectin matrix composite that was used as a 3-D carrier. After a couple of days, the fluorescent HUVECs developed premature vascular networks in vitro, which were stabilized by hMSCs. The establishment of functional vessels inside the pre-vascularized constructs was proven using dextran infusion studies after implantation under a transparency cranial window. Furthermore, dynamic morphological changes during embryonic liver cell maturation were intravitaly quantified with high-resolution confocal microscope analysis. The engineered human hepatic tissue demonstrated multiple liver-specific features, both structural and functional. Our new techniques discussed here can be implemented in future clinical uses and industrial uses, such as drug testing.

  3. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Powell, Courtney A; Smiley, Beth L; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2002-11-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  4. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  5. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product an R and D program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 1, which contains sections on Visual Acquisition of Information, Auditory Acquisition of Information, and Acquisition of Information by Other Senses.

  6. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design and military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from the existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by systems designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is the first volume, the User's Guide, containing a description of the program and instructions for its use.

  7. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a Research and Development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 2, which contains sections on Information Storage and Retrieval, Spatial Awareness, Perceptual Organization, and Attention and Allocation of Resources.

  8. Neuroethical considerations: cognitive liberty and converging technologies for improving human cognition.

    PubMed

    Sententia, Wrye

    2004-05-01

    Developers of NBIC (Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno) technologies face a multitude of obstacles, not the least of which is navigating the public ethics of their applied research. Biotechnologies have received widespread media attention and spawned heated interest in their perceived social implications. Now, in view of the rapidly expanding purview of neuroscience and the growing array of technologic developments capable of affecting or monitoring cognition, the emerging field of neuroethics calls for a consideration of the social and ethical implications of neuroscientific discoveries and trends. To negotiate the complex ethical issues at stake in new and emerging kinds of technologies for improving human cognition, we need to overcome political, disciplinary, and religious sectarianism. We need analytical models that protect values of personhood at the heart of a functional democracy-values that allow, as much as possible, for individual decision-making, despite transformations in our understanding and ability to manipulate cognitive processes. Addressing cognitive enhancement from the legal and ethical notion of "cognitive liberty" provides a powerful tool for assessing and encouraging NBIC developments.

  9. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  10. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-05-21

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease.

  11. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  13. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  14. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  15. Characterization of human myoblast cultures for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stern-Straeter, Jens; Bran, Gregor; Riedel, Frank; Sauter, Alexander; Hörmann, Karl; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering, a promising specialty, aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss. In vitro tissue engineering attempts to achieve this goal by creating differentiated, functional muscle tissue through a process in which stem cells are extracted from the patient, e.g. by muscle biopsies, expanded and differentiated in a controlled environment, and subsequently re-implanted. A prerequisite for this undertaking is the ability to cultivate and differentiate human skeletal muscle cell cultures. Evidently, optimal culture conditions must be investigated for later clinical utilization. We therefore analysed the proliferation of human cells in different environments and evaluated the differentiation potential of different culture media. It was shown that human myoblasts have a higher rate of proliferation in the alamarBlue assay when cultured on gelatin-coated culture flasks rather than polystyrene-coated flasks. We also demonstrated that myoblasts treated with a culture medium with a high concentration of growth factors [growth medium (GM)] showed a higher proliferation compared to cultures treated with a culture medium with lower amounts of growth factors [differentiation medium (DM)]. Differentiation of human myoblast cell cultures treated with GM and DM was analysed until day 16 and myogenesis was verified by expression of MyoD, myogenin, alpha-sarcomeric actin and myosin heavy chain by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining for desmin, Myf-5 and alpha-sarcomeric actin was performed to verify the myogenic phenotype of extracted satellite cells and to prove the maturation of cells. Cultures treated with DM showed positive staining for alpha-sarcomeric actin. Notably, markers of differentiation were also detected in cultures treated with GM, but there was no formation of myotubes. In the enzymatic assay of creatine phosphokinase, cultures treated with DM showed a higher activity, evidencing a higher degree of differentiation

  16. Where Is the Engineering I Applied For? A Longitudinal Study of Students' Transition into Higher Education Engineering, and Their Considerations of Staying or Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering. The study aims at comparing upper-secondary school students' expectations of engineering with their actual experiences when encountering the engineering programme. It explores how this encounter provides a platform for…

  17. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  18. Engineered cell-laden human protein-based elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastic tissue equivalence is a vital requirement of synthetic materials proposed for many resilient, soft tissue engineering applications. Here we present a bioelastomer made from tropoelastin, the human protein that naturally facilitates elasticity and cell interactions in all elastic tissues. We combined this protein’s innate versatility with fast non-toxic fabrication techniques to make highly extensible, cell compatible hydrogels. These hydrogels can be produced in less than a minute through photocrosslinking of methacrylated tropoelastin (MeTro) in an aqueous solution. The fabricated MeTro gels exhibit high extensibility (up to 400%) and superior mechanical properties that outperform other photocrosslinkable hydrogels. MeTro gels were used to encapsulate cells within a flexible 3D environment and to manufacture highly elastic 2D films for cell attachment, growth, and proliferation. In addition, the physical properties of this fabricated bioelastomer such as elasticity, stiffness, and pore characteristics were tuned through manipulation of the methacrylation degree and protein concentration. This photocrosslinkable, functional tissue mimetic gel benefits from the innate biological properties of a human elastic protein and opens new opportunities in tissue engineering. PMID:23639533

  19. Tissue engineered human tracheas for in vivo implantation.

    PubMed

    Baiguera, Silvia; Jungebluth, Phillip; Burns, Alan; Mavilia, Carmelo; Haag, Johannes; De Coppi, Paolo; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Two years ago we performed the first clinical successful transplantation of a fully tissue engineered trachea. Despite the clinically positive outcome, the graft production took almost 3 months, a not feasible period of time for patients with the need of an urgent transplantation. We have then improved decellularization process and herein, for the first time, we completely describe and characterize the obtainment of human tracheal bioactive supports. Histological and molecular biology analysis demonstrated that all cellular components and nuclear material were removed and quantitative PCR confirmed it. SEM analysis revealed that the decellularized matrices retained the hierarchical structures of native trachea, and biomechanical tests showed that decellularization approach did not led to any influence on tracheal morphological and mechanical properties. Moreover immunohistological staining showed the preservation of angiogenic factors and angiogenic assays demonstrated that acellular human tracheal scaffolds exert an in vitro chemo-active action and induce strong in vivo angiogenic response (CAM analysis). We are now able to obtained, in a short and clinically useful time (approximately 3 weeks), a bioengineered trachea that is structurally and mechanically similar to native trachea, which exert chemotactive and pro-angiogenic properties and which could be successfully used for clinical tissue engineered airway clinical replacements.

  20. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs), population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs) uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs), as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart generating scripts and to

  1. Human Factors Engineering. Part 2. HEDGE (Human Factors Engineering Data Guide for Evaluation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    by color, sie Point%. provided. fibeled . 6 Jack. Toaist poinfts WWI d. sign advertising of trotanki othsn, lit I -s.. n Io,,-Ieho lin..a 6_ plosg. r.pfs...DATA r EmlL-sTo- I ’.712£ L C’ T 1y FIGURE 8.8.1 COUNTERS , FLAGS, PRINTERS, AND PLOTTERS ISAII AC~tMA84. o ~- -~1ACION LoY TVl 0T1l 11I.o 8IIOA 0.-. wo...IDRST-P70-0 Test Operations Procedure 1-2-610 AD I ," ( , HUMAN FACTORS ENG PAR I I ... ..... Reproduced From Best Available Copy . ,.frpbi ees;dsrbto

  2. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  3. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  4. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the Astronaut health and performance issues for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission. Risks and other considerations are grouped into four categories and they are characterized for criticality.

  5. An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo

    2001-08-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper

  6. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  7. Engineer Ethics Education that Treated Safety Problem to Promote Development of General Human Competence and Independent Engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Genji

    The human race came to expect the engineer‧s international activity by an international extension of the risk. The engineer should provide with “Overall ability” and “Independent ability” to answer the demand of the society. The engineer ethics education is effective to the acquisition of the ability that the society demands. Because the engineer ethics education teaches the engineer to develop “Ethics action as the individual” to “Ethics activity as the enterprise” . In the point of development of the comprehensive capacity, it can be said that the engineer ethics education is training that supports the action power that accomplishes the social responsibility. However, it is easy to make the engineer ethics education a polite fiction. Then, we propose to take the safety problem to the ethics education for the prevention of making to the polite fiction of the education.

  8. The First Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Application to Ground Task Design for a NASA Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Stambolian, Damon B.; Miller, Darcy H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has long applied standards-derived human engineering requirements to the development of hardware and software for use by astronauts while in flight. The most important source of these requirements has been NASA-STD-3000. While there have been several ground systems human engineering requirements documents, none has been applicable to the flight system as handled at NASA's launch facility at Kennedy Space Center. At the time of the development of previous human launch systems, there were other considerations that were deemed more important than developing worksites for ground crews; e.g., hardware development schedule and vehicle performance. However, experience with these systems has shown that failure to design for ground tasks has resulted in launch schedule delays, ground operations that are more costly than they might be, and threats to flight safety. As the Agency begins the development of new systems to return humans to the moon, the new Constellation Program is addressing this issue with a new set of human engineering requirements. Among these requirements is a subset that will apply to the design of the flight components and that is intended to assure ground crew success in vehicle assembly and maintenance tasks. These requirements address worksite design for usability and for ground crew safety.

  9. Ergonomic Considerations for the Human Environment: Color Treatment, Lighting, and Furniture Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michelle M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ergonomic design considerations for library media centers. Specific design variables, including temperature and humidity, noise, illumination, color, and windows are discussed; and computer workstation design requirements are presented that address furniture and keyboard design, monitor and display features, software issues, and…

  10. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-05-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application.

  11. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  12. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  13. Making Crystals from Crystals: A Solid-State Route to the Engineering of Crystalline Materials, Polymorphs, Solvates and Co-Crystals; Considerations on the Future of Crystal Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Dario; Curzi, Marco; Dichiarante, Elena; Giaffreda, Stefano Luca; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Palladino, Giuseppe; Pettersen, Anna; Polito, Marco

    Making crystals by design is the paradigm of crystal engineering. The main goal is that of obtaining and controlling the collective properties of a crystalline material from the convolution of the physical and chemical properties of the individual building blocks (whether molecules, ions, or metal atoms and ligands) with crystal periodicity and symmetry. Crystal engineering encompasses nowadays all traditional sectors of chemistry from organic to inorganic, organometallic, biological and pharmaceutical chemistry and nanotechnology. The investigation and characterization of the products of a crystal engineering experiment require the utilization of solid state techniques, including theoretical and advanced crystallography methods. Moreover, reactions between crystalline solids and/or between a crystalline solid and a vapour can be used to obtain crystalline materials, including new crystal forms, solvates and co-crystals. Indeed, crystal polymorphism, resulting from different packing arrangements of the same molecular or supramolecular entity in the crystal structure, represents a challenge to crystal makers.

  14. Where is the engineering I applied for? A longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering, and their considerations of staying or leaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette; Møller Madsen, Lene; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering. The study aims at comparing upper-secondary school students' expectations of engineering with their actual experiences when encountering the engineering programme. It explores how this encounter provides a platform for students to become integrated during first year. We find that students' expectations are poorly met by their first-year study programme. In their attempt to bridge the gap between their expectations and their experiences, the students apply three strategies: some endure the gap, some constantly try out different study strategies and some compromised their expectations and identities to become more aligned with the study programme. The findings show that even when students successfully manage to bridge the gap, their strategy may turn out to be counterproductive from a learning point of view. The implications of the study are discussed.

  15. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  16. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Modern Control/Display Components and Standard Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human engineers specializing...addition, the Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human

  17. Management Development of Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government; An Analysis of Basic Behavioral and Systems Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berniklau, Vladimir V.

    Focusing on management development of scientists and engineers within the Federal government, this study was done to form a framework of factors (mainly attitudes, motives or needs, and leadership styles) to be evaluated before choosing suitable techniques and alternatives. Such variables as differing program objectives, characteristics of…

  18. How To Make the Most of Your Human: Design Considerations for Single Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Reconsidering the function allocation between automation and the pilot in the flight deck is the next step in improving aviation safety. The current allocation, based on who does what best, makes poor use of the pilot's resources and abilities. In some cases it may actually handicap pilots from performing their role. Improving pilot performance first lies in defining the role of the pilot - why a human is needed in the first place. The next step is allocating functions based on the needs of that role (rather than fitness), then using automation to target specific human weaknesses in performing that role. Examples are provided (some of which could be implemented in conventional cockpits now). Along the way, the definition of human error and the idea that eliminating/automating the pilot will reduce instances of human error will be challenged.

  19. Human/Nonhuman Primate AC-PC Ratio - Considerations for Translational Brain Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Salegio, Ernesto Aguilar; Yin, Dali; Richardson, R. Mark; Valles, Francisco E.; Larson, Paul S.; Starr, Philip A.; Lonser, Russell R.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis evaluated the ratio of AC-PC (anterior commissure to posterior commissure) distance measures in selected groups of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). An understanding of the basis of this ratio between primate species may allow more accurate translation of NHP stereotactic targeting measurements to upcoming human trials. MRI datasets of adult humans [n=21], and juvenile and adult NHPs (Macaca fascicularis [n=40], and Macaca mulatta [n=32]), were evaluated in a mid-sagittal plane to obtain the AC-PC distance measure for each examined subject. Two trained evaluators, blinded to each other’s results, carried out three separate measurements of the AC-PC length for each subject. Each observer carried out measurements of the entire dataset [n=93] before repeating the measurements two additional times. Previous dataset measures were not available for review at the time of subsequent measures. Inter- and intra-observer variabilities were not statistically significant. Minimal intraspecies variation was found in the AC-PC measurement of our human and NHP groups. We found significant interspecies differences, however, more between humans and NHPs, and less between the NHP groups. Regression analysis confirms the strong linear relationship of AC-PC distance based primarily on species in our study groups. Human/NHP AC-PC ratios varied between 2.1 to 2.3 based on the compared NHP species groups. We conclude that the scale differences in brain measurements between NHPs and humans described in this study allows improved translation of stereotactic targeting coordinates in future human clinical trials, which may lead to improved efficacy and safety. PMID:21185868

  20. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  1. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  2. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  3. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  4. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Harnessing the capability to read and classify brainwaves into the myriad of possible human

  5. Index of Government Standards on Human Engineering Design Criteria, Processes, and Procedures. Version 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Document Number Title Date Scope Source NUREG -0700 (Rev 2) Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines May 2002 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...Commission staff reviews the human factors engineering aspects of nuclear power plants. Detailed design review procedures are provided in NUREG ... nuregs /staff/sr0700 NUREG -0711 (Rev 1) Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model May 2002 This document is used by the staff of the Nuclear

  6. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  7. Design and measurement considerations for exercise protocols in human air-pollution inhalation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exercise period, and the timing of the exercise during exposure. It was also apparent that ventilation during rest and exercise was not always determined; in many instances ventilation was estimated based on other criteria, such as heart rate. The influence of ambient temperature conditions was frequently not considered. Determinations of pulmonary functions were also made at various time intervals following exercise or subsequent rest periods. All of these factors could result in some degree of misinterpretation of the consequences of pollutant exposure.

  8. Faith-Based Human Services Initiatives: Considerations for Social Work Practice and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangenberg, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Faith-based human services initiatives present numerous challenges to professional social work. This article explores ways a theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration perspectives may help social workers navigate complex ideological and practical implications of changing service delivery policies. The article highlights diversity…

  9. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  10. Insulin treatment of type 2 diabetes: considerations when converting from human insulin to insulin analogs.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Stacy

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent disease characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and diminished pancreatic β-cell function. Conventional insulin products used to manage this disease include regular human insulin and intermediate-acting human insulin. However, due to several limitations imposed by human insulins, such as onset and duration of action that do not coincide with physiologic needs and increased risk of hypoglycemia, insulin analogs were developed. Because they more closely mimic the physiologic action of endogenous insulin, insulin analogs are associated with more effective glucose control, a lower risk of hypoglycemia, greater convenience, and, in some instances, less weight gain. Switching from human insulin to insulin analogs is easily accomplished. Several studies have demonstrated a high rate of success with patient-initiated, self-adjusted dosing algorithms compared to investigator/clinician-initiated dose adjustments. These studies and several other published guidelines on insulin analogs provide patients and clinicians with information pertaining to better treatment options and can help increase overall patient satisfaction.

  11. Considerations for human exposure standards for fast-rise-time high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J H; Kiel, J L; Hurt, W D

    1995-06-01

    Development of new emitter systems capable of producing high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses with very fast rise times and narrow pulse widths is continuing. Such directed energy weapons systems will be used in the future to defeat electronically vulnerable targets. Human exposures to these pulses can be expected during testing and operations. Development of these technologies for radar and communications purposes has the potential for wider environmental exposure, as well. Current IEEE C95.1-1991 human exposure guidelines do not specifically address these types of pulses, though limits are stated for pulsed emissions. The process for developing standards includes an evaluation of the relevant bioeffects data base. A recommendation has been made that human exposure to ultrashort electromagnetic pulses that engender electromagnetic transients, called precursor waves, should be avoided. Studies that purport to show the potential for tissue damage induced by such pulses were described. The studies cited in support of the recommendation were not relevant to the issues of tissue damage by propagated pulses. A number of investigations are cited in this review that directly address the biological effects of electromagnetic pulses. These studies have not shown evidence of tissue damage as a result of exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves. It is our opinion that the current guidelines are sufficiently protective for human exposure to these pulses.

  12. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  13. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population.

  14. Dynamic Isotope Power System Design Considerations for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition were investigated, emphasizing the issue of how the mission environment affects system design. It was found that radiation shielding for human-rated applications has a greater impact on DIPS than any other factor.

  15. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  16. The Effect of Part-simulation of Weightlessness on Human Control of Bilateral Teleoperation: Neuromotor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on the human operator's performance in force reflecting position control of remote manipulators was investigated. A gravity compensation system was developed to simulate the effect of weightlessness on the operator's arm. A universal force reflecting hand controller (FRHC) and task simulation software were employed. Two experiments were performed because of anticipated disturbances in neuromotor control specification on the human operator in an orbital control environment to investigate: (1) the effect of controller stiffness on the attainment of a learned terminal position in the three dimensional controller space, and (2) the effect of controller stiffness and damping on force tracking of the contour of a simulated three dimensional cube using the part simulation of weightless conditions. The results support the extension of neuromotor control models, which postulate a stiffness balance encoding of terminal position, to three dimensional motion of a multilink system, confirm the existence of a disturbance in human manual control performance under gravity compensated conditions, and suggest techniques for compensation of weightlessness induced performance decrement through appropriate specification of hand controller response characteristics. These techniques are based on the human control model.

  17. MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMAN RELEVANCE OF CANCER HAZARD OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Corton, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a peroxisome proliferator agent that is widely used as a plasticizer to soften polyvinylchloride plastics and non-polymers. Both occupational (e.g., by inhalation during its manufacture and use as a plasticizer of polyvinylchloride) and environmental (medical devices, contamination of food, or intake from air, water and soil) routes of exposure to DEHP are of concern for human health. There is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of DEHP in the liver in both rats and mice; however, there is little epidemiological evidence on possible associations between exposure to DEHP and liver cancer in humans. Data are available to suggest that liver is not the only target tissue for DEHP-associated toxicity and carcinogenicity in both humans and rodents. The debate regarding human relevance of the findings in rats or mice has been informed by studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the peroxisome proliferator class of chemicals, including DEHP. Important additional mechanistic information became available in the past decade, including, but not limited to, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies with DEHP in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-null mice, as well as experiments utilizing several transgenic mouse lines. Activation of PPARα and the subsequent downstream events mediated by this transcription factor represent an important mechanism of action for DEHP in rats and mice. However, additional data from animal models and studies in humans exposed to DEHP from the environment suggest that multiple molecular signals and pathways in several cell types in the liver, rather than a single molecular event, contribute to the cancer in rats and mice. In addition, the toxic and carcinogenic effects of DEHP are not limited to liver. The International Agency for Research on Cancer working group concluded that the human relevance of the molecular events leading to cancer elicited by DEHP in several target tissues (e

  18. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR) invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the

  19. Mechanistic considerations for human relevance of cancer hazard of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Corton, J Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a peroxisome proliferator agent that is widely used as a plasticizer to soften polyvinylchloride plastics and non-polymers. Both occupational (e.g., by inhalation during its manufacture and use as a plasticizer of polyvinylchloride) and environmental (medical devices, contamination of food, or intake from air, water and soil) routes of exposure to DEHP are of concern for human health. There is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of DEHP in the liver in both rats and mice; however, there is little epidemiological evidence on possible associations between exposure to DEHP and liver cancer in humans. Data are available to suggest that liver is not the only target tissue for DEHP-associated toxicity and carcinogenicity in both humans and rodents. The debate regarding human relevance of the findings in rats or mice has been informed by studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the peroxisome proliferator class of chemicals, including DEHP. Important additional mechanistic information became available in the past decade, including, but not limited to, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies with DEHP in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-null mice, as well as experiments utilizing several transgenic mouse lines. Activation of PPARα and the subsequent downstream events mediated by this transcription factor represent an important mechanism of action for DEHP in rats and mice. However, additional data from animal models and studies in humans exposed to DEHP from the environment suggest that multiple molecular signals and pathways in several cell types in the liver, rather than a single molecular event, contribute to the cancer in rats and mice. In addition, the toxic and carcinogenic effects of DEHP are not limited to liver. The International Agency for Research on Cancer working group concluded that the human relevance of the molecular events leading to cancer elicited by DEHP in several target tissues (e

  20. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR) invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the

  1. Forensic aspects of mass disasters: strategic considerations for DNA-based human identification.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Bieber, Frederick R; Eisenberg, Arthur J

    2005-07-01

    Many mass disasters result in loss of lives. Law enforcement and/or public safety and health officials often have the responsibility for identifying the human remains found at the scene, so they can be returned to their families. The recovered human remains range from being relatively intact to highly degraded. DNA-based identity testing is a powerful tool for victim identification in that the data are not restricted to any particular one to one body landmark comparison and DNA profile comparisons can be used to associate separated remains or body parts. Even though DNA typing is straightforward, a disaster is a chaotic environment that can complicate effective identification of the remains. With some planning, or at least identification of the salient features to consider, stress can be reduced for those involved in the identification process. General guidelines are provided for developing an action plan for identification of human remains from a mass disaster by DNA analysis. These include: (1) sample collection, preservation, shipping and storage; (2) tracking and chain of custody issues; (3) laboratory facilities; (4) quality assurance and quality control practices; (5) parsing out work; (6) extraction and typing; (7) interpretation of results; (8) automation; (9) software for tracking and managing data; (10) the use of an advisory panel; (11) education and communication; and (12) privacy issues. In addition, key technologies that may facilitate the identification process are discussed, such as resin based DNA extraction, real-time PCR for quantitation of DNA, use of mini-STRs, SNP detection procedures, and software. Many of the features necessary for DNA typing of human remains from a mass disaster are the same as those for missing persons' cases. Therefore, developing a missing persons DNA identification program would also provide the basis for a mass disaster human remains DNA identification program.

  2. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  3. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Significance Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it

  4. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  5. Enhancing human spermine synthase activity by engineered mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing.

  6. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) derived vectors: safety considerations and controversy over therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gaetano; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Tonini, Tiziana; Giordano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The latest generation of lentiviral vectors based on HIV-1 is one of the most efficient tools for gene transduction of mammalian cells. However, the possible employment of HIV-based vectors in clinical trials is a very controversial issue, mainly due to safety and ethical concerns. HIV-1 is a lethal pathogenic agent, which induces AIDS. Genetic vectors must derive either from viruses that are not pathogenic in humans, or that eventually just cause mild illnesses. Patients exposed to HIV-based vectors will test seropositive to certain components of HIV-1. In addition, there might be other possible adverse effects in patients that cannot be predicted, as many aspects of the pathogenesis of AIDS have not been completely understood yet. On these grounds, it seems necessary to improve the design of other lentiviral vectors, which derive from viruses that are not pathogenic in humans and are distantly related to primate retroviridae.

  8. Stability of human mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture: considerations for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Binato, R; de Souza Fernandez, T; Lazzarotto-Silva, C; Du Rocher, B; Mencalha, A; Pizzatti, L; Bouzas, L F; Abdelhay, E

    2013-02-01

    Ex vivo expansion and manipulation of human mesenchymal stem cells are important approaches to immunoregulatory and regenerative cell therapies. Although these cells show great potential for use, issues relating to their overall nature emerge as problems in the field. The need for extensive cell quantity amplification in vitro to obtain sufficient cell numbers for use, poses a risk of accumulating genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that could lead to sporadic malignant cell transformation. In this study, we have examined human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, over extended culture time, using cytogenetic analyses, mixed lymphocyte reactions, proteomics and gene expression assays to determine whether the cultures would retain their potential for use in subsequent passages. Results indicate that in vitro cultures of these cells demonstrated chromosome variability after passage 4, but their immunomodulatory functions and differentiation capacity were maintained. At the molecular level, changes were observed from passage 5 on, indicating initiation of differentiation. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that human mesenchymal stem cells cultures can be used successfully in cell therapy up to passage 4. However, use of cells from higher passages would have to be analysed case by case.

  9. Human Motion Tracking at Marshall Space Flight Center's Collaborative Engineering Center ANVIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Steven J.; Hamilton, George S.

    2004-01-01

    The installation and use of electromagnetic human motion trackers requires a specially designed and metal-free environment for optimal performance. Such an area is not readily available at the Marshall Space Flight Center Collaborative Engineering Center ANVIL. Our paper details a systems engineering approach to installing and operating Ascension Technologies Ethernet MotionStar tracking system in a sub-optimal environment, used with the JACK human computer model's motion capture capabilities. We also discuss how this system is integrated into the Marshall Space Flight Center's Human Engineering process.

  10. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  11. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  12. Oxygen utilization of the human left ventricle - An indirect method for its evaluation and clinical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the oxygen consumption rate of the intact heart working (as opposed to empty but beating) human left ventricle. Use is made of experimental recordings obtained for the chamber pressure and the associated dimensions of the LV. LV dimensions are determined by cineangiocardiography, and the chamber pressure is obtained by means of fluid-filled catheters during retrograde or transeptal catheterization. An analytical method incorporating these data is then employed for the evaluation of the LV coronary oxygen consumption in five subjects. Oxygen consumption for these subjects was also obtained by the conventional clinical method in order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed method.

  13. Human Factors Considerations for Safe Recovery from Faults In Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy; Belcastro, C. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    It is now possible - and important - to develop systems to help resolve Flight Control System (FCS) faults. From a human factors viewpoint, it is imperative that these systems take on roles, and provide functions, that are the most supportive to the pilot, given the stress, time pressure and workload they may experience following a FCS fault. FCS fault recovery systems may provide several different functions, including alerting, control assistance, and decision aiding. The biggest human factors questions are in the role suitable for the technology, and its specific functioning to achieve that role. Specifically, for these systems to be effective, they must meet the fundamental requirements that (1) they alert pilots to problems early enough that the pilot can reasonably resolve the fault and regain control of the aircraft and that (2) if the aircraft s handling qualities are severely degraded the HMS provide the appropriate stability augmentation to help the pilot stabilize and control the aircraft. This project undertook several research steps to develop such systems, focusing on the capabilities of pilots and on realistically attainable technologies. The ability to estimate which functions are the most valuable will help steer system development in the directions that can establish the highest safety levels.

  14. Sleep deprivation and anxiety in humans and rodents--translational considerations and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-10-01

    The effects of acute sleep deprivation on anxiety are the focus of controversy in the literature. While clinical research studies on the effects of sleep deprivation seem to show a consistent increase in acute anxiety, rodent studies have produced inconsistent results, with some experiments pointing to anxiogenesis and others to anxiolysis. Such observations impair the translational applicability of rodent models on the paradigm between sleep deprivation and anxiety. Current studies fail in the very basic principle of biomedical translational research: to provide relevant and reliable knowledge from basic experimental science that can be applied in clinical environments. Possible explanations for the disparity between human and animal studies include the accuracy of both human and rodent research, the ability of current behavioral protocols to truly reflect the anxiety response of rodents to sleep deprivation, and the nature of sleep deprivation-induced anxiety in rodents. Based on these hypotheses, we performed a brief overview of the literature on the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety and propose a research agenda that could lead to a better understanding of the reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature and provide more reliable data on the translational relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety.

  15. Feasibility and Technical Considerations of Mammary Ductoscopy in Human Mastectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Jill R.; Kim, Julian A.; Malycky, Jan L.; Levy, Lawrence; Crowe, Joseph

    2000-05-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic technology have made visualization of human mammary ducts possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and technical factors influencing the ability to successfully visualize the epithelium of the human mammary ductal system. Lacrimal duct probes were used to dilate nipple orifices to 1.2 mm on 42 mastectomy specimens. The Depth of Field Imaging Micro-Minimally Invasive (DOFI(R) MMI) system consisting of a 1.2 mm rigid ductoscope with a 350 &mgr;m working channel was introduced into mammary ducts under air insufflation or saline irrigation. At least one major duct could be dilated and cannulated in all 42 specimens. Visualization of the proximal duct was accomplished in 34 of 42 (81%) specimens, whereas more extensive navigation through the distal subsegmental ducts was achieved in 22 of 42 (52%) specimens. Ductoscopy into the terminal ducts was accomplished in all patients with a previous history of nipple discharge or discharge at the time of the procedure (10 of 10). In three patients with no history of nipple discharge prior to ductoscopy, incidental papillomas were discovered and confirmed by the pathologist. In conclusion, mammary ductoscopy is technically feasible and may have an application as an additional diagnostic modality for patients with pathologic nipple discharge.

  16. New dimensions in tissue engineering: possible models for human physiology.

    PubMed

    Baar, Keith

    2005-11-01

    Tissue engineering is a discipline of great promise. In some areas, such as the cornea, tissues engineered in the laboratory are already in clinical use. In other areas, where the tissue architecture is more complex, there are a number of obstacles to manoeuvre before clinically relevant tissues can be produced. However, even in areas where clinically relevant tissues are decades away, the tissues being produced at the moment provide powerful new models to aid the understanding of complex physiological processes. This article provides a personal view of the role of tissue engineering in advancing our understanding of physiology, with specific attention being paid to musculoskeletal tissues.

  17. Transmission of infection with human allografts: essential considerations in donor screening.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jay A; Greenwald, Melissa A; Grossi, Paolo A

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of infection via transplantation of allografts including solid organs, eyes, and tissues are uncommon but potentially life-threatening events. Donor-derived infections have been documented following organ, tissue, and ocular transplants. Each year, more than 70 000 organs, 100 000 corneas, and 2 million human tissue allografts are implanted worldwide. Single donors may provide allografts for >100 organ and tissue recipients; each allograft carries some, largely unquantifiable, risk of disease transmission. Protocols for screening of organ or tissue donors for infectious risk are nonuniform, varying with the type of allograft, national standards, and availability of screening assays. In the absence of routine, active surveillance, coupled with the common failure to recognize or report transmission events, few data are available on the incidence of allograft-associated disease transmission. Research is needed to define the optimal screening assays and the transmissibility of infection with allografts. Approaches are reviewed that may contribute to safety in allograft transplantation.

  18. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia.

  19. Launching Invasive, First-in-Human Trials against Parkinson’s Disease: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    London, Alex John; Ravina, Bernard; Ramsay, Tim; Bernstein, Mark; Fine, Alan; Stahnisch, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to initiate invasive, first-in-human trials involving Parkinson’s disease presents a vexing ethical challenge. Such studies present significant surgical risks, and high degrees of uncertainty about intervention risks and biological effects. We argue that maintaining a favorable risk-benefit balance in such circumstances requires a higher than usual degree of confidence that protocols will lead to significant direct and/or social benefits. One critical way of promoting such confidence is through the application of stringent evidentiary standards for preclinical studies. We close with a series of recommendations for strengthening the internal and external validity of preclinical studies, reducing their tendency toward optimism and publication biases, and improving the knowledge base used to design and evaluate preclinical studies. PMID:19672990

  20. Appropriate uses and considerations for online surveying in human dimensions research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Miller, Holly M.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2011-01-01

    Online surveying has gained attention in recent years for its applicability to human dimensions research as an efficient and inexpensive data-collection method; however, online surveying is not a panacea. In this article, we provide some guidelines for alleviating or avoiding the criticisms and pitfalls suggested of online survey methods and explore two case studies demonstrating different approaches to online surveying. The first was a mixed-mode study of visitors to 52 participating National Wildlife Refuges. The response rate was 72%, with over half of respondents completing the survey online, resulting in cost-savings and efficiencies that would not have otherwise been realized. The second highlighted an online-only approach targeting specialized users of satellite imagery. Through branching and skipping, the online mode allowed flexibilities in administration impractical in a mail survey. The response rate of 53% was higher than typical for online surveys. Both case studies provide examples of appropriate uses of online surveying.

  1. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony; Lew, Roger Thomas; Medema, Heather Dawne; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  2. Human factors considerations of IR sensors for the Canadian Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frim, John; Bossi, Linda; Tack, Dave

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace." This capital acquisition project is supported by a number of R&D Technology Demonstration Projects within Defence R&D Canada. Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. The Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) project examined the performance impact of NVGs, LWIR imaging systems, and fused systems (both optical and digital fusion) on target detection, recognition and identification. NVGs were shown to provide good identification performance while LWIR systems excelled in detection tasks. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration (SIHS TD) project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues. Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2.5 kg, and if an offset from the eye is required then a horizontal offset (vice vertical or oblique) of the sensor appears most acceptable. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers.

  3. Human stem cells and articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, J-F; Huselstein, C; Schiavi, J; Li, Y Y; Bensoussan, D; Decot, V; De Isla, N

    2012-12-01

    Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, cell-based surgical therapies such as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) have been in clinical use for cartilage repair for over a decade but this approach has shown mixed results. Moreover, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on cartilage tissue engineering combining cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. This paper focuses on the main parameters in tissue engineering and in particular, on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative to cells derived from patient tissues in autologous transplantation and tissue engineering. We discussed the prospects of using autologous chondrocytes or MSCs in regenerative medicine and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these cells in articular cartilage engineering.

  4. Ideas in Practice: The Mississippi River: Humanities and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonalt, Larry; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course offered for the freshman civil engineering major at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The rationale of developing the course which focuses on the symbolic, social, and technological aspects of the Mississippi River is included. (HM)

  5. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  6. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  7. Social Control and Human Engineering: A Framework for Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    Social control and human engineering are vital factors in providing balanced, controlled, planned directions for educational decisionmaking. Designed to encourage individual growth, these factors are morally neutral; the way in which they are implemented determines their worth. (Author)

  8. Significant effects of mild endogenous hormonal changes in humans: considerations for low-dose testing.

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, F; Thayer, K; Colborn, T

    2001-03-01

    We review the significant and adverse health effects that can occur with relatively small endogenous hormonal changes in pubertal and adult humans. We discuss the effects of hormonal changes that occur within normal physiologic ranges--such as the rising levels of estrogen in peripuberty, which cause growth spurts at low levels and then the fusion of epiphyses at higher levels--and the hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and their relation to genital phenotypic changes and intercurrent disease evolution. We turn next to adaptive changes in gonadal and other functions during aging, exercise, stress, starvation, and chronic diseases, which can serve as models for the effects of exogenous, hormonally active compounds. Then we review the states of borderline hormonal imbalances such as subclinical (having few or very mild symptoms, if any) hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, glucose intolerance, and other endocrine conditions. Finally, we review the deleterious systemic effects of gonadal imbalance. Information stemming from clinical observations leads to the concept of "no threshold" within the endocrine system and thus illustrates the importance of considering low-dose testing for chemicals that interfere with hormonal activity. We also urge attention to more sensitive, less visible end points such as osteoporosis, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, or cognitive changes.

  9. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of Nursing Considerations.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Janet; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-08-01

    : The overall incidence of head and neck cancer-which includes laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, nasopharyngeal, oral, oropharyngeal, and salivary gland cancers-has declined in the United States over the past 30 years with the concomitant reduction in tobacco use. Over that same period, however, the worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has escalated significantly, most notably among men and women under age 60 who live in developed countries. This epidemic rise in oropharyngeal cancer is largely attributed to certain genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the United States, HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal tumors increased dramatically, from roughly 16% between 1984 and 1989 to nearly 73% between 2000 and 2004, and the annual incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is expected to surpass that of HPV-related cervical cancer by 2020.This article provides an overview of head and neck cancer-its incidence, risk factors, treatment, and posttreatment sequelae-with a focus on HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unlike other forms of head and neck cancer, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer tends to affect younger patients with few or none of the traditional risk factors and has a distinctive presentation, histology, and natural course. In order to provide appropriate patient education and to help these patients monitor and manage late and long-term treatment effects, it is important for nurses to be aware of this disease and its treatment, and of the unique survivorship issues that arise for affected patients.

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineering considerations for capping subaqueous dredged material deposits -- background and preliminary planning. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1987-02-01

    In recent years, the search for alternatives to expensive and limited upland containment areas for contaminated sediment has centered on in-water capped disposal. This interest was further reinforced when the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Dumping Convention) accepted the capping concept, subject to monitoring, as an appropriate technology for rapidly rendering harmless the contaminants of concern in dredged material. Subsequent detailed investigations (e.g., Brannon et al. 1985, O`Connor and O`Connor 1983) have confirmed that capping can be effective in chemically and biologically isolating contaminated dredged material from the overlying aquatic environment. However, in order to ensure this effectiveness, capping projects cannot be treated simply as a modification of conventional disposal practices. A capping project must be thought of as an engineered structure with design and construction requirements that must be met, verified, and maintained over the design life. This is not to say that traditional equipment and operational methods cannot be applied to capping contaminated materials. In fact, they have been used with good success. Technologies must, however, be applied in a systems context and with careful control and monitoring.

  11. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  12. Engineering a humanized bone organ model in mice to study bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Martine, Laure C; Holzapfel, Boris M; McGovern, Jacqui A; Wagner, Ferdinand; Quent, Verena M; Hesami, Parisa; Wunner, Felix M; Vaquette, Cedryck; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Brown, Toby D; Nowlan, Bianca; Wu, Dan Jing; Hutmacher, Cosmo Orlando; Moi, Davide; Oussenko, Tatiana; Piccinini, Elia; Zandstra, Peter W; Mazzieri, Roberta; Lévesque, Jean-Pierre; Dalton, Paul D; Taubenberger, Anna V; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2017-04-01

    Current in vivo models for investigating human primary bone tumors and cancer metastasis to the bone rely on the injection of human cancer cells into the mouse skeleton. This approach does not mimic species-specific mechanisms occurring in human diseases and may preclude successful clinical translation. We have developed a protocol to engineer humanized bone within immunodeficient hosts, which can be adapted to study the interactions between human cancer cells and a humanized bone microenvironment in vivo. A researcher trained in the principles of tissue engineering will be able to execute the protocol and yield study results within 4-6 months. Additive biomanufactured scaffolds seeded and cultured with human bone-forming cells are implanted ectopically in combination with osteogenic factors into mice to generate a physiological bone 'organ', which is partially humanized. The model comprises human bone cells and secreted extracellular matrix (ECM); however, other components of the engineered tissue, such as the vasculature, are of murine origin. The model can be further humanized through the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that can lead to human hematopoiesis within the murine host. The humanized organ bone model has been well characterized and validated and allows dissection of some of the mechanisms of the bone metastatic processes in prostate and breast cancer.

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Mechanobiology: Manipulating the Biophysical Microenvironment for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Ronald G; Simmons, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    A stem cell in its microenvironment is subjected to a myriad of soluble chemical cues and mechanical forces that act in concert to orchestrate cell fate. Intuitively, many of these soluble and biophysical factors have been the focus of intense study to successfully influence and direct cell differentiation in vitro. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been of considerable interest in these studies due to their great promise for regenerative medicine. Culturing and directing differentiation of hPSCs, however, is currently extremely labor-intensive and lacks the efficiency required to generate large populations of clinical-grade cells. Improved efficiency may come from efforts to understand how the cell biophysical signals can complement biochemical signals to regulate cell pluripotency and direct differentiation. In this concise review, we explore hPSC mechanobiology and how the hPSC biophysical microenvironment can be manipulated to maintain and differentiate hPSCs into functional cell types for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications.

  14. The interface between plant metabolic engineering and human health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie

    2013-04-01

    The data on the benefits of consuming high levels of phytonutrients in fruit and vegetables to prevent or ameliorate chronic disease are very persuasive. To underpin reliable dietary recommendations and future campaigns for preventive medicine, significant fundamental research is required to define phytonutrients, their physiological effects following consumption, their mechanisms of action, the impact of the food matrix and synergistic interactions between phytonutrients. This information will set goals for biofortifying phytonutrients in crops, which can be achieved by metabolic engineering, either using natural variation or genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has potential to enrich diets significantly in phytonutrients to reduce the risk of chronic disease, even against an overall decline in the nutritional value of diets, in both the developing and developed worlds.

  15. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2010-10-01

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 × 10-4 m s-1. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  16. Cultivating Engineers' Humanity: Fostering Cosmopolitanism in a Technical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boni, Alejandra; MacDonald, Penny; Peris, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the potential of a curriculum designed to develop Nussbaum's cosmopolitan abilities through two elective subjects offered to future engineers in a Spanish Technical University. To this end, Nussbaum's proposition of cosmopolitan abilities is presented in relation to the broader academic literature on cosmopolitanism and…

  17. Computer-aided tissue engineering of a human vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Wettergreen, M A; Bucklen, B S; Sun, W; Liebschner, M A K

    2005-10-01

    Tissue engineering is developing into a less speculative science involving the careful interplay of numerous design parameters and multidisciplinary professionals. Problem solving abilities and state of the art research tools are required to develop solutions for a wide variety of clinical issues. One area of particular interest is orthopedic biomechanics, a field that is responsible for the treatment of over 700,000 vertebral fractures in the United States alone last year. Engineers are currently lacking the technology and knowledge required to govern the subsistence of cells in vivo, let alone the knowledge to create a functional tissue replacement for a whole organ. Despite this, advances in computer-aided tissue engineering are continually growing. Using a combinatory approach to scaffold design, patient-specific implants may be constructed. Computer-aided design, optimization of geometry using voxel finite element models or other optimization routines, creation of a library of architectures with specific material properties, rapid prototyping, and determination of a defect site using imaging modalities highlight the current availability of design resources. This study proposes a novel methodology from start to finish which could, in the future, be used to design a tissue-engineered construct for the replacement of an entire vertebral body.

  18. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  19. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines.

  20. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  1. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  2. Human factors and systems engineering approach to patient safety for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, A Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety.

  3. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  4. Reverse Engineering Human Pathophysiology with Organs-on-Chips.

    PubMed

    Ingber, Donald E

    2016-03-10

    While studies of cultured cells have led to new insights into biological control, greater understanding of human pathophysiology requires the development of experimental systems that permit analysis of intercellular communications and tissue-tissue interactions in a more relevant organ context. Human organs-on-chips offer a potentially powerful new approach to confront this long-standing problem.

  5. Is Law a Humanity: (Or Is It More like Engineering)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, David

    2004-01-01

    Law often appears to be in a limbo between the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Movements within legal scholarship itself, the law and economics movement and the law and literature movement, represent efforts to portray law as a social science or as a humanity. But if one looks at what lawyers do, one finds that law is more like…

  6. NASA's Man-Systems Integration Standards: A Human Factors Engineering Standard for Everyone in the Nineties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, Cletis R.; Goldsberry, Betty S.

    1994-01-01

    During the second half of the 1980s, a document was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to aid in the application of good human factors engineering and human interface practices to the design and development of hardware and systems for use in all United States manned space flight programs. This comprehensive document, known as NASA-STD-3000, the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS), attempts to address, from a human factors engineering/human interface standpoint, all of the various types of equipment with which manned space flight crew members must deal. Basically, all of the human interface situations addressed in the MSIS are present in terrestrially based systems also. The premise of this paper is that, starting with this already created standard, comprehensive documents addressing human factors engineering and human interface concerns could be developed to aid in the design of almost any type of equipment or system which humans interface with in any terrestrial environment. Utilizing the systems and processes currently in place in the MSIS Development Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, any number of MSIS volumes addressing the human factors / human interface needs of any terrestrially based (or, for that matter, airborne) system could be created.

  7. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  8. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning.

    PubMed

    Ohara, N

    2003-01-01

    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  9. Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, James B.

    2005-05-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

  10. Using Transom Jack in the Human Engineering Analysis of the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Alves, Jeffrey R.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the human engineering analysis performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert (MSRR-1/QMI) using Transom Jack (Jack) software. The Jack software was used to model a virtual environment consisting of the MSRR-1/QMI hardware configuration and human figures representing the 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. The purpose of the simulation was to assess the human interfaces in the design for their ability to meet the requirements of the Pressurized Payloads Interface Requirements Document - International Space Program, Revision C (SSP 57000). Jack was used in the evaluation because of its ability to correctly model anthropometric body measurements and the physical behavior of astronauts working in microgravity, which is referred to as the neutral body posture. The Jack model allows evaluation of crewmember interaction with hardware through task simulation including but not limited to collision avoidance behaviors, hand/eye coordination, reach path planning, and automatic grasping to part contours. Specifically, this virtual simulation depicts the human figures performing the QMI installation and check-out, sample cartridge insertion and removal, and gas bottle drawer removal. These tasks were evaluated in terms of adequate clearance in reach envelopes, adequate accessibility in work envelopes, appropriate line of sight in visual envelopes, and accommodation of full size range for male and female stature maneuverability. The results of the human engineering analysis virtual simulation indicate that most of the associated requirements of SSP 57000 were met. However, some hardware design considerations and crew procedures modifications are recommended to improve accessibility, provide an adequate work envelope, reduce awkward body posture, and eliminate permanent protrusions.

  11. Architecture of arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve: anatomy and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Killer, H E; Laeng, H R; Flammer, J; Groscurth, P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To describe the anatomy and the arrangement of the arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve and to consider their possible clinical relevance for cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and fluid pressure in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve. Methods: Postmortem study with a total of 12 optic nerves harvested from nine subjects without ocular disease. All optic nerves used in this study were obtained no later than 7 hours after death, following qualified consent for necropsy. The study was performed with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve contains a variety of trabeculae, septa, and stout pillars that are arranged between the arachnoid and the pia layers of the meninges of the nerve. They display a considerable numeric and structural variability depending on their location within the different portions of the optic nerve. In the bulbar segment (ampulla), adjacent to the globe, a dense and highly ramified meshwork of delicate trabeculae is arranged in a reticular fashion. Between the arachnoid trabeculae, interconnecting velum-like processes are observed. In the mid-orbital segment of the orbital portion, the subarachnoid space is subdivided, and can appear even loosely chambered by broad trabeculae and velum-like septa at some locations. In the intracanalicular segment additionally, few stout pillars and single round trabeculae are observed. Conclusion: The subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve is not a homogeneous and anatomically empty chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid, but it contains a complex system of arachnoid trabeculae and septa that divide the subarachnoid space. The trabeculae, septa, and pillars, as well as their arrangement described in this study, may have a role in the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics between the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve and the chiasmal cistern and may contribute to the

  12. Design Principles for Engineering of Tissues from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matthys, Oriane B.; Hookway, Tracy A.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technologies have enabled the engineering of human tissue constructs for developmental studies, disease modeling, and drug screening platforms. In vitro tissue formation can be generally described at three levels of cellular organization. Multicellular hPSC constructs are initially formed either with polymeric scaffold materials or simply via self-assembly, adhesive mechanisms. Heterotypic interactions within hPSC tissue constructs can be achieved by physically mixing independently differentiated cell populations or coaxed to simultaneously co-emerge from a common population of undifferentiated cells. Higher order tissue architecture can be engineered by imposing external spatial constraints, such as molds and scaffolds, or depend upon cell-driven organization that exploits endogenous innate developmental mechanisms. The multicellular, heterogeneous, and highly organized structure of hPSC constructs ultimately dictates the resulting form and function of in vitro engineered human tissue models. PMID:27330934

  13. Enhancing the Human Factors Engineering Role in an Austere Fiscal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Jack W.

    2003-01-01

    An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressures to reduce program costs, often minimizing or sometimes even deleting the human interface requirements from the design process. With an assumption that the flight crew can recover real time from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have been either not included in the design or not properly funded, though carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. In response to this concern, planning is ongoing to correct the acting issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated into a flight design, from proposal through verification and launch activation. This includes human factors requirements refinement and consolidation across flight programs; keyword phrases in the proposals; closer ties with systems engineering and other classical disciplines; early planning for crew-interface verification; and an Agency integrated human factors verification program, under the One NASA theme. Importance is given to communication within the aerospace human factors discipline, and utilizing the strengths of all government, industry, and academic human factors organizations in an unified research and engineering approach. A list of recommendations and concerns are provided in closing.

  14. Engineering considerations in anemometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meserole, L. T.

    The increased usage of portable anemometers has marked the need for better calibration quality. Efforts being made to achieve correlation between some US Department of Defense laboratories are described. A wind tunnel developed by the Navy Primary Standards Laboratory was used to calibrate 12 models of hot-wire anemometers and 13 models of vane anemometers. The latter category consisted of swinging-vane, mechanical rotating-vane, electrical rotating-vane, torsional-vane anemometers. Stable instruments such as the rotating-vane and electrical rotating-vane types were found to be fairly capable of comparing calibrations made by different facilities. However, greater accuracy and cost-efficiency would be achieved with fewer top-notch facilities as opposed to having a greater number of facilities but with minimum accuracy.

  15. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  16. Human engineering of multisensor and multisource tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenmarck, Peter

    2000-08-01

    A pressing concern in modern fighter aircraft cockpit design is how to present and reduce large amounts of information obtained from several sensor observations of the same object. Currently, sensor observations are presented individually as overlays or in different displays requiring the pilot to control each sensor and integrate observations. The increased number of sensors and communication networks covering extensive ranges has, however, led to an unacceptable situation that hampers pilots' situation awareness and decision-making. Therefore, some from of automatic information management is necessary to support the pilot. Although considerable technological research has been conducted on automatic sensor fusion and management of multisensor and multi source tracking systems, only little is known about how to integrate systems capabilities with pilots' decision-making.

  17. Quantification of human growth hormone in serum with a labeled protein as an internal standard: essential considerations.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Caroline; Groves, Kate J; Biesenbruch, Sabine; O'Connor, Gavin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Arsene, Cristian; Schulze, Dirk; Quaglia, Milena

    2014-07-01

    To manage and inform diagnostic or therapeutic decisions, measurement results which are accurate, specific, and comparable between laboratories are required. Two challenges associated with this are the definition of the measurand and the commutability of the reference standard used. Once the measurand is defined, the next step in improving standardization is developing traceable quantification methods for proteins in biological fluids. A novel reference method for the quantification of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in serum has been developed using multistep sample cleanup at the protein level, tryptic digestion, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Critical considerations for using isotopically labeled rhGH as the internal standard are described. A bulk serum sample was prepared at the clinically relevant level of 10 ng/g and quantified using the method described to give results traceable to the International System of Units (SI) with a total measurement uncertainty of <20%. Results compared favorably with an orthogonal traceable method using total tryptic digestion, peptide separation, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

  18. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  19. Human Factors Engineering. A Self-Paced Text, Lessons 6-10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED F655 N mmmmhhhhhmhus ni I:!-% v .. - - - .-.. 7~. . .7- .-- 1蔿 .8 28 11110 1. I1.25 1I1.4 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL...Brogan DTIC Jerry Hedge F. F.CT F Kevin McElory qSEP 1 9 193 Judah Katznelson US ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY PACIFIC MISSILE TEST CENTER 83 09 i...Public Release: Distribution Unlimited US ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY PACIFIC MISSILE TEST CENTER N ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are grateful to the

  20. Survey Result of the Engineering Undergraduate Student's “Human Performance”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    Development of engineer's “Human Performance” is being required to respond to various changes. “Human Performace” is defined as an ability of putting own knowledge and skill to a practical issue. Current engineering undergraduate education promotes to learn this ability. To examine effectiveness of the educational program, a questionnaire consisting of 66 items was developed and the survey was conducted across eight universities. As results, most students recognize importance of the ability, but their achievement is lower for English communication skill and adaptation of cultural difference. They learned the ability on laboratory experience for their thesis, experiment class, club activities, part-time jobs and other activities.

  1. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  2. Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, J. P.; Farina, P.; Pearson, A.; Mezes, P. S.; Sabatelli, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Isotopic Engineering (MIE) is the directed stable-isotopic synthesis of chemical products for reasons of product identification and of product security, and also for intellectual property considerations. We report here a generally excellent correspondence between the observed and predicted stable carbon-isotopic (δ13C) results for a successful directed synthesis of racemic mixture from its immediate precursors. The observed results are readily explained by the laws of mass balance and isotope mass balance. Oxygen- and hydrogen isotopic results which require an additional assessment of the effects of O and H exchange, presumably due to interaction with water in the reaction solution, are addressed elsewhere. A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.

  3. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping... It is not clear, however, that rapid prototyping could be used, or ts being used, in the same way as a mock-up. Williges and Hartson6

  4. Volume Expansion of Tissue Engineered Human Nasal Septal Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Marsha S; Briggs, Kristen K; Neuman, Monica K; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L; Watson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Importance Cartilaginous craniofacial defects range in size and autologous cartilaginous tissue is preferred for repair of these defects. Therefore, it is important to have the ability to produce large size cartilaginous constructs for repair of cartilaginous abnormalities. Objectives To produce autologous human septal neocartilage constructs substantially larger in size than previously produced constructs To demonstrate that volume expanded neocartilage constructs possess comparable histological and biochemical properties to standard size constructs To show that volume expanded neocartilage constructs retain similar biomechanical properties to standard size constructs Design Prospective, basic science Setting Laboratory Participants The study used remnant human septal specimens removed during routine surgery at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center or San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Cartilage from a total of 8 donors was collected. Main Outcomes Measured Human septal chondrocytes from 8 donors were used to create 12mm and 24mm neocartilage constructs. These were cultured for a total of 10 weeks. Photo documentation, histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties were measured and compared. Results The 24mm diameter constructs were qualitatively similar to the 12mm constructs. They possessed adequate strength and durability to be manually manipulated. Histological analysis of the constructs demonstrated similar staining patterns in standard and volume expanded constructs. Proliferation, as measured by DNA content, was similar in 24mm and 12mm constructs. Additionally, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and total collagen content did not significantly differ between the two construct sizes. Biomechanical analysis of the 24mm and 12mm constructs demonstrated comparable compressive and tensile properties. Conclusion and Relevance Volume expanded human septal neocartilage constructs are qualitatively and histologically similar to standard 12mm

  5. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  6. Isolating and defining cells to engineer human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Critser, P. J.; Voytik-Harbin, S. L.; Yoder, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been recently focused on understanding the role that bone marrow-derived putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may play in the process of neoangiogenesis. However, recent data indicate that many of the putative EPC populations are comprised of various haematopoietic cell subsets with proangiogenic activity, but these marrow-derived putative EPC fail to display vasculogenic activity. Rather, this property is reserved for a rare population of circulating viable endothelial cells with colony-forming cell (ECFC) ability. Indeed, human ECFC possess clonal proliferative potential, display endothelial and not haematopoietic cell surface antigens, and display in vivo vasculogenic activity when suspended in an extracellular matrix and implanted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, human vessels derived became integrated into the murine circulatory system and eventually were remodelled into arterial and venous vessels. Identification of this population now permits determination of optimal type I collagen matrix microenvironment into which the cells should be embedded and delivered to accelerate and even pattern number and size of blood vessels formed, in vivo. Indeed, altering physical properties of ECFC-collagen matrix implants changed numerous parameters of human blood vessel formation, in host mice. These recent discoveries may permit a strategy for patterning vascular beds for eventual tissue and organ regeneration. PMID:21481038

  7. Human urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering - an analysis of 131 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Adamowicz, Jan; Sharma, Arun K; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of urinary bladder tissue with functional equivalents remains one of the most challenging problems of reconstructive urology over the last several decades. The gold standard treatment for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is the ileal conduit or neobladder; however, this technique is associated with numerous complications including electrolyte imbalances, mucus production, and the potential for malignant transformation. Tissue engineering techniques provide the impetus to construct functional bladder substitutes de novo. Within this review, we have thoroughly perused the literature utilizing PubMed in order to identify clinical studies involving bladder reconstruction utilizing tissue engineering methodologies. The idea of urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering dates back to the 1950s. Many natural and synthetic biomaterials such as plastic mold, gelatin sponge, Japanese paper, preserved dog bladder, lyophilized human dura, bovine pericardium, small intestinal submucosa, bladder acellular matrix, or composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid were used for urinary bladder regeneration with a wide range of outcomes. Recent progress in the tissue engineering field suggest that in vitro engineered bladder wall substitutes may have expanded clinical applicability in near future but preclinical investigations on large animal models with defective bladders are necessary to optimize the methods of bladder reconstruction by tissue engineering in humans.

  8. Cognitive work analysis: An influential legacy extending beyond human factors and engineering.

    PubMed

    Naikar, Neelam

    2017-03-01

    Jens Rasmussen's multifaceted legacy includes cognitive work analysis (CWA), a framework for the analysis, design, and evaluation of complex sociotechnical systems. After considering the framework's origins, this paper reviews its progress, predictably covering experimental research on ecological interface design, case studies of the application of CWA to human factors and engineering problems in industry, and methods and modelling tools for CWA. Emphasis is placed, however, on studying the nexus between some of the recent results obtained with CWA and the original field studies of human problem-solving that motivated the framework's development. Of particular interest is a case study of the use of CWA for military doctrine development, a problem commonly regarded as lying outside the fields of human factors and engineering. It is concluded that the value of CWA, even for such diverse problems, is likely to result from its conceptual grounding in empirical observations of patterns of human reasoning in complex systems.

  9. Use of an engineered ribozyme to produce a circular human exon.

    PubMed Central

    Mikheeva, S; Hakim-Zargar, M; Carlson, D; Jarrell, K

    1997-01-01

    We report the use of an engineered ribozyme to produce a circular human exon in vitro. Specifically, we have designed a derivative of a yeast self-splicing group II intron that is able to catalyze the formation of a circular exon encoding the first kringle domain (K1) of the human tissue plasminogen activator protein. We show that the circular K1 exon is formed with high fidelity in vitro. Furthermore, the system is designed such that the circular exon that is produced consists entirely of human exon sequence. Thus, our results demonstrate that all yeast exon sequences are dispensable for group II intron catalyzed inverse splicing. This is the first demonstration that an engineered ribozyme can be used to create a circular exon containing only human sequences, linked together at a precise desired ligation point. We expect these results to be generalizable, so that similar ribozymes can be designed to precisely create circular derivatives of any nucleotide sequence. PMID:9396820

  10. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  11. Human outposts on Mars: engineering and scientific lessons learned from history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2014-06-01

    There are several planned projects that aim to send humans to Mars which are currently developed by the ESA, the NASA or by initiatives from the private sector (e.g. The Mars One Project). Some of these projects include long-term stays or even permanent human outposts on the red planet. To achieve the necessary habitats on Mars, a vast amount of different engineering and scientific problems has to be solved. This paper identifies some of the most important issues by analyzing a similar endeavor from human history—the colonization of the American continent by the Europeans. This might seem to be an unconventional approach, but some valuable insights can be gathered by studying the significant dangers and drawbacks experienced by the early settlers in America. These historical records can help scientists and engineers to set up some guidelines for avoiding some of the risks for the first human beings on Mars.

  12. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  13. Bibliography of Research Reports and Publications Issued by the Human Engineering Division, January 1987 - December 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Annual Meeting, 1, 332-336. Boff, K. R., Polzella , D. J., & Morton, K. (1990). Crew system ergonomics information analysis center: A gateway for technology...A209396) Licht, D. M., Polzella , D. J., & Boff, K. R. (1991). Human factors, ergonomics, and human factors engineering: An analysis of definitions (Report...DTIC No. A262576) Polzella , D. J., Masline, P. J., Amell, J. R., Perez, W. A., & Ranmey, E. G. (1987). The development of a spatial orientation task for

  14. Developing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Engelman MD PhD CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Developiing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and 5b...biomarkers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), BH3 mimetic, TORC inhibitor, Apoptosis

  15. Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, W

    2005-04-15

    This paper provides a theoretical perspective on human factors and ergonomics (HFE), defined as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human-artefact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Such systems include a variety of natural and artificial products, processes and living environments. The distinguishing features of the contemporary HFE discipline and profession are discussed and a concept of ergonomics literacy is proposed. An axiomatic approach to ergonomics design and a universal measure of system-human incompatibility are also introduced. It is concluded that the main focus of the HFE discipline in the 21st century will be the design and management of systems that satisfy human compatibility requirements.

  16. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  17. Decellularization of human stromal refractive lenticules for corneal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M.; Goh, Tze-Wei; Setiawan, Melina; Lee, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chi; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) becomes a procedure to correct myopia. The extracted lenticule can be used for other clinical scenarios. To prepare for allogeneic implantation, lenticule decellularization with preserved optical property, stromal architecture and chemistry would be necessary. We evaluated different methods to decellularize thin human corneal stromal lenticules created by femtosecond laser. Treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by extensive washes was the most efficient protocol to remove cellular and nuclear materials. Empty cell space was found inside the stroma, which displayed aligned collagen fibril architecture similar to native stroma. The SDS-based method was superior to other treatments with hyperosmotic 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.1% Triton X-100 and nucleases (from 2 to 10 U/ml DNase and RNase) in preserving extracellular matrix content (collagens, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). The stromal transparency and light transmittance was indifferent to untreated lenticules. In vitro recellularization showed that the SDS-treated lenticules supported corneal stromal fibroblast growth. In vivo re-implantation into a rabbit stromal pocket further revealed the safety and biocompatibility of SDS-decellularized lenticules without short- and long-term rejection risk. Our results concluded that femtosecond laser-derived human stromal lenticules decellularized by 0.1% SDS could generate a transplantable bioscaffold with native-like stromal architecture and chemistry. PMID:27210519

  18. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP by the BDE-47 Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47: Considerations for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Marchitti, Satori A; Mazur, Christopher S; Dillingham, Caleb M; Rawat, Swati; Sharma, Anshika; Zastre, Jason; Kenneke, John F

    2017-01-01

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [((3)H)-paclitaxel and ((3)H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity. These findings suggest that some effects previously attributed to BDE-47 in biological systems may actually be due to 6-OH-BDE-47. Considerations for human exposure are discussed.

  19. Comparative DNA damage and transcriptomic effects of engineered nanoparticles in human lung cells in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide engineered nanomaterials were assessed for their ability to induce cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), various types of DNA damage, and transcriptional changes in human respiratory BEAS-2B cells exposed in vitro at se...

  20. Human Systems Engineering: A Learning Model Designed To Converge Education, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.

    The Human Systems Engineering (HSE) Model was created to facilitate collaboration among education, business, and industry. It emphasized the role of leaders who converge with others to accomplish their goals while paying attention to the key elements that create successful partnerships. The partnership of XXsys Technologies, Inc., University of…

  1. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Normal human epithelial cells regulate the size and morphology of tissue-engineered capillaries.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Fradette, Julie; Fortin, Véronique; Tomasetig, Florence; Roberge, Charles J; Baker, Kathleen; Berthod, François; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-05-01

    The survival of thick tissues/organs produced by tissue engineering requires rapid revascularization after grafting. Although capillary-like structures have been reconstituted in some engineered tissues, little is known about the interaction between normal epithelial cells and endothelial cells involved in the in vitro angiogenic process. In the present study, we used the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering to examine this relationship. An endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute was produced by adding endothelial cells to the tissue-engineered dermal substitute produced by the self-assembly approach. The latter consists in culturing fibroblasts in the medium supplemented with serum and ascorbic acid. A network of tissue-engineered capillaries (TECs) formed within the human extracellular matrix produced by dermal fibroblasts. To determine whether epithelial cells modify TECs, the size and form of TECs were studied in the endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute cultured in the presence or absence of epithelial cells. In the presence of normal keratinocytes from skin, cornea or uterine cervix, endothelial cells formed small TECs (cross-sectional area estimated at less than 50 microm(2)) reminiscent of capillaries found in the skin's microcirculation. In contrast, TECs grown in the absence of epithelial cells presented variable sizes (larger than 50 microm(2)), but the addition of keratinocyte-conditioned media or exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induced their normalization toward a smaller size. Vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization inhibited the effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media. These results provide new direct evidence that normal human epithelial cells play a role in the regulation of the underlying TEC network, and advance our knowledge in tissue engineering for the production of TEC networks in vitro.

  3. Engineering musculoskeletal tissues with human embryonic germ cell derivatives.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Shyni; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Ferran, Angela; Hillel, Alexander; Theprungsirikul, Parnduangjai; Canver, Adam C; Zhang, Zijun; Gearhart, John; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    The cells derived from differentiating embryoid bodies of human embryonic germ (hEG) cells express a broad spectrum of gene markers and have been induced toward ecto- and endodermal lineages. We describe here in vitro and in vivo differentiation of hEG-derived cells (LVEC line) toward mesenchymal tissues. The LVEC cells express many surface marker proteins characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated into cartilage, bone, and fat. Homogenous hyaline cartilage was generated from cells after 63 population doublings. In vivo results demonstrate cell survival, differentiation, and tissue formation. The high proliferative capacity of hEG-derived cells and their ability to differentiate and form three-dimensional mesenchymal tissues without teratoma formation underscores their significant potential for regenerative medicine. The adopted coculture system also provides new insights into how a microenvironment comprised of extracellular and cellular components may be harnessed to generate hierarchically complex tissues from pluripotent cells.

  4. Genetic engineering of human embryonic stem cells with lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chen; Tang, Dong-Qi; Xie, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Li; Xu, Ke-Feng; Thompson, Winston E; Chou, Wayne; Gibbons, Gary H; Chang, Lung-Ji; Yang, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuqing E

    2005-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells present a valuable source of cells with a vast therapeutic potential. However, the low efficiency of directed differentiation of hES cells remains a major obstacle in their uses for regenerative medicine. While differentiation may be controlled by the genetic manipulation, effective and efficient gene transfer into hES cells has been an elusive goal. Here, we show stable and efficient genetic manipulations of hES cells using lentiviral vectors. This method resulted in the establishment of stable gene expression without loss of pluripotency in hES cells. In addition, lentiviral vectors were effective in conveying the expression of an U6 promoter-driven small interfering RNA (siRNA), which was effective in silencing its specific target. Taken together, our results suggest that lentiviral gene delivery holds great promise for hES cell research and application.

  5. Fire as an engineering tool of early modern humans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Herries, Andy I R; Jacobs, Zenobia; Tribolo, Chantal; Braun, David; Roberts, David L; Meyer, Michael C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn

    2009-08-14

    The controlled use of fire was a breakthrough adaptation in human evolution. It first provided heat and light and later allowed the physical properties of materials to be manipulated for the production of ceramics and metals. The analysis of tools at multiple sites shows that the source stone materials were systematically manipulated with fire to improve their flaking properties. Heat treatment predominates among silcrete tools at approximately 72 thousand years ago (ka) and appears as early as 164 ka at Pinnacle Point, on the south coast of South Africa. Heat treatment demands a sophisticated knowledge of fire and an elevated cognitive ability and appears at roughly the same time as widespread evidence for symbolic behavior.

  6. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R K; Dean-Emig, D M; Moyle, W R

    1991-01-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the alpha subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their beta subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG beta-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLH beta and hFSH beta in receptor recognition and activation. Since the beta subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, we postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis we constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH beta subunits, coexpressed them with the human alpha subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSH beta residues 33-52 for hCG beta residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSH beta residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCG beta (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCG beta residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the "determinant loop" located between hCG beta residues 93 and 100. PMID:1899483

  7. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Dean-Emig, D.M.; Moyle, W.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the {alpha} subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their {beta} subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG {beta}-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLH{beta} and hFSH{beta} in receptor recognition and activation. Since the {beta} subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, the authors postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis the authors constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH {beta} subunits, coexpressed them with the human {alpha} subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSH{beta} residues 33-52 for hCG{beta} residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSH{beta} residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCG{beta} (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCG{beta} residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the determinant loop located between hCD{beta} residues 93 and 100.

  8. Human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets accelerate liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Itaba, Noriko; Matsumi, Yoshiaki; Okinaka, Kaori; Ashla, An Afida; Kono, Yohei; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Morimoto, Minoru; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Kazuo; Okano, Teruo; Shiota, Goshi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cell therapy. Based on our hypothesis that suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signal enhances hepatic differentiation of human MSCs, we developed human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets by a small molecule compound. Screening of 10 small molecule compounds was performed by WST assay, TCF reporter assay, and albumin mRNA expression. Consequently, hexachlorophene suppressed TCF reporter activity in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hexachlorophene rapidly induced hepatic differentiation of human MSCs judging from expression of liver-specific genes and proteins, PAS staining, and urea production. The effect of orthotopic transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets against acute liver injury was examined in one-layered to three-layered cell sheets system. Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets enhanced liver regeneration and suppressed liver injury. The survival rates of the mice were significantly improved. High expression of complement C3 and its downstream signals including C5a, NF-κB, and IL-6/STAT-3 pathway was observed in hepatic cell sheets-grafted tissues. Expression of phosphorylated EGFR and thioredoxin is enhanced, resulting in reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest that orthotopic transplantation of hepatic cell sheets manufactured from MSCs accelerates liver regeneration through complement C3, EGFR and thioredoxin. PMID:26553591

  9. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young's modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs.

  10. Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Martuza, R.L.; Malick, A.; Markert, J.M.; Ruffner, K.L.; Coen, D.M. )

    1991-05-10

    Malignant gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and are almost always fatal. A thymidine kinase-negative mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 (dlsptk) that is attenuated for neurovirulence was tested as a possible treatment for gliomas. In cell culture, dlsptk killed two long-term human glioma lines and three short-term human glioma cell populations. In nude mice with implanted subcutaneous and subrenal U87 human gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk caused growth inhibition. In nude mice with intracranial U87 gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk prolonged survival. Genetically engineered viruses such as dlsptk merit further evaluation as novel antineoplastic agents.

  11. Human Corneal Endothelial Cells Expanded In Vitro Are a Powerful Resource for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongsong; Sun, Hong; Hu, Min; Zhu, Min; Tighe, Sean; Chen, Shuangling; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Chenwei; Cai, Subo; Guo, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Human corneal endothelial cells have two major functions: barrier function mediated by proteins such as ZO-1 and pump function mediated by Na-K-ATPase which help to maintain visual function. However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells. Due to the global shortage of donor corneas, it is vital to engineer corneal tissue in vitro that could potentially be transplanted clinically. In this review, we summarize the advances in understanding the behavior of human corneal endothelial cells, their current engineering strategy in vitro and their potential applications. PMID:28260988

  12. Reverse engineering validation using a benchmark synthetic gene circuit in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taek; White, Jacob T; Xie, Zhen; Benenson, Yaakov; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2013-05-17

    Multicomponent biological networks are often understood incompletely, in large part due to the lack of reliable and robust methodologies for network reverse engineering and characterization. As a consequence, developing automated and rigorously validated methodologies for unraveling the complexity of biomolecular networks in human cells remains a central challenge to life scientists and engineers. Today, when it comes to experimental and analytical requirements, there exists a great deal of diversity in reverse engineering methods, which renders the independent validation and comparison of their predictive capabilities difficult. In this work we introduce an experimental platform customized for the development and verification of reverse engineering and pathway characterization algorithms in mammalian cells. Specifically, we stably integrate a synthetic gene network in human kidney cells and use it as a benchmark for validating reverse engineering methodologies. The network, which is orthogonal to endogenous cellular signaling, contains a small set of regulatory interactions that can be used to quantify the reconstruction performance. By performing successive perturbations to each modular component of the network and comparing protein and RNA measurements, we study the conditions under which we can reliably reconstruct the causal relationships of the integrated synthetic network.

  13. What Is the Predictive Value of Animal Models for Vaccine Efficacy in Humans? Consideration of Strategies to Improve the Value of Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Wherry, E John

    2017-03-27

    Animal models are an essential feature of the vaccine design toolkit. Although animal models have been invaluable in delineating the mechanisms of immune function, their precision in predicting how well specific vaccines work in humans is often suboptimal. There are, of course, many obvious species differences that may limit animal models from predicting all details of how a vaccine works in humans. However, careful consideration of which animal models may have limitations should also allow more accurate interpretations of animal model data and more accurate predictions of what is to be expected in clinical trials. In this article, we examine some of the considerations that might be relevant to cross-species extrapolation of vaccine-related immune responses for the prediction of how vaccines will perform in humans.

  14. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  15. [The application progress of human urine derived stem cells in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Jiang, Dapeng; Li, Zhaozhu

    2016-04-01

    The research of bone tissue engineering bases on three basic directions of seed cells, scaffold materials and growth information. Stem cells have been widely studied as seed cells. Human urine-derived stem cell (hUSC) is extracted from urine and described to be adhesion growth, cloning, expression of the majority of mesenchymal stem cell markers and peripheral cell markers, multi-potential and no tumor but stable karyotype with passaging many times. Some researches proposed that hUSC might be a new source of seed cells in tissue engineering because of their invasive and convenient obtention, stable culture and multiple differentiation potential.

  16. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  17. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  18. Comparison of therapeutic antibiotic treatments on tissue-engineered human skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Angela L; Schurr, Michael J; Schlosser, Sandy J; Comer, Allen R; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2008-05-01

    For regenerative medicine to gain clinical acceptance, the effects of commonly used treatment regimens on bioengineered organs must be considered. The antibiotics mafenide acetate (mafenide) and neomycin plus polymyxin (neo/poly) are routinely used to irrigate postoperative skin grafts on contaminated wounds. The effects of these clinically used antibiotics were investigated using tissue-engineered human skin substitutes generated with primary human keratinocytes or the near-diploid human keratinocyte cell line, Near-diploid Immortal Keratinocytes. Following topical or dermal treatment, the skin substitutes were assayed for viability, tissue morphology, glycogen content, and the expression of active caspase 3. Mafenide, but not neo/poly, induced morphological and biochemical changes in tissue-engineered skin substitutes. Keratinocytes in all histological layers of mafenide-treated skin substitutes exhibited ballooning degeneration and glycogen depletion. Mafenide-treatment also triggered separation of basal keratinocytes from the underlying dermis. None of the antibiotic treatments induced apoptosis, as measured by active caspase 3 immunostaining. The results demonstrate that mafenide, but not neo/poly, is detrimental to the viability and structural integrity of tissue-engineered human skin substitutes. These findings highlight the need to identify treatment regimens that are compatible with and hence enable the therapeutic efficacy of first-generation bioengineered organs such as skin.

  19. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells.

  20. Vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissue from engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Ohashi, Kazuo; Koike, Makiko; Utoh, Rie; Hasegawa, Hideko; Muraoka, Izumi; Suematsu, Takashi; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Subcutaneous liver tissue engineering is an attractive and minimally invasive approach used to curative treat hepatic failure and inherited liver diseases. However, graft failure occurs frequently due to insufficient infiltration of blood vessels (neoangiogenesis), while the maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype and function requires in vivo development of the complex cellular organization of the hepatic lobule. Here we describe a subcutaneous human liver construction allowing for rapidly vascularized grafts by transplanting engineered cellular sheets consisting of human primary hepatocytes adhered onto a fibroblast layer. The engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets (EHFSs) showed superior expression levels of vascularization-associated growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, and hepatocyte growth factor) in vitro. EHFSs developed into vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissues contained glycogen stores, synthesized coagulation factor IX, and showed significantly higher synthesis rates of liver-specific proteins (albumin and alpha 1 anti-trypsin) in vivo than tissues from hepatocyte-only sheets. The present study describes a new approach for vascularized human liver organogenesis under mouse skin. This approach could prove valuable for establishing novel cell therapies for liver diseases.

  1. The Case for Applying Tissue Engineering Methodologies to Instruct Human Organoid Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marti-Figueroa, Carlos R; Ashton, Randolph S

    2017-03-15

    Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i.e. 100's of microns to millimeters), the organoids' morphology, cytoarchitecture, and cellular composition are non-biomimetic and variable. The current lack of control over in vitro organoid morphogenesis at the microscale induces aberrations at the macroscale, which impedes realization of the technology's potential to reproducibly form anatomically correct human tissue units that could serve as optimal human in vitro models and even transplants. Here, we review tissue engineering methodologies that could be used to develop powerful approaches for instructing multiscale, 3-D human organoid morphogenesis. Such technological mergers are critically needed to harness organoid morphogenesis as a tool for engineering functional human tissues with biomimetic anatomy and physiology.

  2. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  3. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  4. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  5. Defense of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    1990s, a time of “Tactical Decision Making Under Stress,” Rotorcraft Pilot’s Associate, panoramic Night Vision goggles , interactive multi-sensor...Ford, J; Human Systems Integration Considerations for Multi-Aircraft Control (MAC) of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) • Bryant, AR; Empirical...Survivability (Plaga) • Wright, N; OSD and DSOC Helicopter Seating Studies Zehner, G; An Overview of USAF Anthropometry Plaga, J & Hill; SAFE Association

  6. A systems engineering perspective on the human-centered design of health information systems.

    PubMed

    Samaras, George M; Horst, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    The discipline of systems engineering, over the past five decades, has used a structured systematic approach to managing the "cradle to grave" development of products and processes. While elements of this approach are typically used to guide the development of information systems that instantiate a significant user interface, it appears to be rare for the entire process to be implemented. In fact, a number of authors have put forth development lifecycle models that are subsets of the classical systems engineering method, but fail to include steps such as incremental hazard analysis and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. In that most health information systems have safety implications, we argue that the design and development of such systems would benefit by implementing this systems engineering approach in full. Particularly with regard to bringing a human-centered perspective to the formulation of system requirements and the configuration of effective user interfaces, this classical systems engineering method provides an excellent framework for incorporating human factors (ergonomics) knowledge and integrating ergonomists in the interdisciplinary development of health information systems.

  7. Superior In vivo Transduction of Human Hepatocytes Using Engineered AAV3 Capsid.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Koen; Hoffman, Brad E; Zolotukhin, Irene; Keeler, Geoffrey D; Xiao, Jing W; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; High, Katherine A; Ertl, Hildegund Cj; Rice, Charles M; Srivastava, Arun; de Jong, Ype P; Herzog, Roland W

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are currently being tested in multiple clinical trials for liver-directed gene transfer to treat the bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B and metabolic disorders. The optimal viral capsid for transduction of human hepatocytes has been under active investigation, but results across various models are inconsistent. We tested in vivo transduction in "humanized" mice. Methods to quantitate percent AAV transduced human and murine hepatocytes in chimeric livers were optimized using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with image analysis. Distinct transduction efficiencies were noted following peripheral vein administration of a self-complementary vector expressing a gfp reporter gene. An engineered AAV3 capsid with two amino acid changes, S663V+T492V (AAV3-ST), showed best efficiency for human hepatocytes (~3-times, ~8-times, and ~80-times higher than for AAV9, AAV8, and AAV5, respectively). AAV5, 8, and 9 were more efficient in transducing murine than human hepatocytes. AAV8 yielded the highest transduction rate of murine hepatocytes, which was 19-times higher than that for human hepatocytes. In summary, our data show substantial differences among AAV serotypes in transduction of human and mouse hepatocytes, are the first to report on AAV5 in humanized mice, and support the use of AAV3-based vectors for human liver gene transfer.

  8. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  9. US Army Human Engineering Laboratory Communications Survey-A Pilot Study (HELCOMS-PS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    AD-Ai5i 434 US ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY COMMUNICATIONS i/I. SURVEY-A PILOT STUDY (HELCOMS- PS )(U) RRMAMENT SYSTEMS INC ABERDEEN ND R M PHELPS...P gITT)Y ( HIE1JY)i1- PS S VtW A 1 ,’ ii ’ M TT))’ jn kj I DTI itprov, f or ’ , 1 19𔃿 , ’t r ih),I t ni-til re m l " U. S. ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING...Final % VE-A P {1,0T STUDY (HEI :OMS- PS ) Y PERFORMING ORG. REPORT N, MREIR 7 A 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMHLFP-,|j1 ,I (ell 𔃻. Phelps ( eorfi- A. Kupets, Sr

  10. Genetic engineering and the moral status of non-human species.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Genetic modification leads to several important moral issues. Up until now they have been discussed from the viewpoint that only individual living beings, above all animals, are morally considerable. The standpoint that also collective entities such as species belong to the moral sphere have seldom been taken into account in a more thorough way, although it is advocated by several important environmental ethicists. The main purpose of this article is to analyze in more detail than often has been done what the practical consequences of this ethical position would be for the use of genetic engineering on animals and plants. The practical consequences of the holistic standpoint (focused on collective entities) of Holmes Rolson, III, is compared with the practical consequences of the individualistic standpoints (focused on individual living beings) of Bernard E. Rollin and Philipp Balzer, Klaus Peter Rippe, and Peter Schaber, respectively. The article also discusses whether the claim that species are morally considerable is tenable as a foundation for policy decisions on genetic engineering.

  11. Engineering and commercialization of human-device interfaces, from bone to brain.

    PubMed

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Detamore, Michael; Capadona, Jeffrey R; Woolley, Andrew; Knothe, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Cutting edge developments in engineering of tissues, implants and devices allow for guidance and control of specific physiological structure-function relationships. Yet the engineering of functionally appropriate human-device interfaces represents an intractable challenge in the field. This leading opinion review outlines a set of current approaches as well as hurdles to design of interfaces that modulate transfer of information, i.a. forces, electrical potentials, chemical gradients and haptotactic paths, between endogenous and engineered body parts or tissues. The compendium is designed to bridge across currently separated disciplines by highlighting specific commonalities between seemingly disparate systems, e.g. musculoskeletal and nervous systems. We focus on specific examples from our own laboratories, demonstrating that the seemingly disparate musculoskeletal and nervous systems share common paradigms which can be harnessed to inspire innovative interface design solutions. Functional barrier interfaces that control molecular and biophysical traffic between tissue compartments of joints are addressed in an example of the knee. Furthermore, we describe the engineering of gradients for interfaces between endogenous and engineered tissues as well as between electrodes that physically and electrochemically couple the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Finally, to promote translation of newly developed technologies into products, protocols, and treatments that benefit the patients who need them most, regulatory and technical challenges and opportunities are addressed on hand from an example of an implant cum delivery device that can be used to heal soft and hard tissues, from brain to bone.

  12. Enhancing healthcare process design with human factors engineering and reliability science, part 1: setting the context.

    PubMed

    Boston-Fleischhauer, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The design and implementation of efficient, effective, and safe processes are never-ending challenges in healthcare. Less than optimal performance levels and rising concerns about patient safety suggest that traditional process design methods are insufficient to meet design requirements. In this 2-part series, the author presents human factors engineering and reliability science as important knowledge to enhance existing operational and clinical process design methods in healthcare. An examination of these theories, application approaches, and examples are presented.

  13. Using human factors engineering in designing and assessing nursing personnel responses to mock code training.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Barbara L; Phelps, Connie; Downs, Brenda; Wilson, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Because timely and efficient responses of nurses are paramount to patient survival in cardiac and respiratory codes, it is crucial to determine best methods of training nursing personnel to respond effectively to code situations. Human factors engineering (HFE) is a relatively new approach in health care that attempts to understand human vulnerabilities that contribute to error and then design systems that minimize the likelihood of error occurring. This study embedded the principles of HFE in the design, implementation, and evaluation of mock code training to determine whether mock codes using HFE were helpful and if so, which inpatient units would benefit the most from such drills.

  14. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kime, Cody; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Conklin, Bruce R; Rand, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) with human embryonic stem (hES)-cell-like properties has led to hPS cells with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in vitro disease modeling and drug discovery as well as mechanistic and developmental studies. To fully realize this potential, it will be necessary to modify the genome of hPS cells with precision and flexibility. Pioneering experiments utilizing site-specific double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome engineering tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have paved the way to genome engineering in previously recalcitrant systems such as hPS cells. However, these methods are technically cumbersome and require significant expertise, which has limited adoption. A major recent advance involving the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) endonuclease has dramatically simplified the effort required for genome engineering and will likely be adopted widely as the most rapid and flexible system for genome editing in hPS cells. In this unit, we describe commonly practiced methods for CRISPR endonuclease genomic editing of hPS cells into cell lines containing genomes altered by insertion/deletion (indel) mutagenesis or insertion of recombinant genomic DNA.

  15. Human chondrocyte migration behaviour to guide the development of engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grace D; Tan, Andrea R; Cui, Victoria; Bulinski, J Chloe; Cook, James L; Attur, Mukundan; Abramson, Steven B; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2017-03-01

    Tissue-engineering techniques have been successful in developing cartilage-like tissues in vitro using cells from animal sources. The successful translation of these strategies to the clinic will likely require cell expansion to achieve sufficient cell numbers. Using a two-dimensional (2D) cell migration assay to first identify the passage at which chondrocytes exhibited their greatest chondrogenic potential, the objective of this study was to determine a more optimal culture medium for developing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage-like tissues using human cells. We evaluated combinations of commonly used growth factors that have been shown to promote chondrogenic growth and development. Human articular chondrocytes (AC) from osteoarthritic (OA) joints were cultured in 3D environments, either in pellets or encapsulated in agarose. The effect of growth factor supplementation was dependent on the environment, such that matrix deposition differed between the two culture systems. ACs in pellet culture were more responsive to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) alone or combinations containing BMP2 (i.e. BMP2 with PDGF or FGF). However, engineered cartilage development within agarose was better for constructs cultured with TGFβ3. These results with agarose and pellet culture studies set the stage for the development of conditions appropriate for culturing 3D functional engineered cartilage for eventual use in human therapies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tools for developing a quality management program: human factors and systems engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2008-01-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as "indirect patient care" activities.

  17. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  18. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kime, Cody; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Conklin, Bruce R.; Rand, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells with human embryonic stem (hES) cell-like properties has led to hPSCs with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in-vitro disease modeling, drug discovery, mechanistic and developmental studies. To fully realize this potential it will be necessary to modify the genome of hPSCs with precision and flexibility. Pioneering experiments utilizing site-specific double strand break (DSB)-mediated genome engineering tools, including Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), have paved the way to genome engineering in previously recalcitrant systems such as hPSCs. However, these methods are technically cumbersome and require significant expertise, which limited adoption. A major recent advance involving the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) endonuclease has dramatically simplified the effort required for genome engineering and will likely be adopted widely as the most rapid and flexible system for genome editing in hPSCs. Herein, we describe commonly practiced methods for CRISPR endonuclease genomic editing of hPSCs to cell lines containing genomes altered by Insertion/Deletion (INDEL) mutagenesis or insertion of recombinant genomic DNA. PMID:26724721

  19. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  20. The Design of the Internet's Architecture by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Cath, Corinne; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The debate on whether and how the Internet can protect and foster human rights has become a defining issue of our time. This debate often focuses on Internet governance from a regulatory perspective, underestimating the influence and power of the governance of the Internet's architecture. The technical decisions made by Internet Standard Developing Organisations (SDOs) that build and maintain the technical infrastructure of the Internet influences how information flows. They rearrange the shape of the technically mediated public sphere, including which rights it protects and which practices it enables. In this article, we contribute to the debate on SDOs' ethical responsibility to bring their work in line with human rights. We defend three theses. First, SDOs' work is inherently political. Second, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), one of the most influential SDOs, has a moral obligation to ensure its work is coherent with, and fosters, human rights. Third, the IETF should enable the actualisation of human rights through the protocols and standards it designs by implementing a responsibility-by-design approach to engineering. We conclude by presenting some initial recommendations on how to ensure that work carried out by the IETF may enable human rights.

  1. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases.

  2. Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework: Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette; Palermo, Christine M; Bachman, Ammie N; North, Colin M; Jeffrey Lewis, R

    2014-06-01

    The mode of action human relevance (MOA/HR) framework increases transparency in systematically considering data on MOA for end (adverse) effects and their relevance to humans. This framework continues to evolve as experience increases in its application. Though the MOA/HR framework is not designed to address the question of "how much information is enough" to support a hypothesized MOA in animals or its relevance to humans, its organizing construct has potential value in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) among different cases and hypothesized MOA(s). This context is explored based on MOA analyses in published assessments to illustrate the relative extent of supporting data and their implications for dose-response analysis and involved comparisons for chemical assessments on trichloropropane, and carbon tetrachloride with several hypothesized MOA(s) for cancer. The WOE for each hypothesized MOA was summarized in narrative tables based on comparison and contrast of the extent and nature of the supporting database versus potentially inconsistent or missing information. The comparison was based on evolved Bradford Hill considerations rank ordered to reflect their relative contribution to WOE determinations of MOA taking into account increasing experience in their application internationally. This clarification of considerations for WOE determinations as a basis for comparative analysis is anticipated to contribute to increasing consistency in the application of MOA/HR analysis and potentially, transparency in separating science judgment from public policy considerations in regulatory risk assessment.

  3. Advancing functional engineered cardiac tissues toward a preclinical model of human myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Irene C.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Serrao, Gregory W.; Backeris, Peter; Lee, Jia-Jye; Xie, Chaoqin; Senyei, Grant; Gordon, Ronald E.; Li, Ronald A.; Akar, Fadi G.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Costa, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac experimental biology and translational research would benefit from an in vitro surrogate for human heart muscle. This study investigated structural and functional properties and interventional responses of human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) compared to human myocardium. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs, >90% troponin-positive) were mixed with collagen and cultured on force-sensing elastomer devices. hECTs resembled trabecular muscle and beat spontaneously (1.18±0.48 Hz). Microstructural features and mRNA expression of cardiac-specific genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a, and ACTC1) were comparable to human myocardium. Optical mapping revealed cardiac refractoriness with loss of 1:1 capture above 3 Hz, and cycle length dependence of the action potential duration, recapitulating key features of cardiac electrophysiology. hECTs reconstituted the Frank-Starling mechanism, generating an average maximum twitch stress of 660 μN/mm2 at Lmax, approaching values in newborn human myocardium. Dose-response curves followed exponential pharmacodynamics models for calcium chloride (EC50 1.8 mM) and verapamil (IC50 0.61 μM); isoproterenol elicited a positive chronotropic but negligible inotropic response, suggesting sarcoplasmic reticulum immaturity. hECTs were amenable to gene transfer, demonstrated by successful transduction with Ad.GFP. Such 3-D hECTs recapitulate an early developmental stage of human myocardium and promise to offer an alternative preclinical model for cardiology research.—Turnbull, I. C., Karakikes, I., Serrao, G. W., Backeris, P., Lee, J.-J., Xie, C., Senyei, G., Gordon, R. E., Li, R. A., Akar, F. G., Hajjar, R. J., Hulot, J.-S., Costa, K. D. Advancing functional engineered cardiac tissues toward a preclinical model of human myocardium. PMID:24174427

  4. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs.

  5. The suitability of human adipose-derived stem cells for the engineering of ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Eagan, Michael J; Zuk, Patricia A; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Bluth, Benjamin E; Brinkmann, Elyse J; Wu, Benjamin M; McAllister, David R

    2012-10-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the one of the most common sports-related injuries. With its poor healing capacity, surgical reconstruction using either autografts or allografts is currently required to restore function. However, serious complications are associated with graft reconstructions and the number of such reconstructions has steadily risen over the years, necessitating the search for an alternative approach to ACL repair. Such an approach may likely be tissue engineering. Recent engineering approaches using ligament-derived fibroblasts have been promising, but the slow growth rate of such fibroblasts in vitro may limit their practical application. More promising results are being achieved using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is often proposed as an alternative choice to the MSC and, as such, may be a suitable stem cell for ligament engineering. However, the use of ASCs in ligament engineering still remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, in this study, the potential use of human ASCs in ligament tissue engineering was initially explored by examining their ability to express several ligament markers under growth factor treatment. ASC populations treated for up to 4 weeks with TGFβ1 or IGF1 did not show any significant and consistent upregulation in the expression of collagen types 1 and 3, tenascin C and scleraxis. While treatment with EGF or bFGF resulted in increased tenascin C expression, increased expression of collagens 1 and 3 were never observed. Therefore, simple in vitro treatment of human ASC populations with growth factors may not stimulate their ligament differentiative potential.

  6. Eco-Health Linkages: evidence base and socio-economic considerations for linking ecosystem goods and services to human health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...

  7. HUMAN MILK SURVEILLANCE AND RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS: CONCEPTS FOR CONSIDERATION IN INTERPRETING AND PRESENTING STUDY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes issues related to the interpretation, presentation, and use of data from human milk surveillance and research studies. It is hoped that researchers conducting human milk studies in the future will consider these concepts when formulating study conclusions a...

  8. True or False, Process or Procedure: Parrhesia and a Consideration of Humanism, Subjectivity, and Ethics within Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, David; Polush, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine ethics, humanism, and the concept of "parrhesia" ("pa???s?a") in the context of educational research. More specifically, it surveys Foucault's lectures on ethics to explore a framework for educational research that disrupts subjectivity and traditional forms of humanism while retaining a relational…

  9. Glyco-engineering of human IgG-Fc to modulate biologic activities.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, Roy

    2016-10-29

    Advances in genetic and protein engineering and the ability to maintain proliferating mammalian cells in vitro, has allowed reverse engineering of antibodies, i.e. generation of antibodies having specificity for self-antigens. Thus, the lethal consequence of horror autotoxicus, anti-self-responses as envisaged by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), has been turned to advantage for treatment of multiple disease states. In order to reap these benefits it is essential that, in addition to target specificity, the antibody is customised to deliver appropriate downstream biologic effector activities. Genetic engineering allows the development of any chosen isotype; however The IgG class predominates in human serum and the majority of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are based on the IgG format. This review focuses on the structure and function of the four human IgG isotypes (subclasses) and the biologic functions that their immune complexes activate through interactions with cellular Fc receptors (FcgR & FcRn) and/or the C1q component of complement. The long catabolic half-life (~21 days) of IgG contributes to its efficacy as a therapeutic. Each human IgG subclass exhibits a unique profile of biologic activities that are dependent on the glycoform profile of the IgG-Fc. Our current understanding of IgG structure/function relationships allows protein and glycosylation engineering of the IgG-Fc to enhance or eliminate biologic activities and the generation of therapeutics optimal for a given disease indication.

  10. Factors affecting the structure and maturation of human tissue engineered skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil R W; Passey, Samantha L; Player, Darren J; Khodabukus, Alastair; Ferguson, Richard A; Sharples, Adam P; Mudera, Vivek; Baar, Keith; Lewis, Mark P

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has great utility in experimental studies of physiology, clinical testing and its potential for transplantation to replace damaged tissue. Despite recent work in rodent tissue or cell lines, there is a paucity of literature concerned with the culture of human muscle derived cells (MDCs) in engineered constructs. Here we aimed to tissue engineer for the first time in the literature human skeletal muscle in self-assembling fibrin hydrogels and determine the effect of MDC seeding density and myogenic proportion on the structure and maturation of the constructs. Constructs seeded with 4 × 10(5) MDCs assembled to a greater extent than those at 1 × 10(5) or 2 × 10(5), and immunostaining revealed a higher fusion index and a higher density of myotubes within the constructs, showing greater structural semblance to in vivo tissue. These constructs primarily expressed perinatal and slow type I myosin heavy chain mRNA after 21 days in culture. In subsequent experiments MACS(®) technology was used to separate myogenic and non-myogenic cells from their heterogeneous parent population and these cells were seeded at varying myogenic (desmin +) proportions in fibrin based constructs. Only in the constructs seeded with 75% desmin + cells was there evidence of striations when immunostained for slow myosin heavy chain compared with constructs seeded with 10 or 50% desmin + cells. Overall, this work reveals the importance of cell number and myogenic proportions in tissue engineering human skeletal muscle with structural resemblance to in vivo tissue.

  11. Recombinant human gelatin substitute with photoreactive properties for cell culture and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takashi; Obuse, Sei; Adachi, Takahiro; Tomita, Masahiro; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2011-10-01

    The human recombinant collagen I α1 chain monomer (rh-gelatin) was modified by the incorporation of an azidophenyl group to prepare photoreactive human gelatin (Az-rh-gelatin), with approximately 90% of the lysine residues conjugated with azidobenzoic acid. Slight changes in conformation (circular dichroism spectra) and thermal properties (gelation and melting points) were noticed after modification. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation could immobilize the Az-rh-gelatin on polymer surfaces, such as polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene. Az-rh-gelatin was stably retained on the polymer surfaces, while unmodified gelatin was mostly lost by brief washing. Human mesenchymal cells grew more efficiently on the immobilized surface than on the coated surface. The immobilized Az-rh-gelatin on the polymer surfaces was able to capture engineered growth factors with collagen affinity, and the bound growth factors stimulated the growth of cells dose-dependently. It was also possible to immobilize Az-rh-gelatin in micropatterns (stripe, grid, and so on) using photomasks, and the cells grew according to the patterns. These results suggest that the photoreactive human gelatin, in combination with collagen-binding growth factors, will be clinically useful for surface modification of synthetic materials for cell culture systems and tissue engineering.

  12. Modeling colorectal cancer using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated engineering of human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Matano, Mami; Date, Shoichi; Shimokawa, Mariko; Takano, Ai; Fujii, Masayuki; Ohta, Yuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    Human colorectal tumors bear recurrent mutations in genes encoding proteins operative in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways. Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to introduce multiple such mutations into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelium. By modulating the culture conditions to mimic that of the intestinal niche, we selected isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, and in the oncogenes KRAS and/or PIK3CA. Organoids engineered to express all five mutations grew independently of niche factors in vitro, and they formed tumors after implantation under the kidney subcapsule in mice. Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. In contrast, engineered organoids derived from chromosome-instable human adenomas formed macrometastatic colonies. These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior.

  13. Regenerative potential of human airway stem cells in lung epithelial engineering.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Tapias, Luis F; Wu, Tong; Evangelista-Leite, Daniele; Mathisen, Douglas J; Ott, Harald C

    2016-11-01

    Bio-engineered organs for transplantation may ultimately provide a personalized solution for end-stage organ failure, without the risk of rejection. Building upon the process of whole organ perfusion decellularization, we aimed to develop novel, translational methods for the recellularization and regeneration of transplantable lung constructs. We first isolated a proliferative KRT5(+)TP63(+) basal epithelial stem cell population from human lung tissue and demonstrated expansion capacity in conventional 2D culture. We then repopulated acellular rat scaffolds in ex vivo whole organ culture and observed continued cell proliferation, in combination with primary pulmonary endothelial cells. To show clinical scalability, and to test the regenerative capacity of the basal cell population in a human context, we then recellularized and cultured isolated human lung scaffolds under biomimetic conditions. Analysis of the regenerated tissue constructs confirmed cell viability and sustained metabolic activity over 7 days of culture. Tissue analysis revealed extensive recellularization with organized tissue architecture and morphology, and preserved basal epithelial cell phenotype. The recellularized lung constructs displayed dynamic compliance and rudimentary gas exchange capacity. Our results underline the regenerative potential of patient-derived human airway stem cells in lung tissue engineering. We anticipate these advances to have clinically relevant implications for whole lung bioengineering and ex vivo organ repair.

  14. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  15. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument.

  16. Development of tissue-engineered human periodontal ligament constructs with intrinsic angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Nobuhiro; Hirakawa, Ayumi; Otani, Nao; Munekata, Masanobu

    2009-01-01

    One approach to treat periodontal diseases is grafting of tissue-engineered periodontal ligaments. Therefore, periodontal ligaments were constructed by layering cell sheets. A cell sheet was prepared by enzymatic digestion of salmon collagen gel on which human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) were co-cultured with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Three cell sheets were layered and then cultured in angiogenic media, in which the HUVECs were found to form capillary-like structures when co-cultured on the HPLFs. The layered HPLFs sheets with HUVEC co-culture (PL-EC construct) demonstrated longer survival, higher alkaline phosphatase activities and lower osteocalcin production than layered HPLFs sheets without HUVEC co-culture (PL construct). Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining of histological sections showed that cell density, mass and extracellular matrix deposition of the PL-EC construct were higher than those of the PL construct. Furthermore, CD31 immunostaining revealed the formation of capillary-like structures throughout the PL-EC construct. In conclusion, we successfully developed tissue-engineered periodontal ligament constructs with intrinsic angiogenic potential using cell sheet engineering and HUVEC co-culture.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Salmonella vaccine bacteria to boost human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Workalemahu, Grefachew; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Nada, Mohanad H; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Jones, Bradley D; Jin, Chenggang; Morita, Craig T

    2014-07-15

    Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing foreign (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by most eubacteria and apicomplexan parasites, and self isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a metabolite in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Whereas microbial infections elicit prolonged expansion of memory Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, immunization with prenyl pyrophosphates or aminobisphosphonates elicit short-term Vγ2Vδ2 expansion with rapid anergy and deletion upon subsequent immunizations. We hypothesized that a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine that overproduces HMBPP would elicit long-lasting Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity by mimicking a natural infection. Therefore, we metabolically engineered the avirulent aroA(-) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 strain by deleting the gene for LytB (the downstream enzyme from HMBPP) and functionally complementing for this loss with genes encoding mevalonate pathway enzymes. LytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 had high HMBPP levels, infected human cells as efficiently as did the wild-type bacteria, and stimulated large ex vivo expansions of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from human donors. Importantly, vaccination of a rhesus monkey with live lytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 stimulated a prolonged expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells without significant side effects or anergy induction. These studies provide proof-of-principle that metabolic engineering can be used to derive live bacterial vaccines that boost Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity. Similar engineering of metabolic pathways to produce lipid Ags or B vitamin metabolite Ags could be used to derive live bacterial vaccine for other unconventional T cells that recognize nonpeptide Ags.

  18. Advanced imaging and tissue engineering of the human limbal epithelial stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E; Vernon, Amanda J; Funderburgh, James L; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,W.; O'HARA,J.M.

    2004-09-19

    As part of the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute's hybrid control room project, detailed human factors engineering guidance was developed for designing human-system interfaces that may be affected by introduction of additional digital technology during modernization of nuclear power plants. The guidance addresses several aspects of human-system interaction: information display, interface management, soft controls, alarms, computer-based procedures, computerized operator support systems, communications, and workstation/workplace design. In this paper, the ways in which digital upgrades might affect users' interaction with systems in each of these contexts are briefly described, and the contents of the guidance developed for each of the topics is also described.

  20. People or systems? To blame is human. The fix is to engineer.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Person-centered safety theories that place the burden of causality on human traits and actions have been largely dismissed in favor of systems-centered theories. Students and practitioners are now taught that accidents are caused by multiple factors and occur due to the complex interactions of numerous work system elements, human and non-human. Nevertheless, person-centered approaches to safety management still prevail. This paper explores the notion that attributing causality and blame to people persists because it is both a fundamental psychological tendency as well as an industry norm that remains strong in aviation, health care, and other industries. Consequences of that possibility are discussed and a case is made for continuing to invest in whole-system design and engineering solutions.

  1. People or systems? To blame is human. The fix is to engineer

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Person-centered safety theories that place the burden of causality on human traits and actions have been largely dismissed in favor of systems-centered theories. Students and practitioners are now taught that accidents are caused by multiple factors and occur due to the complex interactions of numerous work system elements, human and non-human. Nevertheless, person-centered approaches to safety management still prevail. This paper explores the notion that attributing causality and blame to people persists because it is both a fundamental psychological tendency as well as an industry norm that remains strong in aviation, health care, and other industries. Consequences of that possibility are discussed and a case is made for continuing to invest in whole-system design and engineering solutions. PMID:21694753

  2. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  3. KEPCO‧s Activity to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, Kazushi

    While business environment changes a lot, in order to aim at realization of “what we want the Group to look like in 2030” , it is necessary to cultivate human resources with a strong sense of mission. We need to prepare an opportunity to teach and to be taught, in order to cultivate resources and a measure for connecting every person‧s growth to growth of a company. In chapter one, we show Five Trends for attaining what KANSAI Electric Power Corporation wants to be and explain the importance of human resource development under the changing environment. In chapter two, we explain the fundamental policy of human resource cultivation and describe the development plan and the facilities for training based on the policy in chapter two. In chapter three, we express the specific efforts in the field of maintenance, construction, and operation at the department of Engineering and Operation.

  4. Cardiovascular research in space - Considerations for the design of the human research facility of the United States Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design of the Space Station's Human Research Facility for the collection of information on the long-time physiological adjustments of humans to space is described. The Space Life Sciences-1 mission will carry a rack-mounted echocardiograph for cardiac imaging, a mass spectrometer for cardiac output and respiratory function assessments at rest and during exercise, and a device to stimulate the carotid sinus baroreceptors and measure the resulting changes in heart rate.

  5. INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSES AND TOOLS INTO THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; BROWN,W.

    2004-09-19

    Many nuclear power plants are modernizing with digital instrumentation and control systems and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the human factors engineering (HFE) activities that can help to ensure that the design meets personnel needs. HFE activities should be integrated into the design process as a regular part of the engineering effort of a plant modification. The HFE activities will help ensure that human performance issues are addressed, that new technology supports task performance, and that the HSIs are designed in a manner that is compatible with human physiological, cognitive and social characteristics.

  6. Integrated Human Test Facilities at NASA and the Role of Human Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated human test facilities are a key component of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). Over the past several years, the ALSP has been developing such facilities to serve as a large-scale advanced life support and habitability test bed capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. These facilities-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support and habitability systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces-are currently in the development stage at the Johnson Space Center. These major test facilities are comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment, which will be outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support and habitability functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by these integrated human test facilities, the overall system architecture of the facilities, the current development status of the facilities, and the role that human design has played in the development of the facilities.

  7. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  8. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells and its application in human disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Gomez, José A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed.

  9. Natural and genetically engineered viral agents for oncolysis and gene therapy of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G; Horvath, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    Based on personal acquaintances and experience dating back to the early 1950s, the senior author reviews the history of viral therapy of cancer. He points out the difficulties encountered in the treatment of human cancers, as opposed by the highly successful viral therapy of experimentally maintained tumors in laboratory animals, especially that of ascites carcinomas in mice. A detailed account of viral therapy of human tumors with naturally oncolytic viruses follows, emphasizing the first clinical trials with viral oncolysates. The discrepancy between the high success rates, culminating in cures, in the treatment of tumors of laboratory animals, and the moderate results, such as stabilizations of disease, partial responses, very rare complete remissions, and frequent relapses with virally treated human tumors is recognized. The preclinical laboratory testing against established human tumor cell lines that were maintained in tissue cultures for decades, and against human tumors extricated from their natural habitat and grown in xenografts, may not yield valid results predictive of the viral therapy applied against human tumors growing in their natural environment, the human host. Since the recent discovery of the oncosuppressive efficacy of bacteriophages, the colon could be regarded as the battlefield, where incipient tumor cells and bacteriophages vie for dominance. The inner environment of the colon will be the teaching ground providing new knowledge on the value of the anti-tumor efficacy of phage-induced innate anti-tumor immune reactions. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses are reviewed next. The molecular biology of viral oncolysis is explained in details. Elaborate efforts are presented to elucidate how gene product proteins of oncolytic viruses switch off the oncogenic cascades of cancer cells. The facts strongly support the conclusion that viral therapy of human cancers will remain in the front lines of modern cancer therapeutics. It may be a

  10. Towards breaking the silence between the two cultures: Engineering and the other humanities

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, I have attended numerous meetings like this one at the Center for the Study of Higher Education. I have noticed that most of the attendees, and certainly the speakers, tend to come from the social sciences or humanities. Only rarely do I see anyone here from Berkeley's College of Chemistry or College of Engineering. I come from the College of Chemistry that includes Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering. I mention this background to indicate that my remarks here are necessarily less abstract, less theoretical and less philosophical than those of most previous seminar speakers. My remarks are probably somewhat simplistic because, as a result of my engineering background, I tend to focus less on generalities and principles, giving more attention to possible solutions of limited practical problems. About seven weeks ago, I was invited to attend a conference sponsored by the Berlin Academy of Sciences where ''Sciences'' is not confined to natural sciences but includes also humanities and social sciences. The topic of the Conference was ''Sprachlosigkeit'', a German word that roughly translated means inability to speak. The subtitle was ''Silence Between the Disciplines''. The German universities are worried about the increasing gulf between what is often called ''the two cultures''. This gulf is a problem everywhere, including Berkeley, but it is my impression that it is much worse in Europe than in America. The International Conference in Berlin was attended by some big names including the presidents of the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the Central European University of Budapest, as well as some distinguished academics from a variety of institutions including Harvard and Stanford, and the presidents of three major funding organizations: The Volkswagen Foundation, The German National Science Foundation and the Max Planck Society. The speakers were primarily from the humanities and social sciences but

  11. Stromal Cells in Dense Collagen Promote Cardiomyocyte and Microvascular Patterning in Engineered Human Heart Tissue.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Meredith A; Tran, Dominic; Coulombe, Kareen L K; Razumova, Maria; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles E; Zheng, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a strategy to replace damaged contractile tissue and model cardiac diseases to discover therapies. Current cardiac and vascular engineering approaches independently create aligned contractile tissue or perfusable vasculature, but a combined vascularized cardiac tissue remains to be achieved. Here, we sought to incorporate a patterned microvasculature into engineered heart tissue, which balances the competing demands from cardiomyocytes to contract the matrix versus the vascular lumens that need structural support. Low-density collagen hydrogels (1.25 mg/mL) permit human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) to form a dense contractile tissue but cannot support a patterned microvasculature. Conversely, high collagen concentrations (density ≥6 mg/mL) support a patterned microvasculature, but the hESC-CMs lack cell-cell contact, limiting their electrical communication, structural maturation, and tissue-level contractile function. When cocultured with matrix remodeling stromal cells, however, hESC-CMs structurally mature and form anisotropic constructs in high-density collagen. Remodeling requires the stromal cells to be in proximity with hESC-CMs. In addition, cocultured cardiac constructs in dense collagen generate measurable active contractions (on the order of 0.1 mN/mm(2)) and can be paced up to 2 Hz. Patterned microvascular networks in these high-density cocultured cardiac constructs remain patent through 2 weeks of culture, and hESC-CMs show electrical synchronization. The ability to maintain microstructural control within engineered heart tissue enables generation of more complex features, such as cellular alignment and a vasculature. Successful incorporation of these features paves the way for the use of large scale engineered tissues for myocardial regeneration and cardiac disease modeling.

  12. Engineering adolescence: maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiulan; Pabon, Lil; Murry, Charles E

    2014-01-31

    The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both human embryonic stem cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cells, has opened up novel paths for a wide range of scientific studies. The capability to direct the differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes has provided a platform for regenerative medicine, development, tissue engineering, disease modeling, and drug toxicity testing. Despite exciting progress, achieving the optimal benefits has been hampered by the immature nature of these cardiomyocytes. Cardiac maturation has long been studied in vivo using animal models; however, finding ways to mature hPSC cardiomyocytes is only in its initial stages. In this review, we discuss progress in promoting the maturation of the hPSC cardiomyocytes, in the context of our current knowledge of developmental cardiac maturation and in relation to in vitro model systems such as rodent ventricular myocytes. Promising approaches that have begun to be examined in hPSC cardiomyocytes include long-term culturing, 3-dimensional tissue engineering, mechanical loading, electric stimulation, modulation of substrate stiffness, and treatment with neurohormonal factors. Future studies will benefit from the combinatorial use of different approaches that more closely mimic nature's diverse cues, which may result in broader changes in structure, function, and therapeutic applicability.

  13. Engineering Escherichia coli for Soluble Expression and Single Step Purification of Active Human Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Lamppa, John W.; Tanyos, Sam A.; Griswold, Karl E.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered variants of human lysozyme represent promising leads in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, but early stage development and testing of novel lysozyme variants is constrained by the lack of a robust, scalable and facile expression system. While wild type human lysozyme is reportedly produced at 50 – 80 kg per hectare of land in recombinant rice, this plant-based system is not readily scaled down to bench top production, and it is therefore not suitable for development and characterization of novel lysozyme variants. Here, we describe a novel and efficient expression system capable of producing folded, soluble and functional human lysozyme in E. coli cells. To achieve this goal, we simultaneously co-express multiple protein folding chaperones as well as harness the lysozyme inhibitory protein, Ivy. Our strategy exploits E. coli’s ease of culture, short doubling time, and facile genetics to yield upwards of 30 mg/L of soluble lysozyme in a bioreactor system, a 3000-fold improvement over prior efforts in E. coli. Additionally, molecular interactions between lysozyme and a his-tagged Ivy allows for one-step purification by IMAC chromatography, yielding as much as 21 mg/L of purified enzyme. We anticipate that our expression and purification platform will facilitate further development of engineered lysozymes having utility in disease treatment and other practical applications. PMID:23220215

  14. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  15. Calcium phosphate bioceramics fabricated from extracted human teeth for tooth tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki-Taek; Suh, Je Duck; Kim, Jangho; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2011-11-01

    Bioceramic tooth powders were prepared via heat treatment of extracted human teeth using sintering temperatures between 600°C and 1200°C, and their properties were investigated for potential tooth tissue engineering. The sintered human tooth powders were characterized using thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA)), field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, the phase constitutions and chemical homogeneities of the composite samples were examined using a quantitative chemical analysis with inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The results revealed that the annealing process produced useful hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic biomaterials when annealed above 1000°C. The FTIR spectra and the TG/DTA thermograms of the tooth powders indicated the presence of organic compounds, which were completely removed after annealing at temperatures above 1000°C. The tooth powders annealed between 1000°C and 1200°C had good characteristics as bioceramic biomaterials. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of each tooth powder was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo techniques; our results indicate that the prepared human tooth powders have great potential for tooth tissue engineering applications.

  16. Considerations for the Use of Human Participants in Vector Biology Research: A Tool for Investigators and Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Laura; Bangs, Michael J.; Lavery, James V.; James, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A thorough search of the existing literature has revealed that there are currently no published recommendations or guidelines for the interpretation of US regulations on the use of human participants in vector biology research (VBR). An informal survey of vector biologists has indicated that issues related to human participation in vector research have been largely debated by academic, national, and local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the countries where the research is being conducted, and that interpretations and subsequent requirements made by these IRBs have varied widely. This document is intended to provide investigators and corresponding scientific and ethical review committee members an introduction to VBR methods involving human participation and the legal and ethical framework in which such studies are conducted with a focus on US Federal Regulations. It is also intended to provide a common perspective for guiding researchers, IRB members, and other interested parties (i.e., public health officials conducting routine entomological surveillance) in the interpretation of human subjects regulations pertaining to VBR. PMID:25700039

  17. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented.

  18. Occurrence and Absence of Lava Tube Caves with Some Other Volcanic Cavities; a Consideration of Human Habitation Sites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, W. R.; Favre, G.; Stefansson, A.; Whitfield, P.; Banks, N.

    2012-03-01

    Field investigation of Hawaii's Kau Desert pit craters shows that they are not connected to lave tube caves. The Seven Sisters of Arsia Mons are unlikely to contain lave tube caves. Other types of caves on Mars may provide human habitation sites.

  19. Organizations as Social Inventions: Some Considerations for Those Who Would Design Schools To Serve Human Ends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, T. Barr

    In searching for a concept of organization which recognizes its base in human action rather than in objective structure, the author draws on a European tradition stemming from the works of Max Weber. This tradition, combined with examples of organizational life in schools, serves to identify implications for those who attempt to design better…

  20. Considerations for the use of human participants in vector biology research: a tool for investigators and regulators.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Youngblood, Laura; Bangs, Michael J; Lavery, James V; James, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    A thorough search of the existing literature has revealed that there are currently no published recommendations or guidelines for the interpretation of US regulations on the use of human participants in vector biology research (VBR). An informal survey of vector biologists has indicated that issues related to human participation in vector research have been largely debated by academic, national, and local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the countries where the research is being conducted, and that interpretations and subsequent requirements made by these IRBs have varied widely. This document is intended to provide investigators and corresponding scientific and ethical review committee members an introduction to VBR methods involving human participation and the legal and ethical framework in which such studies are conducted with a focus on US Federal Regulations. It is also intended to provide a common perspective for guiding researchers, IRB members, and other interested parties (i.e., public health officials conducting routine entomological surveillance) in the interpretation of human subjects regulations pertaining to VBR.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  2. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  3. Polydopamine-mediated surface modification of scaffold materials for human neural stem cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kisuk; Lee, Jung Seung; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yu Bin; Shin, Heungsoo; Um, Soong Ho; Kim, Jeong Beom; Park, Kook In; Lee, Haeshin; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of tissue engineering scaffolds and substrates is required for improving the efficacy of stem cell therapy by generating physicochemical stimulation promoting proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, typical surface modification methods including chemical conjugation or physical absorption have several limitations such as multistep, complicated procedures, surface denaturation, batch-to-batch inconsistencies, and low surface conjugation efficiency. In this study, we report a mussel-inspired, biomimetic approach to surface modification for efficient and reliable manipulation of human neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation and proliferation. Our study demonstrates that polydopamine coating facilitates highly efficient, simple immobilization of neurotrophic growth factors and adhesion peptides onto polymer substrates. The growth factor or peptide-immobilized substrates greatly enhance differentiation and proliferation of human NSCs (human fetal brain-derived NSCs and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs) at a level comparable or greater than currently available animal-derived coating materials (Matrigel) with safety issues. Therefore, polydopamine-mediated surface modification can provide a versatile platform technology for developing chemically defined, safe, functional substrates and scaffolds for therapeutic applications of human NSCs.

  4. Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten

    2006-07-01

    The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice.

  5. Decellularized extracellular matrix derived from human adipose tissue as a potential scaffold for allograft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Beob Soo; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Jae Dong; Choi, Young Chan; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kinam; Lee, Hee Young; Cho, Yong Woo

    2011-06-01

    Decellularized tissues composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been clinically used to support the regeneration of various human tissues and organs. Most decellularized tissues so far have been derived from animals or cadavers. Therefore, despite the many advantages of decellularized tissue, there are concerns about the potential for immunogenicity and the possible presence of infectious agents. Herein, we present a biomaterial composed of ECM derived from human adipose tissue, the most prevalent, expendable, and safely harvested tissue in the human body. The ECM was extracted by successive physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments of human adipose tissue isolated by liposuction. Cellular components including nucleic acids were effectively removed without significant disruption of the morphology or structure of the ECM. Major ECM components were quantified, including acid/pepsin-soluble collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and soluble elastin. In an in vivo experiment using mice, the decellularized ECM graft exhibited good compatibility to surrounding tissues. Overall results suggest that the decellularized ECM containing biological and chemical cues of native human ECM could be an ideal scaffold material not only for autologous but also for allograft tissue engineering.

  6. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making.

  7. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health.

  8. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  9. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  10. Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production.

  11. Complete attenuation of genetically engineered Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kublin, James G; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Sack, Brandon K; Fishbaugher, Matt E; Seilie, Annette; Shelton, Lisa; VonGoedert, Tracie; Firat, Melike; Magee, Sara; Fritzen, Emma; Betz, Will; Kain, Heather S; Dankwa, Dorender A; Steel, Ryan W J; Vaughan, Ashley M; Noah Sather, D; Murphy, Sean C; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2017-01-04

    Immunization of humans with whole sporozoites confers complete, sterilizing immunity against malaria infection. However, achieving consistent safety while maintaining immunogenicity of whole parasite vaccines remains a formidable challenge. We generated a genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasite by deleting three genes expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stage (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-)). We then tested the safety and immunogenicity of the genetically engineered (Pf GAP3KO) sporozoites in human volunteers. Pf GAP3KO sporozoites were delivered to 10 volunteers using infected mosquito bites with a single exposure consisting of 150 to 200 bites per subject. All subjects remained blood stage-negative and developed inhibitory antibodies to sporozoites. GAP3KO rodent malaria parasites engendered complete, protracted immunity against infectious sporozoite challenge in mice. The results warrant further clinical testing of Pf GAP3KO and its potential development into a vaccine strain.

  12. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-11-17

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids.

  13. Mechanical and biochemical mapping of human auricular cartilage for reliable assessment of tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Nimeskern, Luc; Pleumeekers, Mieke M; Pawson, Duncan J; Koevoet, Wendy L M; Lehtoviita, Iina; Soyka, Michael B; Röösli, Christof; Holzmann, David; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Müller, Ralph; Stok, Kathryn S

    2015-07-16

    It is key for successful auricular (AUR) cartilage tissue-engineering (TE) to ensure that the engineered cartilage mimics the mechanics of the native tissue. This study provides a spatial map of the mechanical and biochemical properties of human auricular cartilage, thus establishing a benchmark for the evaluation of functional competency in AUR cartilage TE. Stress-relaxation indentation (instantaneous modulus, Ein; maximum stress, σmax; equilibrium modulus, Eeq; relaxation half-life time, t1/2; thickness, h) and biochemical parameters (content of DNA; sulfated-glycosaminoglycan, sGAG; hydroxyproline, HYP; elastin, ELN) of fresh human AUR cartilage were evaluated. Samples were categorized into age groups and according to their harvesting region in the human auricle (for AUR cartilage only). AUR cartilage displayed significantly lower Ein, σmax, Eeq, sGAG content; and significantly higher t1/2, and DNA content than NAS cartilage. Large amounts of ELN were measured in AUR cartilage (>15% ELN content per sample wet mass). No effect of gender was observed for either auricular or nasoseptal samples. For auricular samples, significant differences between age groups for h, sGAG and HYP, and significant regional variations for Ein, σmax, Eeq, t1/2, h, DNA and sGAG were measured. However, only low correlations between mechanical and biochemical parameters were seen (R<0.44). In conclusion, this study established the first comprehensive mechanical and biochemical map of human auricular cartilage. Regional variations in mechanical and biochemical properties were demonstrated in the auricle. This finding highlights the importance of focusing future research on efforts to produce cartilage grafts with spatially tunable mechanics.

  14. Mechanical properties of completely autologous human tissue engineered blood vessels compared to human saphenous vein and mammary artery

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Gerhardt; McAllister, Todd N; Dusserre, Nathalie; Garrido, Sergio A; Iyican, Corey; Marini, Alicia; Fiorillo, Alex; Avila, Hernan; Wystrychowski, Wojciech; Zagalski, Krzysztof; Maruszewski, Marcin; Jones, Alyce Linthurst; Cierpka, Lech; de la Fuente, Luis M; L’Heureux, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported initial clinical feasibility with our small diameter tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV). Here we present in vitro results of the mechanical properties of the TEBVs of the first 25 patients enrolled in an arterio-venous (A-V) shunt safety trial, and compare these properties with those of risk-matched human vein and artery. TEBV average burst pressures (3,490 +/− 892 mmHg, n=230) were higher than native saphenous vein (SV) (1,599 +/− 877 mmHg, n=7), and not significantly different than native internal mammary artery (IMA) (3,196 +/− 1,264 mmHg, n=16). Suture retention strength for the TEBVs (152 +/− 50 gmf) was also not significantly different than IMA (138 +/− 50 gmf). Compliance for the TEBVs prior to implantation (3.4 +/− 1.6 %/100 mmHg) was lower than IMA (11.5 +/− 3.9 %/100 mmHg). By 6 months post-implant, the TEBV compliance (8.8 +/− 4.2 %/100 mmHg, n=5) had increased to values comparable to IMA, and showed no evidence of dilation or aneurysm formation. With clinical time points beyond 21 months as an A-V shunt without intervention, the mechanical tests and subsequent lot release criteria reported here would seem appropriate minimum standards for clinical use of tissue engineered vessels. PMID:19111338

  15. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2016-09-24

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available.

  16. Human Factors Engineering as a System in the Vision for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Smith, Danielle; Holden, Kritina

    2006-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's Vision for Exploration, while assuring crew safety and productivity, human performance issues must be well integrated into system design from mission conception. To that end, a two-year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to develop a systematic method for including the human as a system in NASA's Vision for Exploration. The specific goals of this project are to review current Human Systems Integration (HSI) standards (i.e., industry, military, NASA) and tailor them to selected NASA Exploration activities. Once the methods are proven in the selected domains, a plan will be developed to expand the effort to a wider scope of Exploration activities. The methods will be documented for inclusion in NASA-specific documents (such as the Human Systems Integration Standards, NASA-STD-3000) to be used in future space systems. The current project builds on a previous TDP dealing with Human Factors Engineering processes. That project identified the key phases of the current NASA design lifecycle, and outlined the recommended HFE activities that should be incorporated at each phase. The project also resulted in a prototype of a webbased HFE process tool that could be used to support an ideal HFE development process at NASA. This will help to augment the limited human factors resources available by providing a web-based tool that explains the importance of human factors, teaches a recommended process, and then provides the instructions, templates and examples to carry out the process steps. The HFE activities identified by the previous TDP are being tested in situ for the current effort through support to a specific NASA Exploration activity. Currently, HFE personnel are working with systems engineering personnel to identify HSI impacts for lunar exploration by facilitating the generation of systemlevel Concepts of Operations (ConOps). For example, medical operations scenarios have been generated for lunar habitation

  17. 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Mantas, Athanasios; Tournier, Ivan; Martínez Ávila, Héctor; Hägg, Daniel; Gatenholm, Paul

    2015-05-11

    The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs.

  18. Chondrogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells using combined growth factors for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Michela; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Leigheb, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Andrea E; Cannas, Mario

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether growth factors (FGF-2, FGF-4 and FGF-6) used alone or in combination with TGFβ2 are able to increase the proliferation and induce the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to chondrocytes, with a view to using them in cartilage tissue engineering. Cells cultured in monolayer, used to test the activity of the growth factors on cell proliferation, showed that a combination of FGFs with TGFβ2 increases cell proliferation compared to cells cultured in control medium or in the presence of growth factors alone. The chondrogenic potential, evaluated in three-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates, showed that FGF-2 and FGF-6, when used in combination with TGFβ2 increased the size and glycosaminoglycan content of the cell aggregates without increasing cell number. Extracellular matrix (ECM) also showed higher collagen type II immunoreactivity, which was particularly evident in an area similar to a germinative pole that was observed only in pellets cultured with FGF-2 and FGF-6 combined with TGFβ2, or in pellets cultured with FGF-2 alone. Moreover, the RT-PCR assay has highlighted an increased expression of collagen type II and Sox9, used as gene markers for chondrogenesis. We can conclude that combinations of FGF-2 or FGF-6 with TGFβ2 may provide a novel tool to induce the differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells for applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. Generation and characterization of a human acellular meniscus scaffold for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, G H; Eichhorn, S; Vogt, S; Adamczyk, C; Aryee, S; Hoberg, M; Milz, S; Imhoff, A B; Tischer, T

    2009-11-01

    Meniscus tears are frequent indications for arthroscopic evaluation which can result in partial or total meniscectomy. Allografts or synthetic meniscus scaffolds have been used with varying success to prevent early degenerative joint disease in these cases. Problems related to reduced initial and long-term stability, as well as immunological reactions prevent widespread clinical use so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new construct for tissue engineering of the human meniscus based on an acellular meniscus allograft. Human menisci (n = 16) were collected and acellularized using the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate as the main ingredient or left untreated as control group. These acellularized menisci were characterized biomechanically using a repetitive ball indentation test (Stiffness N/mm, residual force N, relative compression force N) and by histological (hematoxylin-eosin, phase-contrast) as well as immunohistochemical (collagen I, II, VI) investigation. The processed menisci histologically appeared cell-free and had biomechanical properties similar to the intact meniscus samples (p > 0.05). The collagen fiber arrangement was not altered, according to phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemical labeling. The removal of the immunogenic cell components combined with the preservation of the mechanically relevant parts of the extracellular matrix could make these scaffolds ideal implants for future tissue engineering of the meniscus.

  20. Chondroprotective supplementation promotes the mechanical properties of injectable scaffold for human nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Foss, Berit L; Maxwell, Thomas W; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A result of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is no longer able to withstand applied load leading to pain and disability. The objective of this study is to fabricate a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold with chondroprotective supplementation in vitro to improve the mechanical properties of a degenerative NP. Tissue-engineered scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride and mechanically evaluated. Fabrication conditions were based on structural and mechanical resemblance to the native NP. Chondroprotective supplementation, glucosamine (GCSN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were added to scaffolds at concentrations of 0:0µg/mL (0:0-S), 125:100µg/mL (125:100-S), 250:200µg/mL (250:200-S), and 500:400µg/mL (500:400-S), GCSN and CS, respectively. Scaffolds were used to fabricate tissue-engineered constructs through encapsulation of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). The tissue-engineered constructs were collected at days 1, 14, and 28 for biochemical and biomechanical evaluations. Confocal microscopy showed HNPC viability and rounded morphology over the 28 day period. MTT analysis resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation for each group. Collagen type II ELISA quantification and compressive aggregate moduli (HA) showed increasing trends for both 250:200-S and the 500:400-S groups on Day 28 with significantly greater HA compared to 0:0-S group. Glycosaminoglycan and water content decreased for all groups. Results indicate the increased mechanical properties of the 250:200-S and the 500:400-S was due to production of a functional matrix. This study demonstrated potential for a chondroprotective supplemented injectable scaffold to restore biomechanical function of a degenerative disc through the production of a mechanically functional matrix.

  1. Cartilage tissue engineering of nasal septal chondrocyte-macroaggregates in human demineralized bone matrix.

    PubMed

    Liese, Juliane; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Pruss, Axel; Haisch, Andreas; Stoelzel, Katharina

    2013-06-01

    Tissue Engineering is an important method for generating cartilage tissue with isolated autologous cells and the support of biomaterials. In contrast to various gel-like biomaterials, human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) guarantees some biomechanical stability for an application in biomechanically loaded regions. The present study combined for the first time the method of seeding chondrocyte-macroaggregates in DBM for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering. After isolating human nasal chondrocytes and creating a three-dimensional macroaggregate arrangement, the DBM was cultivated in vitro with the macroaggregates. The interaction of the cells within the DBM was analyzed with respect to cell differentiation and the inhibitory effects of chondrocyte proliferation. In contrast to chondrocyte-macroaggregates in the cell-DBM constructs, morphologically modified cells expressing type I collagen dominated. The redifferentiation of chondrocytes, characterized by the expression of type II collagen, was only found in low amounts in the cell-DBM constructs. Furthermore, caspase 3, a marker for apoptosis, was detected in the chondrocyte-DBM constructs. In another experimental setting, the vitality of chondrocytes as related to culture time and the amount of DBM was analyzed with the BrdU assay. Higher amounts of DBM tended to result in significantly higher proliferation rates of the cells within the first 48 h. After 96 h, the vitality decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, this study provides the proof of concept of chondrocyte-macroaggregates with DBM as an interesting method for the tissue engineering of cartilage. The as-yet insufficient redifferentiation of the chondrocytes and the sporadic initiation of apoptosis will require further investigations.

  2. Engineered nanomaterials in soils and water: how do they behave and could they pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Boxall, Alistair B A; Tiede, Karen; Chaudhry, Qasim

    2007-12-01

    It is inevitable that, during their use, engineered nanoparticles will be released into soils and waters. There is therefore increasing concern over the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles in the environment on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and on human health. Once released into the environment, engineered nanoparticles will aggregate to some degree; they might also associate with suspended solids, sediment, be accumulated by organisms and enter drinking water sources and food materials. These fate processes are dependent on the characteristics of the particle and the characteristics of the environmental system. A range of ecotoxicological effects have also been reported, including effects on microbes, plants, invertebrates and fish. Although available data indicate that current risks of engineered nanoparticles in the environment to environmental and human health are probably low, our knowledge of the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles in the environment on human health is still limited. There is therefore a need for continued work to develop an understanding of the exposure levels for engineered nanoparticles in environmental systems and to begin to explore the implications of these levels in terms of the ecosystem and human health. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology.

  3. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  4. Derivation of human health-based ambient water quality criteria: a consideration of conservatism and protectiveness goals.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Vickie; Wiegand, Paul; Stratton, Steve; Louch, Jeffrey; Ebert, Ellen; Anderson, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Under the terms of the Clean Water Act, criteria for the protection of human health (Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria [HHWQC]) are traditionally derived using equations recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) that include parameters for exposure assessment. To derive "adequately protective" HHWQC, USEPA proposes the use of default values for these parameters that are a combination of medians, means, and percentile estimates targeting the high end (90th percentile) of the general population. However, in practice, in nearly all cases, USEPA's recommended default assumptions represent upper percentiles. This article considers the adequacy of the exposure assessment component of USEPA-recommended equations to yield criteria that are consistent with corresponding health protection targets established in USEPA recommendations or state policies, and concludes that conservative selections for exposure parameters can result in criteria that are substantially more protective than the health protection goals for HHWQC recommended by USEPA, due in large part to the compounding effect that occurs when multiple conservative factors are combined. This situation may be mitigated by thoughtful selection of exposure parameter values when using a deterministic approach, or by using a probabilistic approach based on data distributions for many of these parameters.

  5. Spectral data compression using weighted principal component analysis with consideration of human visual system and light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Jingxing; Li, Chan

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed two weight functions based on principal component analysis (PCA) to reserve more colorimetric information in spectral data compression process. One weight function consisted of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions representing the characteristic of the human visual system, while another was made up of the CIE XYZ color-matching functions of human visual system and relative spectral power distribution of the CIE standard illuminant D65. The improvement obtained from the proposed two methods were tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of 1600 glossy Munsell color chips and 1950 Natural Color System color chips as well as six multispectral images. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color difference under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminant D65 and A. The mean values of root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed two methods significantly outperform the standard PCA and another two weighted PCA in the aspects of colorimetric reconstruction accuracy with very slight degradation in spectral reconstruction accuracy. In addition, weight functions with the CIE standard illuminant D65 can improve the colorimetric reconstruction accuracy compared to weight functions without the CIE standard illuminant D65.

  6. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  7. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  8. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  9. Enhanced homology-directed human genome engineering by controlled timing of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven; Staahl, Brett T; Alla, Ravi K; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust genome editing technology that works in human cells, animals and plants based on the RNA-programmed DNA cleaving activity of the Cas9 enzyme. Building on previous work (Jinek et al., 2013), we show here that new genetic information can be introduced site-specifically and with high efficiency by homology-directed repair (HDR) of Cas9-induced site-specific double-strand DNA breaks using timed delivery of Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Cas9 RNP-mediated HDR in HEK293T, human primary neonatal fibroblast and human embryonic stem cells was increased dramatically relative to experiments in unsynchronized cells, with rates of HDR up to 38% observed in HEK293T cells. Sequencing of on- and potential off-target sites showed that editing occurred with high fidelity, while cell mortality was minimized. This approach provides a simple and highly effective strategy for enhancing site-specific genome engineering in both transformed and primary human cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04766.001 PMID:25497837

  10. Enhanced homology-directed human genome engineering by controlled timing of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Steven; Staahl, Brett T; Alla, Ravi K; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-15

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust genome editing technology that works in human cells, animals and plants based on the RNA-programmed DNA cleaving activity of the Cas9 enzyme. Building on previous work (Jinek et al., 2013), we show here that new genetic information can be introduced site-specifically and with high efficiency by homology-directed repair (HDR) of Cas9-induced site-specific double-strand DNA breaks using timed delivery of Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Cas9 RNP-mediated HDR in HEK293T, human primary neonatal fibroblast and human embryonic stem cells was increased dramatically relative to experiments in unsynchronized cells, with rates of HDR up to 38% observed in HEK293T cells. Sequencing of on- and potential off-target sites showed that editing occurred with high fidelity, while cell mortality was minimized. This approach provides a simple and highly effective strategy for enhancing site-specific genome engineering in both transformed and primary human cells.

  11. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing.

  12. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  13. A Practical Method ‘Discussion using Matrix Diagram’ , ConnectingHuman Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Wataru

    In order to bring up talented people, it is a most important subject how to awake ‘Emotional Human Power’ , which is the origin of Autonomy and Creativity. A Practical Method ‘Discussion using Matrix Diagram’ developed for improving ‘Emotional Human Power’ including ‘Communication Skill’ , is confirmed to be useful for connecting Human Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-.

  14. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-05-06

    It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human-horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human-horse interactions. Whilst most-if not all-horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  15. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

  16. Cryogenic propellant thermal control system design considerations, analyses, and concepts applied to a Mars human exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Tucker, Stephen; Hoffman, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes, defines, and sizes cryogenic storage thermal control systems that meet the requirements of future NASA Mars human exploration missions. The design issues of this system include the projection of the existing Multilayer Insulation data base for cryogenic storage to much thicker (10 cm or more) insulation systems, the unknown heat leak from mechanical interfaces, and the thermal and structural performance effects of the large tank sizes required for a Mars mission. Acknowledging these unknown effects, heat loss projections are made based on extrapolation of the existing data base. The results indicate that hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are feasible propellants, and that the best suited thermal control sytems are 'thick' MLI, thermodynamic vent sytems, cryocoolers, and vacuum jackets.

  17. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  18. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  19. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  20. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, Mani T.; Fuseler, John W.; Davis, Jeffrey M.; Price, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:28194397

  1. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct.

    PubMed

    Valarmathi, Mani T; Fuseler, John W; Davis, Jeffrey M; Price, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty.

  2. DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics in forensics: motivations, scientific challenges, and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred; Schneider, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    There will always be criminal cases, where the evidence DNA sample will not match either a suspect's DNA profile, or any in a criminal DNA database. In the absence of DNA-based mass intelligence screenings, including familial searching (both of which may be restricted by legislation), there is only one option to potentially avoid or retrospectively solve "cold cases": the DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics of an unknown person based on the crime scene sample left behind. Predictive DNA markers are expected to be available for some group-specific appearance traits in the near future; although it is unlikely that we will soon be able to understand the biological complexity of individual-specific appearance. In suspect-less cases reliable DNA-based prediction of broader externally visible characteristics from crime scene samples are expected to reduce the potential pool of suspects by allowing police investigations to concentrate on specific groups of people. Here, we aim to describe the forensic motivations for DNA-based prediction of human externally visible traits as well as the scientific challenges of finding predictive DNA markers, and will discuss examples with promising (e.g. sex, eye color and hair color), as well as less promising expectations (e.g. adult body height), in the foreseen future. Despite the complex ethical and legal implications arising from DNA-based prediction of externally visible characteristics, we argue that their use does not lead to a violation of privacy. We suggest that likelihood-based results, rather than DNA data itself, should be provided to the police for investigative purposes avoiding data protection issues. Furthermore, we note that the risk of exacerbating social pressure on minority groups due to DNA-based prediction of externally visible traits in crime cases may be reduced rather than increased compared to a conventional eyewitness testimony. A firm legal basis will need to be established for

  3. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  4. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. III: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, D C; Allen, S L; Byczkowski, J Z; Claudio, L; Fisher, J E; Fisher, J W; Harry, G J; Li, A A; Makris, S L; Padilla, S; Sultatos, L G; Mileson, B E

    2001-01-01

    We review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that should be considered in the design and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity studies. Toxicologic effects on the developing nervous system depend on the delivered dose, exposure duration, and developmental stage at which exposure occurred. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition within the dam and the nervous system of the offspring. In addition, unique physical features such as the presence or absence of a placental barrier and the gradual development of the blood--brain barrier influence chemical disposition and thus modulate developmental neurotoxicity. Neonatal exposure may depend on maternal pharmacokinetic processes and transfer of the xenobiotic through the milk, although direct exposure may occur through other routes (e.g., inhalation). Measurement of the xenobiotic in milk and evaluation of biomarkers of exposure or effect following exposure can confirm or characterize neonatal exposure. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models that incorporate these and other determinants can estimate tissue dose and biologic response following in utero or neonatal exposure. These models can characterize dose--response relationships and improve extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans. In addition, pharmacologic data allow an experimenter to determine whether exposure to the test chemical is adequate, whether exposure occurs during critical periods of nervous system development, whether route and duration of exposure are appropriate, and whether developmental neurotoxicity can be differentiated from direct actions of the xenobiotic. PMID:11250810

  5. Stem cell-based treatments against stroke: observations from human proof-of-concept studies and considerations regarding clinical applicability.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Hermann, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke remains a heavy burden for industrialized countries. The only causal therapy is the recanalization of occluded vessels via thrombolysis, which due to a narrow time window still can be offered only to a minority of patients. Since the majority of patients continues to exhibit neurological deficits even following successful thrombolysis, restorative therapies are urgently needed that promote brain remodeling and repair once stroke injury has occurred. Due to their unique properties of action, stem cell-based strategies gained increasing interest during recent years. Using various stroke models in both rodents and primates, the transplantation of stem cells, namely of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs), has been shown to promote neurological recovery most likely via indirect bystander actions. In view of promising observations, clinical proof-of-concept studies are currently under way, in which effects of stem and precursor cells are evaluated in human stroke patients. In this review we summarize already published studies, which due to the broad experience in other medical contexts mostly employed bone marrow-derived MSCs by means of intravenous transplantation. With the overall number of clinical trials limited in number, only a fraction of these studies used non-treated control groups, and only single studies were adequately blinded. Despite these limitations, first promising results justify the need for more elaborate clinical trials in order to make stem cell transplantation a success for stroke treatment in the future.

  6. Scientific and ethical considerations in trial design for investigational agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Judith; Japour, Anthony J

    2003-01-15

    The design of clinical trials for new antiretroviral agents poses unique challenges, given the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These challenges include the selection of appropriate populations, the methods used to partition the effects of the study drug under observation from those of the other concurrently administered medications in early studies, performance of dose-ranging studies for disease states in which suboptimal drug exposure may lead to the development of viral resistance that limits future treatment options, and the need to fulfill the obligations of international regulatory agencies. Throughout, science and ethics are tightly woven elements in study designs for antiretroviral drug trials. Fast-track drug approval status and successful lobbying by advocates for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aimed at the US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, university teaching centers, pharmaceutical companies, and members of Congress undoubtedly contributed to the development and swift regulatory approvals of the 17 antiretroviral medications now available in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  7. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  8. Creation of a Large Adipose Tissue Construct in Humans Using a Tissue-engineering Chamber: A Step Forward in the Clinical Application of Soft Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wayne A; Marre, Diego; Grinsell, Damien; Batty, Andrew; Trost, Nicholas; O'Connor, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering is currently exploring new and exciting avenues for the repair of soft tissue and organ defects. Adipose tissue engineering using the tissue engineering chamber (TEC) model has yielded promising results in animals; however, to date, there have been no reports on the use of this device in humans. Five female post mastectomy patients ranging from 35 to 49years old were recruited and a pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator fat flap ranging from 6 to 50ml was harvested, transposed onto the chest wall and covered by an acrylic perforated dome-shaped chamber ranging from 140 to 350cm(3). Magnetic resonance evaluation was performed at three and six months after chamber implantation. Chambers were removed at six months and samples were obtained for histological analysis. In one patient, newly formed tissue to a volume of 210ml was generated inside the chamber. One patient was unable to complete the trial and the other three failed to develop significant enlargement of the original fat flap, which, at the time of chamber explantation, was encased in a thick fibrous capsule. Our study provides evidence that generation of large well-vascularized tissue engineered constructs using the TEC is feasible in humans.

  9. Evaluation of human engineering design standard (MSFC-STD-267A) in the design of manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major conclusion of the detailed examination of the human factors engineering design standard is that it is unsuitable for future spacecraft design. The standard, published in 1966, was not intended to be a zero or reduced gravity standard and was directed primarily toward ground support equipment and technology. Futhermore, ambiguities, conflicts, and unenforceable requirements contribute to the difficulty. The role of man in future space missions and its impact on human engineering standards are also discussed, and it is concluded that greater standardization is vital to the success of future missions. A survey of NASA/MSFC contractors was made, and it was found that MSFC-STD-267A is largely ignored and the most significant problems are inaccessibility and nonspecificity of the data. The resistance of contract management and designer and of program managers is a primary reason for poor human engineering design. Specific recommendations for improvement of format and organization, including an interim solution, are given.

  10. Generation and genetic engineering of human induced pluripotent stem cells using designed zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Sivaprakash; London, Viktoriya; Kandavelou, Karthikeyan; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Guggino, William; Civin, Curt; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan

    2013-02-15

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have become powerful tools to deliver a targeted double-strand break at a pre-determined chromosomal locus in order to insert an exogenous transgene by homology-directed repair. ZFN-mediated gene targeting was used to generate both single-allele chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5)-modified human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and biallele CCR5-modified hiPSCs from human lung fibroblasts (IMR90 cells) and human primary cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs) by site-specific insertion of stem cell transcription factor genes flanked by LoxP sites into the endogenous CCR5 locus. The Oct4 and Sox2 reprogramming factors, in combination with valproic acid, induced reprogramming of human lung fibroblasts to form CCR5-modified hiPSCs, while 5 factors, Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Lin28/Nanog, induced reprogramming of CBMNCs. Subsequent Cre recombinase treatment of the CCR5-modified IMR90 hiPSCs resulted in the removal of the Oct4 and Sox2 transgenes. Further genetic engineering of the single-allele CCR5-modified IMR90 hiPSCs was achieved by site-specific addition of the large CFTR transcription unit to the remaining CCR5 wild-type allele, using CCR5-specific ZFNs and a donor construct containing tdTomato and CFTR transgenes flanked by CCR5 homology arms. CFTR was expressed efficiently from the endogenous CCR5 locus of the CCR5-modified tdTomato/CFTR hiPSCs. These results suggest that it might be feasible to use ZFN-evoked strategies to (1) generate precisely targeted genetically well-defined patient-specific hiPSCs, and (2) then to reshape their function by targeted addition and expression of therapeutic genes from the CCR5 chromosomal locus for autologous cell-based transgene-correction therapy to treat various recessive monogenic human diseases in the future.

  11. Human Milk Protein Production in Xenografts of Genetically Engineered Bovine Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martignani, Eugenio; Eirew, Peter; Accornero, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background In the bovine species milk production is well known to correlate with mammary tissue mass. However, most advances in optimizing milk production relied on improvements of breeding and husbandry practices. A better understanding of the cells that generate bovine mammary tissue could facilitate important advances in milk production and have global economic impact. With this possibility in mind, we show that a mammary stem cell population can be functionally identified and isolated from the bovine mammary gland. We also demonstrate that this stem cell population may be a promising target for manipulating the composition of cow's milk using gene transfer. Methods and Findings We show that the in vitro colony-forming cell assay for detecting normal primitive bipotent and lineage-restricted human mammary clonogenic progenitors are applicable to bovine mammary cells. Similarly, the ability of normal human mammary stem cells to regenerate functional bilayered structures in collagen gels placed under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice is shared by a subset of bovine mammary cells that lack aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. We also find that this activity is a distinguishing feature of luminal-restricted bovine progenitors. The regenerated structures recapitulate the organization of bovine mammary tissue, and milk could be readily detected in these structures when they were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Transplantation of the bovine cells transduced with a lentivirus encoding human β-CASEIN led to expression of the transgene and secretion of the product by their progeny regenerated in vivo. Conclusions These findings point to a common developmental hierarchy shared by human and bovine mammary glands, providing strong evidence of common mechanisms regulating the maintenance and differentiation of mammary stem cells from both species. These results highlight the potential of novel engineering and transplant strategies for a variety of commercial

  12. Looking Ahead to Engineering Epimorphic Regeneration of a Human Digit or Limb.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Lina M; Lynch, Kristen M; Allan, Christopher H; Badylak, Stephen F; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 million people have had limb amputations in the United States due to disease or injury, with more than 185,000 new amputations every year. The ability to promote epimorphic regeneration, or the regrowth of a biologically based digit or limb, would radically change the prognosis for amputees. This ambitious goal includes the regrowth of a large number of tissues that need to be properly assembled and patterned to create a fully functional structure. We have yet to even identify, let alone address, all the obstacles along the extended progression that limit epimorphic regeneration in humans. This review aims to present introductory fundamentals in epimorphic regeneration to facilitate design and conduct of research from a tissue engineering and regenerative medicine perspective. We describe the clinical scenario of human digit healing, featuring published reports of regenerative potential. We then broadly delineate the processes of epimorphic regeneration in nonmammalian systems and describe a few mammalian regeneration models. We give particular focus to the murine digit tip, which allows for comparative studies of regeneration-competent and regeneration-incompetent outcomes in the same animal. Finally, we describe a few forward-thinking opportunities for promoting epimorphic regeneration in humans.

  13. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  14. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  15. Human Developmental Chondrogenesis as a Basis for Engineering Chondrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G.; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M.; Crooks, Gay M.; McAllister, David R.; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S.; Evseenko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166low/negCD146low/negCD73+CD44lowBMPR1B+) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5–6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166low/negBMPR1B+ putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24371811

  16. Human developmental chondrogenesis as a basis for engineering chondrocytes from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M; Crooks, Gay M; McAllister, David R; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S; Evseenko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166(low/neg)CD146(low/neg)CD73(+)CD44(low)BMPR1B(+)) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5-6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166(low/neg)BMPR1B(+) putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering.

  17. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  18. Analysis of genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in human prostate cancer organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Passer, B J; Wu, C-l; Wu, S; Rabkin, S D; Martuza, R L

    2009-12-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses type 1 (oHSVs) such as G47Delta and G207 are genetically engineered for selective replication competence in cancer cells. Several factors can influence the overall effectiveness of oHSV tropism, including HSV-1 receptor expression, extracellular matrix milieu and cellular permissiveness. We have taken advantage of human prostate organ cultures derived from radical prostatectomies to investigate oHSV tropism. In this study, we show that both G47Delta and G207 specifically replicate in epithelial cells of the prostatic glands but not in the surrounding stroma. In contrast, both the epithelial and stromal cell compartments were readily infected by wild-type HSV-1. Analysis of oHSV replication in prostate surgical specimens 3 days post infection showed that G47Delta generated approximately 30-fold more viral progeny than did G207. This correlated with the enhanced expression of G47Delta-derived glycoprotein gB protein levels as compared with G207. In benign prostate tissues, G207 and G47Delta titers were notably reduced, whereas strain F titers were maintained at similar levels compared with prostate cancer specimens. Overall, our results show that these oncolytic herpes vectors show both target specificity and replication competence in human prostate cancer specimens and point to the utility of using human prostate organ cultures in assessing oHSV tropism and cellular specificity.

  19. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious. PMID:28210626

  20. Therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium transplants on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ting-jun; Zhao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-zhong; Ma, Xi-ya; Zhang, Wen-bo; Yang, Chao-zhong

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelia (TE-HCEs) on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy (PCEP), TE-HCEs reconstructed with monoclonal human corneal endothelial cells (mcHCECs) and modified denuded amniotic membranes (mdAMs) were transplanted into PCEP models of New Zealand white rabbits using penetrating keratoplasty. The TE-HCEs were examined using diverse techniques including slit-lamp biomicroscopy observation and pachymeter and tonometer measurements in vivo, and fluorescent microscopy, alizarin red staining, paraffin sectioning, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations in vitro. The corneas of transplanted eyes maintained transparency for as long as 200 d without obvious edema or immune rejection. The corneal thickness of transplanted eyes decreased gradually after transplanting, reaching almost the thickness of normal eyes after 156 d, while the TE-HCE non-transplanted eyes were turbid and showed obvious corneal edema. The polygonal corneal endothelial cells in the transplanted area originated from the TE-HCE transplant. An intact monolayer corneal endothelium had been reconstructed with the morphology, cell density and structure similar to those of normal rabbit corneal endothelium. In conclusion, the transplanted TE-HCE can reconstruct the integrality of corneal endothelium and restore corneal transparency and thickness in PCEP rabbits. The TE-HCE functions normally as an endothelial barrier and pump and promises to be an equivalent of HCE for clinical therapy of human PCEP.