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Sample records for human enterotoxigenic escherichia

  1. In vitro adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to human intestinal epithelial cells from mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    An adhesion assay with isolated human enterocytes prepared from duodenal biopsies has been developed and tested by using human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) and type 1 fimbriae. Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains H10407 (CFA/I) and B2C (CFA/II) bound to duodenal enterocytes to a much greater extent (mean of 4.6 and 4.0 bacteria per brush border) than did strain H10407P, a CFA/I- mutant of H10407 (mean of 0.1 bacteria per brush border). Type 1 fimbriae also promoted adhesion of strain H10407P to duodenal enterocytes but attachment was to basolateral rather than brush border surfaces. CFA/I and CFA/II, on the other hand, promoted adhesion only to human enterocyte brush borders.

  2. Search for heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in humans, livestock, food, and water in a community in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Verhaert, L; Basaca-Sevilla, V; Banson, T; Cross, J; Orskov, F; Orskov, I

    1978-07-01

    Environmental sources of heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are unknown. The feces of 1,086 inhabitants (approximately 5%) of a small town in the Philippines, 28 pigs, and 10 water buffalo were cultured for enteric bacterial pathogens. Twenty-seven persons harbored pathogenic bacteria: five individuals had enterotoxigenic E. coli, 11 Salmonella species, nine Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one Shigella boydii, and one nonagglutinable Vibrio. Enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from two of 28 pigs and from one of 10 water buffalo. Cultures of 26 pieces of beef, 25 pieces of pork, and 52 leafy vegetables obtained from a community market failed to grow enterotoxigenic E. coli. None of 47 samples of contaminated surface water contained this pathogen. Serotypes of human and animal strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli were different, although E. coli O78:H12 isolated from a pig has previously been incriminated in human diarrheal disease. In this limited survey of a Philippine community, enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from humans and livestock. The possibility that enterotoxigenic E. coli infections are zoonotic warrants further investigation.

  3. Ultrastructural study of adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    The adhesion to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains H10407, B2C, and H10407P, expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae, respectively, was examined by electron microscopy. CFA and type 1 fimbriae were visualized by negative staining in thin sections after en bloc staining with ruthenium red and by immune labeling with antisera raised against purified fimbriae. By negative and ruthenium red staining, CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae were indistinguishable and appeared as approximately 7-nm-diameter hollow cylindrical structures up to 1.5 micron in length; strain B2C also produced 2- to 3-nm-diameter flexible fibrillar fimbriae. Bacteria producing CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae adhered to and agglutinated human, bovine, and guinea pig erythrocytes, respectively; CFA/I and CFA/II also mediated attachment of bacteria to the brush border of isolated human duodenal enterocytes. Electron microscopy of agglutinated erythrocytes and enterocytes with adherent bacteria showed, in each case, that bacterial adhesion involved the formation of many interactions between the tips of fimbriae and receptors on the erythrocyte or enterocyte brush border membrane. Immune labeling allowed different fimbrial antigens mediating bacterial attachment to human enterocytes to be identified.

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA Glycoprotein Adheres to Human Intestine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindenthal, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA glycoprotein adheres to human intestine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, C; Elsinghorst, E A

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  6. [Advances in new vaccines against human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli--A review].

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Meng, Xianchen; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea, which is a second leading cause of death for the children under five years old from all over the world. The key factors of ETEC contain both colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins including heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). CFs mediated the binding of bacteria to the host intestinal epithelial cells, whereas LT and ST stimulated the over-secretion of body fluids and electrolytes, resulting in the destruction of the host fluid balance and leading diarrhea. The vaccine against CFs and enterotoxins could stimulate the host immune response, blocking ETEC adhesion and neutralizing enterotoxins, which is effective in the prevention of ETEC diarrhea. For the moment, depending on the stimulated immune response against LT, a cholera vaccine called Dukoral has been approved for use in some countries for the short-term protection and prevention of travelers' diarrhea. ETEC candidate vaccines are still in progress, which is designed to provide a long and wide-spectrum protection for ETEC infections. This paper briefly summarizes the advanced findings and key problems of vaccine development, and discusses prospects for future research. PMID:27373068

  7. [Advances in new vaccines against human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli--A review].

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Meng, Xianchen; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea, which is a second leading cause of death for the children under five years old from all over the world. The key factors of ETEC contain both colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins including heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). CFs mediated the binding of bacteria to the host intestinal epithelial cells, whereas LT and ST stimulated the over-secretion of body fluids and electrolytes, resulting in the destruction of the host fluid balance and leading diarrhea. The vaccine against CFs and enterotoxins could stimulate the host immune response, blocking ETEC adhesion and neutralizing enterotoxins, which is effective in the prevention of ETEC diarrhea. For the moment, depending on the stimulated immune response against LT, a cholera vaccine called Dukoral has been approved for use in some countries for the short-term protection and prevention of travelers' diarrhea. ETEC candidate vaccines are still in progress, which is designed to provide a long and wide-spectrum protection for ETEC infections. This paper briefly summarizes the advanced findings and key problems of vaccine development, and discusses prospects for future research.

  8. TleA, a Tsh-like autotransporter identified in a human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Daniela; Pardo, Mirka; Montero, David; Oñate, Angel; Farfán, Mauricio J; Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando; Del Canto, Felipe; Vidal, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute diarrhea, colonizes the intestine by means of adhesins. However, 15 to 50% of clinical isolates are negative for known adhesins, making it difficult to identify antigens for broad-coverage vaccines. The ETEC strain 1766a, obtained from a child with watery diarrhea in Chile, harbors the colonization factor CS23 but is negative for other known adhesins. One clone, derived from an ETEC 1766a genomic library (clone G10), did not produce CS23 yet was capable of adhering to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was to identify the gene responsible for this capacity. Random transposon-based mutagenesis allowed the identification of a 4,110-bp gene that codes for a homologue of the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) autotransporter described in avian E. coli strains (97% identity, 90% coverage) and that is called TleA (Tsh-like ETEC autotransporter) herein. An isogenic ETEC 1766a strain with a tleA mutation showed an adhesion level similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the gene does not direct attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, expression of tleA conferred the capacity for adherence to nonadherent E. coli HB101. This effect coincided with the detection of TleA on the surface of nonpermeabilized bacteria, while, conversely, ETEC 1766a seems to secrete most of the produced autotransporter to the medium. On the other hand, TleA was capable of degrading bovine submaxillary mucin and leukocyte surface glycoproteins CD45 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). These results suggest that TleA promotes colonization of the intestinal epithelium and that it may modulate the host immune response.

  9. TleA, a Tsh-Like Autotransporter Identified in a Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Daniela; Pardo, Mirka; Montero, David; Oñate, Angel; Farfán, Mauricio J.; Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute diarrhea, colonizes the intestine by means of adhesins. However, 15 to 50% of clinical isolates are negative for known adhesins, making it difficult to identify antigens for broad-coverage vaccines. The ETEC strain 1766a, obtained from a child with watery diarrhea in Chile, harbors the colonization factor CS23 but is negative for other known adhesins. One clone, derived from an ETEC 1766a genomic library (clone G10), did not produce CS23 yet was capable of adhering to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was to identify the gene responsible for this capacity. Random transposon-based mutagenesis allowed the identification of a 4,110-bp gene that codes for a homologue of the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) autotransporter described in avian E. coli strains (97% identity, 90% coverage) and that is called TleA (Tsh-like ETEC autotransporter) herein. An isogenic ETEC 1766a strain with a tleA mutation showed an adhesion level similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the gene does not direct attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, expression of tleA conferred the capacity for adherence to nonadherent E. coli HB101. This effect coincided with the detection of TleA on the surface of nonpermeabilized bacteria, while, conversely, ETEC 1766a seems to secrete most of the produced autotransporter to the medium. On the other hand, TleA was capable of degrading bovine submaxillary mucin and leukocyte surface glycoproteins CD45 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). These results suggest that TleA promotes colonization of the intestinal epithelium and that it may modulate the host immune response. PMID:25712927

  10. TleA, a Tsh-like autotransporter identified in a human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Daniela; Pardo, Mirka; Montero, David; Oñate, Angel; Farfán, Mauricio J; Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando; Del Canto, Felipe; Vidal, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute diarrhea, colonizes the intestine by means of adhesins. However, 15 to 50% of clinical isolates are negative for known adhesins, making it difficult to identify antigens for broad-coverage vaccines. The ETEC strain 1766a, obtained from a child with watery diarrhea in Chile, harbors the colonization factor CS23 but is negative for other known adhesins. One clone, derived from an ETEC 1766a genomic library (clone G10), did not produce CS23 yet was capable of adhering to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was to identify the gene responsible for this capacity. Random transposon-based mutagenesis allowed the identification of a 4,110-bp gene that codes for a homologue of the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) autotransporter described in avian E. coli strains (97% identity, 90% coverage) and that is called TleA (Tsh-like ETEC autotransporter) herein. An isogenic ETEC 1766a strain with a tleA mutation showed an adhesion level similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the gene does not direct attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, expression of tleA conferred the capacity for adherence to nonadherent E. coli HB101. This effect coincided with the detection of TleA on the surface of nonpermeabilized bacteria, while, conversely, ETEC 1766a seems to secrete most of the produced autotransporter to the medium. On the other hand, TleA was capable of degrading bovine submaxillary mucin and leukocyte surface glycoproteins CD45 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). These results suggest that TleA promotes colonization of the intestinal epithelium and that it may modulate the host immune response. PMID:25712927

  11. Progress and hurdles in the development of vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Sack, David A

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in young children living in endemic countries and children and adults traveling to these areas. Pathogenesis of ETEC diarrhea has been well studied, and the key virulence factors are bacterial colonization factor antigens and enterotoxins produced by ETEC strains. Colonization factor antigens mediate bacteria attachment to host small intestinal epithelial cells and subsequent colonization, whereas enterotoxins including heat-labile and heat-stable toxins disrupt fluid homeostasis in host epithelial cells, which leads to fluid and electrolyte hypersecretion and diarrhea. Vaccines stimulating host anti-adhesin immunity to block ETEC attachment and colonization and also antitoxin immunity to neutralize enterotoxicity are considered optimal for prevention of ETEC diarrhea. Vaccines under development have been designed to stimulate local intestinal immunity and are either oral vaccines or transcutaneous vaccines. A cholera vaccine (Dukoral®) does stimulate anti-heat-labile toxin immunity and is licensed for short-term protection of ETEC diarrhea in travelers in some countries. Newer experimental ETEC vaccine candidates are being developed with hope to provide long-lasting and more broad-based protection against ETEC. Some have shown promising results in safety and immunogenicity studies and are approaching field trials for efficacy. A key problem is the development of a vaccine that is both practical and inexpensive so that it can be affordable for use in poor countries where it is needed. PMID:22873126

  12. Hybrids of Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Among Human and Animal Isolates in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, O; Heinikainen, S; Pelkonen, S; Hallanvuo, S; Haukka, K; Siitonen, A

    2015-11-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. Total of 450 Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) strains isolated from humans, animals and environment in Finland were examined by multiplex PCR targeting the virulence genes of various DEC pathogroups simultaneously. One per cent (3/291) of the human STEC and 14% (22/159) of the animal and environmental STEC had genes typically present in enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). The strains possessed genes encoding both Shiga toxin 1 and/or 2 (stx1 and/or stx2 ) and ETEC-specific heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin Ia (estIa). The identified stx subtypes were stx1a, stx1c, stx2a, stx2d and stx2g. The three human STEC/ETEC strains were isolated from the patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and diarrhoea and from an asymptomatic carrier. The animal STEC/ETEC strains were isolated from cattle and moose. The human and animal STEC/ETEC strains belonged to 11 serotypes, of which O2:H27, O15:H16, O101:H-, O128:H8 and O141:H8 have previously been described to be associated with human disease. Identification of multiple virulence genes offers further information for assessing the virulence potential of STEC and other DEC. The emergence of novel hybrid pathogens should be taken into account in the patient care and epidemiological surveillance.

  13. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food-borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  14. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food-borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain W25K

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets. PMID:24970825

  16. Characterization of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin and Human Guanylin and Uroguanylin

    PubMed Central

    Taxt, Arne M.; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

  17. Characterization of immunological cross-reactivity between enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin and human guanylin and uroguanylin.

    PubMed

    Taxt, Arne M; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Puntervoll, Pål

    2014-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

  18. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Orchestrated host engagement.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known "classical" virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and "novel" virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  19. Novel antigens for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James; Sheikh, Alaullah; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in developing countries where they lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in children. These organisms are a leading cause of diarrheal illness in travelers to endemic countries. ETEC pathogenesis, and consequently vaccine approaches, have largely focused on plasmid-encoded enterotoxins or fimbrial colonization factors. To date these approaches have not yielded a broadly protective vaccine. However, recent studies suggest that ETEC pathogenesis is more complex than previously appreciated and involves additional plasmid and chromosomally encoded virulence molecules that can be targeted in vaccines. Here, we review recent novel antigen discovery efforts, potential contribution of these proteins to the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC and protective immunity, and the potential implications for development of next generation vaccines for important pathogens. These proteins may help to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines by making them simpler and possibly broadly protective because of their conserved nature. PMID:24702311

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaE, the adhesive subunit of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; Esser, Lothar; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2006-02-01

    The adhesin CfaE of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic E. coli has been crystallized. CfaE crystals diffracted X-rays to better than 2.4 Å and phasing was solved by the SIRAS method. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represents a formidable food and waterborne diarrheal disease threat of global importance. The first step in ETEC pathogenesis is bacterial attachment to small-intestine epithelial cells via adhesive fimbriae, many of which are genetically related to the prototype colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The minor fimbrial subunit CfaE is required for initiation of CFA/I fimbrial assembly and mediates bacterial attachment to host cell-surface receptors. A donor-strand complemented variant of CfaE (dscCfaE) was expressed with a hexahistidine tag, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution for both native and derivatized crystals and showed the symmetry of space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 231.9 Å. Initial phases were derived from the SIRAS approach and electron density showed two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the selenium of an SeMet-derivatized crystal and from S atoms of a native crystal.

  1. Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Sakellaris, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease around the world. The major aspects of ETEC virulence are colonization of the small intestine and the secretion of enterotoxins which elicit diarrhea. Intestinal colonization is mediated, in part, by adhesins displayed on the bacterial cell surface. As colonization of the intestine is the critical first step in the establishment of an infection, it represents a potential point of intervention for the prevention of infections. Therefore, colonization factors (CFs) have been important subjects of research in the field of ETEC virulence. Research in this field has revealed that ETEC possesses a large array of serologically distinct CFs that differ in composition, structure, and function. Most ETEC CFs are pili (fimbriae) or related fibrous structures, while other adhesins are simple outer membrane proteins lacking any macromolecular structure. This chapter reviews the genetics, structure, function, and regulation of ETEC CFs and how such studies have contributed to our understanding of ETEC virulence and opened up potential opportunities for the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25596032

  2. Maternal Vaccination with a Fimbrial Tip Adhesin and Passive Protection of Neonatal Mice against Lethal Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Wilson B.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Crabb, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of childhood and travelers' diarrhea, for which an effective vaccine is needed. Prevalent intestinal colonization factors (CFs) such as CFA/I fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are important virulence factors and protective antigens. We tested the hypothesis that donor strand-complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, is a protective antigen, using a lethal neonatal mouse ETEC challenge model and passive dam vaccination. For CFA/I-ETEC strain H10407, which has been extensively studied in volunteers, an inoculum of 2 × 107 bacteria resulted in 50% lethal doses (LD50) in neonatal DBA/2 mice. Vaccination of female DBA/2 mice with CFA/I fimbriae or dscCfaE, each given with a genetically attenuated LT adjuvant (LTK63) by intranasal or orogastric delivery, induced high antigen-specific serum IgG and fecal IgA titers and detectable milk IgA responses. Neonates born to and suckled by dams antenatally vaccinated with each of these four regimens showed 78 to 93% survival after a 20× LD50 challenge with H10407, compared to 100% mortality in pups from dams vaccinated with sham vaccine or LTK63 only. Crossover experiments showed that high pup survival rates after ETEC challenge were associated with suckling but not birthing from vaccinated dams, suggesting that vaccine-specific milk antibodies are protective. In corroboration, preincubation of the ETEC inoculum with antiadhesin and antifimbrial bovine colostral antibodies conferred a dose-dependent increase in pup survival after challenge. These findings indicate that the dscCfaE fimbrial tip adhesin serves as a protective passive vaccine antigen in this small animal model and merits further evaluation. PMID:26371126

  3. Maternal vaccination with a fimbrial tip adhesin and passive protection of neonatal mice against lethal human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli challenge.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Wilson B; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Crabb, Joseph H; Savarino, Stephen J; Ferreira, Luis C S

    2015-12-01

    Globally, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of childhood and travelers' diarrhea, for which an effective vaccine is needed. Prevalent intestinal colonization factors (CFs) such as CFA/I fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are important virulence factors and protective antigens. We tested the hypothesis that donor strand-complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, is a protective antigen, using a lethal neonatal mouse ETEC challenge model and passive dam vaccination. For CFA/I-ETEC strain H10407, which has been extensively studied in volunteers, an inoculum of 2 × 10(7) bacteria resulted in 50% lethal doses (LD50) in neonatal DBA/2 mice. Vaccination of female DBA/2 mice with CFA/I fimbriae or dscCfaE, each given with a genetically attenuated LT adjuvant (LTK63) by intranasal or orogastric delivery, induced high antigen-specific serum IgG and fecal IgA titers and detectable milk IgA responses. Neonates born to and suckled by dams antenatally vaccinated with each of these four regimens showed 78 to 93% survival after a 20× LD50 challenge with H10407, compared to 100% mortality in pups from dams vaccinated with sham vaccine or LTK63 only. Crossover experiments showed that high pup survival rates after ETEC challenge were associated with suckling but not birthing from vaccinated dams, suggesting that vaccine-specific milk antibodies are protective. In corroboration, preincubation of the ETEC inoculum with antiadhesin and antifimbrial bovine colostral antibodies conferred a dose-dependent increase in pup survival after challenge. These findings indicate that the dscCfaE fimbrial tip adhesin serves as a protective passive vaccine antigen in this small animal model and merits further evaluation. PMID:26371126

  4. Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Sangil, Anna; Gascon, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vila, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present. PMID:23224092

  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli multilocus sequence types in Guatemala and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nicklasson, Matilda; Klena, John; Rodas, Claudia; Bourgeois, August Louis; Torres, Olga; Svennerholm, Ann Mari; Sjoling, Asa

    2010-01-01

    The genetic backgrounds of 24 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains from Mexico and Guatemala expressing heat-stable toxin (ST) and coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) were analyzed. US travelers to these countries and resident children in Guatemala were infected by ETEC strains of sequence type 398, expressing STp and carrying genetically identical CS6 sequences.

  6. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain B2C.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Steen, Jason A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Sakellaris, Harry

    2014-04-10

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease around the globe, causing an estimated 380,000 deaths annually. The disease is caused by a wide variety of strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain B2C, which was isolated from an American soldier in Vietnam.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of CofB, the minor pilin subunit of CFA/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tooru; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2015-06-01

    Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ∼ 4.0 to ∼ 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map. PMID:26057791

  8. Part III. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984–2005

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, S. K.; KECK, J.; RAM, P. K.; CRUMP, J. A.; MILLER, M. A.; MINTZ, E. D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of profuse watery diarrhoea in the developing world, often leading to severe dehydration or death. We found only 15 population-based studies in low and medium human development index (HDI) countries from 1984 to 2005 that evaluate disease incidence. Reported incidence ranged from 39 to 4460 infections/1000 persons per year. The peak incidence of ETEC appeared to occur between ages 6 and 18 months. A median of 14% (range 2–36%) of diarrhoeal specimens were positive for ETEC in 19 facility- and population-based studies conducted in all age groups and 13% (range 3–39%) in 51 studies conducted in children only. Heat-labile toxin (LT)-ETEC is thought to be less likely to cause disease than heat-stable toxin (ST)-ETEC or LT/ST-ETEC. Because population-based studies involve enhanced clinical management of patients and facility-based studies include only the most severe illnesses, reliable data on complications and mortality from ETEC infections was unavailable. To reduce gaps in the current understanding of ETEC incidence, complications and mortality, large population-based studies combined with facility-based studies covering a majority of the corresponding population are needed, especially in low-HDI countries. Moreover, a standard molecular definition of ETEC infection is needed to be able to compare results across study sites. PMID:17686197

  9. Heat-labile- and heat-stable-toxoid fusions (LTR₁₉₂G-STaP₁₃F) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing antitoxin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Chengxian; Lawson, Steve R; Knudsen, David E; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Adhesins and enterotoxins, including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa) toxins, are the key virulence factors. Antigenic adhesin and LT antigens have been used in developing vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. However, STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length porcine-type LT toxoid, LT(R₁₉₂G) (W. Zhang et al., Infect. Immun. 78:316-325, 2010). In this study, we mutated human-type LT and STa genes, which are highly homologous to porcine-type toxin genes, for a full-length LT toxoid (LT(R₁₉₂)) and a full-length STa toxoid (STa(P₁₃F)) and genetically fused them to produce LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ toxoid fusions. Mice immunized with LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusion antigens developed anti-LT and anti-STa IgG (in serum and feces) and IgA antibodies (in feces). Moreover, secretory IgA antibodies from immunized mice were shown to neutralize STa and cholera toxins in T-84 cells. In addition, we fused the STa₁₃ toxoid at the N terminus and C terminus, between the A1 and A2 peptides, and between the A and B subunits of LT₁₉₂ to obtain different fusions in order to explore strategies for enhancing STa immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that human-type LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusions induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies and provided important information for developing toxoid vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21788385

  10. Prevalence and diversity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Reddy, Shanker P

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of fresh produce showed that enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are most often found in cilantro and parsley, with prevalence rates of approximately 0.3%. Some ETEC strains also carried Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) genes but had no STEC adherence factors, which are essential to cause severe human illness. Most ETEC strains in produce carried stable toxin and/or labile toxin genes but belonged to unremarkable serotypes that have not been reported to have caused human illnesses.

  11. Phase variation of the 987P-like CS18 fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is regulated by site-specific recombinases.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Shaya; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2003-04-01

    The gene cluster of the CS18 (PCFO20) fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found to include seven genes (fotA to fotG) that are similar to each of the seven structural and export proteins of the 987P fimbriae. However, no analogous gene to the fasH regulatory gene, which is located at the 3' end of the 987P gene cluster and encodes an AraC-like activator of transcription, could be detected. Surprisingly, two novel genes (fotS and fotT) encoding proteins similar to the site-specific recombinases of the type 1 fimbriae (FimB and FimE) were identified at the 5' end of the fot gene cluster. These genes were shown to be required for the catalysis of a 312 bp-inversion just upstream of fotA. The inversion determines CS18 fimbrial phase variation. FotS participates in inverting the 312 bp-segment in both the ON and OFF orientation, whereas FotT has a bias for the OFF oriented recombination. Similar regulators of fimbriation by phase variation were described in uropathogenic and commensal Enterobacteriaceae. In contrast, only AraC-like transcriptional activators were previously described as regulators of the intestinal colonization factors of human ETEC isolates. Thus, the CS18 and 987P gene clusters encode similar components for fimbrial biogenesis but different types of regulators for fimbriation. The combination of blocks of genes encoding similar structural products but different regulatory proteins underlines how modular DNA rearrangements can evolve by serving pathogen diversification. Acquisition of a phase variation module to regulate fimbrial genes is proposed to be beneficial for the adaptation and transmission of pathogens.

  12. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel S; Sears, Khandra T; Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera. PMID:26581778

  13. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel S; Sears, Khandra T; Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera.

  14. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly. PMID:26876601

  15. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India

    PubMed Central

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Khadake, Prashant P.; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B.; Apurwa, Sachin R.; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U.; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India. PMID:25838484

  17. Phylogenetic Comparisons Reveal Multiple Acquisitions of the Toxin Genes by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains of Different Evolutionary Lineages▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Sue M.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert; Gyles, Carlton; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a diverse bacterial species which is widely distributed in the environment but also exists as a commensal and pathogen of different host species. Human intestinal pathogenic E. coli causes over 160 million cases of diarrhea and an estimated 1 million deaths per year. The majority of deaths are attributable to one pathovar of E. coli, namely, enterotoxigenic E. coli. The pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic E. coli is dependent on the production of a colonization factor to promote adhesion to the intestinal epithelium and the elaboration of heat-labile or heat-stable toxins which induce a secretory diarrhea. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli infection, little is known of the genetic background of this global pathogen. Here we demonstrate by multilocus sequence typing that enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates are present in all phylogenetic lineages of E. coli, indicating that acquisition of the toxin genes may be sufficient to generate an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. In addition, screening of diarrheal isolates for the presence of additional genes previously associated with the virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli revealed that they were not abundant. These observations have significant implications for disease epidemiology and for the design of effective vaccines. PMID:17050815

  18. Curli expression of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Szabó, E; Skedsmo, A; Sonnevend, A; Al-Dhaheri, K; Emody, L; Usmani, A; Pál, T

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and four enterotoxin producing Escherichia coli strains of wide geographical origin were tested for the expression of curli fimbriae by transmission electronmicroscopy and by ELISA using curli-specific antibodies, as well as for the presence of curli-specific gene sequences by PCR. All isolates, irrespective of the production of the fimbriae, carried sequences specific for the structure (csgA) and for one of the regulator genes (crl) of curli expression, respectively. Curli fimbriae were detected in 56 strains (53.8 %). Thirty-six strains expressed curli only when growing at 30 degrees C, 4 isolates were weakly curliated at 37 degrees C only, while on 16 strains curli was observed at both temperatures. On isolates carrying curli at both temperatures the expression of the fimbria was significantly stronger at 30 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Curli proficiency significantly, but not completely, correlated with the binding of the Congo Red dye. The expression of curli did not confer epithelial cell invasiveness to ETEC strains but, once expressed at 30 degrees C, it facilitated the adherence of the bacteria to plastic surfaces. Curli present in more than half of the ETEC strains and expressed preferentially at low temperatures could be a factor facilitating the environmental survival of this food- and water-borne pathogen.

  19. Identification of a new fimbrial structure in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O148:H28 which adheres to human intestinal mucosa: a potentially new human ETEC colonization factor.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; McNeish, A S

    1987-01-01

    Three important fimbrial colonization factor antigens (CFAs) designated CFA/I, CFA/II, and E8775 were identified originally in some human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains because of their mannose-resistant hemagglutination properties. To identify CFA, in strains lacking mannose-resistant hemagglutination properties we exploited the ability of human ETEC strains to adhere to human proximal small intestinal mucosa. ETEC strain B7A (O148:H28) was selected for study because it belongs to an epidemiologically important serotype and does not produce a known CFA, and yet it is known to be pathogenic and cause diarrheal disease in human volunteers. Results of an human enterocyte adhesion assay indicated that some bacteria in cultures of B7A produced adhesive factors. To select for such bacteria, cultured human duodenal mucosal biopsy samples were infected with B7A for up to 12 h, after which time a large percentage of the mucosal surface became colonized by bacteria. A new fimbrial structure morphologically distinct from CFA/I, CFA/II, and E8775 fimbriae and consisting of curly fibrils (approximately 3 nm in diameter) was readily identified when bacteria were subcultured from the mucosa and examined by electron microscopy. Identical fimbriae were produced by ETEC strain 1782-77 of the same serotype. Identification of these fimbriae only on bacteria subcultured from human intestinal mucosa strongly suggests that they promote mucosal adhesion of ETEC serotype O148:H28 and thus represent a potentially new human ETEC CFA.

  20. Identification of a glycoprotein produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, C; Elsinghorst, E A

    1999-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407 is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileocecum and colon in vitro. Two separate chromosomally encoded invasion loci (tia and tib) have been cloned from this strain. These loci direct nonadherent and noninvasive laboratory strains of E. coli to adhere to and invade cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane protein that is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes. TibA is synthesized as a 100-kDa precursor (preTibA) that must be modified for biological activity. Outer membranes of recombinant E. coli expressing TibA or preTibA were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted to nitrocellulose. The presence of glycoproteins was detected by oxidization of carbohydrates with periodate and labeling with hydrazide-conjugated digoxigenin. Only TibA could be detected as a glycoprotein. Complementation experiments with tib deletion mutants of ETEC strain H10407 demonstrate that the TibA glycoprotein is expressed in H10407, that the entire tib locus is required for TibA synthesis, and that TibA is the only glycoprotein produced by H10407. Protease treatment of intact H10407 cells removes the carbohydrates on TibA, suggesting that they are surface exposed. TibA shows homology with AIDA-I from diffuse-adhering E. coli and with pertactin precursor from Bordetella pertussis. Both pertactin and AIDA-I are members of the autotransporter family of outer membrane proteins and are afimbrial adhesins that play an important role in the virulence of these organisms. Analysis of the predicted TibA amino acid sequence indicates that TibA is also an autotransporter. Analysis of the tib locus DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame with similarity to RfaQ, a glycosyltransferase. The product of this tib locus open reading frame is proposed to be responsible for Tib

  1. Identification of a Glycoprotein Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lindenthal, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    1999-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407 is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileocecum and colon in vitro. Two separate chromosomally encoded invasion loci (tia and tib) have been cloned from this strain. These loci direct nonadherent and noninvasive laboratory strains of E. coli to adhere to and invade cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane protein that is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes. TibA is synthesized as a 100-kDa precursor (preTibA) that must be modified for biological activity. Outer membranes of recombinant E. coli expressing TibA or preTibA were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted to nitrocellulose. The presence of glycoproteins was detected by oxidization of carbohydrates with periodate and labeling with hydrazide-conjugated digoxigenin. Only TibA could be detected as a glycoprotein. Complementation experiments with tib deletion mutants of ETEC strain H10407 demonstrate that the TibA glycoprotein is expressed in H10407, that the entire tib locus is required for TibA synthesis, and that TibA is the only glycoprotein produced by H10407. Protease treatment of intact H10407 cells removes the carbohydrates on TibA, suggesting that they are surface exposed. TibA shows homology with AIDA-I from diffuse-adhering E. coli and with pertactin precursor from Bordetella pertussis. Both pertactin and AIDA-I are members of the autotransporter family of outer membrane proteins and are afimbrial adhesins that play an important role in the virulence of these organisms. Analysis of the predicted TibA amino acid sequence indicates that TibA is also an autotransporter. Analysis of the tib locus DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame with similarity to RfaQ, a glycosyltransferase. The product of this tib locus open reading frame is proposed to be responsible for Tib

  2. Implications of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli genomics for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Sjöling, Åsa; von Mentzer, Astrid; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2015-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality caused by diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. Despite a wealth of research elucidating the mechanisms of disease, the immunological responses and vaccine development, ETEC is still relatively uncharacterized when it comes to regulation of virulence and detailed immune mechanisms. The recent emergence of next-generation sequencing now offers the possibility to screen genomes of ETEC strains isolated globally to identify novel vaccine targets in addition to those already established. In this review, we discuss how recent findings on ETEC genomics using novel sequencing techniques will aid in finding novel protective antigens that can be used in vaccine approaches. PMID:25540974

  3. Implications of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli genomics for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Sjöling, Åsa; von Mentzer, Astrid; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2015-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality caused by diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. Despite a wealth of research elucidating the mechanisms of disease, the immunological responses and vaccine development, ETEC is still relatively uncharacterized when it comes to regulation of virulence and detailed immune mechanisms. The recent emergence of next-generation sequencing now offers the possibility to screen genomes of ETEC strains isolated globally to identify novel vaccine targets in addition to those already established. In this review, we discuss how recent findings on ETEC genomics using novel sequencing techniques will aid in finding novel protective antigens that can be used in vaccine approaches.

  4. Chlorine-induced damage to surface adhesions during sublethal injury of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, S M; Bissonnette, G K

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of the adhesive ability of noninjured and chlorine-injured enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was made by in vitro attachment to human peripheral leukocytes. Chlorination selected for noninjured cells with greater capabilities for colonizing the small intestine. Injured populations exhibited reduced association with leukocytes. Maximum reduction was seen in populations with greater than 80% injury. These cells demonstrated less adhesive ability than nonpiliated populations. Electron micrographs suggested that reduced adhesive ability was due to the loss of surface structures as a consequence of sublethal chlorination. The data imply a reduced ability among chlorine-injured pathogens to colonize the small intestine and initiate disease. Images PMID:6133503

  5. Characterization of Mucosal Immune Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Antigens in a Human Challenge Model: Response Profiles after Primary Infection and Homologous Rechallenge with Strain H10407.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Ram, Malathi; Feller, Andrea; Cage, Alicia; Bauers, Nicole; Bourgeois, A Louis; Walker, Richard; Sack, David A

    2015-11-18

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria are the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in children in resource-poor settings as well as in travelers. Although there are several approaches to develop an effective vaccine for ETEC, no licensed vaccines are currently available. A significant challenge to successful vaccine development is our poor understanding of the immune responses that correlate best with protection against ETEC illness. In this study, ETEC-specific mucosal immune responses were characterized and compared in subjects challenged with ETEC strain H10407 and in subjects rechallenged with the homologous organism. IgA responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB), and colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) in antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), feces, lavage fluid, and saliva samples were evaluated. In all assay comparisons, ALS was the most sensitive indicator of a local immune response, but serum IgA was also a useful indirect marker of immune response to oral antigens. Volunteers challenged and then rechallenged with strain H10407 were protected from illness following rechallenge. Comparing mucosal antibody responses after primary and homologous rechallenge, protection against disease was reflected in reduced antibody responses to key ETEC antigens and in reduced fecal shedding of the H10407 challenge strain. Subjects challenged with strain H10407 mounted stronger antibody responses to LPS and LTB than subjects in the rechallenge group, while responses to CFA/I in the rechallenge group were higher than in the challenge group. We anticipate that this study will help provide an immunological benchmark for the evaluation of ETEC vaccines and immunization regimens in the future.

  6. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu Xing; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2014-02-01

    Understanding of pilus bioassembly in Gram-negative bacteria stems mainly from studies of P pili and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are mediated by the classic chaperone-usher pathway (CUP). However, CFA/I fimbriae, a class 5 fimbria and intestinal colonization factor for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), are proposed to assemble via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP). Both CUP and ACP fimbrial bioassembly pathways require the function of a periplasmic chaperone, but their corresponding proteins share very low similarity in primary sequence. Here, the crystallization of the CFA/I periplasmic chaperone CfaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from a native CfaA crystal to 2 Å resolution and to 1.8 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, from a lead and a platinum derivative. These crystals displayed the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 28.68, c = 90.60 Å, β = 119.7°. Initial phases were derived from multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments using the data from the platinum and lead derivatives. This resulted in an interpretable electron-density map showing one CfaA molecule in an asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the heavy-atom derivatives. Refinement of the atomic model of CfaA is ongoing, which is expected to further understanding of the essential aspects and allowable variations in tertiary structure of the greater family of chaperones involved in chaperone-usher mediated bioassembly. PMID:24637755

  7. Characterization of Mucosal Immune Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Antigens in a Human Challenge Model: Response Profiles after Primary Infection and Homologous Rechallenge with Strain H10407.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Ram, Malathi; Feller, Andrea; Cage, Alicia; Bauers, Nicole; Bourgeois, A Louis; Walker, Richard; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria are the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in children in resource-poor settings as well as in travelers. Although there are several approaches to develop an effective vaccine for ETEC, no licensed vaccines are currently available. A significant challenge to successful vaccine development is our poor understanding of the immune responses that correlate best with protection against ETEC illness. In this study, ETEC-specific mucosal immune responses were characterized and compared in subjects challenged with ETEC strain H10407 and in subjects rechallenged with the homologous organism. IgA responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB), and colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) in antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), feces, lavage fluid, and saliva samples were evaluated. In all assay comparisons, ALS was the most sensitive indicator of a local immune response, but serum IgA was also a useful indirect marker of immune response to oral antigens. Volunteers challenged and then rechallenged with strain H10407 were protected from illness following rechallenge. Comparing mucosal antibody responses after primary and homologous rechallenge, protection against disease was reflected in reduced antibody responses to key ETEC antigens and in reduced fecal shedding of the H10407 challenge strain. Subjects challenged with strain H10407 mounted stronger antibody responses to LPS and LTB than subjects in the rechallenge group, while responses to CFA/I in the rechallenge group were higher than in the challenge group. We anticipate that this study will help provide an immunological benchmark for the evaluation of ETEC vaccines and immunization regimens in the future. PMID:26581889

  8. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of pilus bioassembly in Gram-negative bacteria stems mainly from studies of P pili and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are mediated by the classic chaperone–usher pathway (CUP). However, CFA/I fimbriae, a class 5 fimbria and intestinal colonization factor for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), are proposed to assemble via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP). Both CUP and ACP fimbrial bioassembly pathways require the function of a periplasmic chaperone, but their corresponding proteins share very low similarity in primary sequence. Here, the crystallization of the CFA/I periplasmic chaperone CfaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from a native CfaA crystal to 2 Å resolution and to 1.8 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, from a lead and a platinum derivative. These crystals displayed the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 28.68, c = 90.60 Å, β = 119.7°. Initial phases were derived from multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments using the data from the platinum and lead derivatives. This resulted in an interpretable electron-density map showing one CfaA molecule in an asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the heavy-atom derivatives. Refinement of the atomic model of CfaA is ongoing, which is expected to further understanding of the essential aspects and allowable variations in tertiary structure of the greater family of chaperones involved in chaperone–usher mediated bioassembly. PMID:24637755

  9. Characterization of Mucosal Immune Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Antigens in a Human Challenge Model: Response Profiles after Primary Infection and Homologous Rechallenge with Strain H10407

    PubMed Central

    Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Ram, Malathi; Feller, Andrea; Cage, Alicia; Bauers, Nicole; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Walker, Richard; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria are the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in children in resource-poor settings as well as in travelers. Although there are several approaches to develop an effective vaccine for ETEC, no licensed vaccines are currently available. A significant challenge to successful vaccine development is our poor understanding of the immune responses that correlate best with protection against ETEC illness. In this study, ETEC-specific mucosal immune responses were characterized and compared in subjects challenged with ETEC strain H10407 and in subjects rechallenged with the homologous organism. IgA responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB), and colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) in antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), feces, lavage fluid, and saliva samples were evaluated. In all assay comparisons, ALS was the most sensitive indicator of a local immune response, but serum IgA was also a useful indirect marker of immune response to oral antigens. Volunteers challenged and then rechallenged with strain H10407 were protected from illness following rechallenge. Comparing mucosal antibody responses after primary and homologous rechallenge, protection against disease was reflected in reduced antibody responses to key ETEC antigens and in reduced fecal shedding of the H10407 challenge strain. Subjects challenged with strain H10407 mounted stronger antibody responses to LPS and LTB than subjects in the rechallenge group, while responses to CFA/I in the rechallenge group were higher than in the challenge group. We anticipate that this study will help provide an immunological benchmark for the evaluation of ETEC vaccines and immunization regimens in the future. PMID:26581889

  10. Structure of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Nishio, Kazuya; Jang, Ken; Rasulova, Fatima; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di; Bullitt, Esther

    2009-10-21

    Adhesion pili (fimbriae) play a critical role in initiating the events that lead to intestinal colonization and diarrheal disease by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an E. coli pathotype that inflicts an enormous global disease burden. We elucidate atomic structures of an ETEC major pilin subunit, CfaB, from colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae. These data are used to construct models for 2 morphological forms of CFA/I fimbriae that are both observed in vivo: the helical filament into which it is typically assembled, and an extended, unwound conformation. Modeling and corroborative mutational data indicate that proline isomerization is involved in the conversion between these helical and extended forms. Our findings affirm the strong structural similarities seen between class 5 fimbriae (from bacteria primarily causing gastrointestinal disease) and class 1 pili (from bacteria that cause urinary, respiratory, and other infections) in the absence of significant primary sequence similarity. They also suggest that morphological and biochemical differences between fimbrial types, regardless of class, provide structural specialization that facilitates survival of each bacterial pathotype in its preferred host microenvironment. Last, we present structural evidence for bacterial use of antigenic variation to evade host immune responses, in that residues occupying the predicted surface-exposed face of CfaB and related class 5 pilins show much higher genetic sequence variability than the remainder of the pilin protein.

  11. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-21

    The molecular chaperone CfaA plays a critical role in the bioassembly of the surface-adhesive CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli. Purified CfaA was crystallized and the phase solution was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement coupled with anomalous scattering method.

  12. Status of vaccine research and development for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A Louis; Wierzba, Thomas F; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly among infants and young children in developing countries. Still, the true impact on child and traveler health is likely underestimated. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, but studies indicate high public health impact, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of immune protection through vaccination. ETEC vaccine development remains a World Health Organization priority. Traditionally, ETEC vaccine development efforts have focused on inducing antitoxin and anticolonization antigen immunity, as studies indicate that antibodies against both antigen types can contribute to protection and thus have potential for vaccines. Leading cellular vaccine candidates are ETVAX (a mixture of four inactivated strains) and ACE527 (a mixture of three live attenuated strains), both of which have been found to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1/2 trials. ETVAX is the furthest along in development with descending-age studies already underway in Bangladesh. Other ETEC vaccine candidates based on protein subunits, toxoids (both LT and ST), or novel, more broadly conserved ETEC antigens are also under development. Of these, a protein adhesin-based subunit approach is the most advanced. Impact and economic models suggest favorable vaccine cost-effectiveness, which may help expand market interest in ETEC vaccines. Combination vaccine formulations may help improve the economic case for development and use, and better point-of-care diagnostics will help to raise awareness of the true health burden of ETEC and highlight the potential public health benefit of ETEC vaccine introduction. Better diagnostics and vaccine demand forecasting will also improve vaccine development financing and support accelerated uptake once a licensed vaccine becomes available. PMID:26988259

  13. Binding of collagens to an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Visai, L.; Speziale, P.; Bozzini, S. )

    1990-02-01

    An enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli, B34289c, has been shown to bind the N-terminal region of fibronectin with high affinity. We now report that this strain also binds collagen. The binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to bacteria was time dependent and reversible. Bacteria expressed a limited number of collagen receptors (2.2 x 10(4) per cell) and bound collagen with a Kd of 20 nM. All collagen types tested (I to V) as well as all tested cyanogen bromide-generated peptides (alpha 1(I)CB2, alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB7, alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB4) were recognized by bacterial receptors, as demonstrated by the ability of these proteins to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled collagen to bacteria. Of several unlabeled proteins tested in competition experiments, fibronectin and its N-terminal region strongly inhibited binding of the radiolabeled collagen to E. coli cells. Conversely, collagen competed with an 125I-labeled 28-kilodalton fibronectin fragment for bacterial binding. Collagen bound to bacteria could be displaced by excess amounts of either unlabeled fibronectin or its N-terminal fragment. Similarly, collagen could displace 125I-labeled N-terminal peptide of fibronectin bound to the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria grown at 41 degrees C or in the presence of glucose did not express collagen or fibronectin receptors. These results indicate the presence of specific binding sites for collagen on the surface of E. coli cells and furthermore that the collagen and fibronectin binding sites are located in close proximity, possibly on the same structure.

  14. Mutual Enhancement of Virulence by Enterotoxigenic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Choudhari, Shilpa S.; Naeher, Tonniele M.; Duffey, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are common causes of diarrhea in children in developing countries. Dual infections with both pathogens have been noted fairly frequently in studies of diarrhea around the world. In previous laboratory work, we noted that cholera toxin and forskolin markedly potentiated EPEC-induced ATP release from the host cell, and this potentiated release was found to be mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. In this study, we examined whether the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) or the heat-stable toxin (STa, also known as ST) potentiated EPEC-induced ATP release. We found that crude ETEC culture filtrates, as well as purified ETEC toxins, did potentiate EPEC-induced ATP release in cultured T84 cells. Coinfection of T84 cells with live ETEC plus EPEC bacteria also resulted in enhanced ATP release compared to EPEC alone. In Ussing chamber studies of chloride secretion, adenine nucleotides released from the host by EPEC also significantly enhanced the chloride secretory responses that were triggered by crude ETEC filtrates, purified STa, and the peptide hormone guanylin. In addition, adenosine and LT had additive or synergistic effects in inducing vacuole formation in T84 cells. Therefore, ETEC toxins and EPEC-induced damage to the host cell both enhance the virulence of the other type of E. coli. Our in vitro data demonstrate a molecular basis for a microbial interaction, which could result in increased severity of disease in vivo in individuals who are coinfected with ETEC and EPEC. PMID:16495521

  15. Inactivation of Brazilian wild type and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by chlorine.

    PubMed

    Penna, T C; Schaffner, D; Abe, L E; Machoshvili, I A

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic inactivation parameters of four wild strains and two enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli exposed to commercial calcium hypochlorite were determined. The four wild strains (1A, 3C, 4D and 8H) were isolated from lettuce bought in Sao Paulo (Brazil), and the two enterotoxigenic strains (TR69 and TR101) were originally isolated from human patients. Decimal reduction time 'D', for 10 mg L-1 available chlorine at pH 6.8, varied between 71.4 s for the wild strain 4D and 31.3 s for the toxigenic strain. The 'D' values obtained for wild strain 1A exposed to 5.0 mg L-1 available chlorine at pH 6.8 varied between 111.1 s and 41.7 s. The 'D' values obtained for E. coli strain TR69 exposed to 10 mg L-1 available chlorine varied from 15.2 s at pH 5.4 up to 83.3 s at pH 8.2. The use of the most resistant wild strain of E. coli as a biological standard assures maximal effectiveness in controlling water contamination by chlorination. PMID:8820020

  16. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to host cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Tazume, S; Shimizu, K; Matsuzawa, H; Dosako, S; Isoda, H; Tsukiji, M; Fujimura, R; Muranaka, Y; Isihida, H

    2000-02-01

    Adherence is an essential and prerequisite step for the colonization of mucosal surfaces by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We studied the effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) on the adherence of ETEC to human epithelial cells in vitro, and to intestinal mucosa of ICR germfree mice in vivo. In the in vitro study, BLF was found to inhibit the adherence of ETEC. This adhesion-inhibiting activity of BLF was found to lessen with decreasing BLF concentration, but the data obtained suggest a positive inhibitory effect of BLF against the adhesion of ETEC cells. In the in vivo study, the counts of adherent bacteria in various sections of the intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunoileum, and large intestine) were lower in the BLF group than in the control group, suggesting the possible action of BLF as an intestinal tract adherence-blocking agent with regards to ETEC.

  17. Serotype-related enterotoxigenicity in Escherichia coli O6.H16 and O148.H28.

    PubMed

    Scotland, S M; Gross, R J; Rowe, B

    1977-12-01

    The ability of certain Escherichia coli strains to produce enterotoxin is determined by transmissible plasmids. It is therefore possible that any E. coli strain might be able to acquire such a plasmid and that the correlation between enterotoxigenicity and serotype might be random. However, recent studies show that the enterotoxigenic strains so far describe belong to a restricted range of serotypes. Enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli O6.H16 and E. coli O148.H28 have been associated with outbreaks of diarrhoea in several countries, therefor strains of E. coli belonging to these serotypes were selected for further study. Twenty-three strains of E. coli O6.H16 and 14 strains of E. coli O148.H28 were examined; 20 strains of E. coli O6.H16 and all 14 strains of E. coli O148.H28 were enterotoxigenic but strains of E. coli O6 wit flagellar antigens other than H16 and strains of E. coli O148 wit flagellar antigens other than H28 were not enterotoxigenic. The examination of single colony subcultures derived from the E. coli O6.H16 strains showed that in some strains loss of enterotoxigenicity had occurred in a proportional of colonies.

  18. Sequencing of the gene encoding the major pilin of pilus colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and evidence that CFA/III is related to type IV pili.

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, T; Fujino, Y; Yamamoto, K; Miwatani, T; Honda, T

    1995-01-01

    The plasmid-encoded structural gene cofA necessary for the production of the major pilin subunit of pilus colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was identified, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. cofA consists of 714 nucleotides encoding a 238-amino-acid protein (molecular weight of 25,309). CofA seems to be a precursor of CFA/III pilin, because the first 23 residues of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CFA/III pili coincided with the deduced amino acid sequence for residues 32 to 54 of CofA. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of CofA also indicated its processing to form mature pilin in the presence of the downstream region of cofA. These results suggest that the major pilin of CFA/III pili is produced as a precursor form which is posttranslationally modified to the mature pilin and forms morphological pili after cleavage of the Gly-30-Met-31 junction, probably by a protease encoded by an as-yet-unknown gene located downstream of cofA. Interestingly, the N-terminal 30-amino-acid sequence of mature CFA/III shows the highest identity (76.7%) to TcpA pilin of Vibrio cholerae, which is a type IV class B pilin. PMID:7822050

  19. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Serogroup O6 Strains.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2015-06-04

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains.

  20. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Serogroup O6 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years and in adults living in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. In this announcement, we release the draft whole-genome sequences of 10 ETEC serogroup O6 strains. PMID:26044422

  1. Development and evaluation of porous chitosan nanoparticles for treatment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil infection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil (ETEC) infections result in large mortality rate and usually a frequent cause of diarrhea in infants and a major cause of economic losses in the swine industry. To prevent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections animal needs an active mucosal immunity at the moment of weaning. In the present study, F4 loaded porous chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by spray drying method for oral vaccination. In order to prevent the release the antigen in upper GI tract and to release it at target site nanoparticles were coated with Eudragit L100 which protect the antigen against the detrimental effects in the gastro-intestinal tract. Average size of prepared nanoparticles varied between 548 +/- 2.3 to 98 +/- 1.1 nm with a polydispersity index ranging from 0.767 +/- 0.023 to 0.209 +/- 0.021. Zeta potential for prepared nanoparticles was found to be in range from +18.3 +/- 2.5 to +29.5 +/- 2.8 mV. SEM studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape with pores formed. Practicability of NPs was compared to vaccination with F4 fimbriae in solution. Mucosal immune response study revealed that, immune response were elicited in solution was well as in NPs group but colonization of the small intestine by F4+ ETEC upon oral solution challenge could not be prevented. However animals vaccinated with porous NPs group reveal a significant reduction in excretion of F4+ E. coli. Studies indicate that a solid vaccine formulation will be more efficient as compared to oral solutions. These systems can contribute to the development of oral vaccines in veterinary as well as in human medicines. PMID:23627073

  2. Development and evaluation of porous chitosan nanoparticles for treatment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil infection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed S; Vishakante, Gowda D

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil (ETEC) infections result in large mortality rate and usually a frequent cause of diarrhea in infants and a major cause of economic losses in the swine industry. To prevent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections animal needs an active mucosal immunity at the moment of weaning. In the present study, F4 loaded porous chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by spray drying method for oral vaccination. In order to prevent the release the antigen in upper GI tract and to release it at target site nanoparticles were coated with Eudragit L100 which protect the antigen against the detrimental effects in the gastro-intestinal tract. Average size of prepared nanoparticles varied between 548 +/- 2.3 to 98 +/- 1.1 nm with a polydispersity index ranging from 0.767 +/- 0.023 to 0.209 +/- 0.021. Zeta potential for prepared nanoparticles was found to be in range from +18.3 +/- 2.5 to +29.5 +/- 2.8 mV. SEM studies completely revealed that the drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be distinct, spherical in shape with pores formed. Practicability of NPs was compared to vaccination with F4 fimbriae in solution. Mucosal immune response study revealed that, immune response were elicited in solution was well as in NPs group but colonization of the small intestine by F4+ ETEC upon oral solution challenge could not be prevented. However animals vaccinated with porous NPs group reveal a significant reduction in excretion of F4+ E. coli. Studies indicate that a solid vaccine formulation will be more efficient as compared to oral solutions. These systems can contribute to the development of oral vaccines in veterinary as well as in human medicines.

  3. Bacteriological and epidemiological characteristics of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated in Tokyo, Japan, between 1966 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Noriko; Obata, Hiromi; Monma, Chie; Nakama, Akiko; Kai, Akemi; Tsuji, Takao

    2011-09-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) caused 131 outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan, between 1966 and 2009. The major serogroups were O6, O27, O148, and O159. The incidence of serogroups O25 and O169 recently increased. Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) subtyping revealed that E. coli of serogroups O6, O15, O25, and O159 possessed the STh gene, whereas those serotyped as O27 and O169 possessed the STp gene.

  4. Identification of Coli Surface Antigen 23, a Novel Adhesin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Del Canto, Felipe; Botkin, Douglas J.; Valenzuela, Patricio; Popov, Vsevolod; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P.; Levine, Myron M.; Stine, O. Colin; Pop, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea, mainly in developing countries. Although there are 25 different ETEC adhesins described in strains affecting humans, between 15% and 50% of the clinical isolates from different geographical regions are negative for these adhesins, suggesting that additional unidentified adhesion determinants might be present. Here, we report the discovery of Coli Surface Antigen 23 (CS23), a novel adhesin expressed by an ETEC serogroup O4 strain (ETEC 1766a), which was negative for the previously known ETEC adhesins, albeit it has the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. CS23 is encoded by an 8.8-kb locus which contains 9 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of them sharing significant identity with genes required for assembly of K88-related fimbriae. This gene locus, named aal (adhesion-associated locus), is required for the adhesion ability of ETEC 1766a and was able to confer this adhesive phenotype to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 strain. The CS23 major structural subunit, AalE, shares limited identity with known pilin proteins, and it is more closely related to the CS13 pilin protein CshE, carried by human ETEC strains. Our data indicate that CS23 is a new member of the diverse adhesin repertoire used by ETEC strains. PMID:22645287

  5. Identification of Coli Surface Antigen 23, a novel adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Canto, Felipe; Botkin, Douglas J; Valenzuela, Patricio; Popov, Vsevolod; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P; Levine, Myron M; Stine, O Colin; Pop, Mihai; Torres, Alfredo G; Vidal, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea, mainly in developing countries. Although there are 25 different ETEC adhesins described in strains affecting humans, between 15% and 50% of the clinical isolates from different geographical regions are negative for these adhesins, suggesting that additional unidentified adhesion determinants might be present. Here, we report the discovery of Coli Surface Antigen 23 (CS23), a novel adhesin expressed by an ETEC serogroup O4 strain (ETEC 1766a), which was negative for the previously known ETEC adhesins, albeit it has the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. CS23 is encoded by an 8.8-kb locus which contains 9 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of them sharing significant identity with genes required for assembly of K88-related fimbriae. This gene locus, named aal (adhesion-associated locus), is required for the adhesion ability of ETEC 1766a and was able to confer this adhesive phenotype to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 strain. The CS23 major structural subunit, AalE, shares limited identity with known pilin proteins, and it is more closely related to the CS13 pilin protein CshE, carried by human ETEC strains. Our data indicate that CS23 is a new member of the diverse adhesin repertoire used by ETEC strains. PMID:22645287

  6. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection alters intestinal immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangwu; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Chen, Shuai; Tang, Wuliang; Zhang, Decai; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and piglets. However, research regarding alterations of intestinal immunity following ETEC infection remains limited and the results controversial. The present study investigated the effects of ETEC on the expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and innate immune regulators from plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, and the activation of toll‑like receptor 4-nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, in a mouse model infected with a porcine isolated ETEC strain. ETEC infection significantly reduced the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the mouse jejunum (P<0.05). Additionally, ETEC infection significantly affected the expression of immune regulators of plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells in the mouse intestine (P<0.05). ETEC influenced the intestinal immunity via the NF‑κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, ETEC colonization affects intestinal immunity as observed in a mouse model. This study provides a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27221777

  7. Identification of Coli Surface Antigen 23, a novel adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Canto, Felipe; Botkin, Douglas J; Valenzuela, Patricio; Popov, Vsevolod; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P; Levine, Myron M; Stine, O Colin; Pop, Mihai; Torres, Alfredo G; Vidal, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea, mainly in developing countries. Although there are 25 different ETEC adhesins described in strains affecting humans, between 15% and 50% of the clinical isolates from different geographical regions are negative for these adhesins, suggesting that additional unidentified adhesion determinants might be present. Here, we report the discovery of Coli Surface Antigen 23 (CS23), a novel adhesin expressed by an ETEC serogroup O4 strain (ETEC 1766a), which was negative for the previously known ETEC adhesins, albeit it has the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. CS23 is encoded by an 8.8-kb locus which contains 9 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of them sharing significant identity with genes required for assembly of K88-related fimbriae. This gene locus, named aal (adhesion-associated locus), is required for the adhesion ability of ETEC 1766a and was able to confer this adhesive phenotype to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 strain. The CS23 major structural subunit, AalE, shares limited identity with known pilin proteins, and it is more closely related to the CS13 pilin protein CshE, carried by human ETEC strains. Our data indicate that CS23 is a new member of the diverse adhesin repertoire used by ETEC strains.

  8. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  9. Protective Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Antigens in a Murine Intranasal Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Hays, Mike; Lim, Francis; Foster, Leonard J.; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Guoqiang; Miesner, Tracy; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an endemic health threat in underdeveloped nations. Despite the significant effort extended to vaccine trials using ETEC colonization factors, these approaches have generally not been especially effective in mediating cross-protective immunity. We used quantitative proteomics to identify 24 proteins that differed in abundance in membrane protein preparations derived from wild-type vs. a type II secretion system mutant of ETEC. We expressed and purified a subset of these proteins and identified nine antigens that generated significant immune responses in mice. Sera from mice immunized with either the MltA-interacting protein MipA, the periplasmic chaperone seventeen kilodalton protein, Skp, or a long-chain fatty acid outer membrane transporter, ETEC_2479, reduced the adherence of multiple ETEC strains differing in colonization factor expression to human intestinal epithelial cells. In intranasal challenge assays of mice, immunization with ETEC_2479 protected 88% of mice from an otherwise lethal challenge with ETEC H10407. Immunization with either Skp or MipA provided an intermediate degree of protection, 68 and 64%, respectively. Protection was significantly correlated with the induction of a secretory immunoglobulin A response. This study has identified several proteins that are conserved among heterologous ETEC strains and may thus potentially improve cross-protective efficacy if incorporated into future vaccine designs. PMID:26244636

  10. Protective Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Antigens in a Murine Intranasal Challenge Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Hays, Mike; Lim, Francis; Foster, Leonard J; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Guoqiang; Miesner, Tracy; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an endemic health threat in underdeveloped nations. Despite the significant effort extended to vaccine trials using ETEC colonization factors, these approaches have generally not been especially effective in mediating cross-protective immunity. We used quantitative proteomics to identify 24 proteins that differed in abundance in membrane protein preparations derived from wild-type vs. a type II secretion system mutant of ETEC. We expressed and purified a subset of these proteins and identified nine antigens that generated significant immune responses in mice. Sera from mice immunized with either the MltA-interacting protein MipA, the periplasmic chaperone seventeen kilodalton protein, Skp, or a long-chain fatty acid outer membrane transporter, ETEC_2479, reduced the adherence of multiple ETEC strains differing in colonization factor expression to human intestinal epithelial cells. In intranasal challenge assays of mice, immunization with ETEC_2479 protected 88% of mice from an otherwise lethal challenge with ETEC H10407. Immunization with either Skp or MipA provided an intermediate degree of protection, 68 and 64%, respectively. Protection was significantly correlated with the induction of a secretory immunoglobulin A response. This study has identified several proteins that are conserved among heterologous ETEC strains and may thus potentially improve cross-protective efficacy if incorporated into future vaccine designs. PMID:26244636

  11. ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI O169:HUT FROM A DIARRHEAL PATIENT: PHYLOGENETIC GROUP AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY.

    PubMed

    Sirikaew, Siriwan; Patungkaro, Wichien; Rattanachuay, Pattamarat; Sukkua, Kannika; Sukhumungoon, Pharanai

    2014-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common pathogenic E. coli pathotypes causing diarrhea in children worldwide. Its enterotoxins, LT and ST, including colonization factors mainly are responsible for human pathogenesis. From 239 rectal swabs of diarrheal patients at Hat Yai and Pattani Hospitals during August 2013 and May 2014, five isolates from only a single E. coli sample demonstrated the possession of estA1, encoding porcine heat-stable enterotoxin (STp). These isolates all belonged to serotype 0169:H Untypeable (HUT) and carried astA, encoding enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin 1. A PCR-based phylogenetic group investigation classified them as members of the virulent E. coli phylogenetic group D. The isolates were resistant to cephalothin, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin. Confirmation of their clonality was conducted by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR typing, which revealed that these ETEC were derived from the same clone. This is the first report of ETEC O169:HUT in southern Thailand. PMID:26466423

  12. Structure and secretion of CofJ, a putative colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alex S W; Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Ng, Dixon; Craig, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonize the human gut, causing severe cholera-like diarrhoea. ETEC utilize a diverse array of pili and fimbriae for host colonization, including the Type IVb pilus CFA/III. The CFA/III pilus machinery is encoded on the cof operon, which is similar in gene sequence and synteny to the tcp operon that encodes another Type IVb pilus, the Vibrio cholerae toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP). Both pilus operons possess a syntenic gene encoding a protein of unknown function. In V. cholerae, this protein, TcpF, is a critical colonization factor secreted by the TCP apparatus. Here we show that the corresponding ETEC protein, CofJ, is a soluble protein secreted via the CFA/III apparatus. We present a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of CofJ, revealing a large β-sandwich protein that bears no sequence or structural homology to TcpF. CofJ has a cluster of exposed hydrophobic side-chains at one end and structural homology to the pore-forming proteins perfringolysin O and α-haemolysin. CofJ binds to lipid vesicles and epithelial cells, suggesting a role in membrane attachment during ETEC colonization. PMID:24106767

  13. Microencapsulated subunit vaccine approach to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and other mucosal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; de Lorimier, Arthur; Zheng, Zi-Rong; Cassels, Frederick J

    2005-06-17

    Infections of the intestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts are serious health problems worldwide from both a morbidity and mortality perspective. Mucosal pathogens attach to surfaces of mucosa as a prerequisite for colonization and subsequent pathogenesis. By expressing various surface adhesins (colonization factors, CF) they are able to bind to specific mucosal receptors. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can express numerous CF that allow them to attach to a variety of hosts. Mucosal immunity directed against pathogenic microorganisms is critical in host protection with secretory IgA being particularly important in preventing microoganisms from colonizing host cells. M cells likewise have an important immunological function in the small intestines by binding and transporting antigens to lymphocytes and macrophages thus enhancing the immune response. The use of subunit vaccines, such as antigen encapsulated microspheres, can act to effectively deliver specific antigens so as to optimize their immunological response. With the threat of bioterrorism becoming a reality in recent years, the miroencapsulation of antigens from potential bioterrorist agents may be an effective method of delivery so as to induce a level of protection in at risk individuals. The encapsulation of ETEC colonization factors in microspheres and their subsequent administration in small animals and humans has been conducted for many years. Evidence suggests that this type of delivery system for ETEC antigens may enhance their immunogenicity and provide protection against this microorganism.

  14. Proteome analysis for the global proteins in the jejunum tissues of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli -infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and livestock. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography (LC) and MS analysis was used for screening the differentially expressed proteins in piglet jejunum after ETEC infection. Totally 1,897 proteins were identified with quantitative information in piglet jejunum. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ETEC-induced diarrhea, of which 30 were up regulated and 62 down regulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in intestinal function of binding, metabolic process, catalytic activity and immune responses. The inhibition of intestinal immune responses in the jejunum in ETEC-induced diarrhea was also validated by immunobloting and RT-PCR. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of ETEC-infected piglets by quantitative proteomics, and our findings could provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to ETEC infection. PMID:27157636

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a population of infants with diarrhea in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, M E; Reyes, L; Prado, V; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Cabello, F C

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was investigated in 95 E. coli strains isolated from 48 infants with diarrhea in Santiago, Chile. By using standard biological assays and DNA-DNA hybridization procedures, ETEC was found in 31.2% of the cases: 14 strains produced heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) only, three strains produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and ST, and two strains produced LT only. DNA probes detected all enterotoxin producers except one ST-producing strain. The ST strains hybridized with one or both of the human ST probes (ST Ib and ST A2). Two of the LT-ST strains hybridized with the ST Ia and ST Ib probes, and the third strain did not hybridize with any of the ST probes. Only the ST group expressed multiple resistance (85.7%) and colonization factor antigen I (CFA I) (92.8%); CFA II was found in two of three LT-ST strains. The O153:H45 serotype was found in 10 of 14 ST strains, and O6:K15:H16 was found in one LT strain and in two LT-ST strains. These findings suggest that ETEC, especially strains that produce ST, may be an important cause of diarrhea among Chilean infants. Images PMID:3908470

  16. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M

    2013-12-01

    Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters.

  17. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Samuel M.; Boinett, Christine J.; Madé, Laure F.; Ouko, Tom T.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  18. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  19. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described.

  20. Molecular characterization of the tia invasion locus from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, J M; Kopecko, D J; Warren, R L; Elsinghorst, E A

    1996-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) shares with other diarrheal pathogens the capacity to invade epithelial cell lines originating from the human ileum or colon, although the role of invasion in ETEC pathogenesis remains undefined. Two distinct loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cell lines have previously been isolated from cosmid libraries of the classical ETEC strain H10407. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the tia locus. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cellular fractions of E. coli DH5alpha carrying the tia-positive cosmids and recombinant plasmid subclones revealed that this locus directs the production of a 25-kDa protein (the Tia protein) that is localized to the outer membrane. The tia locus was subcloned to a maximum of 2 kb and mutagenized with bacteriophage Mud. Synthesis of this protein was directly correlated with the ability of subclones and Mud transposon mutants to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. Sequencing of the tia locus identified a 756-bp open reading frame. All transposon insertions resulting in an invasion-negative phenotype mapped to this open reading frame. The open reading frame was amplified and directionally cloned behind the lac promoter of pHG165. This construct directed DHalpha to express a 25-kDa protein and to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. The role of the tia gene in directing epithelial adherence and invasion was further assessed by the construction of chromosomal tia deletion derivatives of the parent ETEC strain, H10407. These tia deletion strains were noninvasive and lacked the ability to adhere to human ileocecal cells. The tia gene shares limited homology with the Yersinia ail locus and significant homology with the hra1 agglutinin gene cloned from a porcine ETEC strain. Additionally, tia probes hybridized to geographically diverse ETEC strains, as well as some enteropathogenic E. coli

  1. A Commensal Gone Bad: Complete Genome Sequence of the Prototypical Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain H10407▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Lisa C.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Beatson, Scott A.; Wells, Timothy J.; Desvaux, Mickael; Cunningham, Adam F.; Petty, Nicola K.; Mahon, Vivienne; Brinkley, Carl; Hobman, Jon L.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Turner, Susan M.; Pallen, Mark J.; Penn, Charles W.; Parkhill, Julian; Turner, A. Keith; Johnson, Timothy J.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Smith, Stephen G. J.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2010-01-01

    In most cases, Escherichia coli exists as a harmless commensal organism, but it may on occasion cause intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developing world and is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric deaths. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli H10407, a prototypical strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli, which reproducibly elicits diarrhea in human volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains, revealing that the chromosome is closely related to that of the nonpathogenic commensal strain E. coli HS and to those of the laboratory strains E. coli K-12 and C. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that there were no chromosomally encoded factors unique to any sequenced ETEC strains. Comparison of the E. coli H10407 plasmids with those from several ETEC strains revealed that the plasmids had a mosaic structure but that several loci were conserved among ETEC strains. This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data that have been published. PMID:20802035

  2. Volunteer challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that express intestinal colonization factor fimbriae CS17 and CS19.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robin; Porter, Chad K; Cantrell, Joyce A; Denearing, Barbara; O'Dowd, Aisling; Grahek, Shannon L; Sincock, Stephanie A; Woods, Colleen; Sebeny, Peter; Sack, David A; Tribble, David R; Bourgeois, A Louis; Savarino, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Human challenges with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have broadened our understanding of this important enteropathogen. We report findings from the first challenge studies using ETEC-expressing colonization factor fimbria CS17 and CS19. LSN03-016011/A (LT, CS17) elicited a dose-dependent effect, with the upper dose (6 × 10(9) organisms) causing diarrhea in 88% of recipients. WS0115A (LTSTp, CS19) also showed a dose response, with a 44% diarrhea rate at 9 × 10(9) organisms. Both strains elicited homologous antifimbrial and anti-LT antibody seroconversion. These studies establish the relative pathogenicity of ETEC expressing newer class 5 fimbriae and suggest suitability of the LT|CS17-ETEC challenge model for interventional trials. PMID:21628659

  3. Histone H1 proteins act as receptors for the 987P fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoqiang; Chen, Huaiqing; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Del Piero, Fabio; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2005-06-17

    The tip adhesin FasG of the 987P fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli mediates two distinct adhesive interactions with brush border molecules of the intestinal epithelial cells of neonatal piglets. First, FasG attaches strongly to sulfatide with hydroxylated fatty acyl chains. This interaction involves lysine 117 and other lysine residues of FasG. Second, FasG recognizes specific intestinal brush border proteins that migrate on a sodium-dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel like a distinct set of 32-35-kDa proteins, as shown by ligand blotting assays. The protein sequence of high performance liquid chromatography-purified tryptic fragments of the major protein band matched sequences of human and murine histone H1 proteins. Porcine histone H1 proteins isolated from piglet intestinal epithelial cells demonstrated the same SDS-PAGE migration pattern and 987P binding properties as the 987P-specific protein receptors from porcine intestinal brush borders. Binding was dose-dependent and shown to be specific in adhesion inhibition and gel migration shift assays. Moreover, mapping of the histone H1 binding domain suggested that it is located in their lysine-rich C-terminal domains. Histone H1 molecules were visualized on the microvilli of intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Taken together these results indicated that the intestinal protein receptors for 987P are histone H1 proteins. It is suggested that histones are released into the intestinal lumen by the high turnover of the intestinal epithelium. Their strong cationic properties can explain their association with the negatively charged brush border surfaces. There, the histone H1 molecules stabilize the sulfatide-fimbriae interaction by simultaneously binding to the membrane and to 987P.

  4. Genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of K88- and F18-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Sara M; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Isaacson, Richard E; Seemann, Torsten; Achtman, Mark; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) continues to result in major morbidity and mortality in the swine industry via postweaning diarrhea. The key virulence factors of ETEC strains, their serotypes, and their fimbrial components have been well studied. However, most studies to date have focused on plasmid-encoded traits related to colonization and toxin production, and the chromosomal backgrounds of these strains have been largely understudied. Here, we generated the genomic sequences of K88-positive and F18-positive porcine ETEC strains and examined the phylogenetic distribution of clinical porcine ETEC strains and their plasmid-associated genetic content. The genomes of porcine ETEC strains UMNK88 and UMNF18 were both found to contain remarkable plasmid complements containing known virulence factors, potential novel virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance-associated elements. The chromosomes of these strains also possessed several unique genomic islands containing hypothetical genes with similarity to classical virulence factors, although phage-associated genomic islands dominated the accessory genomes of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis of 78 clinical isolates associated with neonatal and porcine diarrhea revealed that a limited subset of porcine ETEC lineages exist that generally contain common toxin and fimbrial profiles, with many of the isolates belonging to the ST10, ST23, and ST169 multilocus sequencing types. These lineages were generally distinct from existing human ETEC database isolates. Overall, most porcine ETEC strains appear to have emerged from a limited subset of E. coli lineages that either have an increased propensity to carry plasmid-encoded virulence factors or have the appropriate ETEC core genome required for virulence. PMID:22081385

  5. Environmental reservoirs for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in south Asian Gangetic riverine system.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Ram, Siya; Shanker, Rishi

    2010-08-15

    Forecasting diarrheagenic E. coli contamination of aquatic resources to prevent outbreaks largely depends on rapid and accurate diagnostic testing in a few hours. Real-time PCR is widely used for quick culture-free quantitative enumeration of pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples. In this study, real-time PCR in molecular beacon format was used for detection and culture-free quantitative enumeration of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) harboring LT1 gene in a sewage-impacted south Asian Gangetic riverine system. The quantitative budget for ETEC in surface water was observed to vary significantly (DMRT, p < 0.05) among the sites. Aquatic flora (Eichhornia crassipes, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ranunculus sceleratus, Polygonum glabrum, Pontederia cordata, Najas indica and strands of Spirogyra spp.) collected between sites 1 and 9 exhibited significant high levels of ETEC in comparison to their representatives collected from pristine area. The level of ETEC harboring LT1 gene observed in leafy vegetables cultivated along the banks was in the following order: mint leaves > coriander > spinach > methi leaves. The study suggests that the aquatic flora and cultivated leafy vegetables in the south Asian Gangetic riverine system are environmental reservoirs for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

  6. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and other enteropathogens in paediatric diarrhoea in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, G; Möllby, R; Habte, D

    1982-03-01

    This study was performed during two weeks among 86 paediatric outpatients of poor socio-economic background. A control group comprised 60 healthy children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was the most common diarrhoeal agent isolated (26%). Strains of ETEC producing heat-labile (LT) only or LT and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin were isolated from 11% each and ETEC producing ST only from 4% of the patients. ETEC was also found not infrequently among controls (10%). ETEC with O-antigens 78, 6 and 8 were shown to harbour colonization factors. Enterotoxigenic bacteria were found as contaminants in 5 of 24 feeding bottles investigated. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shigella species were isolated from 8% each and rotavirus from 24% of the patients. Twelve patients infected with ETEC only were compared to 66 patients not infected with ETEC. Patients infected with ETEC had a relatively mild disease and it was not possible by clinical findings to distinguish those patients infected with ETEC, LT and/or ST producing, carrying or not carrying colonization factors from those infected with other agents. This study underlines the need for extended studies of the clinical significance of ETEC infection in developing countries. PMID:6753473

  7. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans

  8. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans

  9. Toxin detection after storage or cultivation of enterotoxigenic with colicinogenic Escherichia coli: a possible mechanism for toxin-negative pools.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, B E; Seriwatana, J; Echeverria, P

    1981-01-01

    Of 100 non-enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from children with diarrhea in Bangkok, Thailand, 24 were found to produce colicin(s). Of these, 87% were active against one or more enterotoxigenic E. coli isolated from the same population. Storage of nine enterotoxigenic E. coli with known inhibitory colicin-producing E. coli in different proportions caused 51 of 96 pools to become negative in the suckling mouse assay (heat-stable toxin) and 17 of 52 to become negative in the Y-1 adrenal cell assay (heat-labile toxin). Cocultivation of the same strains, without prior storage, caused 12 of 96 pools to become negative for heat-stable toxin and 1 of 52 pools to become negative for heat-labile toxin. Storage or cultivation of E. coli in pools may cause negative results in the suckling mouse and Y-1 adrenal cell assays if any of the isolates in the pool produces colicin(s). PMID:7007422

  10. Porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F6-fimbriated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Madar Johansson, Miralda; Coddens, Annelies; Benktander, John; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2014-11-01

    One important virulence factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is their ability to adhere via fimbrial adhesins to specific receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. Here, the potential glycosphingolipid receptors of enterotoxigenic F6-fimbriated E. coli were examined by binding of purified F6 fimbriae, and F6-expressing bacteria, to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. When intestinal mucosal non-acid glycosphingolipids from single pigs were assayed for F6 binding capacity, a selective interaction with two glycosphingolipids was observed. The binding-active glycosphingolipids were isolated and characterized as lactotriaosylceramide (GlcNAcβ3Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and lactotetraosylceramide (Galβ3GlcNAcβ3Galβ4Glcβ1Cer). Further binding assays using a panel of reference glycosphingolipids showed a specific interaction between the F6 fimbriae and a number of neolacto core chain (Galβ4GlcNAc) glycosphingolipids. In addition, an occasional binding of the F6 fimbriae to sulfatide, galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, isoglobotriaosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and gangliotetraosylceramide was obtained. From the results we conclude that lactotriaosylceramide and lactotetraosylceramide are major porcine intestinal receptors for F6-fimbriated E. coli. PMID:25241919

  11. Gastroenteritis due to enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and invasive Escherichia coli: A review.

    PubMed

    Pickering, L K

    1979-09-01

    Escherichia coli that produce diarrhea can be divided into three groups: 1) enteropathogenic, 2) enterotoxigenic, and 3) enteroinvasive. The mechanism of disease production by enteropathogenic E. coli is unknown, but these strains are not presently known to be inherently pathogenic, although they may be important as a cause of gastroenteritis in infants. The two known mechanisms of disease production are elaboration of enterotoxin and mucosal invasion. Heat-labile toxin-producing E. coli are the main cause of diarrhea in travelers while heat-stable toxin-producing E. coli are a cause of scours among new-born swine and cattle. Enteroinvasive E. coli have not been shown to be an important cause of diarrhea in the United States. Enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and enteroinvasive E. coli that currently are associated with diarrhea worldwide may each consist of relatively few serotypes different from those associated with out-breaks of diarrhea in the past. This implies a possible new role for sero-typing of E. coli.

  12. Comparative Genomics and Characterization of Hybrid Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nyholm, Outi; Halkilahti, Jani; Wiklund, Gudrun; Okeke, Uche; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor. Methods The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and one with diarrhea. The third strain was of bovine origin. Core genome analysis of the shared chromosomal genes and comparison with E. coli and Shigella spp. reference genomes was performed to determine the phylogenetic position of the STEC/ETEC strains. In addition, a set of virulence genes and ETEC colonization factors were extracted from the genomes. The production of Stx and ST were studied. Results The human STEC/ETEC strains clustered with strains representing ETEC, STEC, enteroaggregative E. coli, and commensal and laboratory-adapted E. coli. However, the bovine STEC/ETEC strain formed a remote cluster with two STECs of bovine origin. All three STEC/ETEC strains harbored several other virulence genes, apart from stx and est, and lacked ETEC colonization factors. Two STEC/ETEC strains produced both toxins and one strain Stx only. Conclusions This study shows that pathogroup-associated virulence genes of different E. coli can co-exist in strains originating from different phylogenetic lineages. The possibility of virulence genes to be associated with several E. coli pathogroups should be taken into account in strain typing and in epidemiological surveillance. Development of novel hybrid E. coli strains may cause a new public health risk, which

  13. EatA, an Immunogenic Protective Antigen of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Degrades Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Luo, Qingwei; Vickers, Tim J.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diarrhea in developing countries for which there is presently no effective vaccine. A central challenge in ETEC vaccinology has been the identification of conserved surface antigens to formulate a broadly protective vaccine. Here, we demonstrate that EatA, an immunogenic secreted serine protease of ETEC, contributes to virulence by degrading MUC2, the major protein present in the small intestinal mucous layer, and that removal of this barrier in vitro accelerates toxin access to the enterocyte surface. In addition, we demonstrate that vaccination with the recombinant secreted passenger domain of EatA (rEatAp) elicits high titers of antibody and is protective against intestinal infection with ETEC. These findings may have significant implications for development of both subunit and live-attenuated vaccines against ETEC and other enteric pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, that express similar proteins. PMID:24478066

  14. Porcine aminopeptidase N binds to F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Wang, Yiting; Zhu, Congrui; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Liu, Wei; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-09

    F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrheal disease in neonatal and post-weaned piglets. Several different host receptors for F4 fimbriae have been described, with porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) reported most recently. The FaeG subunit is essential for the binding of the three F4 variants to host cells. Here we show in both yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays that APN binds directly to FaeG, the major subunit of F4 fimbriae, from three serotypes of F4(+) ETEC. Modulating APN gene expression in IPEC-J2 cells affected ETEC adherence. Antibodies raised against APN or F4 fimbriae both reduced ETEC adherence. Thus, APN mediates the attachment of F4(+) E. coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

  15. Heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and intestinal protozoa in asymptomatic travellers.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Cross, J H

    1977-12-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic travellers who had recently journeyed in the Near, Middle, and Far East and had experienced a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease were screened for heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ent+ E. coli) and other bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Six percent were colonized with ent+ E. coli and while other bacterial pathogens were not found, the intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia (13%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Entamoeba coli (6%), Endolimax nana (6%), and Entamoeba hartmanni (3%) were detected in the stools. Ent+ E. coli, G. lamblia and E. histolytica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in travellers returning from the Orient. Furthermore, these travellers may be a potential source for the introduction of ent+ E. coli into communities where such organisms are relatively rare. PMID:351820

  16. Contribution of the highly conserved EaeH surface protein to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Alaullah; Luo, Qingwei; Roy, Koushik; Shabaan, Salwa; Kumar, Pardeep; Qadri, Firdausi; Fleckenstein, James M

    2014-09-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are among the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. These pathogens disproportionately afflict children in developing countries, where they cause substantial morbidity and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Although these organisms are important targets for enteric vaccines, most development efforts to date have centered on a subset of plasmid-encoded fimbrial adhesins known as colonization factors and heat-labile toxin (LT). Emerging data suggest that ETEC undergoes considerable changes in its surface architecture, sequentially deploying a number of putative adhesins during its interactions with the host. We demonstrate here that one putative highly conserved, chromosomally encoded adhesin, EaeH, engages the surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells and contributes to bacterial adhesion, LT delivery, and colonization of the small intestine. PMID:24935979

  17. Identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) clades with long-term global distribution.

    PubMed

    von Mentzer, Astrid; Connor, Thomas R; Wieler, Lothar H; Semmler, Torsten; Iguchi, Atsushi; Thomson, Nicholas R; Rasko, David A; Joffre, Enrique; Corander, Jukka; Pickard, Derek; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa; Dougan, Gordon

    2014-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea, produce heat-stable and/or heat-labile enterotoxins and at least 25 different colonization factors that target the intestinal mucosa. The genes encoding the enterotoxins and most of the colonization factors are located on plasmids found across diverse E. coli serogroups. Whole-genome sequencing of a representative collection of ETEC isolated between 1980 and 2011 identified globally distributed lineages characterized by distinct colonization factor and enterotoxin profiles. Contrary to current notions, these relatively recently emerged lineages might harbor chromosome and plasmid combinations that optimize fitness and transmissibility. These data have implications for understanding, tracking and possibly preventing ETEC disease. PMID:25383970

  18. Survival study of enterotoxigenic Escherichia colistrain in seawater and wastewater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Boukef Ben Omrane, I; El Bour, M; Mejri, S; Mraouna, R; Got, P; Troussellier, M; Boudabous, A

    2011-01-01

    In order to survey osmotic and oligotrophic stress consequence on pathogenic enterobacteria discharged in marine areas, we examined enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and a reference (Ecoli O126:B16) strains during their survival (47 days) in wastewater microcosms, submerged in natural seawater and maintained in laboratory conditions. The results revealed that the survival time for the two strains was prolonged when bacterial cells were previously incubated in wastewater, with less cellular membrane damage. In addition, the wild clinical E. coli strain showed a better survival capacity than the reference E. coli strain one. For both, we noted some modifications in biochemical profiles relatively to the initial state, notably when they were previously incubated in wastewater microcosm. PMID:23461140

  19. [Fimbriae of animal-originated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli--a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2012-06-01

    Animal-originated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major pathogens resulting in newborn and young animal diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins, both are essential for the pathogenicity of ETEC, are two major virulent factors of ETEC. Adhesion of animal-originated ETEC fimbrial adhesins (mainly including K88, K99, 987P, F18, F17 and F41) to intestinal epithelial cells is the initial and most important step involved in the ETEC infection. From the 1960s, studies on ETEC fimbrial genes, structure, biosynthesis, regulation of expression, interaction between fimbriae and host receptors have helped to better understand the biology and role of these organelles in pathogenesis. These studies also provide insight into new diagnostic tools and development of vaccines and inhibitors of ETEC colonization. PMID:22934347

  20. Adhesin degradation accelerates delivery of heat-labile toxin by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Kansal, Rita; Bartels, Scott R; Hamilton, David J; Shaaban, Salwa; Fleckenstein, James M

    2011-08-26

    Many enteric pathogens, including enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), produce one or more serine proteases that are secreted via the autotransporter (or type V) bacterial secretion pathway. These molecules have collectively been referred to as SPATE proteins (serine protease autotransporter of the Enterobacteriaceae). EatA, an autotransporter previously identified in ETEC, possesses a functional serine protease motif within its secreted amino-terminal passenger domain. Although this protein is expressed by many ETEC strains and is highly immunogenic, its precise function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that EatA degrades a recently characterized adhesin, EtpA, resulting in modulation of bacterial adhesion and accelerated delivery of the heat-labile toxin, a principal ETEC virulence determinant. Antibodies raised against the passenger domain of EatA impair ETEC delivery of labile toxin to epithelial cells suggesting that EatA may be an effective target for vaccine development. PMID:21757737

  1. Structure of the CFA/III major pilin subunit CofA from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli determined at 0.90 Å resolution by sulfur-SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shota; Iwashita, Takaki; Baba, Seiki; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2012-10-01

    CofA, a major pilin subunit of colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III), forms pili that mediate small-intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In this study, the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated version of CofA was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using five sulfurs in the protein. Given the counterbalance between anomalous signal strength and the undesired X-ray absorption of the solvent, diffraction data were collected at 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. These data were sufficient to elucidate the sulfur substructure at 1.38 Å resolution. The low solvent content (29%) of the crystal necessitated that density modification be performed with an additional 0.9 Å resolution data set to reduce the phase error caused by the small sulfur anomalous signal. The CofA structure showed the αβ-fold typical of type IVb pilins and showed high structural homology to that of TcpA for toxin-coregulated pili of Vibrio cholerae, including spatial distribution of key residues critical for pilin self-assembly. A pilus-filament model of CofA was built by computational docking and molecular-dynamics simulation using the previously reported filament model of TcpA as a structural template. This model revealed that the CofA filament surface was highly negatively charged and that a 23-residue-long loop between the α1 and α2 helices filled the gap between the pilin subunits. These characteristics could provide a unique binding epitope for the CFA/III pili of ETEC compared with other type IVb pili. PMID:22993096

  2. Comparative study of colony hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotide probes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, H; Svennerholm, A M; Kalland, K H; Haukanes, B I; Bjorvatn, B

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the published nucleotide sequences of the genes that code for the heat-labile toxin LTh and the heat-stable toxins STaI and STaII of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, a 34-mer and two 33-mer oligonucleotide probes were synthesized. To compare their relative efficacies in the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli, a colony hybridization technique using these probes and a GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal anti-LT and anti-ST antibodies were used with 76 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles. For further evaluation of probe specificity, the enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 and Yersinia enterocolitica were examined with the colony hybridization technique. The sensitivity of colony hybridization compared favorably with that of GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the two assays showed a high level of concordance in specific detection and differentiation of E. coli with various enterotoxin profiles (kappa = 0.906, P less than 0.00001). The probes did not hybridize with DNAs from strains of V. cholerae O1 or non-O1 or Y. enterocolitica. PMID:3281978

  3. Comparison of different assays for definition of heat-stable enterotoxigenicity of Escherichia coli porcine strains.

    PubMed

    Olsson, E; Söderlind, O

    1980-01-01

    Ninety-one Escherichia coli strains isolated from porcine neonatal diarrhea, representing 28 O-groups and rough and non-O-groupable strains, were examined for enterotoxigenicity (heat stable [ST] or heat labile [LT]) by using bacterial suspensions in intestinal loop tests in 3- to 7-week-old piglets and culture supernatant fluids in the Y1 adrenal cell test, the 18-h rabbit intestinal loop test, and the infant mouse test. Eleven strains in O-groups 101, 138, 147, and 149 were positive in all four assay systems and were designated ST + LT. Fourteen strains within O-groups 8, 9, 20, 64, 141, and 149 and non-O-groupable were positive only in the 3- to 7-week-old piglet loop test and the infant mouse test and were designated ST pig + mouse. Sixteen strains distributed among O-groups 8, 16, 32, 50, 51, 98, 115, 141, 149, and 157 were positive only in the piglet intestinal loop test and were designated ST pig. Three strains of O-groups 8, 9, and 140 were positive only in the infant mouse assay and were designated ST mouse. Two strains of O-group 149 were positive in all tests except the infant mouse test and were designated LT. A total of 42 strains were negative in all four tests (Ent(-)), and 3 strains could not be categorized by the enterotoxigenicity criteria used. All K88-positive isolates, 17 strains of O-groups 8, 32, 147, and 149, were positive in at least one enterotoxigenicity test. ST pig and ST mouse strains gave positive intestinal loop tests as bacterial suspensions in 4- to 10-day-old piglets. A 6-h piglet intestinal loop test performed with heat-inactivated culture supernatants was preferable to an 18- to 20-h test for determination of ST production by strains of diverse O-groups. ST production by the two strains designated LT was detected by the 6-h test. The infant mouse test, although highly reproducible and convenient, appears to possess considerable limitations in routine screening of E. coli of porcine origin for ST production.

  4. Molecular characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Korea during 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Su-Mi; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea in developing countries. In order to characterize the molecular features of human ETEC isolates from Korea, we investigated the profiles of enterotoxin and colonization factor (CF) genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) with a total of 291 ETEC strains. The specimens comprised 258 domestic strains isolated from patients who had diarrhea and were from widely separated geographic regions in Korea and 33 inflow strains isolated from travelers visiting other Asian countries. Heat-stable toxin (STh)-possessing ETEC strains were more frequent than heat-labile toxin (LT)-possessing ETEC strains in the domestic isolates, while the detection rates of both enterotoxin genes were similar in the inflow isolates. The profile of CF genes of domestic isolates was similar to that of inflow isolates and the major CF types of the strains were CS3-CS21-CS1/PCF071 and CS2-CS3-CS21. Most of these 2 CF types were detected in ETEC strains that possess both lt and sth genes. The major MLSTST types of domestic isolates were ST171 and ST955. Moreover, the 2 major CF types were usually found concomitantly with the 2 major MLST STs, ST171 and ST955. In conclusion, our genotyping results may provide useful information for guiding the development of geographically specific vaccines against human ETEC isolates. PMID:24841334

  5. Structural and functional insight into the carbohydrate receptor binding of F4 fimbriae-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; De Kerpel, Maia; Deboeck, Francine; Raymaekers, Hanne; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-03-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are important causes of intestinal disease in humans and lead to severe production losses in animal farming. A range of fimbrial adhesins in ETEC strains determines host and tissue tropism. ETEC strains expressing F4 fimbriae are associated with neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. Three naturally occurring variants of F4 fimbriae (F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad) exist that differ in the primary sequence of their major adhesive subunit FaeG, and each features a related yet distinct receptor binding profile. Here the x-ray structure of FaeGad bound to lactose provides the first structural insight into the receptor specificity and mode of binding by the poly-adhesive F4 fimbriae. A small D'-D″-α1-α2 subdomain grafted on the immunoglobulin-like core of FaeG hosts the carbohydrate binding site. Two short amino acid stretches Phe(150)-Glu(152) and Val(166)-Glu(170) of FaeGad bind the terminal galactose in the lactosyl unit and provide affinity and specificity to the interaction. A hemagglutination-based assay with E. coli expressing mutant F4ad fimbriae confirmed the elucidated co-complex structure. Interestingly, the crucial D'-α1 loop that borders the FaeGad binding site adopts a different conformation in the two other FaeG variants and hints at a heterogeneous binding pocket among the FaeG serotypes. PMID:25631050

  6. Oral administration of protease inhibits enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli receptor activity in piglet small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, T L; Luke, R K; Chandler, D S

    1996-01-01

    The virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is attributed to their ability to adhere via fimbrial adhesins to specific receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. A novel approach to preventing ETEC induced diarrhoea would be to prevent attachment of ETEC to intestine by proteolytically modifying the receptor attachment sites. This study aimed to examine the effect of bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, on ETEC receptor activity in porcine small intestine. Bromelain was administered orally to piglets and K88+ ETEC attachment to small intestine was measured at 50 cm intervals using an enzyme immunoassay. K88+ ETEC attachment to intestinal sections that were not treated with bromelain varied appreciably between sampling sites. Variability in receptor activity along the intestinal surface is though to be caused by the localised effects of endogenous proteases. Oral administration of exogenous protease inhibited K88+ ETEC attachment to pig small intestine in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). Attachment of K88+ ETEC was negligible after treatment, resembling the levels of attachment of K88 to piglets of the genetically determined non-adhesive phenotype, which are resistant to K88+ ETEC infection. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of treated piglets showed no adverse effects of the bromelain treatment. It is concluded that administration of bromelain can inhibit ETEC receptor activity in vivo and may therefore be useful for prevention of K88+ ETEC induced diarrhoea. PMID:8566855

  7. Distribution of Enteroinvasive and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Across Space and Time in Northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Bayas, Rosa de los Ángeles; Lopez, Velma K; Zhang, Lixin; Trueba, Gabriel; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl; Cevallos, William; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-02-01

    Although Escherichia coli infections are common throughout the developing world, their prevalence patterns in space and over time are not well characterized. We used serial case control data collected from 16 communities in northwestern Ecuador between 2004 and 2010, to examine the prevalence of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). At its peak, the regional prevalence of EIEC was 8.3 infections/100 persons but this decreased to 1 infection/1,000 persons. The regional prevalence of ETEC ranged from 8 infections/1,000 persons to 3.7 infections/100 persons. The prevalence pattern of EIEC resembled that of a large epidemic whereas the prevalence of ETEC was more stable over time. Here, we provide community-based evidence for temporal shifts in the dominant E. coli pathotype from EIEC to ETEC over a multi-year time period. Furthermore, genotype analysis suggests that a given strain of EIEC and ETEC can persist in this region for long periods, up to 24 and 55 months, respectively.

  8. An assessment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella vaccine candidates for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard I

    2015-02-18

    Despite improvements to water quality, sanitation, and the implementation of current prevention and treatment interventions, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness and death, especially among children less than five years of age in the developing world. Rotavirus vaccines have already begun making a real impact on diarrhea, but several more enteric vaccines will be necessary to achieve broader reductions of illness and death. Among the many causes of diarrheal disease, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella are the two most important bacterial pathogens for which there are no currently licensed vaccines. Vaccines against these two pathogens could greatly reduce the impact of disease caused by these infections. This review describes the approaches to ETEC and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. In addition, the review discusses strategies for maximizing the potential benefit of these vaccines, which includes the feasibility of co-administration, consolidation, and combination of vaccine candidates, as well as issues related to effective administration of enteric vaccines to infants. Recent impact studies indicate that ETEC and Shigella vaccines could significantly benefit global public health. Either vaccine, particularly if they could be combined together or with another enteric vaccine, would be an extremely valuable tool for saving lives and promoting the health of infants and children in the developing world, as well as potentially providing protection to travelers and military personnel visiting endemic areas. PMID:25482842

  9. Traveler's diarrhea at sea: three outbreaks of waterborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N A; Neimann, J; Karpati, A; Parashar, U D; Greene, K D; Wells, J G; Srivastava, A; Tauxe, R V; Mintz, E D; Quick, R

    2000-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has become the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships. Investigation of recent outbreaks of ETEC gastroenteritis on 3 cruise ships indicated that all were associated with consuming beverages with ice cubes on board the ship (relative risk [RR], 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9, P=.02; RR, 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3-2. 9, P<.001; and RR, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0-1.6, P<.01), and 2 were associated with drinking unbottled water (RR, 2.7, 95% CI, 1.8-4.1, P<.001; RR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.3-2.3, P<.001). Multiple ETEC serotypes were detected in patients' stool specimens in each of the 3 outbreaks, and 12 (38%) of 32 isolates were resistant to > or =3 antimicrobial agents. ETEC appears to be emerging as a waterborne pathogen on cruise ships. Water bunkered in overseas ports was the likely source of ETEC infection in these outbreaks. To ensure passenger safety, cruise ships that take on water in foreign ports must ensure that water treatment and monitoring systems function properly. PMID:10762583

  10. A genome-wide association analysis for susceptibility of pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41.

    PubMed

    Ji, H Y; Yang, B; Zhang, Z Y; Ouyang, J; Yang, M; Zhang, X F; Zhang, W C; Su, Y; Zhao, K W; Xiao, S J; Yan, X M; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2016-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10-13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r 2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  12. Antibody-mediated disruption of the mechanics of CS20 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupender; Mortezaei, Narges; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Savarino, Stephen J.; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Preventive vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are being developed, many of which target common fimbrial colonization factors as the major constituent, based on empirical evidence that these function as protective antigens. Particularly, passive oral administration of ETEC anti-fimbrial antibodies prevent ETEC diarrhea. Little is, however, known regarding the specific mechanisms by which intestinal antibodies against ETEC fimbriae function to prevent disease. Using coli surface antigen 20 (CS20) fimbriae as a model ETEC colonization factor, we show using force spectroscopy that anti-fimbrial antibodies diminish fimbrial elasticity by inhibiting their natural capacity to unwind and rewind. In the presence of anti-CS20 antibodies the force required to unwind a single fimbria was increased several-fold and the extension length was shortened several-fold. Similar measurements in the presence of anti-CS20 Fab fragments did not show any effect, indicating that bivalent antibody binding is required to reduce fimbrial elasticity. Based on these findings, we propose a model for an in-vivo mechanism whereby antibody-mediated disruption of the biomechanical properties of CS20 fimbriae impedes sustained adhesion of ETEC to the intestinal mucosal surface. Further elucidation of the role played by intestinal antibodies in mechanical disruption of fimbrial function may provide insights relevant to ETEC vaccine development. PMID:26411657

  13. Receptor for the F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Zou, Yajie; Wang, Yiting; Song, Yujie; Liu, Wei; Francis, David H; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-01

    Infection with F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) responsible for diarrhea in neonatal and post-weaned piglets leads to great economic losses in the swine industry. These pathogenic bacteria express either of three fimbrial variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, which have long been known for their importance in host infection and initiating protective immune responses. The initial step in infection for the bacterium is to adhere to host enterocytes through fimbriae-mediated recognition of receptors on the host cell surface. A number of receptors for ETEC F4 have now been described and characterized, but their functions are still poorly understood. The current review summarizes the latest research addressing the characteristics of F4 fimbriae receptors and the interactions of F4 fimbriae and their receptors on host cells. These include observations that as follows: (1) FaeG mediates the binding activities of F4 and is an essential component of the F4 fimbriae, (2) the F4 fimbrial receptor gene is located in a region of chromosome 13, (3) the biochemical properties of F4 fimbrial receptors that form the binding site of the bacterium are now recognized, and (4) specific receptors confer susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4 infection in pigs. Characterizing the host-pathogen interaction will be crucial to understand the pathogenicity of the bacteria, provide insights into receptor activation of the innate immune system, and develop therapeutic strategies to prevent this illness. PMID:25967654

  14. Structure and function of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae from differing assembly pathways.

    PubMed

    Mortezaei, Narges; Epler, Chelsea R; Shao, Paul P; Shirdel, Mariam; Singh, Bhupender; McVeigh, Annette; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Savarino, Stephen J; Andersson, Magnus; Bullitt, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the major bacterial cause of diarrhea in young children in developing countries and in travelers, causing significant mortality in children. Adhesive fimbriae are a prime virulence factor for ETEC, initiating colonization of the small intestinal epithelium. Similar to other Gram-negative bacteria, ETEC express one or more diverse fimbriae, some assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway and others by the alternate chaperone pathway. Here, we elucidate structural and biophysical aspects and adaptations of each fimbrial type to its respective host niche. CS20 fimbriae are compared with colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae, which are two ETEC fimbriae assembled via different pathways, and with P-fimbriae from uropathogenic E. coli. Many fimbriae unwind from their native helical filament to an extended linear conformation under force, thereby sustaining adhesion by reducing load at the point of contact between the bacterium and the target cell. CFA/I fimbriae require the least force to unwind, followed by CS20 fimbriae and then P-fimbriae, which require the highest unwinding force. We conclude from our electron microscopy reconstructions, modeling and force spectroscopy data that the target niche plays a central role in the biophysical properties of fimbriae that are critical for bacterial pathophysiology. PMID:25355550

  15. A PLGA-encapsulated chimeric protein protects against adherence and toxicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Shahram; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Hasannia, Sadegh; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common cause of diarrhea among children. Colonization factors and enterotoxins are the major ETEC candidate vaccines. Since protection against ETEC mostly occurs by induction of IgA antibodies, much effort is focused on the development of oral vaccines. In this study oral immunogenicity of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulated chimeric protein containing CfaB, CstH, CotA and LTB (Heat-labile B subunit) was investigated. The protein was encapsulated in PLGA by double emulsion method and nanoparticles were characterized physicochemically. Immunogenicity was assessed by evaluating IgG1, IgG2 and IgA titers after BALB/c mice vaccination. Non aggregated nanoparticles had a spherical shape with an average particle size of 252.7±23 nm and 91.96±4.4% of encapsulation efficiency. Western blotting showed maintenance of the molecular weight and antigenicity of the released protein. Oral immunization of mice induced serum IgG and fecal IgA antibody responses. Immunization induced protection against ETEC binding to Caco-2 cells. The effect of LT toxin on fluid accumulation in ileal loops was neutralized by inhibition of enterotoxin binding to GM1-ganglosides. Delivery of the chimeric protein in PLGA elicited both systemic and mucosal immune responses. The findings could be exploited to development of oral multi-component ETEC prophylactic measures. PMID:23906742

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  17. Prevalent phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Shahram; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Alerasol, Masoome; Bagheri, Samane; Alipoor, Shakiba Darvish

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea among children. ETEC strains express colonization factors (CFs), which mediate adherence to the small intestinal epithelium and produce entrotoxins that induce diarrhea. Here, we characterized the phenotypes and genotypes of ETEC strains from 261 diarrheal stool samples from Iranian children. The prevalence of ETEC was 8.04%. Most of the isolates were positive for heat-labile and heat-stable toxins. CFA/I, CS3, CS2, and CS5 were detected from some of the clinical isolates. 33.3% of the isolates did not express CFs. The majority of ETEC isolates were identified as O127 and O128 serotypes, and 57% of the strains were resistant to more than 1 antimicrobial agent. Heat-labile enterotoxin activity was confirmed using the Y1 adrenal cell assay, rabbit ileal loop and adenylate cyclase activation tests. Regional phenotypic and genotypic characterization could help to elucidate the ecology and pathogenicity of ETEC to efficiently reduce the burden of illness brought about by ETEC. This study may lead to development of effective prophylactic measures. PMID:24647248

  18. Antibody-mediated disruption of the mechanics of CS20 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupender; Mortezaei, Narges; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Savarino, Stephen J; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Preventive vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are being developed, many of which target common fimbrial colonization factors as the major constituent, based on empirical evidence that these function as protective antigens. Particularly, passive oral administration of ETEC anti-fimbrial antibodies prevent ETEC diarrhea. Little is, however, known regarding the specific mechanisms by which intestinal antibodies against ETEC fimbriae function to prevent disease. Using coli surface antigen 20 (CS20) fimbriae as a model ETEC colonization factor, we show using force spectroscopy that anti-fimbrial antibodies diminish fimbrial elasticity by inhibiting their natural capacity to unwind and rewind. In the presence of anti-CS20 antibodies the force required to unwind a single fimbria was increased several-fold and the extension length was shortened several-fold. Similar measurements in the presence of anti-CS20 Fab fragments did not show any effect, indicating that bivalent antibody binding is required to reduce fimbrial elasticity. Based on these findings, we propose a model for an in-vivo mechanism whereby antibody-mediated disruption of the biomechanical properties of CS20 fimbriae impedes sustained adhesion of ETEC to the intestinal mucosal surface. Further elucidation of the role played by intestinal antibodies in mechanical disruption of fimbrial function may provide insights relevant to ETEC vaccine development. PMID:26411657

  19. An assessment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella vaccine candidates for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard I

    2015-02-18

    Despite improvements to water quality, sanitation, and the implementation of current prevention and treatment interventions, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness and death, especially among children less than five years of age in the developing world. Rotavirus vaccines have already begun making a real impact on diarrhea, but several more enteric vaccines will be necessary to achieve broader reductions of illness and death. Among the many causes of diarrheal disease, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella are the two most important bacterial pathogens for which there are no currently licensed vaccines. Vaccines against these two pathogens could greatly reduce the impact of disease caused by these infections. This review describes the approaches to ETEC and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. In addition, the review discusses strategies for maximizing the potential benefit of these vaccines, which includes the feasibility of co-administration, consolidation, and combination of vaccine candidates, as well as issues related to effective administration of enteric vaccines to infants. Recent impact studies indicate that ETEC and Shigella vaccines could significantly benefit global public health. Either vaccine, particularly if they could be combined together or with another enteric vaccine, would be an extremely valuable tool for saving lives and promoting the health of infants and children in the developing world, as well as potentially providing protection to travelers and military personnel visiting endemic areas.

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types.

  1. Effects of Chitosan on Intestinal Inflammation in Weaned Pigs Challenged by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dingfu; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Gang; He, Jianhua; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xionggui; Feng, Zemeng; Ran, Maoliang; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Kim, Sung Woo; Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with chitosan (COS) could reduce diarrhea and to explore how COS alleviates intestinal inflammation in weaned pigs. Thirty pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW of 5.65±0.27) weaned at age 21 d were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during a preliminary trial period, and then divided into three treatment groups. Pigs in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet, that contained either 0 (control), 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. The post-weaning diarrhea frequency, calprotectin levels and TLR4 protein expression were decreased (P<0.05) in both the COS and chlortetracycline groups compared with control. Simultaneously, supplemental COS and chlortetracycline had no effect on the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa, or on the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum. However, COS supplementation improved (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the jejunal mucosa. The results indicate that supplementation with COS at 300 mg/kg was effective for alleviating intestinal inflammation and enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. As feed additives, chitosan and chlortetracycline may influence different mechanisms for alleviating inflammation in piglets. PMID:25090447

  2. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains to neoglycans synthesised with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Armenta-Ruiz, Carolina; Sarabia-Sainz, Jose Andre-i; Guzmán-Partida, Ana María; Ledesma-Osuna, Ana Irene; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela

    2013-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes traveller's diarrhoea and high mortality among baby animals. ETEC adhesion is mediated by lectins (adhesins) that bind to glycoconjugates on the surface of host cells. Glycans that compete for adhesion could be used for disease prevention. Neoglycans of porcine albumin (PSA) that were conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesised using the Maillard reaction. PSA glycation was confirmed by a reduction in the number of available free amino groups, decreased tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, increased molecular mass and Ricinus communis lectin recognition. The adhesion of four ETEC strains (E. coli H10407, CFA(+), K99 and K88) to PSA-GOS was examined by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. E. coli K88 bound to PSA-GOS with greater affinity (P<0.05) than did E. coli H10407, CFA(+) and K99. In addition, PSA-GOS partially inhibited the adherence of the K88 strain to intestinal mucins. Pig ETEC strain was unable to ferment galactooligosaccharide-neoglycans. These results suggest that neoglycans obtained by the Maillard reaction may serve in the prophylaxis of ETEC K88 diarrhoea. PMID:23871017

  3. Comparison of surface proteomes of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and commensal Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ulf; Petersen, Jørgen; Pfeiffer, Michael; Schrotz-King, Petra; Morsczeck, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections involves colonization of the small intestine mediated by cell-surface fimbriae (CS) or colonization fimbriae antigens (CFA). However, protection against reinfection of ETEC is also conferred by somatic antigens rather than by virulence factors. To discover ETEC specific somatic antigens, the surface proteome of the ETEC H10406 strain was compared with that of non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strains. In this study, we were using stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) technology for the labelling and relative quantification of surface proteins in order to identify polypeptides that are specifically present on ETEC strains. Outer membrane proteins were isolated, separated by gel electrophoresis, and identified by mass spectrometry. Twenty-three differentially expressed cell-surface polypeptides of ETEC were identified and evaluated by bioinformatics for protein vaccine candidates. The combination of being surface-exposed and present differentially makes these polypeptides highly suitable as targets for antibodies and thus for use in passive or active immunisation/vaccination.

  4. Transcriptional modulation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in response to epithelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Rita; Rasko, David A; Sahl, Jason W; Munson, George P; Roy, Koushik; Luo, Qingwei; Sheikh, Alaullah; Kuhne, Kurt J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene expression and surface morphology of ETEC upon interaction with intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Pan-genome microarrays, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), and transcriptional reporter fusions of selected promoters were used to study changes in ETEC transcriptomes. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate alterations in surface antigen expression and morphology following pathogen-host interactions. Following host cell contact, genes for motility, adhesion, toxin production, immunodominant peptides, and key regulatory molecules, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and c-di-GMP, were substantially modulated. These changes were accompanied by visible changes in both ETEC architecture and the expression of surface antigens, including a novel highly conserved adhesin molecule, EaeH. The studies reported here suggest that pathogen-host interactions are finely orchestrated by ETEC and are characterized by coordinated responses involving the sequential deployment of multiple virulence molecules. Elucidation of the molecular details of these interactions could highlight novel strategies for development of vaccines for these important pathogens. PMID:23115039

  5. Multi-drug-resistant enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zeighami, Habib; Haghi, Fakhri; Hajiahmadi, Fahimeh; Kashefiyeh, Mehdi; Memariani, Mojtaba

    2015-06-01

    Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has rapidly spread worldwide and represents the most serious threat to the management of diarrhea in developing countries. During the period from March 2011 to January 2012, a total of 450 stool samples of diarrheal children aged 0-60 months were studied. In order to detect enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) simultaneously, a mixture of four primer pairs specific for eltB, estA, vt1, and vt2 genes was used in a multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A total of 140 (31·1%) DEC were isolated from 450 stool samples. Diarrheagenic E. coli exhibited high-level resistance to aztreonam (80·7%), amoxicillin (74·4%), and tetracycline (69·3%). Also, 86·4% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents and considered as MDR. The frequency of ETEC and EHEC pathotypes was 46·4 and 12·1%, respectively and all of these isolates were MDR. In conclusion, MDR ETEC continues to be an important agent associated with diarrhea in children from Tabriz, Iran.

  6. Relationship between heat-labile enterotoxin secretion capacity and virulence in wild type porcine-origin enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Wijemanne, Prageeth; Xing, Jun; Berberov, Emil M; Marx, David B; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system (T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2), had the highest LT secretion level all porcine-origin WT strains tested (P<0.05). The level of LT secretion (concentration in supernatants at 6-h culture) explained 92% of the variation in time-to-a-moribund-condition (R2 = 0.92, P<0.0001) in gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with either strain 3030-2, or an ETEC strain of lesser virulence (2534-86), or a non-enterotoxigenic WT strain (G58-1). All 16 porcine ETEC strains were positive by PCR analysis for the T2SS genes, gspD and gspK, and bioinformatic analysis of 4 porcine-origin strains for which complete genomic sequences were available revealed a T2SS with a high degree of homology to that of H10407. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees constructed using T2SS genes gspC, gspD, gspE and homologs showed that strains 2534-86 and 3030-2 clustered together in the same clade with other porcine-origin ETEC strains in the database, UMNK88 and UMN18. Protein modeling of the ATPase gene (gspE) further revealed a direct relationship between the predicted ATP-binding capacities and LT secretion levels as follows: H10407, -8.8 kcal/mol and 199 ng/ml; 3030-2, -8.6 kcal/mol and 133 ng/ml; and 2534-86, -8.5 kcal/mol and 80 ng/ml. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between predicted ATP-binding capacity of GspE and LT secretion, and

  7. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding. PMID:25828907

  8. Characterization of oligomeric assembly of colonization factor CS6 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sabui, Subrata; Debnath, Anusuya; Ghosal, Abhisek; Wajima, Takeaki; Hamabata, Takashi; Ramamurthy, T; Ghosh, A N; Basak, Soumen; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The widely distributed colonization factor (CF) CS6 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has gained importance over the years in terms of its structure and function. CS6 is an afimbrial assembly in contrast to the other ETEC CFs, which are mostly fimbrial. A recent study predicted a linear fibre model for recombinant chimeric CS6 and formation of oligomers in solution. In this study, we characterized the oligomeric assembly of CS6, purified from a clinical ETEC isolate and identified its existence in the WT strain. We found that purified CS6 forms a continuous array of higher order oligomers composed of two tightly associated subunits, CssA and CssB in an equal (1:1) stoichiometry. This oligomerization occurs by formation of (CssA-CssB)n complex where 'n' increases with the concentration. The diameter of CS6 oligomers also proportionally increases with concentration. More significantly, we showed CS6 oligomers to be spherical in shape instead of being linear fibres as predicted earlier and this was further confirmed by electron microscopy. We also showed CS6 assembled on the bacterial surface in the form of an oligomeric complex. This process depends on the expression of properly folded CssA and CssB together, guided by the chaperone CssC and usher CssD. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for the existence of concentration-dependent, spherical oligomers of CS6 comprising both the structural subunits in equal stoichiometry and the CS6 oligomeric complex on the ETEC surface.

  9. Structural Sampling of Glycan Interaction Profiles Reveals Mucosal Receptors for Fimbrial Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lonardi, Emanuela; Moonens, Kristof; Buts, Lieven; de Boer, Arjen R.; Olsson, Johan D. M.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Fabre, Emeline; Guérardel, Yann; Deelder, André M.; Oscarson, Stefan; Wuhrer, Manfred; Bouckaert, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Fimbriae are long, proteinaceous adhesion organelles expressed on the bacterial envelope, evolutionarily adapted by Escherichia coli strains for the colonization of epithelial linings. Using glycan arrays of the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG), the lectin domains were screened of the fimbrial adhesins F17G and FedF from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and of the FimH adhesin from uropathogenic E. coli. This has led to the discovery of a more specific receptor for F17G, GlcNAcβ1,3Gal. No significant differences emerged from the glycan binding profiles of the F17G lectin domains from five different E. coli strains. However, strain-dependent amino acid variations, predominantly towards the positively charged arginine, were indicated by sulfate binding in FedF and F17G crystal structures. For FedF, no significant binders could be observed on the CFG glycan array. Hence, a shotgun array was generated from microvilli scrapings of the distal jejunum of a 3-week old piglet about to be weaned. On this array, the blood group A type 1 hexasaccharide emerged as a receptor for the FedF lectin domain and remarkably also for F18-fimbriated E. coli. F17G was found to selectively recognize glycan species with a terminal GlcNAc, typifying intestinal mucins. In conclusion, F17G and FedF recognize long glycan sequences that could only be identified using the shotgun approach. Interestingly, ETEC strains display a large capacity to adapt their fimbrial adhesins to ecological niches via charge-driven interactions, congruent with binding to thick mucosal surfaces displaying an acidic gradient along the intestinal tract. PMID:24833052

  10. Biomechanical and Structural Features of CS2 Fimbriae of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mortezaei, Narges; Singh, Bhupender; Zakrisson, Johan; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, and infection of children in under-developed countries often leads to high mortality rates. Isolated ETEC expresses a plethora of colonization factors (fimbriae/pili), of which CFA/I and CFA/II, which are assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP), are among the most common. Fimbriae are filamentous structures whose shafts are primarily composed of helically arranged single pilin-protein subunits, with a unique biomechanical ability to unwind and rewind. A sustained ETEC infection, under adverse conditions of dynamic shear forces, is primarily attributed to this biomechanical feature of ETEC fimbriae. Recent understanding about the role of fimbriae as virulence factors points to an evolutionary adaptation of their structural and biomechanical features. In this work, we investigated the biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae from the CFA/II group. Homology modeling of its major structural subunit, CotA, reveals structural clues related to the niche in which they are expressed. Using optical-tweezers force spectroscopy, we found that CS2 fimbriae unwind at a constant force of 10 pN and have a corner velocity (i.e., the velocity at which the force required for unwinding rises exponentially with increased speed) of 1300 nm/s. The biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae assessed in this work classify them into a low-force unwinding group of fimbriae together with the CFA/I and CS20 fimbriae expressed by ETEC strains. The three fimbriae are expressed by ETEC, colonize in similar gut environments, and exhibit similar biophysical features, but differ in their biogenesis. Our observation suggests that the environment has a strong impact on the biophysical characteristics of fimbriae expressed by ETEC. PMID:26153701

  11. Heat-Stable Enterotoxin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as a Vaccine Target ▿

    PubMed Central

    Taxt, Arne; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James; Puntervoll, Pål

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is responsible for 280 million to 400 million episodes of diarrhea and about 380,000 deaths annually. Epidemiological data suggest that ETEC strains which secrete heat-stable toxin (ST), alone or in combination with heat-labile toxin (LT), induce the most severe disease among children in developing countries. This makes ST an attractive target for inclusion in an ETEC vaccine. ST is released upon colonization of the small intestine and activates the guanylate cyclase C receptor, causing profuse diarrhea. To generate a successful toxoid, ST must be made immunogenic and nontoxic. Due to its small size, ST is nonimmunogenic in its natural form but becomes immunogenic when coupled to an appropriate large-molecular-weight carrier. This has been successfully achieved with several carriers, using either chemical conjugation or recombinant fusion techniques. Coupling of ST to a carrier may reduce toxicity, but further reduction by mutagenesis is desired to obtain a safe vaccine. More than 30 ST mutants with effects on toxicity have been reported. Some of these mutants, however, have lost the ability to elicit neutralizing immune responses to the native toxin. Due to the small size of ST, separating toxicity from antigenicity is a particular challenge that must be met. Another obstacle to vaccine development is possible cross-reactivity between anti-ST antibodies and the endogenous ligands guanylin and uroguanylin, caused by structural similarity to ST. Here we review the molecular and biological properties of ST and discuss strategies for developing an ETEC vaccine that incorporates immunogenic and nontoxic derivatives of the ST toxin. PMID:20231404

  12. Adaptive evolution of class 5 fimbrial genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and its functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Tchesnokova, Veronika; McVeigh, Annette; Kisiela, Dagmara I; Dori, Kathleen; Navarro, Armando; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Savarino, Stephen J

    2012-02-24

    Class 5 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) comprise eight serologically discrete colonization factors that mediate small intestinal adhesion. Their differentiation has been attributed to the pressure imposed by host adaptive immunity. We sequenced the major pilin and minor adhesin subunit genes of a geographically diverse population of ETEC elaborating CFA/I (n = 31), CS17 (n = 20), and CS2 (n = 18) and elucidated the functional effect of microevolutionary processes. Between the fimbrial types, the pairwise nucleotide diversity for the pilin or adhesin genes ranged from 35-43%. Within each fimbrial type, there were 17 non-synonymous and 1 synonymous point mutations among all pilin or adhesin gene copies, implying that each fimbrial type was acquired by ETEC strains very recently, consistent with a recent origin of this E. coli pathotype. The 17 non-synonymous allelic differences occurred in the CFA/I pilin gene cfaB (two changes) and adhesin gene cfaE (three changes), and CS17 adhesin gene csbD (12 changes). All but one amino acid change in the adhesins clustered around the predicted ligand-binding pocket. Functionally, these changes conferred an increase in cell adhesion in a flow chamber assay. In contrast, the two mutations in the non-adhesive CfaB subunit localized to the intersubunit interface and significantly reduced fimbrial adhesion in this assay. In conclusion, naturally occurring mutations in the ETEC adhesive and non-adhesive subunits altered function, were acquired under positive selection, and are predicted to impact bacteria-host interactions. PMID:22215679

  13. Interaction of porcine neutrophils with different strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ondrackova, Petra; Alexa, Pavel; Matiasovic, Jan; Volf, Jiri; Faldyna, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. Whilst serotype O149:F4 is frequently associated with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, other serotypes have been found to be associated with mild or moderate enteritis. As neutrophils are recruited to sites of inflammation, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether or not there is any difference in the in vitro interaction between neutrophils and two different ETEC serotypes: O149:F4 and O147:F18. The association of bacteria with neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. The respiratory burst was measured by the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate using flow cytometry and by L012-amplified chemiluminescence. The titers of antibodies against ETEC present in cultivation sera were assessed by agglutination. The viability of E. coli was ascertained by cultivation. It was found that the strains of O149 serotype were more frequently associated with neutrophils and induced a more intensive respiratory burst compared to the strains of O147 serotype. These differences might be due to the presence of different types of fimbriae on the surface of the strains tested and by the presence of anti-fimbrial antibodies in the porcine plasma. However, the intensive interaction between E. coli and the neutrophils and respiratory burst induced by the O149 strain did not lead to more efficient killing of the bacteria. It is suggested that a stronger respiratory burst may be an important factor causing severe clinical signs of post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. PMID:22704243

  14. Identification of Novel Components Influencing Colonization Factor Antigen I Expression in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Gautheron, Sylviane; Nasser, William; Renauld-Mongénie, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Colonization factors (CFs) mediate early adhesion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in the small intestine. Environmental signals including bile, glucose, and contact with epithelial cells have previously been shown to modulate CF expression in a strain dependent manner. To identify novel components modulating CF surface expression, 20 components relevant to the intestinal environment were selected for evaluation. These included mucin, bicarbonate, norepinephrine, lincomycin, carbon sources, and cations. Effects of individual components on surface expression of the archetype CF, CFA/I, were screened using a fractional factorial Hadamard matrix incorporating 24 growth conditions. As most CFs agglutinate erythrocytes, surface expression was evaluated by mannose resistant hemagglutination. Seven components, including porcine gastric mucin, lincomycin, glutamine, and glucose were found to induce CFA/I surface expression in vitro in a minimal media while five others were inhibitory, including leucine and 1,10-phenanthroline. To further explore the effect of components positively influencing CFA/I surface expression, a response surface methodology (RSM) was designed incorporating 36 growth conditions. The optimum concentration for each component was identified, thereby generating a novel culture media, SP1, for CFA/I expression. CFs closely related to CFA/I, including CS4 and CS14 were similarly induced in SP1 media. Other epidemiologically relevant CFs were also induced when compared to the level obtained in minimal media. These results indicate that although CF surface expression is complex and highly variable among strains, the CF response can be predicted for closely related strains. A novel culture media inducing CFs in the CF5a group was successfully identified. In addition, mucin was found to positively influence CF expression in strains expressing either CFA/I or CS1 and CS3, and may function as a common environmental cue. PMID:26517723

  15. Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic, shiga toxin and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in South African pigs.

    PubMed

    Mohlatlole, Ramadimetja Prescilla; Madoroba, Evelyn; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine; Chimonyo, Michael; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Dzomba, Edgar Farai

    2013-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) are important causes of colibacillosis in piglets. Recently, enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST-1) has been implicated in pig diarrhoea. This study investigated the prevalence of enterotoxin [heat-labile toxins (LT), heat-stable toxin a (STa), heat-stable toxin b (STb)], shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), enteroaggregative heat-stable E. coli (EAST-1), associated fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18ab, F18ac) and non-fimbrial adhesins [adhesin involved in diffuse adherence 1 (AIDA-1), attaching and effacing factor, porcine attaching- and effacing-associated factor] in South African pigs. A total of 263 E. coli strains were isolated from Landrace (n = 24), Large White (n = 126), Duroc (n = 28) and indigenous (n = 85) breeds of piglets aged between 9 and 136 days. PCR was used in the analysis. Virulent genes were detected in 40.3% of the isolates, of which 18.6, 0.4 and 17.5% were classified as ETEC, STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), respectively. Individual genes were found in the following proportions: STb (19.01%), LT (0.4%), STa (3.4%), St2xe (1.1%) and EAST-1 (20.2%) toxins. None of the tested fimbriae were detected in ETEC and STEC isolates. About one third of the ETEC and STEC isolates was tested negative for both fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Twenty-five pathotypes from ETEC-, EAEC- and STEC-positive strains were identified. Pathotypes EAST-1 (30.2%), STb (13.2%) and STb/AIDA-1 (10.4%) were most prevalent. The study provided insight on possible causes of colibacillosis in South African pigs. PMID:23417826

  16. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates. PMID:22447901

  17. The structure of the CS1 pilus of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli reveals structural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Galkin, Vitold E; Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Ng, Dixon; Zong, ZuSheng; Li, Juliana; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H; Craig, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC adheres to host epithelial cells in the small intestine via a variety of different pili. The CS1 pilus is a prototype for a family of related pili, including the CFA/I pili, present on ETEC and other Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These pili are assembled by an outer membrane usher protein that catalyzes subunit polymerization via donor strand complementation, in which the N terminus of each incoming pilin subunit fits into a hydrophobic groove in the terminal subunit, completing a β-sheet in the Ig fold. Here we determined a crystal structure of the CS1 major pilin subunit, CooA, to a 1.6-Å resolution. CooA is a globular protein with an Ig fold and is similar in structure to the CFA/I major pilin CfaB. We determined three distinct negative-stain electron microscopic reconstructions of the CS1 pilus and generated pseudoatomic-resolution pilus structures using the CooA crystal structure. CS1 pili adopt multiple structural states with differences in subunit orientations and packing. We propose that the structural perturbations are accommodated by flexibility in the N-terminal donor strand of CooA and by plasticity in interactions between exposed flexible loops on adjacent subunits. Our results suggest that CS1 and other pili of this class are extensible filaments that can be stretched in response to mechanical stress encountered during colonization. PMID:23175654

  18. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development. PMID:26135975

  19. Identification of Novel Components Influencing Colonization Factor Antigen I Expression in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Haines, Sara; Gautheron, Sylviane; Nasser, William; Renauld-Mongénie, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Colonization factors (CFs) mediate early adhesion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in the small intestine. Environmental signals including bile, glucose, and contact with epithelial cells have previously been shown to modulate CF expression in a strain dependent manner. To identify novel components modulating CF surface expression, 20 components relevant to the intestinal environment were selected for evaluation. These included mucin, bicarbonate, norepinephrine, lincomycin, carbon sources, and cations. Effects of individual components on surface expression of the archetype CF, CFA/I, were screened using a fractional factorial Hadamard matrix incorporating 24 growth conditions. As most CFs agglutinate erythrocytes, surface expression was evaluated by mannose resistant hemagglutination. Seven components, including porcine gastric mucin, lincomycin, glutamine, and glucose were found to induce CFA/I surface expression in vitro in a minimal media while five others were inhibitory, including leucine and 1,10-phenanthroline. To further explore the effect of components positively influencing CFA/I surface expression, a response surface methodology (RSM) was designed incorporating 36 growth conditions. The optimum concentration for each component was identified, thereby generating a novel culture media, SP1, for CFA/I expression. CFs closely related to CFA/I, including CS4 and CS14 were similarly induced in SP1 media. Other epidemiologically relevant CFs were also induced when compared to the level obtained in minimal media. These results indicate that although CF surface expression is complex and highly variable among strains, the CF response can be predicted for closely related strains. A novel culture media inducing CFs in the CF5a group was successfully identified. In addition, mucin was found to positively influence CF expression in strains expressing either CFA/I or CS1 and CS3, and may function as a common environmental cue. PMID:26517723

  20. Immunogenicity of a prototype enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhesin vaccine in mice and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sincock, Stephanie A; Hall, Eric R; Woods, Colleen M; O'Dowd, Aisling; Poole, Steven T; McVeigh, Annette L; Nunez, Gladys; Espinoza, Nereyda; Miller, Milagros; Savarino, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in young children in developing countries and in travelers. Efforts to develop an ETEC vaccine have intensified in the past decade, and intestinal colonization factors (CFs) are somatic components of most investigational vaccines. CFA/I and related Class 5 fimbrial CFs feature a major stalk-forming subunit and a minor, antigenically conserved tip adhesin. We hypothesized that the tip adhesin is critical for stimulating antibodies that specifically inhibit ETEC attachment to the small intestine. To address this, we compared the capacity of donor strand complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, and CFA/I fimbriae to elicit anti-adhesive antibodies in mice, using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) as proxy for neutralization of intestinal adhesion. When given with genetically attenuated heat-labile enterotoxin LTR192G as adjuvant by intranasal (IN) or orogastric (OG) vaccination, dscCfaE exceeded CFA/I fimbriae in eliciting serum HAI titers and anti-CfaE antibody titers. Based on these findings, we vaccinated Aotus nancymaae nonhuman primates (NHP) with dscCfaE alone or admixed with one of two adjuvants, LTR192G and cholera toxin B-subunit, by IN and OG administration. Only IN vaccination with dscCfaE with either adjuvant elicited substantial serum HAI titers and IgA and IgG anti-adhesin responses, with the latter detectable a year after vaccination. In conclusion, we have shown that dscCfaE elicits robust HAI and anti-adhesin antibody responses in both mice and NHPs when given with adjuvant by IN vaccination, encouraging further evaluation of an ETEC adhesin-based vaccine approach. PMID:26597148

  1. Characterization of oligomeric assembly of colonization factor CS6 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sabui, Subrata; Debnath, Anusuya; Ghosal, Abhisek; Wajima, Takeaki; Hamabata, Takashi; Ramamurthy, T; Ghosh, A N; Basak, Soumen; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The widely distributed colonization factor (CF) CS6 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has gained importance over the years in terms of its structure and function. CS6 is an afimbrial assembly in contrast to the other ETEC CFs, which are mostly fimbrial. A recent study predicted a linear fibre model for recombinant chimeric CS6 and formation of oligomers in solution. In this study, we characterized the oligomeric assembly of CS6, purified from a clinical ETEC isolate and identified its existence in the WT strain. We found that purified CS6 forms a continuous array of higher order oligomers composed of two tightly associated subunits, CssA and CssB in an equal (1:1) stoichiometry. This oligomerization occurs by formation of (CssA-CssB)n complex where 'n' increases with the concentration. The diameter of CS6 oligomers also proportionally increases with concentration. More significantly, we showed CS6 oligomers to be spherical in shape instead of being linear fibres as predicted earlier and this was further confirmed by electron microscopy. We also showed CS6 assembled on the bacterial surface in the form of an oligomeric complex. This process depends on the expression of properly folded CssA and CssB together, guided by the chaperone CssC and usher CssD. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for the existence of concentration-dependent, spherical oligomers of CS6 comprising both the structural subunits in equal stoichiometry and the CS6 oligomeric complex on the ETEC surface. PMID:26383084

  2. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Sack, David A

    2015-09-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development. PMID:26135975

  3. Biomechanical and structural features of CS2 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mortezaei, Narges; Singh, Bhupender; Zakrisson, Johan; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, and infection of children in under-developed countries often leads to high mortality rates. Isolated ETEC expresses a plethora of colonization factors (fimbriae/pili), of which CFA/I and CFA/II, which are assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP), are among the most common. Fimbriae are filamentous structures whose shafts are primarily composed of helically arranged single pilin-protein subunits, with a unique biomechanical ability to unwind and rewind. A sustained ETEC infection, under adverse conditions of dynamic shear forces, is primarily attributed to this biomechanical feature of ETEC fimbriae. Recent understanding about the role of fimbriae as virulence factors points to an evolutionary adaptation of their structural and biomechanical features. In this work, we investigated the biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae from the CFA/II group. Homology modeling of its major structural subunit, CotA, reveals structural clues related to the niche in which they are expressed. Using optical-tweezers force spectroscopy, we found that CS2 fimbriae unwind at a constant force of 10 pN and have a corner velocity (i.e., the velocity at which the force required for unwinding rises exponentially with increased speed) of 1300 nm/s. The biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae assessed in this work classify them into a low-force unwinding group of fimbriae together with the CFA/I and CS20 fimbriae expressed by ETEC strains. The three fimbriae are expressed by ETEC, colonize in similar gut environments, and exhibit similar biophysical features, but differ in their biogenesis. Our observation suggests that the environment has a strong impact on the biophysical characteristics of fimbriae expressed by ETEC. PMID:26153701

  4. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Sack, David A

    2015-09-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development.

  5. Immunogenicity of a prototype enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhesin vaccine in mice and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sincock, Stephanie A; Hall, Eric R; Woods, Colleen M; O'Dowd, Aisling; Poole, Steven T; McVeigh, Annette L; Nunez, Gladys; Espinoza, Nereyda; Miller, Milagros; Savarino, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in young children in developing countries and in travelers. Efforts to develop an ETEC vaccine have intensified in the past decade, and intestinal colonization factors (CFs) are somatic components of most investigational vaccines. CFA/I and related Class 5 fimbrial CFs feature a major stalk-forming subunit and a minor, antigenically conserved tip adhesin. We hypothesized that the tip adhesin is critical for stimulating antibodies that specifically inhibit ETEC attachment to the small intestine. To address this, we compared the capacity of donor strand complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, and CFA/I fimbriae to elicit anti-adhesive antibodies in mice, using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) as proxy for neutralization of intestinal adhesion. When given with genetically attenuated heat-labile enterotoxin LTR192G as adjuvant by intranasal (IN) or orogastric (OG) vaccination, dscCfaE exceeded CFA/I fimbriae in eliciting serum HAI titers and anti-CfaE antibody titers. Based on these findings, we vaccinated Aotus nancymaae nonhuman primates (NHP) with dscCfaE alone or admixed with one of two adjuvants, LTR192G and cholera toxin B-subunit, by IN and OG administration. Only IN vaccination with dscCfaE with either adjuvant elicited substantial serum HAI titers and IgA and IgG anti-adhesin responses, with the latter detectable a year after vaccination. In conclusion, we have shown that dscCfaE elicits robust HAI and anti-adhesin antibody responses in both mice and NHPs when given with adjuvant by IN vaccination, encouraging further evaluation of an ETEC adhesin-based vaccine approach.

  6. Comparative Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Attenuated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Strains in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Robin; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Engstrom, Fayette; Hall, Eric; Chang, H. Sunny; Gomes, Joseph G.; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Cassels, Fred; Turner, Arthur K.; Randall, Roger; Darsley, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Bedford, Philip; Shimko, Janet; Sack, David A.

    2006-01-01

    A vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is needed to prevent diarrheal illness among children in developing countries and at-risk travelers. Two live attenuated ETEC strains, PTL002 and PTL003, which express the ETEC colonization factor CFA/II, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 19 subjects ingested one dose, and 21 subjects ingested two doses (days 0 and 10) of PTL-002 or PTL-003 at 2 × 109 CFU/dose. Anti-CFA/II mucosal immune responses were determined from the number of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in blood measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, the antibody in lymphocyte supernatants (ALS) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels determined by ELISA. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) ELISA was more sensitive than standard colorimetric ELISA for measuring serum antibody responses to CFA/II and its components, CS1 and CS3. Both constructs were well tolerated. Mild diarrhea occurred after 2 of 31 doses (6%) of PTL-003. PTL-003 produced more sustained intestinal colonization than PTL-002 and better IgA response rates: 90% versus 55% (P = 0.01) for anti-CFA/II IgA-ASCs, 55% versus 30% (P = 0.11) for serum anti-CS1 IgA by TRF, and 65% versus 25% (P = 0.03) for serum anti-CS3 IgA by TRF. Serum IgG response rates to CS1 or CS3 were 55% in PTL-003 recipients and 15% in PTL-002 recipients (P = 0.02). Two doses of either strain were not significantly more immunogenic than one. Based on its superior immunogenicity, which was comparable to that of a virulent ETEC strain and other ETEC vaccine candidates, PTL-003 will be developed further as a component of a live, oral attenuated ETEC vaccine. PMID:16428745

  7. Parenteral Adjuvant Effects of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Natural Heat-Labile Toxin Variant.

    PubMed

    Braga, Catarina J M; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Medina-Armenteros, Yordanka; Farinha-Arcieri, Luís E; Ventura, Armando M; Boscardin, Silvia B; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E; Ferreira, Luís C S

    2014-01-01

    Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intra-nasal delivery) had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2), after delivery via intradermal (i.d.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1), produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63) were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4(+) T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunized with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunized with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2) display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes.

  8. Structural Characterization of CFA/III and Longus Type IVb Pili from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S. W.; Pierce, Owen M.

    2012-01-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 310-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 310-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates. PMID:22447901

  9. Structural Sampling of Glycan Interaction Profiles Reveals Mucosal Receptors for Fimbrial Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lonardi, Emanuela; Moonens, Kristof; Buts, Lieven; de Boer, Arjen R; Olsson, Johan D M; Weiss, Manfred S; Fabre, Emeline; Guérardel, Yann; Deelder, André M; Oscarson, Stefan; Wuhrer, Manfred; Bouckaert, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Fimbriae are long, proteinaceous adhesion organelles expressed on the bacterial envelope, evolutionarily adapted by Escherichia coli strains for the colonization of epithelial linings. Using glycan arrays of the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG), the lectin domains were screened of the fimbrial adhesins F17G and FedF from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and of the FimH adhesin from uropathogenic E. coli. This has led to the discovery of a more specific receptor for F17G, GlcNAcb1,3Gal. No significant differences emerged from the glycan binding profiles of the F17G lectin domains from five different E. coli strains. However, strain-dependent amino acid variations, predominantly towards the positively charged arginine, were indicated by sulfate binding in FedF and F17G crystal structures. For FedF, no significant binders could be observed on the CFG glycan array. Hence, a shotgun array was generated from microvilli scrapings of the distal jejunum of a 3-week old piglet about to be weaned. On this array, the blood group A type 1 hexasaccharide emerged as a receptor for the FedF lectin domain and remarkably also for F18-fimbriated E. coli. F17G was found to selectively recognize glycan species with a terminal GlcNAc, typifying intestinal mucins. In conclusion, F17G and FedF recognize long glycan sequences that could only be identified using the shotgun approach. Interestingly, ETEC strains display a large capacity to adapt their fimbrial adhesins to ecological niches via charge-driven interactions, congruent with binding to thick mucosal surfaces displaying an acidic gradient along the intestinal tract. PMID:24833052

  10. The tib adherence locus of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is regulated by cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Espert, Shirley M; Elsinghorst, Eric A; Munson, George P

    2011-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes profuse watery diarrhea through the elaboration of heat-labile and/or heat-stable toxins. Virulence is also dependent upon the expression of adhesive pili and afimbrial adhesins that allow the pathogen to adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucosa. Both types of enterotoxins are regulated at the level of transcription by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP). To further our understanding of virulence gene regulation, an in silico approach was used to identify putative CRP binding sites in the genome of H10407 (O78:H11), an ETEC strain that was originally isolated from the stool of a Bangledeshi patient with cholera-like symptoms circa 1971. One of the predicted binding sites was located within an intergenic region upstream of tibDBCA. TibA is an autotransporter and afimbrial adhesin that is glycosylated by TibC. Expression of the TibA glycoprotein was abolished in an H10407 crp mutant and restored when crp was provided in trans. TibA-dependent aggregation was also abolished in a cyaA::kan strain and restored by addition of exogenous cAMP to the growth medium. DNase I footprinting confirmed that the predicted site upstream of tibDBCA is bound by CRP. Point mutations within the CRP binding site were found to abolish or significantly impair CRP-dependent activation of the tibDB promoter. Thus, these studies demonstrate that CRP positively regulates the expression of the glycosylated afimbrial adhesin TibA through occupancy of a binding site within tibDBp. PMID:21216994

  11. Exopolysaccharides synthesized by Lactobacillus reuteri protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao Yan; Woodward, Adrienne; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in piglets; ETEC cells colonize the intestinal mucosa with adhesins and deliver toxins that cause fluid loss. This study determined the antiadhesive properties of bacterial exopolysaccharides (reuteran and levan) and related glycans (dextran and inulin) in a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) model. The SISP model used 10 jejunal segments from 5-week-old piglets. Five segments were infected with ETEC expressing K88 fimbriae (ETEC K88), while five segments were treated with saline. Every two segments (ETEC and non-ETEC infected) were infused with 65 ml of 10 g liter(-1) of glycans or saline (control) for 8 h. High-resolution melting-curve (HRM) quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that E. coli is the dominant bacterium in infected segments, while other bacteria were predominant in noninfected segments. Infection by ETEC K88 was also verified by qPCR; gene copy numbers of K88 fimbriae and the heat-labile toxin (LT) in mucosal scrapings and outflow fluid of infected segments were significantly higher than those in noninfected segments. Genes coding for K88 fimbriae and LT were also detected in noninfected segments. LT amplicons from infected and noninfected segments were 99% identical over 481 bp, demonstrating the presence of autochthonous ETEC K88. All glycans reduced fluid loss caused by ETEC K88 infection. Reuteran tended (P = 0.06) to decrease ETEC K88 levels in mucosal scraping sample, as judged by qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that reuteran significantly (P = 0.012) decreased levels of adherent ETEC K88. Overall, reuteran may prevent piglet diarrhea by reducing adhesion of ETEC K88. PMID:25015886

  12. Discovery and phylogenetic analysis of novel members of class b enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhesive fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Nada, Rania A; Shaheen, Hind I; Khalil, Sami B; Mansour, Adel; El-Sayed, Nasr; Touni, Iman; Weiner, Matthew; Armstrong, Adam W; Klena, John D

    2011-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized to be a common cause of acute watery diarrhea in children from developing countries. Colonization factors (CFAs) have been identified predominantly in ETEC isolates secreting heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) or cosecreting ST with a heat-labile toxin (LT). We hypothesized that LT-only-secreting ETEC produces unique colonization factors not previously described in ST and LTST-secreting ETEC. A set of degenerate primers based on nucleotide sequence similarities between the major structural genes of CS20 (csnA), CS18 (fotA), CS12 (cswA), and porcine antigen 987 (fasA) was developed and used to screen a collection of 266 LT-secreting ETEC isolates in which no known CFA was detected. PCR-amplified products of different molecular masses were obtained from 49 (18.4%) isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons followed by GenBank nucleotide BLASTn analysis revealed five novel DNA sequences; translated amino acid BLASTx analysis confirmed sequence similarity to class 1b major structural proteins encoded by csnA, fotA, and fasA. Strains expressing the novel CFAs were phylotyped and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST; Achtman scheme), and the types detected were compared to those of a collection of archived global E. coli strains. In conclusion, application of the degenerate primer sets to ETEC isolates from surveillance studies increased the total number of ETEC isolates with detectable CFAs by almost 20%. Additionally, MLST analysis suggests that for many CFAs, there may be a requirement for certain genetic backgrounds to acquire and maintain plasmids carrying genes encoding CFAs. PMID:21289147

  13. Porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines as a new in vitro model for studying adherence and pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koh, Seung Y; George, Sajan; Brözel, Volker; Moxley, Rodney; Francis, David; Kaushik, Radhey S

    2008-07-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The organism causes diarrhea by adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestines. While much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ETEC, no homologous intestinal epithelial cultures suitable for studying porcine ETEC pathogenesis have been described prior to this report. In the current study, we investigated the adherence of various porcine ETEC strains to two porcine (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) and one human (INT-407) small intestinal epithelial cell lines. Each cell line was assessed for its ability to support the adherence of E. coli expressing fimbrial adhesins K88ab, K88ac, K88ad, K99, F41, 987P, and F18. Wild-type ETEC expressing K88ab, K88ac, and K88ad efficiently bound to both IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells. An ETEC strain expressing both K99 and F41 bound heavily to both porcine cell lines but an E. coli strain expressing only K99 bound very poorly to these cells. E. coli expressing F18 adhesin strongly bound to IPEC-1 cells but did not adhere to IPEC-J2 cells. The E. coli strains G58-1 and 711 which express no fimbrial adhesins and those that express 987P fimbriae failed to bind to either porcine cell line. Only strains B41 and K12:K99 bound in abundance to INT-407 cells. The binding of porcine ETEC to IPEC-J2, IPEC-1 and INT-407 with varying affinities, together with lack of binding of 987P ETEC and non-fimbriated E. coli strains, suggests strain-specific E. coli binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis.

  14. Allele variants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin are globally transmitted and associated with colonization factors.

    PubMed

    Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

  15. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bonyadian, Mojtaba; Moshtaghi, Hamdallah; Akhavan Taheri, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa), heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb), heat labile toxin (LT) and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1). Twelve out of 120 (10.00%) isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66%) isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00%) strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN), trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX), oxytetracycline (OTC), gentamicin (GMN), cephalexin (CPN), nalidixic acid (NDA) and nitrofurantoin (NFN), ampicillin (AMP), neomycin (NEO) and streptomycin (STM). Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  16. IscR Regulates Synthesis of Colonization Factor Antigen I Fimbriae in Response to Iron Starvation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Arnaud-Barbe, Nadège; Poncet, David; Reverchon, Sylvie; Wawrzyniak, Julien; Nasser, William

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron availability functions as an environmental cue for enteropathogenic bacteria, signaling arrival within the human host. As enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of human diarrhea, the effect of iron on ETEC virulence factors was evaluated here. ETEC pathogenicity is directly linked to production of fimbrial colonization factors and secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Efficient colonization of the small intestine further requires at least the flagellin binding adhesin EtpA. Under iron starvation, production of the CFA/I fimbriae was increased in the ETEC H10407 prototype strain. In contrast, LT secretion was inhibited. Furthermore, under iron starvation, gene expression of the cfa (CFA/I) and etp (EtpBAC) operons was induced, whereas transcription of toxin genes was either unchanged or repressed. Transcriptional reporter fusion experiments focusing on the cfa operon further showed that iron starvation stimulated cfaA promoter activity in ETEC, indicating that the impact of iron on CFA/I production was mediated by transcriptional regulation. Evaluation of cfaA promoter activity in heterologous E. coli single mutant knockout strains identified IscR as the regulator responsible for inducing cfa fimbrial gene expression in response to iron starvation, and this was confirmed in an ETEC ΔiscR strain. The global iron response regulator, Fur, was not implicated. IscR binding sites were identified in silico within the cfaA promoter and fixation confirmed by DNase I footprinting, indicating that IscR directly binds the promoter region to induce CFA/I. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic enterobacteria modulate expression of virulence genes in response to iron availability. Although the Fur transcription factor represents the global regulator of iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli, we show that several ETEC virulence factors are modulated by iron, with expression of the major fimbriae under the control of the iron

  17. Resistance Pattern and Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Isolated in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Yasmin A.; Talukder, K. A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Sheikh, A.; Sharmin, Salma; Svennerholm, A.-M.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of Heat labile (LT) and Heat stable (ST) toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS) strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Among 1067 (12%) ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523) of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs) as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and

  18. Conservation and Immunogenicity of Novel Antigens in Diverse Isolates of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Qadri, Firdausi; Kansal, Rita; Rasko, David A.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Fleckenstein, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are common causes of diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries for which there is currently no vaccine. Heterogeneity in classical ETEC antigens known as colonization factors (CFs) and poor efficacy of toxoid-based approaches to date have impeded development of a broadly protective ETEC vaccine, prompting searches for novel molecular targets. Methodology Using a variety of molecular methods, we examined a large collection of ETEC isolates for production of two secreted plasmid-encoded pathotype-specific antigens, the EtpA extracellular adhesin, and EatA, a mucin-degrading serine protease; and two chromosomally-encoded molecules, the YghJ metalloprotease and the EaeH adhesin, that are not specific to the ETEC pathovar, but which have been implicated in ETEC pathogenesis. ELISA assays were also performed on control and convalescent sera to characterize the immune response to these antigens. Finally, mice were immunized with recombinant EtpA (rEtpA), and a protease deficient version of the secreted EatA passenger domain (rEatApH134R) to examine the feasibility of combining these molecules in a subunit vaccine approach. Principal Findings EtpA and EatA were secreted by more than half of all ETEC, distributed over diverse phylogenetic lineages belonging to multiple CF groups, and exhibited surprisingly little sequence variation. Both chromosomally-encoded molecules were also identified in a wide variety of ETEC strains and YghJ was secreted by 89% of isolates. Antibodies against both the ETEC pathovar-specific and conserved E. coli antigens were present in significantly higher titers in convalescent samples from subjects with ETEC infection than controls suggesting that each of these antigens is produced and recognized during infection. Finally, co-immunization of mice with rEtpA and rEatApH134R offered significant protection against ETEC infection. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that novel

  19. Synthesis of the Heptasaccharide Repeating Unit of the Cell Wall O‐Polysaccharide of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O139

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Tamashree

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) like the O139 strain are mostly responsible for traveler's diarrhea and causes diseases in pigs, cattle, and poultry. A convenient synthetic strategy was developed for the synthesis of the heptasaccharide repeating unit of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the E. coli O139 strain. The p‐methoxybenzyl (PMB) group was used as a temporary protecting group which was removed in situ under the glycosylation conditions by changing the reaction temperature during the synthesis of the target compound. All glycosylation steps gave high yields with good stereoselectivity. A (2,2,6,6‐tetramethylpiperidin‐1‐yl)oxyl (TEMPO)‐mediated selective oxidation of the primary hydroxyl group was carried out using a biphasic reaction condition at the late stage of the synthesis. Such synthetic oligosaccharides could later be effectively conjugated with proteins to prepare glycoconjugate derivatives as vaccine candidates. PMID:27308210

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Secretes a Highly Conserved Mucin-Degrading Metalloprotease To Effectively Engage Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G.; Rasko, David A.; Sistrunk, Jeticia

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli secretes a highly conserved mucin-degrading metalloprotease to effectively engage intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G; Rasko, David A; Sistrunk, Jeticia; Fleckenstein, James M

    2014-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  2. Avian extraintestinal Escherichia coli exhibits enterotoxigenic-like activity in the in vivo rabbit ligated ileal loop assay.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Silveira, Flávio; Houle, Sébastien; Kobayashi, Renata Katsuko Takayama; Dozois, Charles M; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley

    2014-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains harbor a number of virulence genes and cause extraintestinal diseases, such as septicemia, swollen-head syndrome, salpingitis, and omphalitis in poultry. APEC strains are not known to cause intestinal diseases. Herein, for the first time, it is reported that APEC strains were able to induce an enterotoxigenic-like effect in rabbit ligated ileal loops. Strain SEPT362 caused cell detachment of the intestinal villi, which also showed a flattened and wilted appearance, but the integrity of the tight junctions was maintained. Additionally, this strain did not adhere to enterocytes in vivo, although adhesin encoding genes ( fimH, csgA, lpfA2-3, and ECP) were present while other lpfA types, sfa, afa, papC, and ral genes were not. This enterotoxigenic-like activity was conserved after thermal treatment of the supernatant at 65°C but not at 100°C. Moreover, experiments based on filtering with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) pore sizes demonstrated that the component associated with the observed biological effect has a molecular weight >100 kDa. Blast search and polymerase chain reaction assays for known E. coli virulence factors showed that strain SEPT362 harbors the gene encoding for the toxin EAST-1 and the serine protease autotransporter (SPATE) Tsh, but is negative for genes encoding for the toxins LT-I, STh, STp, Stx1, Stx2, CNF-1, CNF-2, CDT and the SPATEs Sat, Pic, Vat, SigA, SepA, EatA, EspP, or EspC. A cloned copy of the tsh gene in E. coli K-12 was also tested and was shown to have an enterotoxic effect. These results suggest that APEC might induce fluid accumulation in the rabbit gut. The Tsh autotransporter seems to be one of the factors associated with this phenotype.

  3. Avian extraintestinal Escherichia coli exhibits enterotoxigenic-like activity in the in vivo rabbit ligated ileal loop assay.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Silveira, Flávio; Houle, Sébastien; Kobayashi, Renata Katsuko Takayama; Dozois, Charles M; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley

    2014-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains harbor a number of virulence genes and cause extraintestinal diseases, such as septicemia, swollen-head syndrome, salpingitis, and omphalitis in poultry. APEC strains are not known to cause intestinal diseases. Herein, for the first time, it is reported that APEC strains were able to induce an enterotoxigenic-like effect in rabbit ligated ileal loops. Strain SEPT362 caused cell detachment of the intestinal villi, which also showed a flattened and wilted appearance, but the integrity of the tight junctions was maintained. Additionally, this strain did not adhere to enterocytes in vivo, although adhesin encoding genes ( fimH, csgA, lpfA2-3, and ECP) were present while other lpfA types, sfa, afa, papC, and ral genes were not. This enterotoxigenic-like activity was conserved after thermal treatment of the supernatant at 65°C but not at 100°C. Moreover, experiments based on filtering with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) pore sizes demonstrated that the component associated with the observed biological effect has a molecular weight >100 kDa. Blast search and polymerase chain reaction assays for known E. coli virulence factors showed that strain SEPT362 harbors the gene encoding for the toxin EAST-1 and the serine protease autotransporter (SPATE) Tsh, but is negative for genes encoding for the toxins LT-I, STh, STp, Stx1, Stx2, CNF-1, CNF-2, CDT and the SPATEs Sat, Pic, Vat, SigA, SepA, EatA, EspP, or EspC. A cloned copy of the tsh gene in E. coli K-12 was also tested and was shown to have an enterotoxic effect. These results suggest that APEC might induce fluid accumulation in the rabbit gut. The Tsh autotransporter seems to be one of the factors associated with this phenotype. PMID:24673684

  4. Rapid culture-independent quantitative detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in surface waters by real-time PCR with molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Ram, Siya; Vajpayee, Poornima; Shanker, Rishi

    2008-06-15

    Rapid and reliable detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is critical for the management of the waterborne diseases threatening human lives worldwide. In this study, a culture-independent real-time PCR assay, in molecular beacon format was designed and validated for detection and quantitative enumeration of ETEC harboring LT1 gene (encoding heat labile toxin) in surface waters contaminated by fecal pollutants of human and animal origin. It was observed that the assay was able to detect 2 CFU/mL of ETEC (r = 0.997; PCR efficiency = 99.8%) from water samples spiked by a reference organism (E. coli MTCC 723). In the presence of 10(6) CFU/mL of nonpathogenic E. coli(E. coli DH5alpha), the lowest detection limit from spiked water samples was 4 CFU/mL. The assay was 500 times more sensitive than conventional PCR using the same oligomers (Student's t test p < 0.05). The assay could specifically detect and quantify ETEC (1.2 x 10(3) to 1.4 x 10(6) CFU/100 mL) in polluted surface waters of river Gomti. The rapid culture-independent assay developed in this study for detection and quantitative enumeration of ETEC can be used for preliminary monitoring of surface waters to prevent waterborne outbreaks.

  5. Expression of colonization factor CS5 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is enhanced in vivo and by the bile component Na glycocholate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Nicklasson, Matilda; Sjöling, Åsa; von Mentzer, Astrid; Qadri, Firdausi; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of acute watery diarrhoea in developing countries. Colonization factors (CFs) on the bacterial surface mediate adhesion to the small intestinal epithelium. Two of the most common CFs worldwide are coli surface antigens 5 and 6 (CS5, CS6). In this study we investigated the expression of CS5 and CS6 in vivo, and the effects of bile and sodium bicarbonate, present in the human gut, on the expression of CS5. Five CS5+CS6 ETEC isolates from adult Bangladeshi patients with acute diarrhoea were studied. The level of transcription from the CS5 operon was approximately 100-fold higher than from the CS6 operon in ETEC bacteria recovered directly from diarrhoeal stool without sub-culturing (in vivo). The glyco-conjugated primary bile salt sodium glycocholate hydrate (NaGCH) induced phenotypic expression of CS5 in a dose-dependent manner and caused a 100-fold up-regulation of CS5 mRNA levels; this is the first description of NaGCH as an enteropathogenic virulence inducer. The relative transcription levels from the CS5 and CS6 operons in the presence of bile or NaGCH in vitro were similar to those in vivo. Another bile salt, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), previously reported to induce enteropathogenic virulence, also induced expression of CS5, whereas sodium bicarbonate did not.

  6. Expression of colonization factor CS5 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is enhanced in vivo and by the bile component Na glycocholate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Nicklasson, Matilda; Sjöling, Åsa; von Mentzer, Astrid; Qadri, Firdausi; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of acute watery diarrhoea in developing countries. Colonization factors (CFs) on the bacterial surface mediate adhesion to the small intestinal epithelium. Two of the most common CFs worldwide are coli surface antigens 5 and 6 (CS5, CS6). In this study we investigated the expression of CS5 and CS6 in vivo, and the effects of bile and sodium bicarbonate, present in the human gut, on the expression of CS5. Five CS5+CS6 ETEC isolates from adult Bangladeshi patients with acute diarrhoea were studied. The level of transcription from the CS5 operon was approximately 100-fold higher than from the CS6 operon in ETEC bacteria recovered directly from diarrhoeal stool without sub-culturing (in vivo). The glyco-conjugated primary bile salt sodium glycocholate hydrate (NaGCH) induced phenotypic expression of CS5 in a dose-dependent manner and caused a 100-fold up-regulation of CS5 mRNA levels; this is the first description of NaGCH as an enteropathogenic virulence inducer. The relative transcription levels from the CS5 and CS6 operons in the presence of bile or NaGCH in vitro were similar to those in vivo. Another bile salt, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), previously reported to induce enteropathogenic virulence, also induced expression of CS5, whereas sodium bicarbonate did not. PMID:22563407

  7. Secretory IgA-mediated protection against V. cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by rice-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Nochi, Tomonori; Kodama, Toshio; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Nanno, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Ushio; Takaiwa, Fumio; Honda, Takeshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-05-11

    Cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are among the most common causes of acute infantile gastroenteritis globally. We previously developed a rice-based vaccine that expressed cholera toxin B subunit (MucoRice-CTB) and had the advantages of being cold chain-free and providing protection against cholera toxin (CT)-induced diarrhea. To advance the development of MucoRice-CTB for human clinical application, we investigated whether the CTB-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) induced by MucoRice-CTB gives longstanding protection against diarrhea induced by Vibrio cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) in mice. Oral immunization with MucoRice-CTB stored at room temperature for more than 3 y provided effective SIgA-mediated protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea, but the protection was impaired in polymeric Ig receptor-deficient mice lacking SIgA. The vaccine gave longstanding protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea (for > or = 6 months after primary immunization), and a single booster immunization extended the duration of protective immunity by at least 4 months. Furthermore, MucoRice-CTB vaccination prevented diarrhea in the event of V. cholerae and LT-ETEC challenges. Thus, MucoRice-CTB is an effective long-term cold chain-free oral vaccine that induces CTB-specific SIgA-mediated longstanding protection against V. cholerae- or LT-ETEC-induced diarrhea.

  8. Heat-labile enterotoxin-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in intestinal epithelial cells impacts enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Gao, Xiaofei; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes human morbidity and mortality in developing nations and is an emerging threat to food safety in developed nations. The ETEC heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) not only causes diarrheal disease by deregulating host adenylate cyclase, but also enhances ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. The mechanism governing this LT pro-adherence phenotype is unclear. Here we investigated intestinal epithelial cell signal transduction pathways activated by ETEC and quantified the relative importance of these host pathways to LT-induced ETEC adherence. We show that ETEC activates both NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways through mechanisms that are primarily dependent upon LT. LT-induced NF-κB activation depends upon the cAMP-dependent activation of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1 but is independent of protein kinase A (PKA). By using inhibitors of these pathways, we demonstrate that inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents LT from increasing ETEC adherence. By contrast, the LT pro-adherence phenotype appears unrelated to both LT-induced Rap1 activity and to subsequent NF-κB activation. We speculate that LT may alter host signal transduction to induce the presentation of ligands for ETEC adhesins in such a way that promotes ETEC adherence. Our findings provide insight into previously unexplored functions of LT and their relative importance to ETEC virulence. PMID:22452361

  9. Refined Candidate Region for F4ab/ac Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Susceptibility Situated Proximal to MUC13 in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Coppieters, Wouter; Nguyen, Van Ut; Melkebeek, Vesna; Coddens, Annelies; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Cox, Eric; Peelman, Luc J.

    2014-01-01

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and newly-weaned pigs. Based on the predicted differential O-glycosylation patterns of the 2 MUC13 variants (MUC13A and MUC13B) in F4ac ETEC susceptible and F4ac ETEC resistant pigs, the MUC13 gene was recently proposed as the causal gene for F4ac ETEC susceptibility. Because the absence of MUC13 on Western blot from brush border membrane vesicles of F4ab/acR+ pigs and the absence of F4ac attachment to immunoprecipitated MUC13 could not support this hypothesis, a new GWAS study was performed using 52 non-adhesive and 68 strong adhesive pigs for F4ab/ac ETEC originating from 5 Belgian farms. A refined candidate region (chr13: 144,810,100–144,993,222) for F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility was identified with MUC13 adjacent to the distal part of the region. This candidate region lacks annotated genes and contains a sequence gap based on the sequence of the porcine GenomeBuild 10.2. We hypothesize that a porcine orphan gene or trans-acting element present in the identified candidate region has an effect on the glycosylation of F4 binding proteins and therefore determines the F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility in pigs. PMID:25137053

  10. Characterization of unstable pEntYN10 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) O169:H41.

    PubMed

    Ban, Erika; Yoshida, Yuka; Wakushima, Mitsuko; Wajima, Takeaki; Hamabata, Takashi; Ichikawa, Naoki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Yamamoto, Taro; Wada, Takayuki; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O169:H41 has been an extremely destructive epidemic ETEC type worldwide. The strain harbors a large unstable plasmid that is regarded as responsible for its virulence, although its etiology has remained unknown. To examine its genetic background specifically on the unstable retention and responsibility in the unique adherence to epithelial cells and enterotoxin production, the complete sequence of a plasmid, pEntYN10, purified from the serotype strain was determined. The length is 145,082 bp; its GC content is 46.15%. It contains 182 CDSs, which include 3 colonization factors (CFs), an enterotoxin, and large number of insertion sequences. The repertory of plasmid stability genes was extraordinarily scant. Uniquely, results showed that 3 CFs, CS6, CS8 (CFA/III)-like, and K88 (F4)-like were encoded redundantly in the plasmid with unique variations among previously known subtypes. These three CFs preserved their respective gene structures similarly to those of other ETEC strains reported previously with unique sequence variations respectively. It is particularly interesting that the K88-like gene cluster of pEntYN10 had 2 paralogous copies of faeG, which encodes the major component of fimbrial structure. It remains to be verified how the unique variations found in the CFs respectively affect the affinity to infected cells, host range, and virulence of the ETEC strain.

  11. Diarrhea burden due to natural infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a birth cohort in a rural Egyptian community.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A; Shaheen, H I; Amine, M; Hassan, K; Sanders, J W; Riddle, M S; Armstrong, A W; Svennerholm, A M; Sebeny, P J; Klena, J D; Young, S Y N; Frenck, R W

    2014-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is commonly associated with diarrhea in Egyptian children. Children less than 3 years old in Abu Homos, Egypt, had approximately five diarrheal episodes per child every year, and at least one of these episodes was due to ETEC. The epidemiology of ETEC diarrhea among children living in a rural Egyptian community was further evaluated in this study. Between January 2004 and April 2007, 348 neonates were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Children were visited twice weekly, and a stool sample was obtained every 2 weeks regardless of symptomatology. A stool sample was obtained whenever a child had diarrhea. From the routine stool culture, five E. coli-like colonies were selected and screened for heat-labile and heat-stable toxins by GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and further typed for colonization factor antigens by dot blot assay. Incidence of ETEC infection was estimated among children with diarrhea (symptomatic) and without diarrhea (asymptomatic). Incidence of diarrhea and ETEC-associated diarrhea was 7.8 and 1.48 per child-year, respectively. High risk of repeated ETEC diarrhea was associated with being over 6 months of age, warm season, male gender, and crowded sleeping conditions. Exclusive breast-feeding was protective for repeated ETEC infection. ETEC-associated diarrhea remains common among children living in the Nile Delta. The protective role of breast-feeding demonstrates the importance of promoting exclusive breast-feeding during, at least, the first 6 months of life.

  12. Development of a novel live vaccine delivering enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigens to prevent post-weaning diarrhea in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-05-15

    The efficacy of a novel, live delivery vaccine was examined for protection against post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. An expression/secretion plasmid harboring genes encoding enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA and FedF fimbriae was constructed and harbored in an attenuated Salmonella, which was used as the vaccine candidate. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) sows were orally immunized with the candidate vaccine and PBS as a control, respectively, at 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. All group piglets were challenged with two challenge strains at 5-week-old. All immunized sows had significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in both serum and colostrum to individual adhesins compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05). Immune response in Group A piglets were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, no clinical signs were observed in Group A piglets after the challenge and no challenge strains were detected in rectal swabs, while diarrhea was observed in 47.8% control piglets and challenge strains were isolated from all the diarrheic piglets. These results show that immune response of sucking piglets can maintain at higher levels through the milk of the immunized sows and vaccination of sows with the candidate may protect colibacillosis in weaned piglets. PMID:22417986

  13. Refined candidate region for F4ab/ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli susceptibility situated proximal to MUC13 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Coppieters, Wouter; Nguyen, Van Ut; Melkebeek, Vesna; Coddens, Annelies; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Cox, Eric; Peelman, Luc J

    2014-01-01

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and newly-weaned pigs. Based on the predicted differential O-glycosylation patterns of the 2 MUC13 variants (MUC13A and MUC13B) in F4ac ETEC susceptible and F4ac ETEC resistant pigs, the MUC13 gene was recently proposed as the causal gene for F4ac ETEC susceptibility. Because the absence of MUC13 on Western blot from brush border membrane vesicles of F4ab/acR+ pigs and the absence of F4ac attachment to immunoprecipitated MUC13 could not support this hypothesis, a new GWAS study was performed using 52 non-adhesive and 68 strong adhesive pigs for F4ab/ac ETEC originating from 5 Belgian farms. A refined candidate region (chr13: 144,810,100-144,993,222) for F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility was identified with MUC13 adjacent to the distal part of the region. This candidate region lacks annotated genes and contains a sequence gap based on the sequence of the porcine GenomeBuild 10.2. We hypothesize that a porcine orphan gene or trans-acting element present in the identified candidate region has an effect on the glycosylation of F4 binding proteins and therefore determines the F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility in pigs. PMID:25137053

  14. Expression and morphology of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli surface antigen CS31A in E. coli K12 and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kuehni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; Jordi, Helene A; Frey, Joachim; Vilei, Edy M; Favre, Didier; Stoffel, Michael H

    2012-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is known as a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. The pathogenesis involves the attachment of the microorganisms to the mucosa and the production of enterotoxins. Surface expression of CS31A fimbriae was assessed by Western blots, dot blots, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy using negative staining and immunogold labeling. These investigations revealed significant differences in both the morphology of the wild-type and recombinant strains and the antigen exposure of CS31A in the wild-type and recombinant strains. In the wild-type ETEC strain, expression of CS31A was subject to phase variation. The recombinant E. coli strain produced CS31A but was prone to epitope shedding. In Vibrio cholerae vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR, the recombinant CS31A antigen was expressed but was only found intracellularly. Thus, E. coli strains seem to lend themselves better to the development of recombinant vaccines expressing ETEC-specific antigens at the cell's surface than strains from other orders or genera such as V. cholerae. PMID:22607531

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  16. Diarrhea burden due to natural infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a birth cohort in a rural Egyptian community.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A; Shaheen, H I; Amine, M; Hassan, K; Sanders, J W; Riddle, M S; Armstrong, A W; Svennerholm, A M; Sebeny, P J; Klena, J D; Young, S Y N; Frenck, R W

    2014-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is commonly associated with diarrhea in Egyptian children. Children less than 3 years old in Abu Homos, Egypt, had approximately five diarrheal episodes per child every year, and at least one of these episodes was due to ETEC. The epidemiology of ETEC diarrhea among children living in a rural Egyptian community was further evaluated in this study. Between January 2004 and April 2007, 348 neonates were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Children were visited twice weekly, and a stool sample was obtained every 2 weeks regardless of symptomatology. A stool sample was obtained whenever a child had diarrhea. From the routine stool culture, five E. coli-like colonies were selected and screened for heat-labile and heat-stable toxins by GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and further typed for colonization factor antigens by dot blot assay. Incidence of ETEC infection was estimated among children with diarrhea (symptomatic) and without diarrhea (asymptomatic). Incidence of diarrhea and ETEC-associated diarrhea was 7.8 and 1.48 per child-year, respectively. High risk of repeated ETEC diarrhea was associated with being over 6 months of age, warm season, male gender, and crowded sleeping conditions. Exclusive breast-feeding was protective for repeated ETEC infection. ETEC-associated diarrhea remains common among children living in the Nile Delta. The protective role of breast-feeding demonstrates the importance of promoting exclusive breast-feeding during, at least, the first 6 months of life. PMID:24829232

  17. Characterization of unstable pEntYN10 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) O169:H41.

    PubMed

    Ban, Erika; Yoshida, Yuka; Wakushima, Mitsuko; Wajima, Takeaki; Hamabata, Takashi; Ichikawa, Naoki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Yamamoto, Taro; Wada, Takayuki; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O169:H41 has been an extremely destructive epidemic ETEC type worldwide. The strain harbors a large unstable plasmid that is regarded as responsible for its virulence, although its etiology has remained unknown. To examine its genetic background specifically on the unstable retention and responsibility in the unique adherence to epithelial cells and enterotoxin production, the complete sequence of a plasmid, pEntYN10, purified from the serotype strain was determined. The length is 145,082 bp; its GC content is 46.15%. It contains 182 CDSs, which include 3 colonization factors (CFs), an enterotoxin, and large number of insertion sequences. The repertory of plasmid stability genes was extraordinarily scant. Uniquely, results showed that 3 CFs, CS6, CS8 (CFA/III)-like, and K88 (F4)-like were encoded redundantly in the plasmid with unique variations among previously known subtypes. These three CFs preserved their respective gene structures similarly to those of other ETEC strains reported previously with unique sequence variations respectively. It is particularly interesting that the K88-like gene cluster of pEntYN10 had 2 paralogous copies of faeG, which encodes the major component of fimbrial structure. It remains to be verified how the unique variations found in the CFs respectively affect the affinity to infected cells, host range, and virulence of the ETEC strain. PMID:26575107

  18. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from two paediatric cohort studies in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Anicia M.; Rivera, Fulton P.; Pons, Maria J.; Riveros, Maribel; Gomes, Cláudia; Bernal, María; Meza, Rina; Maves, Ryan C.; Huicho, Luis; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, being of special concern in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in 205 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from two cohort studies in children <24 months in Lima, Peru. Methods ETEC were identified by an in-house multiplex real-time PCR. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion; mechanisms of resistance were evaluated by PCR. Results ETEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin (64%), cotrimoxazole (52%), tetracycline (37%); 39% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Heat-stable toxin producing (ETEC-st) (48%) and heat-labile toxin producing ETEC (ETEC-lt) (40%) had higher rates of multidrug resistance than isolates producing both toxins (ETEC-lt-st) (21%), p<0.05. Only 10% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and none to ciprofloxacin or cefotaxime. Ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole resistance were most often associated with blaTEM (69%) and sul2 genes (68%), respectively. Tetracycline resistance was associated with tet(A) (49%) and tet(B) (39%) genes. Azithromycin inhibitory diameters were ≤15 mm in 36% of isolates, with 5% of those presenting the mph(A) gene. Conclusions ETEC from Peruvian children are often resistant to older, inexpensive antibiotics, while remaining susceptible to ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins and furazolidone. Fluoroquinolones and azithromycin remain the drugs of choice for ETEC infections in Peru. However, further development of resistance should be closely monitored. PMID:26175267

  19. Protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost vaccine candidate carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen against neonatal piglet colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Humoral immune responses and protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost cells carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbrial antigens for protection against piglet colibacillosis were studied. All groups were orally primed and boosted at 11 and 14 wk of pregnancy, respectively. Group A sows were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and groups B, C, and D sows were immunized with 2 × 10(9), 2 × 10(10), and 2 × 10(11) ghost cells, respectively. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and colostrum IgG and IgA levels of groups C and D sows were significantly higher than those of group A sows. In addition, serum IgG and IgA levels in group C and D piglets were significantly increased compared to those of group A piglets. After challenge with wild-type ETEC, diarrhea and mortality were not observed in group C and D piglets, while diarrhea was observed in 88.9% and 58.8% of groups A and B piglets, respectively, and 16.7% mortality was observed in group A piglets. These findings indicate that oral immunization of sows with 2 × 10(10) or 10(11) ghost cells can effectively protect their offspring from colibacillosis.

  20. Faecal contamination and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in street-vended chili sauces in Mexico and its public health relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Garcia, T.; Cerna, J. F.; Thompson, M. R.; Lopez-Saucedo, C.

    2002-01-01

    The street-vended food industry provides employment and cheap ready-to-eat meals to a large proportion of the population in developing countries like Mexico, yet little is known about its role in the transmission of food borne diseases (FBD). Because of its wide consumption, street-vended chili sauces in Mexico are potential vehicles of FBD. An observational study was performed in Mexico City collecting 43 street-vended chili sauces. These sauces were prepared under poor hygienic conditions of handling and selling. Consumers add 4-8 ml of chili sauce per taco, ingest 2-5 tacos per meal and on average, 50 consumers frequent a stall per day. Seventeen (40%) samples were faecally contaminated and 2(5%) sauces harboured sufficient enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to cause disease. Weestimate that the consumption of only one of these chili sauces could result in ETEC disease inat least 21,000 consumers per year, making them important potential vehicles of FBD. PMID:12211591

  1. Faecal contamination and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in street-vended chili sauces in Mexico and its public health relevance.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Garcia, T; Cerna, J F; Thompson, M R; Lopez-Saucedo, C

    2002-08-01

    The street-vended food industry provides employment and cheap ready-to-eat meals to a large proportion of the population in developing countries like Mexico, yet little is known about its role in the transmission of food borne diseases (FBD). Because of its wide consumption, street-vended chili sauces in Mexico are potential vehicles of FBD. An observational study was performed in Mexico City collecting 43 street-vended chili sauces. These sauces were prepared under poor hygienic conditions of handling and selling. Consumers add 4-8 ml of chili sauce per taco, ingest 2-5 tacos per meal and on average, 50 consumers frequent a stall per day. Seventeen (40%) samples were faecally contaminated and 2(5%) sauces harboured sufficient enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to cause disease. Weestimate that the consumption of only one of these chili sauces could result in ETEC disease inat least 21,000 consumers per year, making them important potential vehicles of FBD.

  2. Crystal structure of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor CS6 reveals a novel type of functional assembly.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saumendra P; Rahman, Mohammad M; Yu, Xiao Di; Tuittila, Minna; Knight, Stefan D; Zavialov, Anton V

    2012-12-01

    Coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) is a widely expressed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonization factor that mediates bacterial attachment to the small intestinal epithelium. CS6 is a polymer of two protein subunits CssA and CssB, which are secreted and assembled on the cell surface via the CssC/CssD chaperone usher (CU) pathway. Here, we present an atomic resolution model for the structure of CS6 based on the results of X-ray crystallographic, spectroscopic and biochemical studies, and suggest a mechanism for CS6-mediated adhesion. We show that the CssA and CssB subunits are assembled alternately in linear fibres by the principle of donor strand complementation. This type of fibre assembly is novel for CU assembled adhesins. We also show that both subunits in the fibre bind to receptors on epithelial cells, and that CssB, but not CssA, specifically recognizes the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. Taken together, structural and functional results suggest that CS6 is an adhesive organelle of a novel type, a hetero-polyadhesin that is capable of polyvalent attachment to different receptors. PMID:23046340

  3. Outer membrane vesicles induce immune responses to virulence proteins and protect against colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Hamilton, David J; Munson, George P; Fleckenstein, James M

    2011-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a heterogeneous group of pathogens that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Collectively, these pathogens are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually in developing countries, particularly in children under the age of 5 years. The heterogeneity of previously investigated molecular targets and the lack of complete sustained protection afforded by antitoxin immunity have impeded progress to date toward a broadly protective vaccine. Many pathogens, including ETEC, have the capacity to form outer membrane vesicles (OMV), which often contain one or more virulence proteins. Prompted by recent studies that identified several immunogenic virulence proteins in outer membrane vesicles of ETEC, we sought to examine the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of these structures in a murine model of infection. Here we demonstrate that immunization with OMV impairs ETEC colonization of the small intestine and stimulates antibodies that recognize the heat-labile toxin and two additional putative virulence proteins, the EtpA adhesin and CexE. Similar to earlier studies with EtpA, vaccination with LT alone also inhibited intestinal colonization. Together, these findings suggest that OMV could be exploited to deliver protective antigens relevant to development of ETEC vaccines. PMID:21900530

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS6 gene products and their roles in CS6 structural protein assembly and cellular adherence.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Sabui, Subrata; Fukumoto, Megumi; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Hamabata, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces a variety of colonization factors necessary for attachment to the host cell, among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent in ETEC isolates from developing countries. The CS6 operon is composed of 4 genes, cssA, cssB, cssC, and cssD. The molecular mechanism of CS6 assembly and cell surface presentation, and the contribution of each protein to the attachment of the bacterium to intestinal cells remain unclear. In the present study, a series of css gene-deletion mutants of the CS6 operon were constructed in the ETEC genetic background, and their effect on adhesion to host cells and CS6 assembly was studied. Each subunit deletion resulted in a reduction in the adhesion to intestinal cells to the same level of laboratory E. coli strains, and this effect was restored by complementary plasmids, suggesting that the 4 proteins are necessary for CS6 expression. Bacterial cell fractionation and western blotting of the mutant strains suggested that the formation of a CssA-CssB-CssC complex is necessary for recognition by CssD and transport of CssA-CssB to the outer membrane as a colonization factor. PMID:21729748

  5. Epithelial cell invasion and adherence directed by the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli tib locus is associated with a 104-kilodalton outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elsinghorst, E A; Weitz, J A

    1994-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human colon and ileocecum. Two separate loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli HB101 to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells have previously been cosmid cloned from ETEC H10407. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cellular fractions from tib-positive HB101 shows that the tib locus directs the synthesis of a 104-kDa outer membrane protein (the TibA protein). The tib locus was subcloned to a maximum of 6.7 kb and mutagenized with transposon Tn5. Production of TibA was directly correlated with the capacity of the subclones and Tn5 mutants to invade and adhere to epithelial cells, suggesting that TibA was required for these phenotypes. The position and direction of transcription of the tibA gene were identified by complementation and in vivo T7 RNA polymerase-promoter induction experiments. The role of the tib locus in epithelial cell invasion was confirmed by the construction of chromosomal deletion derivatives in H10407. These deletion mutants invaded epithelial cells at about 15% of the parental level and were fully complemented by plasmids bearing the tib locus. The size and function of the TibA protein are similar to those of invasin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (103 kDa). However, a tib probe did not hybridize with the gene encoding invasin. Hybridization analyses of genomic DNA from a wide variety of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia species, indicate that the tib locus is unique to specific ETEC strains. Images PMID:8039917

  6. Epithelial cell invasion and adherence directed by the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli tib locus is associated with a 104-kilodalton outer membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, E A; Weitz, J A

    1994-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human colon and ileocecum. Two separate loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli HB101 to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells have previously been cosmid cloned from ETEC H10407. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cellular fractions from tib-positive HB101 shows that the tib locus directs the synthesis of a 104-kDa outer membrane protein (the TibA protein). The tib locus was subcloned to a maximum of 6.7 kb and mutagenized with transposon Tn5. Production of TibA was directly correlated with the capacity of the subclones and Tn5 mutants to invade and adhere to epithelial cells, suggesting that TibA was required for these phenotypes. The position and direction of transcription of the tibA gene were identified by complementation and in vivo T7 RNA polymerase-promoter induction experiments. The role of the tib locus in epithelial cell invasion was confirmed by the construction of chromosomal deletion derivatives in H10407. These deletion mutants invaded epithelial cells at about 15% of the parental level and were fully complemented by plasmids bearing the tib locus. The size and function of the TibA protein are similar to those of invasin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (103 kDa). However, a tib probe did not hybridize with the gene encoding invasin. Hybridization analyses of genomic DNA from a wide variety of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia species, indicate that the tib locus is unique to specific ETEC strains. PMID:8039917

  7. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in some processed raw food from animal origin.

    PubMed

    Reis, M H; Vasconcelos, J C; Trabulsi, L R

    1980-01-01

    Eighteen of 1,200 colonies of Escherichia coli isolated from "keebe," hamburger, or sausage produced heat-labile enterotoxin. None of them produced heat-stable enterotoxin. The characteristics of 9 of the 18 strains are presented. PMID:6986850

  8. Type IV Longus Pilus of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Occurrence and Association with Toxin Types and Colonization Factors among Strains Isolated in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pichel, Mariana G.; Binsztein, Norma; Qadri, Firdausi; Girón, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    The longus type IV pilus structural gene (lngA) was sought among 217 clinical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated in Argentina. lngA was present in 20.7% of the isolates and was highly associated with ETEC producing heat-stable toxin and the most common colonization factors. The prevalence of longus among ETEC strains in Argentina was comparable to that of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV in other regions of the world. PMID:11826000

  9. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Serogroup O6 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2014-12-18

    Entertotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of global diarrhea, resulting in approximately 200 million occurrences and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually, primarily in children under the age of five. Here, we announce the release of the draft genomes of 10 ETEC isolates belonging to serogroup O6.

  10. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 10 Serogroup O6 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Entertotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of global diarrhea, resulting in approximately 200 million occurrences and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually, primarily in children under the age of five. Here, we announce the release of the draft genomes of 10 ETEC isolates belonging to serogroup O6. PMID:25523765

  11. Feed Fermentation with Reuteran- and Levan-Producing Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Colonization of Weanling Pigs by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Galle, Sandra; Le, Minh Hong Anh; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the copy numbers of genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in feces compared to those achieved with the control diet. Any fermented feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in colonic digesta at 21 days; reuteran-containing diets reduced the copy numbers of the genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin below the detection limit in samples from the ileum, the cecum, and the colon. In conclusion, feed fermentation with L. reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC. PMID:26070673

  12. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, C. P.; Luiz, W. B.; Sierra, A.; Cruz, C.; Qadri, F.; Kaushik, R. S.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

  13. A Comparative Genomic Analysis of Diverse Clonal Types of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Reveals Pathovar-Specific Conservation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, Jason W.; Steinsland, Hans; Redman, Julia C.; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Nataro, James P.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Rasko, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal illness in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income nations, whereas it is an emerging enteric pathogen in industrialized nations. Despite being an important cause of diarrhea, little is known about the genomic composition of ETEC. To address this, we sequenced the genomes of five ETEC isolates obtained from children in Guinea-Bissau with diarrhea. These five isolates represent distinct and globally dominant ETEC clonal groups. Comparative genomic analyses utilizing a gene-independent whole-genome alignment method demonstrated that sequenced ETEC strains share approximately 2.7 million bases of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of this “core genome” confirmed the diverse history of the ETEC pathovar and provides a finer resolution of the E. coli relationships than multilocus sequence typing. No identified genomic regions were conserved exclusively in all ETEC genomes; however, we identified more genomic content conserved among ETEC genomes than among non-ETEC E. coli genomes, suggesting that ETEC isolates share a genomic core. Comparisons of known virulence and of surface-exposed and colonization factor genes across all sequenced ETEC genomes not only identified variability but also indicated that some antigens are restricted to the ETEC pathovar. Overall, the generation of these five genome sequences, in addition to the two previously generated ETEC genomes, highlights the genomic diversity of ETEC. These studies increase our understanding of ETEC evolution, as well as provide insight into virulence factors and conserved proteins, which may be targets for vaccine development. PMID:21078854

  14. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  15. Susceptibility of piglets to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is not related to the expression of MUC13 and MUC20.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Geens, M; Cox, E; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2012-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most frequently isolated enteropathogens in production animals, especially pigs and calves. Economically, the swine industry is by far the most affected by infections with ETEC because of mortality, morbidity and decreased growth rate of newborn and early-weaned piglets. After ingestion by the animal, these bacteria attach themselves to specific receptors on the small intestinal epithelium by means of proteinaceous surface appendages, the fimbriae. The F4 fimbriae, which attach to the F4 receptor, are the most studied. The aim of our study was to investigate gene expression in the small intestine of piglets of MUC13 and MUC20 in relation to animals with a different treatment towards or a different reaction on ETEC-F4ac by means of quantitative reverse transcription chain reaction (qRT/PCR). MUC13 and MUC20 are positional candidate genes for this F4ac receptor and are located in the region on SSC13q41 that segregates with the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ac. The condition of the small intestine is crucial when examining expression differences between different samples. Therefore, the expression of two genes, fatty-acid binding protein 2, intestinal (FABP2) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), now known as regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A) in the small intestine was simultaneously checked. FABP2, a standard for epithelial content, reflects the state of damage, whereas REG3A is a measure for inflammation in the small intestine. The four different substudies presented here suggest that expression of MUC13 and MUC20 is not related to the susceptibility of piglets to ETEC-F4ac. PMID:22486505

  16. Tight conformational coupling between the domains of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesin CfaE regulates binding state transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Esser, Lothar; Interlandi, Gianluca; Kisiela, Dagmara I; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Thomas, Wendy E; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Xia, Di; Savarino, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    CfaE, the tip adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I fimbriae, initiates binding of this enteropathogen to the small intestine. It comprises stacked β-sandwich adhesin (AD) and pilin (PD) domains, with the putative receptor-binding pocket at one pole and an equatorial interdomain interface. CfaE binding to erythrocytes is enhanced by application of moderate shear stress. A G168D replacement along the AD facing the CfaE interdomain region was previously shown to decrease the dependence on shear by increasing binding at lower shear forces. To elucidate the structural basis for this functional change, we studied the properties of CfaE G168D (with a self-complemented donor strand) and solved its crystal structure at 2.6 Å resolution. Compared with native CfaE, CfaE G168D showed a downward shift in peak erythrocyte binding under shear stress and greater binding under static conditions. The thermal melting transition of CfaE G168D occurred 10 °C below that of CfaE. Compared with CfaE, the atomic structure of CfaE G168D revealed a 36% reduction in the buried surface area at the interdomain interface. Despite the location of this single modification in the AD, CfaE G168D exhibited structural derangements only in the adjoining PD compared with CfaE. In molecular dynamics simulations, the G168D mutation was associated with weakened interdomain interactions under tensile force. Taken together, these findings indicate that the AD and PD of CfaE are conformationally tightly coupled and support the hypothesis that opening of the interface plays a critical modulatory role in the allosteric activation of CfaE. PMID:23393133

  17. Feed Fermentation with Reuteran- and Levan-Producing Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Colonization of Weanling Pigs by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Galle, Sandra; Le, Minh Hong Anh; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the copy numbers of genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in feces compared to those achieved with the control diet. Any fermented feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in colonic digesta at 21 days; reuteran-containing diets reduced the copy numbers of the genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin below the detection limit in samples from the ileum, the cecum, and the colon. In conclusion, feed fermentation with L. reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC. PMID:26070673

  18. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Colonization following Intradermal, Sublingual, or Oral Vaccination with EtpA Adhesin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Vickers, Tim J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2016-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a common cause of diarrhea. Extraordinary antigenic diversity has prompted a search for conserved antigens to complement canonical approaches to ETEC vaccine development. EtpA, an immunogenic extracellular ETEC adhesin relatively conserved in the ETEC pathovar, has previously been shown to be a protective antigen following intranasal immunization. These studies were undertaken to explore alternative routes of EtpA vaccination that would permit use of a double mutant (R192G L211A) heat-labile toxin (dmLT) adjuvant. Here, oral vaccination with EtpA adjuvanted with dmLT afforded significant protection against small intestinal colonization, and the degree of protection correlated with fecal IgG, IgA, or total fecal antibody responses to EtpA. Sublingual vaccination yielded compartmentalized mucosal immune responses with significant increases in anti-EtpA fecal IgG and IgA, and mice vaccinated via this route were also protected against colonization. In contrast, while intradermal (i.d.) vaccination achieved high levels of both serum and fecal antibodies against both EtpA and dmLT, mice vaccinated via the i.d. route were not protected against subsequent colonization and the avidity of serum IgG and IgA EtpA-specific antibodies was significantly lower after i.d. immunization compared to other routes. Finally, we demonstrate that antiserum from vaccinated mice significantly impairs binding of LT to cognate GM1 receptors and shows near complete neutralization of toxin delivery by ETEC in vitro Collectively, these data provide further evidence that EtpA could complement future vaccine strategies but also suggest that additional effort will be required to optimize its use as a protective immunogen. PMID:27226279

  19. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Guevara, C P; Luiz, W B; Sierra, A; Cruz, C; Qadri, F; Kaushik, R S; Ferreira, L C S; Gómez-Duarte, O G

    2013-08-01

    Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

  20. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens.

  1. Feed Fermentation with Reuteran- and Levan-Producing Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Colonization of Weanling Pigs by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Galle, Sandra; Le, Minh Hong Anh; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the copy numbers of genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in feces compared to those achieved with the control diet. Any fermented feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in colonic digesta at 21 days; reuteran-containing diets reduced the copy numbers of the genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin below the detection limit in samples from the ileum, the cecum, and the colon. In conclusion, feed fermentation with L. reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC.

  2. A dodecameric ring-like structure of the N0 domain of the type II secretin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin V; Delarosa, Jaclyn R; Hol, Wim G J

    2013-09-01

    In many bacteria, secretins from the type II secretion system (T2SS) function as outer membrane gated channels that enable passage of folded proteins from the periplasm into the extracellular milieu. Cryo-electron microscopy of the T2SS secretin GspD revealed previously the dodecameric cylindrical architecture of secretins, and crystal structures of periplasmic secretin domains showed a modular domain organization. However, no high-resolution experimental data has as yet been provided about how the entire T2SS secretin or its domains are organized in a cylindrical fashion. Here we present a crystal structure of the N0 domain of the T2SS secretin GspD from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli containing a helix with 12 subunits per turn. The helix has an outer diameter of ∼125Å and a pitch of only 24Å which suggests a model of a cylindrical dodecameric N0 ring whose dimensions correspond with the cryo-electron microscopy map of Vibrio cholerae GspD. The N0 domain is known to interact with the HR domain of the inner membrane T2SS protein GspC. When the new N0 ring model is combined with the known N0·HR crystal structure, a dodecameric double-ring of twelve N0-HR heterodimers is obtained. In contrast, the previously observed compact N0-N1 GspD module is not compatible with the N0 ring. Interestingly, a N0-N1 T3SS homolog is compatible with forming a N0-N1 dodecameric ring, due to a different N0-vs-N1 orientation. This suggests that the dodecameric N0 ring is an important feature of T2SS secretins with periplasmic domains undergoing considerable motions during exoprotein translocation.

  3. Phylogenetic and molecular insights into the evolution of multidrug-resistant porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Australia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Jordan, David; Gordon, David M; Groves, Mitchell D; Fairbrother, John M; Smith, Matthew G; Zhang, Ren; Chapman, Toni A

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Australian porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates (n=70) by performing multilocus sequence typing (MLST), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, virulence gene analysis, plasmid, bacteriocin, integron and antimicrobial resistance gene typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotyping. Isolates of the most commonly observed O serogroup (O149) were highly clonal with a lower frequency of antimicrobial resistance compared with the less common O141 serogroup isolates, which were more genetically diverse and resistant to a greater array of antimicrobials. The O149 and O141 isolates belonged to sequence types (STs) ST100 and ST1260, respectively. A small number of new STs were identified for the least common serogroups, including O157 (ST4245), O138 (ST4244), O139 (ST4246) and O8 (ST4247). A high frequency of plasmid replicons was observed among all ETEC isolates. However, O149 isolates predominantly carried IncFIB, I1, HI1 and FIC, whereas O141 isolates carried a more varied array, including IncI1, FIB, FIC, HI1, I1, Y and, most significantly, A/C. O141 isolates also possessed a greater diversity of bacteriocins, with almost one-half of the isolates carrying colicin E3 (44.4%; 12/27) and E7 (48.1%; 13/27). This study shows that Australian porcine ETEC are distinct from isolates obtained in other parts of the world with respect to the MLST profile and the absence of resistance to critically important antimicrobials, including third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  4. Intestinal receptors for adhesive fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in swine--a review.

    PubMed

    Jin, L Z; Zhao, X

    2000-09-01

    Determining the structure of the intestinal receptor for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 fimbriae will make it possible to develop new strategies to prevent K88+ ETEC-induced disease in pigs. Putative K88 adhesin receptors have been identified in both intestinal brush border and mucus preparations as either glycoproteins or glycolipids. Proteins with sizes of 25, 35, 40-42, 60, and 80 kDa in the intestinal mucus and 16, 23, 35, 40-70, 74, 210, and 240 kDa in brush border membranes were reported to bind specifically to K88ab and K88ac fimbriae. The factors accounting for these variable results may include the variants of K88, ages, breeds, and phenotypes of pigs, and even the sampling sites in the small intestine. Of the reported K88 receptors, only three brush border receptors, i.e., a pair of mucin-type sialoglycoproteins (210 kDa or 240 kDa), an intestinal neutral glycosphingolipid (IGLad), and a 74-kDa transferrin glycoprotein (GP74), have fulfilled the criteria as phenotype-specific K88 fimbrial receptors. Inhibiting the attachment of ETEC to intestine by modifying the receptor attachment sites has been the key for developing novel approaches to preventing ETEC-induced diarrhea in pigs. These include: (1) receptor analogs from a variety of biological sources, (2) an enteric protected protease, (3) chicken egg-yolk containing anti-K88 fimbrial antibodies, and (4) some Lactobacillus isolates producing proteinaceous components or carbohydrates interacting with mucus components. Future studies should be directed to further characterize the carbohydrate and protein moieties of receptors recognized by the K88 adhesin variants and to identify the genes responsible for susceptibility to K88+ infections. PMID:11030565

  5. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on epithelial barrier disruption caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunpeng; Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-04-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in maintaining the mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was reported to protect the intestinal barrier function of early-weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 challenge; however, the underlying cellular mechanism of this protection was unclear. Here, an established intestinal porcine epithelia cell (IPEC-J2) model was used to investigate the protective effects and related mechanisms of L. plantarum on epithelial barrier damages induced by ETEC K88. Epithelial permeability, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and abundance of TJ proteins, were determined. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum for 6h prevented the reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) (P<0.05), inhibited the increased transcript abundances of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) (P<0.05), decreased expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens (ZO-1) (P<0.05) and protein expression of occludin (P<0.05) of IPEC-J2 cells caused by ETEC K88. Moreover, the mRNA expression of negative regulators of toll-like receptors (TLRs) [single Ig Il-1-related receptor (SIGIRR), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3), and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1)] in IPEC-J2 cells pre-treated with L. plantarum were higher (P<0.05) compared with those in cells just exposed to K88. Furthermore, L. plantarum was shown to regulate proteins of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that L. plantarum may improve epithelial barrier function by maintenance of TEER, inhibiting the reduction of TJ proteins, and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by ETEC K88, possibly through modulation of TLRs, NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  6. Emergence of a Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lineage in Diseased Swine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Masahiro; Hikoda, Yuna; Fujii, Yuki; Murata, Misato; Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masato

    2016-04-01

    EnterotoxigenicEscherichia coli(ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producingE. coli(STEC) are important causes of diarrhea and edema disease in swine. The majority of swine-pathogenicE. colistrains belong to a limited range of O serogroups, including O8, O138, O139, O141, O147, O149, and O157, which are the most frequently reported strains worldwide. However, the circumstances of ETEC and STEC infections in Japan remain unknown; there have been few reports on the prevalence or characterization of swine-pathogenicE. coli In the present study, we determined the O serogroups of 967E. coliisolates collected between 1991 and 2014 from diseased swine in Japan, and we found that O139, O149, O116, and OSB9 (O serogroup ofShigella boydiitype 9) were the predominant serogroups. We further analyzed these four O serogroups using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, and virulence factor profiling. Most of the O139 and O149 strains formed serogroup-specific PFGE clusters (clusters I and II, respectively), whereas the O116 and OSB9 strains were grouped together in the same cluster (cluster III). All of the cluster III strains belonged to a single sequence type (ST88) and carried genes encoding both enterotoxin and Shiga toxin. This PFGE cluster III/ST88 lineage exhibited a high level of multidrug resistance (to a median of 10 antimicrobials). Notably, these bacteria were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Thus, this lineage should be considered a significant risk to animal production due to the toxigenicity and antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria. PMID:26865687

  7. Stability of the Encoding Plasmids and Surface Expression of CS6 Differs in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Encoding Different Heat-Stable (ST) Enterotoxins (STh and STp).

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Von Mentzer, Astrid; Loayza Frykberg, Patricia; Aslett, Martin; Page, Andrew J; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or CS6+STp (n = 15) showed instability of phenotypic expression of CS6 in a majority of the CS6+STp isolates, whereas most of the CS6+STh isolates retained CS6 expression. The observed instability was a correlated with loss of genes cssA and cssD as examined by PCR. Mobilization of the CS6 plasmid from an unstable CS6+STp isolate into a laboratory E. coli strain resulted in loss of the plasmid after a single over-night passage whereas the plasmid from an CS6+STh strain was retained in the laboratory strain during 10 passages. A sequence comparison between the CS6 plasmids from a stable and an unstable ETEC isolate revealed that genes necessary for plasmid stabilization, for example pemI, pemK, stbA, stbB and parM, were not present in the unstable ETEC isolate. Our results indicate that stable retention of CS6 may in part be affected by the stability of the plasmid on which both CS6 and STp or STh are located. PMID:27054573

  8. Stability of the Encoding Plasmids and Surface Expression of CS6 Differs in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Encoding Different Heat-Stable (ST) Enterotoxins (STh and STp)

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joshua; Von Mentzer, Astrid; Loayza Frykberg, Patricia; Aslett, Martin; Page, Andrew J.; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or CS6+STp (n = 15) showed instability of phenotypic expression of CS6 in a majority of the CS6+STp isolates, whereas most of the CS6+STh isolates retained CS6 expression. The observed instability was a correlated with loss of genes cssA and cssD as examined by PCR. Mobilization of the CS6 plasmid from an unstable CS6+STp isolate into a laboratory E. coli strain resulted in loss of the plasmid after a single over-night passage whereas the plasmid from an CS6+STh strain was retained in the laboratory strain during 10 passages. A sequence comparison between the CS6 plasmids from a stable and an unstable ETEC isolate revealed that genes necessary for plasmid stabilization, for example pemI, pemK, stbA, stbB and parM, were not present in the unstable ETEC isolate. Our results indicate that stable retention of CS6 may in part be affected by the stability of the plasmid on which both CS6 and STp or STh are located. PMID:27054573

  9. Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates recovered from children with diarrhea during a 4-year period (2007 to 2010) in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia; Sanchez, Samanta; Zambrana, Silvia; Iñiguez, Volga; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Asa

    2013-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ETEC strains isolated from Bolivian children aged <5 years according to enterotoxin profile, colonization factors (CFs), suggested virulence genes, and severity of disease. A total of 299 ETEC isolates recovered from children with diarrhea and 55 ETEC isolates from children without diarrhea (controls) were isolated over a period of 4 years. Strains expressing heat-labile toxin (LT) or heat-stable toxin (ST) alone were about equally common and twice as common as ETEC producing both toxins (20%). ETEC strains expressing human ST (STh) were more common in children aged <2 years, while ETEC strains expressing LT plus STh (LT/STh) were more frequent in 2- to 5-year-old children. Severity of disease was not related to the toxin profile of the strains. CF-positive isolates were more frequently identified in diarrheal samples than in control samples (P = 0.02). The most common CFs were CFA/I and CS14. CFA/I ETEC strains were more frequent in children aged <2 years than CS1+CS3 isolates and CS14 isolates, which were more prevalent in 2- to 5-year-old children. The presence of suggested ETEC virulence genes (clyA, eatA, tia, tibC, leoA, and east-1) was not associated with disease. However, east-1 was associated with LT/STh strains (P < 0.001), eatA with STh strains (P < 0.001), and tia with LT/STh strains (P < 0.001). A minor seasonal peak of ETEC infections was identified in May during the cold-dry season and coincided with the peak of rotavirus infections; this pattern is unusual for ETEC and may be important for vaccination strategies in Bolivia.

  10. Stability of the Encoding Plasmids and Surface Expression of CS6 Differs in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Encoding Different Heat-Stable (ST) Enterotoxins (STh and STp).

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Von Mentzer, Astrid; Loayza Frykberg, Patricia; Aslett, Martin; Page, Andrew J; Sjöling, Åsa; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or CS6+STp (n = 15) showed instability of phenotypic expression of CS6 in a majority of the CS6+STp isolates, whereas most of the CS6+STh isolates retained CS6 expression. The observed instability was a correlated with loss of genes cssA and cssD as examined by PCR. Mobilization of the CS6 plasmid from an unstable CS6+STp isolate into a laboratory E. coli strain resulted in loss of the plasmid after a single over-night passage whereas the plasmid from an CS6+STh strain was retained in the laboratory strain during 10 passages. A sequence comparison between the CS6 plasmids from a stable and an unstable ETEC isolate revealed that genes necessary for plasmid stabilization, for example pemI, pemK, stbA, stbB and parM, were not present in the unstable ETEC isolate. Our results indicate that stable retention of CS6 may in part be affected by the stability of the plasmid on which both CS6 and STp or STh are located.

  11. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant adenoviral based vaccine expressing heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guangcun; Li, Wu; Wu, Xiaoling; Bao, Shaowen; Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Ning; Luo, Meihui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-12-01

    The diarrheal disease of domestic animals or in humans caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections remains a major issue for public health in developing countries. Unfortunately, there is no effective vaccine available for preventing from an ETEC infection. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against ETEC is urgently needed. In the present study, A recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5-STa-K99 that capable of expressing a fusion protein of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of ETEC was generated and its immunogenicity was evaluated in a murine model. The intestinal mucosal secretory IgA(sIgA), serum anti-STa-K99 antibody responses, antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells frequencies, as well as T-cell proliferation of mice immunized with the viral vector were determined as immunological indexes. The results demonstrated that Ad5-STa-K99 was able to enhance humoral responses with a dramatically augmented antigen-specific serum IgG antibody, and an elevated production of intestinal sIgA in immunized mice, suggesting the elicitation of both of humoral and mucosal immune responses. In addition, this adenoviral vector could significantly promote splenic T cell proliferation and increase the frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in mice, indicative of a capacity to activate T cell responses. More importantly, vaccination of the Ad5-STa-K99 showed a potential to evoke a protective effect from ETEC challenge in mice. These data indicate that the Ad5-STa-K99 is a highly immunogenic vector able to induce a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, and evoke a protective immune response against ETEC infections, implying that it may be a novel vaccine candidate warranted for further investigation.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in multi-drug resistant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with post-weaning diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Chapman, T A; Chin, J J-C; Barton, M D; Do, T N; Fahy, V A; Fairbrother, J M; Trott, D J

    2010-10-26

    This study aimed to characterize antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in multi-drug resistant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates (n=117) collected from porcine post-weaning diarrhoea cases in Australia (1999-2005). Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for 12 antimicrobial agents and genotyped by PCR for 30 plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 22 intestinal and 38 extraintestinal E. coli virulence genes (VGs). Nine serogroups were identified, the most prevalent being O149 (46.2%), O141 (11.2%) and Ont (31.6%). None of the isolates showed resistance to ceftiofur or enrofloxacin and 9.4% were resistant to florfenicol. No corresponding extended-spectrum/AmpC β-lactamase, fluoroquinolone or floR ARGs were detected. An antimicrobial resistance index (ARI) was calculated from the combined data with a weighting for each antimicrobial agent dependent upon its significance to human health. Serogroup O141 isolates had a significantly higher ARI due to an elevated prevalence of aminoglycoside ARGs and possession of more virulence genes (VGs), including ExPEC or EHEC adhesins (bmaE, sfa/focDE, fimH, ihA) in toxin-producing strains that lacked the normally associated F4 and F18 fimbriae. Few associations between ARGs and VGs were apparent, apart from tetC, sfa/focDE and ompT which, for a sub-set of O141 isolates, suggest possible plasmid acquisition from ExPEC. The multi-drug resistant ETEC ARG/VG profiles indicate a high probability of considerable strain and plasmid diversity, reflecting various selection pressures at the individual farm level rather than emergence and lateral spread of MDR resistant/virulent clones. PMID:20688440

  13. Synthesis and application of glycoconjugate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as potent anti-adhesion agents for reducing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Yash S.; Stone, Roland; Fellows, Benjamin; Qi, Bin; Huang, Guohui; Mefford, O. Thompson; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J.

    2015-04-01

    Polyethylene oxide stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) bio-functionalized with glycoconjugate (Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glcβ-sp) (GM3-MNPs) are synthesized using click chemistry. Interaction of GM3-MNPs with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain K99 (EC K99) is investigated using different microscopic techniques. Our results suggest that GM3-MNPs can effectively act as non-antibiotic anti-adhesion agents for treating ETEC infections.Polyethylene oxide stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) bio-functionalized with glycoconjugate (Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glcβ-sp) (GM3-MNPs) are synthesized using click chemistry. Interaction of GM3-MNPs with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain K99 (EC K99) is investigated using different microscopic techniques. Our results suggest that GM3-MNPs can effectively act as non-antibiotic anti-adhesion agents for treating ETEC infections. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods used in the synthesis and characterization of the polymer and particles described in this manuscript. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00511f

  14. The effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab,ac on early-weaned piglets: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Goddeeris, B M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Janssens, S; Cox, E; Georges, M; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2013-03-15

    Diarrhoea in neonatal and early-weaned piglets due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all pigs suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. A region on SSC13 has been found to be in close linkage to the susceptibility of piglets for ETEC-F4ab,ac. Potential candidate genes on SSC13 have been examined and although some polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the phenotype, the causative mutation has not yet been found. In this study we are looking at the expression of porcine genes in relation to ETEC-F4ab,ac. With the aid of the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array we were able to find differentially expressed genes between ETEC-F4ab,ac receptor positive (Fab,acR(+)) piglets without diarrhoea and F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea or F4ab,acR(-) animals. Since the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ab,ac was described as a Mendelian trait, it is not so surprisingly that only two differentially expressed genes, transferrin receptor (TFRC) and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), came out of the analysis. Although both genes could pass for functional candidate genes only TFRC also mapped to the region on SSC13 associated with susceptibility for ETEC-F4, which makes TFRC a positional functional candidate gene. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of TFRC and TFF1. In piglets without diarrhoea, the expression of both genes was higher in F4ab,acR(+) than in F4ab,acR(-) piglets. Similarly, TFRC and TFF1 expression in F4ab,acR(+) piglets without diarrhoea was also higher than in F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea. Consequently, although both genes might not play a role as receptor for F4 fimbriae, they could be of great importance during an ETEC-F4 outbreak. An upregulation of TFRC can be a consequence of the piglets ability to raise an effective immune response. An elevation of TFF1, a

  15. Pathogenicity and phenotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from a birth cohort of children in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Adel; Shaheen, Hind I; Amine, Mohamed; Hassan, Khaled; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Armstrong, Adam W; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sebeny, Peter J; Klena, John D; Young, Sylvia Y N; Frenck, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has consistently been the predominant bacterial cause of diarrhea in many birth cohort- and hospital-based studies conducted in Egypt. We evaluated the pathogenicity of ETEC isolates in a birth cohort of children living in a rural community in Egypt. Between 2004 and 2007, we enrolled and followed 348 children starting at birth until their second year of life. A stool sample and two rectal swabs were collected from children during twice-weekly visits when they presented with diarrhea and were collected every 2 weeks if no diarrhea was reported. From routine stool cultures, five E. coli-like colonies were screened for ETEC enterotoxins using a GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The isolates were screened against a panel of 12 colonization factor antigens (CFAs) by a dot blot assay. A nested case-control study evaluated the association between initial or repeat excretion of ETEC and the occurrences of diarrhea. The pathogenicity of ETEC was estimated in symptomatic children compared to that in asymptomatic controls. ETEC was significantly associated with diarrhea (crude odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.52). The distribution of ETEC enterotoxins varied between the symptomatic children (44.2% heat-labile toxin [LT], 38.5% heat-stable toxin [ST], and 17.3% LT/ST) and asymptomatic children (55.5% LT, 34.6% ST, and 9.9% LT/ST) (P < 0.001). The CFAs CFA/I (n = 61), CS3 (n = 8), CS1 plus CS3 (n = 24), CS2 plus CS3 (n = 18), CS6 (n = 45), CS5 plus CS6 (n = 11), CS7 (n = 25), and CS14 (n = 32) were frequently detected in symptomatic children, while CS6 (n = 66), CS12 (n = 51), CFA/I (n = 43), and CS14 (n = 20) were detected at higher frequencies among asymptomatic children. While all toxin phenotypes were associated with diarrheal disease after the initial exposure, only ST and LT/ST-expressing ETEC isolates (P < 0.0001) were associated with disease in repeat infections. The role of enterotoxins and

  16. Characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Nicaraguan children in hospital, primary care and community settings.

    PubMed

    Vilchez, Samuel; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Amaya, Erick; Perez, Claudia; Paniagua, Margarita; Reyes, Daniel; Espinoza, Felix; Weintraub, Andrej

    2014-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea among young children in developing countries. ETEC vaccines offer promise in reducing the burden of ETEC disease, but the development of these vaccines relies on the characterization of ETEC isolates from a variety of settings. To best reflect the full spectrum of ETEC disease in León, Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to characterize ETEC strains isolated from children with diarrhoea attending different settings (hospital, primary care clinics and in the community) and children from different age groups. We characterized ETEC isolates in terms of their colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins, and determined whether these factors varied with setting and age group. Diarrhoeal stool samples were obtained from children under the age of 60 months from: (1) the regional public hospital, (2) four public primary care clinics, and (3) a population-based cohort. In total, 58 ETEC-positive isolates were analysed by multiplex-PCR assays for the identification of CFs (CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS7, CS8, CS12, CS13, CS14, CS15, CS17, CS18, CS19, CS20, CS21, CS22 and CFA/I), and enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable variants STh and STp]. The frequency of CFs and enterotoxins was compared among the three settings and for different age groups, using Fisher's exact test or a χ(2) test. At least one CF was detected among one-half of samples; CS19 was detected among all strains in which a CF was identified, either alone or in combination with another CF. Among all CFs detected, 91.7 % were identified as members of the class 5 fimbrial family. CFs were detected more commonly among samples from infants captured in the health facility setting compared with the community setting. Overall, LT was detected among 67.2 % of samples, STh was detected among 20.7 % and both enterotoxins were detected among 12.1 %. The enterotoxin STh was detected more commonly among cases

  17. Magnetic bead hybridization to detect enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains associated with cattle in environmental water sources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Li; Le, Joanne Y; Olson, Betty H

    2003-06-01

    A magnetic capture hybridization - polymerase chain reaction (MCH-PCR) method was used to increase the detection sensitivity of the enterotoxin gene LTIIa, used as a biomarker for waste in environmental samples. The samples were collected from cow lagoons of different farms and from environmental waters. Total DNA was extracted from colonies grown on mTEC medium or directly from environmental samples. The cow-specific Escherichia coli LTIIa gene was used as a DNA marker. A LTIIa-specific oligonucleotide probe was designed to capture the LTIIa marker during the MCH, followed by PCR. Varying levels of humic acid were added to the DNA extracts to evaluate the sensitivity and effectiveness of MCH-PCR. The minimal detection limit of MCH-PCR for the LTIIa gene was 2.5 ag/muL DNA. In the presence of humic acid, MCH-PCR was able to increase the detection sensitivity 10 000-fold over that of conventional PCR. The MCH-PCR could also detect one cell with the LTIIa DNA marker in a 1-L seeded environmental water sample. Results in this study indicate that MCH-PCR is more sensitive than nested PCR in testing environmental samples. PMID:14569293

  18. F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion mediated by the major fimbrial subunit FaeG.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengpeng; Song, Yujie; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    The FaeG subunit is the major constituent of F4(+) fimbriae, associated with glycoprotein and/or glycolipid receptor recognition and majorly contributes to the pathogen attachment to the host cells. To investigate the key factor involved in the fimbrial binding of F4(+) Escherichia coli, both the recombinant E. coli SE5000 strains carrying the fae operon gene clusters that express the different types of fimbriae in vitro, named as rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad, respectively, corresponding to the fimbrial types F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, and the three isogenic in-frame faeG gene deletion mutants were constructed. The adhesion assays and adhesion inhibition assays showed that ΔfaeG mutants had a significant reduction in the binding to porcine brush border as well as the intestinal epithelial cell lines, while the complemented strain ΔfaeG/pfaeG restored the adhesion function. The recombinant bacterial strains rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad have the same binding property as wild-type F4(+) E. coli strains do and improvement in terms of binding to porcine brush border and the intestinal epithelial cells, and the adherence was blocked by the monoclonal antibody anti-F4 fimbriae. These data demonstrate that the fimbrial binding of F4(+) E. coli is directly mediated by the major FaeG subunit. PMID:25847483

  19. Real-time PCR for differentiation of F18 variants among enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from piglets with diarrhoea and oedema disease.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jae-Won; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Kim, Ha-Young; Fairbrother, John M; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Wan-Kyu

    2013-11-01

    One-step real-time PCR using one set of primers and four probes was developed for differentiation of F18 variants (F18 common, F18ab, F18ac, F18new variant) of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli from piglets with diarrhoea and oedema disease. The limits of detection for F18common, F18ab, F18ac, and F18new variant were 10(7), 10(7), 10(5) and 10(7)colony forming units/g faeces, respectively. Of 94 Korean isolates of E. coli encoding F18, 70 were F18ac (43 STEC/ETEC, 4 STEC and 23 ETEC), 15 were F18ab (all STEC) and nine were F18new variant (1 STEC/ETEC, 7 STEC, 1 ETEC). PMID:23992871

  20. Flagellin and F4 fimbriae have opposite effects on biofilm formation and quorum sensing in F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Guo, Zhiyan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Qiangde; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Fenghua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xinjun; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-10

    Bacteria that form biofilms are often highly resistant to antibiotics and are capable of evading the host immune system. To evaluate the role of flagellin and F4 fimbriae on biofilm formation by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), we deleted the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein) and/or the faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes from ETEC C83902. Biofilm formation was reduced in the fliC mutant but increased in the faeG mutant, as compared with the wild-type strain. The expression of AI-2 quorum sensing associated genes was regulated in the fliC and faeG mutants, consistent with the biofilm formation of these strains. But, deleting fliC and/or faeG also inhibited AI-2 quorum sensing activity. PMID:24238669

  1. Toxins and virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli associated with strains isolated from indigenous children and international visitors to a rural community in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Torres, O R; González, W; Lemus, O; Pratdesaba, R A; Matute, J A; Wiklund, G; Sack, D A; Bourgeois, A L; Svennerholm, A-M

    2015-06-01

    Diarrhoea remains a common cause of illness in Guatemala, with children suffering most frequently from the disease. This study directly compared the frequency, enterotoxin, and colonization factor (CF) profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from children living in a rural community in Guatemala and from Western visitors to the same location during the same seasons, using similar detection methodologies. We found that ETEC accounted for 26% of severe cases of diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalization, 15% of diarrhoea in the community, and 29% of travellers' diarrhoea in visitors staying ⩾2 weeks. The toxin and CF patterns of the ETEC strains isolated from both groups differed significantly (P < 0·0005) as determined by χ 2 = 60·39 for CFs and χ 2 = 35 for toxins, while ETEC phenotypes found in Guatemalan children were comparable to those found in children from other areas of the world. PMID:25233938

  2. Detection of the heat-stable toxin coding gene (ST-gene) in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: development of a colour amplified PCR detection system.

    PubMed

    Fanning, S; O'Mullane, J; O'Meara, D; Ward, A; Joyce, C; Delaney, M; Cryan, B

    1995-12-01

    Screening biological samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has obvious advantages compared with current molecular analytical methods based on gel electrophoresis and/or hybridisation, both of which are expensive and time-consuming, therefore the development of a PCR assay format that is applicable to large sample numbers and that can readily use equipment commonly found in diagnostic laboratories would be advantageous. This report describes the development of a colour amplified PCR detection system which is simple in design and could be universally applied to the detection of any DNA template. As an example, the system has been applied in the detection of the heat-stable toxin coding gene (ST-gene) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The assay is sensitive, detecting 10 fg of a purified DNA template and 270 cfu of an ST-gene-positive ETEC strain. PMID:8555786

  3. An outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection in Norway, 2012: a reminder to consider uncommon pathogens in outbreaks involving imported products.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, E; Møller, K E; Wester, A L; Dahle, U R; Hermansen, N O; Jenum, P A; Thoresen, L; Vold, L

    2015-02-01

    We investigated an outbreak of gastroenteritis following a Christmas buffet served on 4-9 December 2012 to ~1300 hotel guests. More than 300 people were reported ill in initial interviews with hotel guests. To identify possible sources of infection we conducted a cohort investigation through which we identified 214 probable cases. Illness was associated with consumption of scrambled eggs (odds ratio 9·07, 95% confidence interval 5·20-15·84). Imported chives added fresh to the scrambled eggs were the suspected source of the outbreak but were unavailable for testing. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was eventually confirmed in 40 hotel guests. This outbreak reinforces that ETEC should be considered in non-endemic countries when the clinical picture is consistent and common gastrointestinal pathogens are not found. Following this outbreak, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority recommended that imported fresh herbs should be heat-treated before use in commercial kitchens. PMID:24813906

  4. An outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection in Norway, 2012: a reminder to consider uncommon pathogens in outbreaks involving imported products.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, E; Møller, K E; Wester, A L; Dahle, U R; Hermansen, N O; Jenum, P A; Thoresen, L; Vold, L

    2015-02-01

    We investigated an outbreak of gastroenteritis following a Christmas buffet served on 4-9 December 2012 to ~1300 hotel guests. More than 300 people were reported ill in initial interviews with hotel guests. To identify possible sources of infection we conducted a cohort investigation through which we identified 214 probable cases. Illness was associated with consumption of scrambled eggs (odds ratio 9·07, 95% confidence interval 5·20-15·84). Imported chives added fresh to the scrambled eggs were the suspected source of the outbreak but were unavailable for testing. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was eventually confirmed in 40 hotel guests. This outbreak reinforces that ETEC should be considered in non-endemic countries when the clinical picture is consistent and common gastrointestinal pathogens are not found. Following this outbreak, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority recommended that imported fresh herbs should be heat-treated before use in commercial kitchens.

  5. Evaluating the A-Subunit of the Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) As an Immunogen and a Protective Antigen Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Branco, Luis M; Clements, John D

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness contributes to malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development, and high morbidity rates in children worldwide. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to this diarrheal disease burden. ETEC cause disease in the small intestine by means of colonization factors and by production of a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a small non-immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Overall, the majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. LT induces secretion via an enzymatically active A-subunit (LT-A) and a pentameric, cell-binding B-subunit (LT-B). The importance of anti-LT antibodies has been demonstrated in multiple clinical and epidemiological studies, and a number of potential ETEC vaccine candidates have included LT-B as an important immunogen. However, there is limited information about the potential contribution of LT-A to development of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluate the immune response against the A-subunit of LT as well as the A-subunit's potential as a protective antigen when administered alone or in combination with the B-subunit of LT. We evaluated human sera from individuals challenged with a prototypic wild-type ETEC strain as well as sera from individuals living in an ETEC endemic area for the presence of anti-LT, anti-LT-A and anti-LT-B antibodies. In both cases, a significant number of individuals intentionally or endemically infected with ETEC developed antibodies against both LT subunits. In addition, animals immunized with the recombinant proteins developed robust antibody responses that were able to neutralize the enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects of native LT by blocking binding and entry into cells (anti-LT-B) or the intracellular enzymatic activity of the toxin (anti-LT-A). Moreover, antibodies to both LT subunits acted synergistically to neutralize the holotoxin when combined. Taken together, these data support the inclusion of both LT-A and LT-B in prospective vaccines

  6. Distribution of classical and nonclassical virulence genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from Chilean children and tRNA gene screening for putative insertion sites for genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Del Canto, Felipe; Valenzuela, Patricio; Cantero, Lidia; Bronstein, Jonathan; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Jorge; Prado, Valeria; Levine, Myron; Nataro, James; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Vidal, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea. Three adhesins (Tia, TibA, EtpA), an iron acquisition system (Irp1, Irp2, and FyuA), a GTPase (LeoA), and an autotransporter (EatA) are ETEC virulence-related proteins that, in contrast to the classical virulence factors (enterotoxins and fimbrial colonization factors) have not heretofore been targets in characterizing isolates from epidemiological studies. Here, we determined the occurrence of these nonclassical virulence genes in 103 ETEC isolates from Chilean children with diarrhea and described their association with O serogroups and classical virulence determinants. Because tia, leoA, irp2, and fyuA are harbored by pathogenicity islands inserted into the selC and asnT tRNA genes (tDNAs), we analyzed the regions flanking these loci. Ten additional tDNAs were also screened to identify hot spots for genetic insertions. Associations between the most frequent serogroups and classical colonization factor (CF)-toxin profiles included O6/LT-STh/CS1-CS3-CS21 (i.e., O6 serogroup, heat-labile [LT] and human heat-stable [STh] enterotoxins, and CFs CS1, -3 and -21), O6/LT-STh/CS2-CS3-CS21, and O104-O127/STh/CFAI-CS21. The eatA and etpA genes were detected in more than 70% of the collection, including diverse serogroups and virulence profiles. Sixteen percent of the ETEC strains were negative for classical and nonclassical adhesins, suggesting the presence of unknown determinants of adhesion. The leuX, thrW, and asnT tDNAs were disrupted in more than 65% of strains, suggesting they are hot spots for the insertion of mobile elements. Sequences similar to integrase genes were identified next to the thrW, asnT, pheV, and selC tDNAs. We propose that the eatA and etpA genes should be included in characterizations of ETEC isolates in future epidemiological studies to determine their prevalence in other geographical regions. Sequencing of tDNA-associated genetic insertions might identify new ETEC virulence

  7. Virulence repertoire of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from diarrhoeic lambs of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Mahanti, Achintya; Samanta, I; Dutta, T K; Ghosh, Monoj K; Bera, A K; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasis; Bhattacharya, D

    2011-03-01

    A total of 107 faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic lambs of high altitude terrains (2,000 to 5,000 m above the mean sea level) of Tawang and West Kameng districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Total 234 Escherichia coli were isolated and further subjected to PCR for the study of virulence repertoire characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Out of the 234 isolated E. coli, 32% were found positive for STEC, and 9% were carrying virulence gene for ETEC. The isolated STEC serogroups were O159, O127, O120, O113, O60, O30, O25, O8 and O2. Of all the 74 STEC strains, PCR showed that 18% isolates carried stx ( 1 ), 26% possessed stx ( 2 ) and 47% produced positive amplicon for both. Other virulent attributes like intimin (eaeA), enterohaemolysin (ehxA) and STEC auto-agglutinating adhesin (saa) were present in 18%, 43% and 44% of the isolates, respectively. The isolated ETEC serogroups were O172, O170, O159, O146, O127, O120, O113, O86, O75, O60, O30, O25, O8, O2, OR and OUT. Of the 22 ETEC-positive isolates, 23%, 18% and 4.5% possessed the gene only for LT, STa and STb, respectively, whereas 54% carried genes for both LT and STb. Some serogroups of E. coli like O159, O127, O120, O113, O60, O30, O25, O8 and O2 possessed genes for both Shiga toxin and enterotoxin. This study is the first report of ETEC isolation from diarrhoeic lambs in India. The moderately high proportion of STEC and ETEC in the diarrhoeic lambs implicated that these animals are important reservoir of STEC and ETEC. This is really a grave concern for the 'brokpas' and nomads (shepherds) who share a close relationship with this animals for their livelihood. This study also indicates that ETEC may be a major cause for frequent diarrhoeal episodes in lambs of this region. PMID:21104315

  8. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria of infantile diarrhea: surface antigens, hemagglutinins, colonization factor antigen, and loss of enterotoxigenicity.

    PubMed

    Bäck, E; Möllby, R; Kaijser, B; Stintzing, G; Wadström, T; Habte, D

    1980-09-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria isolated from diarrheal Ethiopian children were studied for O and K antigen, production of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), stability of LT production, properties of mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) (indicative of adhesive properties), and colonization factor antigen (CFA). Of the E. coli strains, 33% possessed O6, O8, or O78; 93% of these were stable producers of LT, and 86% produced both Lt and ST. O78 strains possessed CFA/I, whereas O6 and O8 strains possessed CFA/II. The E. coli with O antigens other than O6, O8, or O78, as well as the non-E. coli bacteria tended to lose their ability to produce LT; only 16% produced ST, and they only occasionally showed MRHA properties. The former group of E. coli strains might be considered as true enteropathogenic bacteria (enterovirulent E. coli), which may be identified serologically, while the pathogenic significance of the diversified latter group remains less certain. PMID:7003030

  9. Crystal Structure of the Minor Pilin CofB, the Initiator of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramania; Ng, Dixon; Yang, Guixiang; Harn, Tony; Craig, Lisa

    2015-10-23

    Type IV pili are extracellular polymers of the major pilin subunit. These subunits are held together in the pilus filament by hydrophobic interactions among their N-terminal α-helices, which also anchor the pilin subunits in the inner membrane prior to pilus assembly. Type IV pilus assembly involves a conserved group of proteins that span the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Among these is a set of minor pilins, so named because they share their hydrophobic N-terminal polymerization/membrane anchor segment with the major pilins but are much less abundant. Minor pilins influence pilus assembly and retraction, but their precise functions are not well defined. The Type IV pilus systems of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are among the simplest of Type IV pilus systems and possess only a single minor pilin. Here we show that the enterotoxigenic E. coli minor pilins CofB and LngB are required for assembly of their respective Type IV pili, CFA/III and Longus. Low levels of the minor pilins are optimal for pilus assembly, and CofB can be detected in the pilus fraction. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of N-terminally truncated CofB, revealing a pilin-like protein with an extended C-terminal region composed of two discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. The C-terminal region is required for CofB to initiate pilus assembly. We propose a model for CofB-initiated pilus assembly with implications for understanding filament growth in more complex Type IV pilus systems as well as the related Type II secretion system. PMID:26324721

  10. Long-Term Sentinel Surveillance for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Medus, Carlota; Besser, John M.; Juni, Billie A.; Koziol, Bonnie; Lappi, Victoria; Smith, Kirk E.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are not detected by conventional culture methods. The prevalence of ETEC infections in the United States is unknown, and recognized cases are primarily associated with foreign travel. Gaps remain in our understanding of STEC epidemiology. Methods. Two sentinel surveillance sites were enrolled: an urban health maintenance organization laboratory (Laboratory A) and a rural hospital laboratory (Laboratory B). Residual sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) plates from stool cultures performed at Laboratory A (1996–2006) and Laboratory B (2000–2008) were collected. Colony sweeps from SMAC plates were tested for genes encoding STEC toxins stx1 and stx2 (1996–2008) and ETEC heat-labile and heat-stable toxins eltB, estA 1, 2 and 3 (2000–2008) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. Results. In Laboratory A, a bacterial pathogen was identified in 7.0% of 21 970 specimens. During 1996–2006, Campylobacter was the most common bacterial pathogen (2.7% of cultures), followed by Salmonella (1.2%), Shigella (1.0%), and STEC (0.9%). Among STEC (n = 196), O157 was the most common serogroup (31%). During 2000–2006, ETEC (1.9%) was the second most common bacterial pathogen after Campylobacter (2.6%). In Laboratory B, of 19 293 specimens tested, a bacterial pathogen was identified for 5.5%, including Campylobacter (2.1%), STEC (1.3%), Salmonella (1.0%), and ETEC (0.8%). Among STEC (n = 253), O157 was the leading serogroup (35%). Among ETEC cases, 61% traveled internationally. Conclusions. Enterotoxigenic E. coli and STEC infections were as common as most other enteric bacterial pathogens, and ETEC may be detected more frequently by culture-independent multiplex PCR diagnostic methods. A high proportion of ETEC cases were domestically acquired. PMID:26913288

  11. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of F5 fimbriae gene in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kuiyu; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Wenxin; Feng, Yufei; He, Lili; Guan, Weikun; Hu, Wenxia; Shi, Dongfang

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of F5 fimbriae gene in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. A set of four primers were designed based on the conservative sequence of coding F5 fimbriae. Temperature and time condition, specificity test, and sensitivity test were performed with the DNA of Escherichia coli (F5+). The results showed that the optimal reaction condition for LAMP was achieved at 61 °C for 45 min in a water bath. Ladder-like products were produced with those F5-positive samples by LAMP, while no product was generated with other negative samples. The assay of LAMP had a detection limit equivalent to 72 cfu/tube, which was more sensitive than PCR (7.2 × 10(2) cfu/tube). The agreement rate between LAMP and PCR was 100 % in detecting simulation samples. Thus, the LAMP assay may be a new method for rapid detection of F5 fimbriae gene of ETEC. PMID:22890294

  12. Safety and Immunogenicity of Escalating Dosages of a Single Oral Administration of Peru-15 pCTB, a Candidate Live, Attenuated Vaccine against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wilbur H.; Garza, Jose; Choquette, Monique; Hawkins, Jennifer; Hoeper, Amy; Bernstein, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) organisms are a leading cause of infectious diarrhea in developing countries. A live, attenuated cholera strain that expresses high levels of the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin, which might also serve as an ETEC protective antigen, was evaluated for safety, excretion, and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers. We enrolled four inpatient dose-escalation cohorts of 15 to 16 eligible subjects to randomly (3:1) receive a single oral dose of vaccine or placebo (buffer alone), evaluating 1 ×107, 1 ×108, 1 ×109, and 1 ×1010 CFU of the vaccine. The vaccine was well tolerated, although some subjects experienced moderate diarrhea. The serum Inaba vibriocidal antibody response appeared to display a dose-response relationship with increasing dosages of vaccine, plateauing at the 109-CFU dosage. The serum antitoxin (cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin) antibody seroconversion rate (4-fold increase over baseline) also appeared to display a dose-response relationship. The vaccine strain was excreted in stool cultures, displaying a dose-response relationship. A single oral dose of Peru-15 pCTB at dosages up to 1 ×1010 CFU was safe and immunogenic in this first-in-human trial. These encouraging data support the ongoing clinical development of this candidate combined cholera and ETEC vaccine. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00654108.) PMID:25410205

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel protein produced by Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928 that inhibits the binding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Pb176 (CFA/II) to gangliotetraosylceramide.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Hashiba, H; Hirota, T; Forstner, J F

    1999-04-01

    A novel protein (BIF) which shows inhibitory activity on the binding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Pb176 (ETEC with colonization factor antigen (CFA) II, which consists of coli surface-associated antigens CS1 and CS3) to gangliotetraosylceramide (asialo GM1 or GA1) was isolated from the culture supernatant fluid of Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928 (BL2928) at its stationary phase. The homogeneity of the final preparation of BIF was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrofocusing and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The BIF was characterized as (i) a protein with an M(r) of approximately 104 kDa when chromatographed on a gel filtration column, and 52 kDa when separated on SDS-PAGE, and (ii) having an isoelectric point of 5.9. No change in size was produced by thiol reduction. These results suggest that BIF is a homodimer consisting of identical 52 kDa monomers. The purified BIF at the concentration of 25 micrograms protein ml-1 caused a 50% reduction in binding of the ETEC strain to GA1.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production. PMID:26907754

  15. Identification of a Gene within a Pathogenicity Island of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli H10407 Required for Maximal Secretion of the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, James M.; Lindler, Luther E.; Elsinghorst, Eric A.; Dale, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have largely centered on extrachromosomal determinants of virulence, in particular the plasmid-encoded heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins and the colonization factor antigens. ETEC causes illnesses that range from mild diarrhea to severe cholera-like disease. These differences in disease severity are not readily accounted for by our current understanding of ETEC pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Tia, a putative adhesin of ETEC H10407, is encoded on a large chromosomal element of approximately 46 kb that shares multiple features with previously described E. coli pathogenicity islands. Further analysis of the region downstream from tia revealed the presence of several candidate open reading frames (ORFs) in the same transcriptional orientation as tia. The putative proteins encoded by these ORFs bear multiple motifs associated with bacterial secretion apparatuses. An in-frame deletion in one candidate gene identified here as leoA (labile enterotoxin output) resulted in marked diminution of secretion of the LT enterotoxin and lack of fluid accumulation in a rabbit ileal loop model of infection. Although previous studies have suggested that E. coli lacks the capacity to secrete LT, our studies show that maximal release of LT from the periplasm of H10407 is dependent on one or more elements encoded on a pathogenicity island. PMID:10768971

  16. IgY against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli administered by hydrogel-carbon nanotubes composites to prevent neonatal diarrhoea in experimentally challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Alustiza, Fabrisio; Bellingeri, Romina; Picco, Natalia; Motta, Carlos; Grosso, Maria C; Barbero, Cesar A; Acevedo, Diego F; Vivas, Adriana

    2016-06-14

    In previous studies, the applicability of polymeric hydrogels for the protection of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against simulated gastric conditions was established. Thereafter, the performance of the hydrogels was improved with the addition of chitosan wrapped carbon nanotubes and the in vitro toxicity for porcine intestinal cells of these nanocomposites was assessed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vivo the protective efficacy of the nanocomoposite matrix for IgY when the immunoglobulin is used against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in challenged piglets. Groups of piglets orally challenged with 10(11)CFU/mL of ETEC were treated with non-protected and protected IgY. The clinical response of each group was monitored and evaluated in terms of dehydration, rectal temperature, faecal consistency score and body weight gain. Blood parameters and histological aspects were also studied. The results showed that treatment of infected piglets with protected IgY reduced significantly the severity of diarrhea. Non-protected IgY group show a lower recovery rate. Blood parameters and histological aspects were normal in both groups. Collectively, these results support previous in vitro studies showing that the nanocomposites can be an effective method of IgY protection against gastric inactivation.

  17. Both flagella and F4 fimbriae from F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute to attachment to IPEC-J2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Duan, Qiangde; Zhu, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhiyan; Li, Yinchau; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    The role of flagella in the pathogenesis of F4ac+ Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) mediated neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is not currently understood. We targeted the reference C83902 ETEC strain (O8:H19:F4ac+ LT+ STa+ STb+), to construct isogenic mutants in the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein), motA (encoding the flagella motor), and faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes. Both the ΔfliC and ΔfaeG mutants had a reduced ability to adhere to porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells. F4 fimbriae expression was significantly down-regulated after deleting fliC, which revealed that co-regulation exists between flagella and F4 fimbriae. However, there was no difference in adhesion between the ΔmotA mutant and its parent strain. These data demonstrate that both flagella and F4 fimbriae are required for efficient F4ac+ ETEC adhesion in vitro. PMID:23668601

  18. Efficacy of thiolated eudragit microspheres as an oral vaccine delivery system to induce mucosal immunity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jung; Cha, Seungbin; Shin, Minkyoung; Jung, Myunghwan; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Cho, Chong-su; Yoo, Han Sang

    2012-05-01

    A vaccine delivery system based on thiolated eudragit microsphere (TEMS) was studied in vivo for its ability to elicit mucosal immunity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Groups of mice were orally immunized with F4 or F18 fimbriae of ETEC and F4 or F18 loaded in TEMS. Mice that were orally administered with F4 or F18 loaded TEMS showed higher antigen-specific IgG antibody responses in serum and antigen-specific IgA in saliva and feces than mice that were immunized with antigens only. In addition, oral vaccination of F4 or F18 loaded TEMS resulted in higher numbers of IgG and IgA antigen-specific antibody secreting cells in the spleen, lamina propria, and Peyer's patches of immunized mice than other groups. Moreover, TEMS administration loaded with F4 or F18 induced mixed Th1 and Th2 type responses based on similarly increased levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. These results suggest that F4 or F18 loaded TEMS may be a promising candidate for an oral vaccine delivery system to elicit systemic and mucosal immunity against ETEC. PMID:22306699

  19. Binding of CFA/I Pili of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to Asialo-GM1 Is Mediated by the Minor Pilin CfaE.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Riches, James D; Scanlon, Martin J; Ulett, Glen C; Sakellaris, Harry

    2016-05-01

    CFA/I pili are representatives of a large family of related pili that mediate the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells. They are assembled via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway and consist of two subunits, CfaB, which makes up the pilus shaft and a single pilus tip-associated subunit, CfaE. The current model of pilus-mediated adherence proposes that CFA/I has two distinct binding activities; the CfaE subunit is responsible for binding to receptors of unknown structure on erythrocyte and intestinal epithelial cell surfaces, while CfaB binds to various glycosphingolipids, including asialo-GM1. In this report, we present two independent lines of evidence that, contrary to the existing model, CfaB does not bind to asialo-GM1 independently of CfaE. Neither purified CfaB subunits nor CfaB assembled into pili bind to asialo-GM1. Instead, we demonstrate that binding activity toward asialo-GM1 resides in CfaE and this is essential for pilus binding to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that the binding activities of CFA/I pili for asialo-GM1, erythrocytes, and intestinal cells are inseparable, require the same amino acid residues in CfaE, and therefore depend on the same or very similar binding mechanisms. PMID:26975993

  20. Two specific amino acid variations in colonization factor CS6 subtypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli results in differential binding and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Anusuya; Wajima, Takeaki; Sabui, Subrata; Hamabata, Takashi; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2015-04-01

    CS6 is the predominant colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We report the existence of multiple CS6 subtypes caused by natural point mutations in cssA and cssB, the structural genes for CS6. The subtype AIBI was mostly associated with ETEC isolated from diarrhoeal cases, whereas AIIBII was mostly found in asymptomatic controls. Here we explore the rationale behind this association. ETEC isolates expressing AIIBII showed weaker adherence to intestinal epithelial cells compared with ETEC expressing AIBI. AIIBII expression on the ETEC cell surface was threefold less than AIBI. We found that alanine at position 37 in CssAII, in conjunction with asparagine at position 97 in CssBII, was responsible for the decreased levels of AIIBII on the bacterial surface. In addition, purified AIIBII showed fourfold less mucin binding compared with AIBI. The asparagine at position 97 in CssBII was also accountable for the decreased mucin binding by AIIBII. Reduced fluid accumulation and colonization occurred during infection with ETEC expressing AIIBII in animal models. Together these results indicate that the differential adherence between AIBI and AIIBII was a cumulative effect of decreased surface-level expression and mucin binding of AIIBII due to two specific amino acid variations. As a consequence, ETEC expressing these two subtypes displayed differential pathogenicity. We speculate that this might explain the subjective association of AIBI with ETEC from diarrhoeal cases and AIIBII with asymptomatic controls. PMID:25635273

  1. The LT1 and LT2 variants of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile toxin (LT) are associated with major ETEC lineages.

    PubMed

    Joffré, Enrique; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    The heat-labile toxin (LT) is one of the major virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We recently described that 20 polymorphic LT variants are present in ETEC strains isolated globally. Two of the variants, LT1 and LT2, are particularly common and we found that they were associated with clonal ETEC lineages that express the colonization factors (CFs), CFA/I, CS1+CS3, CS2+CS3, and CS5+CS6. ETEC expressing these CFs are frequently found among ETEC strains isolated from cases with diarrhea. ETEC expressing the colonization factors CS1+CS3, and CS2+CS3 are found in 2 discrete clonal lineages and express the LT1 variant and heat stable toxin (STh). Although they clearly are virulent they neither produce, nor secrete, high amounts of LT toxin. On the other hand ETEC strains expressing LT, STh, CFA/I and LT, STh, CS5+CS6, carry the LT2 variant and produce and secrete significantly more LT toxin. Despite differences in toxin production, LT1 and LT2 are found in ETEC lineages that have managed to spread globally confirming that these variants are important for ETEC virulence. PMID:26939855

  2. Entire sequence of the colonization factor coli surface antigen 6-encoding plasmid pCss165 from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Sabui, Subrata; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Hamabata, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) is one of the most prevalent colonization factors among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated in developing countries. Although it is known that CS6 is encoded by a plasmid, there are no reports on the sequence analysis of the CS6-encoding plasmid or genes exhibiting similar behavior to CS6. Here, we report the isolation of the CS6-encoding plasmid, pCss165Kan, from 4266 ΔcssB::kanamycin (Km) and its complete nucleotide sequence. This plasmid consisted of 165,311bp and 222 predicted coding sequences. Remarkably, there were many insertion sequence (IS) elements, which comprised 24.4% of the entire sequence. Virulence-associated genes such as heat-stable enterotoxin, homologues of ATP-binding cassette transporter in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and ETEC autotransporter A were also present, although the ETEC autotransporter A gene was disrupted by the integration of IS629. We found that 2 transcriptional regulators belonging to the AraC family were not involved in CS6 expression. Interestingly, pCss165 had conjugative transfer genes, as well as 3 toxin-antitoxin systems that potentially exclude other plasmid-free host bacteria. These genes might be involved in the prevalence of CS6 among ETEC isolates. PMID:23933356

  3. The LT1 and LT2 variants of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile toxin (LT) are associated with major ETEC lineages

    PubMed Central

    Joffré, Enrique; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The heat-labile toxin (LT) is one of the major virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We recently described that 20 polymorphic LT variants are present in ETEC strains isolated globally. Two of the variants, LT1 and LT2, are particularly common and we found that they were associated with clonal ETEC lineages that express the colonization factors (CFs), CFA/I, CS1+CS3, CS2+CS3, and CS5+CS6. ETEC expressing these CFs are frequently found among ETEC strains isolated from cases with diarrhea. ETEC expressing the colonization factors CS1+CS3, and CS2+CS3 are found in 2 discrete clonal lineages and express the LT1 variant and heat stable toxin (STh). Although they clearly are virulent they neither produce, nor secrete, high amounts of LT toxin. On the other hand ETEC strains expressing LT, STh, CFA/I and LT, STh, CS5+CS6, carry the LT2 variant and produce and secrete significantly more LT toxin. Despite differences in toxin production, LT1 and LT2 are found in ETEC lineages that have managed to spread globally confirming that these variants are important for ETEC virulence. PMID:26939855

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from U.S. military personnel participating in Operation Bright Star, Egypt, from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nada, Rania A; Armstrong, Adam; Shaheen, Hind I; Nakhla, Isabelle; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Young, Sylvia; Sebeny, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health problem for travelers to the Middle East. During the autumn months of 2005, 2007, and 2009, U.S. military personnel participated in Operation Bright Star (OBS) exercises in Egypt. Out of 181 military personnel enrolled in a diarrheal surveillance study, E. coli-like colonies were isolated from 170 patients. Isolates were tested for the detection of ETEC enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Additionally, we studied the secular trends of ETEC isolates obtained from OBS studies since 1999. ETEC was isolated from 51.2% and 60.0% of the patients based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Heat stable (ST) was the dominant enterotoxin detected followed by heat labile (LT) and LTST. Additionally, we detected a CF in 59.7% and 67.6% of the ETEC-positive isolates using dot blot and PCR assays, respectively. The predominant CF isolated was CS6 followed by CS3. PMID:23639795

  5. Different assay conditions for detecting the production and release of heat-labile and heat-stable toxins in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Letícia B; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Horton, Denise S P Q; Menezes, Caroline A; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C; Vaz, Tania M I; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F

    2013-12-02

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.

  6. Influence of dietary ingredients on in vitro inflammatory response of intestinal porcine epithelial cells challenged by an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88).

    PubMed

    Hermes, Rafael G; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Martín-Orúe, Susana M; Pérez, José F; Klasing, Kirk C

    2011-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 is the main bacterial cause of diarrhea in piglets around weaning and the adhesion of ETEC to the intestinal mucosa is a prerequisite step for its colonization. In this study, the adhesion of a fimbriated ETEC and a non-fimbriated E. coli (NFEC) to the intestinal cells and the activation of the innate immune system were evaluated using a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The impact of several feedstuffs (wheat bran (WB); casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP); mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS); locust bean extract (LB) and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AO)) on ETEC attachment and the inflammatory response were also studied. The gene expression of TLR-4; TLR-5; IL-1β; IL-8; IL-10 and TNF-α were quantified using Cyclophilin-A, as a reference gene, and related to a non-challenged treatment. The fimbriated strain was markedly better than the non-fimbriated strain at adherence to intestinal cells and inducing an inflammatory response. All the feedstuffs studied were able to reduce the adhesion of ETEC, with the greatest decrease with CGMP or MOS at highest concentration. Regarding the inflammatory response, the highest dose of WB promoted the lowest relative expression of cytokines and chemokines. All tested feedstuffs were able to reduce the adhesion of ETEC to IPEC-J2 and interfere on the innate inflammatory response; however WB should be further studied according to the beneficial results on the intestinal inflammatory process evidenced in this study. PMID:21944732

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from U.S. military personnel participating in Operation Bright Star, Egypt, from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nada, Rania A; Armstrong, Adam; Shaheen, Hind I; Nakhla, Isabelle; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Young, Sylvia; Sebeny, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health problem for travelers to the Middle East. During the autumn months of 2005, 2007, and 2009, U.S. military personnel participated in Operation Bright Star (OBS) exercises in Egypt. Out of 181 military personnel enrolled in a diarrheal surveillance study, E. coli-like colonies were isolated from 170 patients. Isolates were tested for the detection of ETEC enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Additionally, we studied the secular trends of ETEC isolates obtained from OBS studies since 1999. ETEC was isolated from 51.2% and 60.0% of the patients based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Heat stable (ST) was the dominant enterotoxin detected followed by heat labile (LT) and LTST. Additionally, we detected a CF in 59.7% and 67.6% of the ETEC-positive isolates using dot blot and PCR assays, respectively. The predominant CF isolated was CS6 followed by CS3.

  8. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  9. Nanoparticulated heat-stable (STa) and heat-labile B subunit (LTB) recombinant toxin improves vaccine protection against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli challenge in mouse.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guangcun; Zeng, Jin; Jian, Minjie; Liu, Wenmiao; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2013-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remains a major cause of diarrheic disease in developing areas, for which there is no effective vaccine available. In this study, we genetically engineered a recombinant heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) coupled to the subunit B of heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB). This fusion protein, STa-LTB, possesses a single amino acid substitution at position 14 of STa. Our data demonstrates that the enterotoxicity of STa in STa-LTB was dramatically reduced. A gelatin nanovaccine candidate was prepared using the purified STa-LTB fusion protein characterized with an entrapment efficiency of 84.88 ± 6.37% and smooth spheres size ranges of 80-200 nm. Antigen-specific antibody responses against STa-LTB and STa in the sera and the intestinal mucus respectively were used to test the immunogenicity of the nanovaccine. This vaccine was further screened in mice by its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies against STa and protect animals from the challenge with ETEC in mice. The STa-LTB nanoparticles delivered demonstrated a capacity to induce significantly higher and long-lasting antibody responses and increased immune protection against ETEC challenge relative to the control STa-LTB vaccine absorbed in conventional aluminum hydrate salt (p < 0.01). These results warrant the further studies of the development of a novel nanoparticulate vaccine as a broad-spectrum vaccine against ETEC infection.

  10. Cooperative role of antibodies against heat-labile toxin and the EtpA Adhesin in preventing toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Hamilton, David J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2012-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries, where it is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Vaccine development for ETEC has been hindered by the heterogeneity of known molecular targets and the lack of broad-based sustained protection afforded by existing vaccine strategies. In an effort to explore the potential role of novel antigens in ETEC vaccines, we examined the ability of antibodies directed against the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and the recently described EtpA adhesin to prevent intestinal colonization in vivo and toxin delivery to epithelial cells in vitro. We demonstrate that EtpA is required for the optimal delivery of LT and that antibodies against this adhesin play at least an additive role in preventing delivery of LT to target intestinal cells when combined with antibodies against either the A or B subunits of the toxin. Moreover, vaccination with a combination of LT and EtpA significantly impaired intestinal colonization. Together, these results suggest that the incorporation of recently identified molecules such as EtpA could be used to enhance current approaches to ETEC vaccine development. PMID:22875600

  11. Comparative evaluation of a vaccine candidate expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesins for colibacillosis with a commercial vaccine using a pig model.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a comparative evaluation of a novel live vaccine candidate expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbriae and a commercial ETEC vaccine was carried out in suckling to weaned piglets. The E. coli K88ab, K88ac, K99, FasA and F41 fimbrial genes were individually inserted into an expression/secretion plasmid, pBP244. These plasmids were subsequently transfected into attenuated Salmonella, which were used as the vaccine candidate. Eighteen pregnant sows and 107 of their piglets were used in this comparative study. All the vaccinated groups of sows and piglets exhibited significantly increased antibody levels relative to specific antigens when compared with those in the unimmunized control. The experimental piglets with the vaccine candidate did not experience diarrhea following challenge with the virulent ETEC strains. However, diarrhea was observed in 36.8% of the piglets in the group immunized with the commercial vaccine and in 50% of the control group after challenge with the ETEC strains. These findings indicate that immunization of sows with the candidate vaccine can effectively protect their young pigs against colibacillosis. PMID:22507658

  12. Diarrhea-like condition and intestinal mucosal responses in susceptible homozygous and heterozygous F4R+ pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, S; Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B; Lauridsen, C

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 is a major cause of diarrhea in both neonatal and young pigs. Indeed, only pigs having F4 receptors are susceptible. Among the susceptible pigs, it is yet unknown if spontaneous E. coli postweaning diarrhea (PWD) occurrence and intestinal mucosal responses to ETEC differ between genotypes. This study investigated a diarrhea-like condition and intestinal mucosal responses in F4 homo- and heterozygous susceptible weaner pigs. Sixteen weaned pigs (28 d of age) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study with genotype (homo- or heterozygous F4R(+)) and inoculation with E. coli F4 or not as the 2 factors. Within genotype, 4 pigs were inoculated with E. coli F4 and the other 4 pigs received saline buffer on days 7 and 8 after weaning. Fecal score and DM and bacterial counts were conducted from days 7 to 12 after weaning. Blood was obtained on days 3 and 10 after weaning and at the time of killing. Four pigs were killed per day on days 14, 15, 16, and 17. Small intestine (SI) was divided into 3 parts of equal length for measurement of intestinal weight and the amount of mucosa. Lymphocyte subsets in jejunal Peyer's patches (jejPP) were analyzed using flow cytometry. Escherichia coli reduced (P = 0.05) total percentage of intestinal mucosa (on a dry basis) and had an impact on metabolomics profile of the plasma. No effect of genotype was seen on fecal score and DM, fecal shedding of hemolytic E. coli, mucosal responses, metabolomics profile, antibody responses, and lymphocyte subsets counts. This study suggests that both F4 homo- and heterozygous susceptible pigs have similar functional receptors for E. coli F4, which facilitate the adhesion of F4 to the intestinal tissue. PMID:23365356

  13. A novel mass spectrometric strategy “BEMAP” reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G.; Larsen, Martin R.; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  14. A novel mass spectrometric strategy "BEMAP" reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G; Larsen, Martin R; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  15. Lactobacillus amylovorus Inhibits the TLR4 Inflammatory Signaling Triggered by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli via Modulation of the Negative Regulators and Involvement of TLR2 in Intestinal Caco-2 Cells and Pig Explants

    PubMed Central

    Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Imbinto, Ambra; Seeboth, Julie; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Mengheri, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation derived from pathogen infection involves the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Despite the established immunomodulatory activities of probiotics, studies relating the ability of such bacteria to inhibit the TLR signaling pathways are limited or controversial. In a previous study we showed that Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698T, a novel lactobacillus isolated from unweaned pigs, protects the intestinal cells from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 infection through cytokine regulation. In the present study we investigated whether the ability of L. amylovorus to counteract the inflammatory status triggered by ETEC in intestine is elicited through inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway. We used the human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells and intestinal explants isolated from 5 week-old crossbreed Pietrain/Duroc/Large-White piglets, treated with ETEC, L. amylovorus or L. amylovorus cell free supernatant, either alone or simultaneously with ETEC. Western blot analysis showed that L. amylovorus and its cell free supernatant suppress the activation of the different steps of TLR4 signaling in Caco-2/TC7 cells and pig explants, by inhibiting the ETEC induced increase in the level of TLR4 and MyD88, the phosphorylation of the IKKα, IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65, as well as the over-production of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β. The immunofluorescence analysis confirms the lack of phospho-p65 translocation into the nucleus. These anti-inflammatory effects are achieved through modulation of the negative regulators Tollip and IRAK-M. We also found that L. amylovorus blocks the up-regulation of the extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp)72 and Hsp90, that are critical for TLR4 function. By using anti-TLR2 antibody, we demonstrate that TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation. These results may contribute to develop therapeutic interventions using L. amylovorus in intestinal disorders of piglets and humans

  16. Lysine Residue 117 of the FasG Adhesin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Essential for Binding of 987P Fimbriae to Sulfatide

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Kwon; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    1999-01-01

    The FasG subunit of the 987P fimbriae of enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli was previously shown to mediate fimbrial binding to a glycoprotein and a sulfatide receptor on intestinal brush borders of piglets. Moreover, the 987P adhesin FasG is required for fimbrial expression, since fasG null mutants are nonfimbriated. In this study, fasG was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to study its sulfatide binding properties. Twenty single mutants were generated by replacing positively charged lysine (K) or arginine (R) residues with small, nonpolar alanine (A) residues. Reduced levels of binding to sulfatide-containing liposomes correlated with reduced fimbriation and FasG surface display in four fasG mutants (R27A, R286A, R226A, and R368). Among the 16 remaining normally fimbriated mutants with wild-type levels of surface-exposed FasG, only one mutant (K117A) did not interact at all with sulfatide-containing liposomes. Four mutants (K117A, R116A, K118A, and R200A) demonstrated reduced binding to such liposomes. Since complete phenotypic dissociation between the structure and specific function of 987P was observed only with mutant K117A, this residue is proposed to play an essential role in the FasG-sulfatide interaction, possibly communicating with the sulfate group of sulfatide by hydrogen bonding and/or salt bridge formation. Residues K17, R116, K118, and R200 may stabilize this interaction. PMID:10531225

  17. A standardised challenge model with an enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli strain in piglets assessing clinical traits and faecal shedding of fae and est-II toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Franz; Vahjen, Wilfried; Pieper, Robert; Martinez-Vallespin, Beatriz; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five feed additives on post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets challenged 3 d after weaning with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (ETEC). In three experimental runs, a total of 84 piglets was weaned at 21 days of age and randomly assigned to seven treatments. As dietary treatment, piglets were fed a basal diet or diets with addition of bovine colostrum (0.2%), pineapple stem extract containing bromelain (0.2%), an autolysed yeast preparation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (0.1%), a combination of organic acids (0.7%) and a phytogenic product with thyme essential oil (0.015%). A porcine ETEC, serotype O149:K91:K88ac was given twice via oral infection on day 3 after weaning at 10(10) colony forming units/animal. One group of piglets was fed the basal diet without ETEC challenge. Traits included clinical sores, body temperature, faecal scoring and determination of faecal dry matter and the shedding of fae and est-II ETEC toxin genes. After weaning, non-challenged control piglets did not show signs of diarrhoea or impaired health, while the majority of infected piglets had a drop in body temperature, signs of diarrhoea and impaired general health. Mortality, the decrease of faecal dry matter and shedding of the toxin genes fae and est-II were not affected by the different additives. In conclusion, the ETEC challenge model induced distinct clinical signs of PWD in piglets, but the tested feed additives had no preventive effect under these conditions.

  18. A standardised challenge model with an enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli strain in piglets assessing clinical traits and faecal shedding of fae and est-II toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Franz; Vahjen, Wilfried; Pieper, Robert; Martinez-Vallespin, Beatriz; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five feed additives on post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets challenged 3 d after weaning with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (ETEC). In three experimental runs, a total of 84 piglets was weaned at 21 days of age and randomly assigned to seven treatments. As dietary treatment, piglets were fed a basal diet or diets with addition of bovine colostrum (0.2%), pineapple stem extract containing bromelain (0.2%), an autolysed yeast preparation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (0.1%), a combination of organic acids (0.7%) and a phytogenic product with thyme essential oil (0.015%). A porcine ETEC, serotype O149:K91:K88ac was given twice via oral infection on day 3 after weaning at 10(10) colony forming units/animal. One group of piglets was fed the basal diet without ETEC challenge. Traits included clinical sores, body temperature, faecal scoring and determination of faecal dry matter and the shedding of fae and est-II ETEC toxin genes. After weaning, non-challenged control piglets did not show signs of diarrhoea or impaired health, while the majority of infected piglets had a drop in body temperature, signs of diarrhoea and impaired general health. Mortality, the decrease of faecal dry matter and shedding of the toxin genes fae and est-II were not affected by the different additives. In conclusion, the ETEC challenge model induced distinct clinical signs of PWD in piglets, but the tested feed additives had no preventive effect under these conditions. PMID:25313936

  19. Beyond Serotypes and Virulence-Associated Factors: Detection of Genetic Diversity among O153:H45 CFA/I Heat-Stable Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, A. B. F.; Ferreira, L. C. S.; Pichel, M. G.; Almeida, D. F.; Binsztein, N.; Viboud, G. I.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has been based almost exclusively on the detection of phenotypic traits such as serotypes and virulence-associated factors: heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxins and colonization factors (CFs). In the present work we show that the analysis of band patterns generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of digested chromosomal DNA can be used to detect genetic diversity among ETEC strains expressing identical phenotypic traits. The study included 29 ETEC isolates from Latin America and Spain expressing the phenotype O153:H45 CFA/I ST plus 1 rough derivative, 2 nonmotile derivatives, and 1 O78:H12 CFA/I ST isolate, and a representative of a genetically distinct ETEC group. The results showed that the O153:H45 CFA/I ST ETEC isolates belong to a single clonal cluster whose isolates share on average, 84% of the RAPD bands and 77% of the PFGE restriction fragments, while the O78:H12 isolate shared only 44 and 4% of the RAPD bands and PFGE fragments, respectively, with the isolates of the O153:H45 group. More relevantly, RAPD and PFGE fingerprints disclosed the presence of different clonal lineages among the isolates of the O153:H45 cluster. Some of the genetic variants were isolated from defined geographic areas, while places like São Paulo City in Brazil and the middle-eastern part of Argentina were populated by several genetic variants of related, but not identical, ETEC strains. These results show that molecular biology-based typing methods can disclose strain diversity, which is usually missed in studies restricted to phenotypic typing of ETEC. PMID:11724869

  20. Concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections associated with parsley: implications for surveillance and control of foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Wicklund, Julie H; Olsen, Sonja J; Krause, Gerard; Wells, Joy G; Bartkus, Joanne M; Boxrud, David J; Sullivan, Maureen; Kassenborg, Heidi; Besser, John M; Mintz, Eric D; Osterholm, Michael T; Hedberg, Craig W

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, eight restaurant-associated outbreaks of shigellosis caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei occurred in the United States and Canada. The outbreak strain was characterized by unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Epidemiologic investigation determined that the illness was associated with the ingestion of parsley at four restaurants; at the other four restaurants, the majority of the people who contracted the illness ate parsley. Isolates from patrons in two unrelated restaurant-associated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) outbreaks in Minnesota shared a common serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Parsley was the implicated or suspected source of both ETEC outbreaks. In each of the outbreak-associated restaurants, parsley was chopped, held at room temperature, and used as an ingredient or garnish for multiple dishes. Infected food workers at several restaurants may also have contributed to the propagation of the outbreak. The sources of parsley served in outbreak-associated restaurants were traced, and a 1,600-acre farm in Baja California, Mexico, was identified as a likely source of the parsley implicated in six of the seven Shigella outbreaks and as a possible source of the parsley implicated in the two ETEC outbreaks. Global food supplies and large distribution networks demand strengthened laboratory and epidemiologic capacity to enable state and local public health agencies to conduct foodborne disease surveillance and to promote effective responses to multistate outbreaks.

  1. Generation of Salmonella ghost cells expressing fimbrial antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and evaluation of their antigenicity in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Song; Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium ghost cells expressing K88ab, K88ac, K99, and FasA fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in their envelopes were constructed. The genes encoding the fimbriae were individually cloned into an expression plasmid, pMMP81, carrying the asd gene, which was subsequently electroporated into the Δasd S. Typhimurium mutant. Plasmid pJHLP99, carrying the phiX174 lysis gene E, was also subsequently electroporated into the Salmonella mutant. The presence of the individual fimbriae on the ghost cells was examined by Western blot analysis. Forty BALB/c mice were equally divided into 2 groups of 20 mice each. Group A mice were intramuscularly vaccinated with a mixture of the 4 ghost cells expressing the individual fimbriae. The group B mice were inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline as a control. The antigen-specific serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher in group A than in group B from week 2 until week 6 after inoculation. In addition, the antigen-specific IgA concentrations in fecal samples were significantly higher in group A than in group B at week 2 after inoculation. A large difference between the groups in the number of antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the small intestine was observed by immunohistochemical study. Also, the splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses were significantly greater in group A than in the control mice. These results suggest that vaccination with our Salmonella ghost cells can induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and that the increased number of antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the small intestine may be correlated with the elevated fecal IgA immune response. PMID:26733731

  2. Effect of susceptibility to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 and of dietary tryptophan on gut microbiota diversity observed in healthy young pigs.

    PubMed

    Messori, Stefano; Trevisi, Paolo; Simongiovanni, Aude; Priori, Davide; Bosi, Paolo

    2013-02-22

    Healthy weaned pigs susceptible to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC) require more tryptophan (Trp) to maximize their performance. This may be related to an effect on intestinal microbiota. We studied the intestinal bacterial diversity of healthy pigs with different susceptibility to ETEC and fed different Trp levels. Thirty-six littermate weaned pigs were selected to obtain a set potentially formed of 50% ETEC-susceptible and 50% non-susceptible pigs, based on a Mucin 4 gene polymorphism. Pigs were fed a diet with 0.17 (TrpL) or 0.22 (TrpH) standardized ileal digestible Trp:Lys ratio for 21 days. Slaughtered pigs were classified into non-susceptible, mildly susceptible, and susceptible, by testing ETEC adhesion to intestinal villi. Bacterial diversity in jejunum content was assessed by the 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis and expressed by the Shannon index. Susceptible pigs had a reduced bacterial diversity, particularly with TrpL diet (p=0.003). The ETEC adhesion class affected the quantification of enterobacteria DNA (p=0.027). One DGGE band, which referred to Clostridium bartlettii, was not evidenced in all the susceptible pigs; less DNA from this microbe was quantified by RT-PCR in the jejunum from TrpH susceptible pigs (p=0.025) compared to TrpL. The gene expression for β-galactoside α-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 was higher in jejunal tissue of ETEC-susceptible pigs (p=0.019). In studies on pig gut microbiota, the presence of intestinal receptors for ETEC should be considered because of their contribution to a reduced bacterial diversity. This effect could be partially reversed by dietary Trp addition. PMID:23021862

  3. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  4. Electron Acceptors Induce Secretion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin under Anaerobic Conditions through Promotion of GspD Assembly.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Fu, Enqing; Xie, Yonghong; Jin, Faguang

    2016-10-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), the major virulence factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), can lead to severe diarrhea and promotes ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Most previous in vitro studies focused on ETEC pathogenesis were conducted under aerobic conditions, which do not reflect the real situation of ETEC infection because the intestine is anoxic. In this study, the expression and secretion of LT under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions were determined; LT was not efficiently secreted into the supernatant under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions unless terminal electron acceptors (trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate [TMAO] or nitrate) were available. Furthermore, we found that the restoration effects of TMAO and nitrate on LT secretion could be inhibited by amytal or ΔtorCAD and ΔnarG E. coli strains, indicating that LT secretion under anaerobic conditions was dependent on the integrity of the respiratory chain. At the same time, electron acceptors increase the ATP level of ETEC, but this increase was not the main reason for LT secretion. Subsequently, the relationship between the integrity of the respiratory chain and the function of the type II secretion system was determined. The GspD protein, the secretin of ETEC, was assembled under anaerobic conditions and was accompanied by LT secretion when TMAO or nitrate was added. Our data also demonstrated that TMAO and nitrate could not induce the GspD assembly and LT secretion in ΔtorCAD and ΔnarG strains, respectively. Moreover, GspD assembly under anaerobic conditions was assisted by the pilot protein YghG.

  5. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander.

  6. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells.

  7. Oral Immunization with a Salmonella typhimurium Vaccine Vector Expressing Recombinant Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K99 Fimbriae Elicits Elevated Antibody Titers for Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ascón, Miguel A.; Hone, David M.; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) continues to cause mortality in piglets and newborn calves. In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of F5+ ETEC infections, a balanced lethal asd+ plasmid carrying the complete K99 operon was constructed and designated pMAK99-asd+. Introduction of this plasmid into an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Δaro Δasd strain, H683, resulted in strain AP112, which stably expresses E. coli K99 fimbriae. A single oral immunization of BALB/c and CD-1 mice with strain AP112 elicited significant mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers that remained elevated for >11 weeks. IgA and IgG responses in serum specific for K99 fimbriae were also induced, with a prominent IgG1, as well as IgG2a and IgG2b, titer. To assess the derivation of these antibodies, a K99 isotype-specific B-cell ELISPOT analysis was conducted by using mononuclear cells from the lamina propria of the small intestines (LP), Peyer’s patches (PP), and spleens of vaccinated and control BALB/c mice. This analysis revealed elevated numbers of K99 fimbria-specific IgA-producing cells in the LP, PP, and spleen, whereas elevated K99 fimbria-specific IgG-producing cells were detected only in the PP and spleen. These antibodies were important for protective immunity. One-day-old neonates from dams orally immunized with AP112 were provided passive protection against oral challenge with wild-type ETEC, in contrast to challenged neonates from unvaccinated dams or from dams vaccinated with a control Salmonella vector. These results confirm that oral Salmonella vaccine vectors effectively deliver K99 fimbriae to mucosal inductive sites for sustained elevation of IgA and IgG antibodies and for eliciting protective immunity. PMID:9784559

  8. Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Wlodzimierz; Najnigier, Boguslaw; Stelmasiak, Teodor; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Materials and methods. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. Results. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection;p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection;p =0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Conclusions. Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21526980

  9. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander. PMID:27375249

  10. Electron Acceptors Induce Secretion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin under Anaerobic Conditions through Promotion of GspD Assembly.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Fu, Enqing; Xie, Yonghong; Jin, Faguang

    2016-10-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), the major virulence factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), can lead to severe diarrhea and promotes ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Most previous in vitro studies focused on ETEC pathogenesis were conducted under aerobic conditions, which do not reflect the real situation of ETEC infection because the intestine is anoxic. In this study, the expression and secretion of LT under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions were determined; LT was not efficiently secreted into the supernatant under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions unless terminal electron acceptors (trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate [TMAO] or nitrate) were available. Furthermore, we found that the restoration effects of TMAO and nitrate on LT secretion could be inhibited by amytal or ΔtorCAD and ΔnarG E. coli strains, indicating that LT secretion under anaerobic conditions was dependent on the integrity of the respiratory chain. At the same time, electron acceptors increase the ATP level of ETEC, but this increase was not the main reason for LT secretion. Subsequently, the relationship between the integrity of the respiratory chain and the function of the type II secretion system was determined. The GspD protein, the secretin of ETEC, was assembled under anaerobic conditions and was accompanied by LT secretion when TMAO or nitrate was added. Our data also demonstrated that TMAO and nitrate could not induce the GspD assembly and LT secretion in ΔtorCAD and ΔnarG strains, respectively. Moreover, GspD assembly under anaerobic conditions was assisted by the pilot protein YghG. PMID:27430271

  11. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  12. Enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Keller, B; von Eiff, C; Brück, M; Lubritz, G; Etienne, J; Peters, G

    2001-12-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, a systematic screening for the enterotoxins has not yet been performed on the genomic level for the coagulase-positive species S. intermedius. Therefore, the enterotoxigenic potential of 281 different veterinary (canine, n = 247; equine, n = 23; feline, n = 9; other, n = 2) and 11 human isolates of S. intermedius was tested by using a multiplex PCR DNA-enzyme immunoassay system targeting the staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. Molecular results were compared by in vitro testing of enterotoxin production by two immunoassays. A total of 33 (11.3%) S. intermedius isolates, including 31 (12.6%) canine isolates, 1 equine isolate, and 1 human isolate, tested positive for the sec gene. In vitro production of the respective enterotoxins was detected in 30 (90.9%) of these isolates by using immunological tests. In contrast, none of 65 veterinary specimen-derived isolates additionally tested and comprising 13 (sub)species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were found to be enterotoxigenic. This study shows on both molecular and immunological levels that a substantial number of S. intermedius isolates harbor the potential for enterotoxin production. Since evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of S. intermedius from animal hosts to humans has been documented, an enterotoxigenic role of this microorganism in SFP via contamination of food products may be assumed. PMID:11722906

  13. Clostridium perfringens: Comparative effects of heat and osmotic stress on non-enterotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic strains.

    PubMed

    Abbona, Cinthia Carolina; Stagnitta, Patricia Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens isolates associated with food poisoning carries a chromosomal cpe gene, while non-foodborne human gastrointestinal disease isolates carry a plasmid cpe gene. The enterotoxigenic strains tested produced vegetative cells and spores with significantly higher resistance than non-enterotoxigenic strains. These results suggest that the vegetative cells and spores have a competitive advantage over non-enterotoxigenic strains. However, no explanation has been provided for the significant associations between chromosomal cpe genotypes with the high resistance, which could explain the strong relationship between chromosomal cpe isolates and C. perfringens type A food poisoning. Here, we analyse the action of physical and chemical agent on non-enterotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic regional strains. And this study tested the relationship between the sensitivities of spores and their levels SASPs (small acid soluble proteins) production in the same strains examined. PMID:27012900

  14. Evolution of slime production by coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterotoxigenic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Boynukara, Banur; Gulhan, Timur; Gurturk, Kemal; Alisarli, Mustafa; Ogun, Erdal

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the slime production of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and the enterotoxigenic properties of Staphylococcus aureus strains, and to evaluate the clinical importance of slime-producing CoNS and enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains isolated from various human clinical specimens. For this purpose, a total of 120 Staphylococcus strains were isolated and identified, and further characterized for their slime production and enterotoxigenicity. Of the clinical isolates, 55 (45.8 %) were found to be S. aureus, and the others (54.2 %) were identified as CoNS. Of the CoNS, 20 (16.7 %) were further identified as Staphylococcus hominis, 18 (15 %) as Staphylococcus epidermidis, six (5 %) as Staphylococcus xylosus, six (5 %) as Staphylococcus warneri, five (4.2 %) as Staphylococcus sciuri, four (3.3 %) as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and two each (1.7 %) as Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, respectively. Thirty-nine (60 %) of 65 CoNS were found to be slime producers. Slime production was observed in all CoNS, except S. capitis, mostly from blood (38.5 %), tracheal aspiration (20.5 %) and urine (12.8 %) specimens. In addition, of the 55 S. aureus isolates, 46 (83.6 %) were found to be enterotoxigenic, and of these S. aureus strains, 39 (84.7 %) were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)A. The results of this study showed that the slime-producing CoNS were mostly found in clinical specimens of blood, tracheal aspirate and urine. SEA was the predominant enterotoxin type detected in S. aureus strains from human clinical specimens.

  15. Response of early-weaned pigs to spray-dried porcine or animal plasma-based diets supplemented with egg-yolk antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia colil.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Baidoot, S K; Nyachoti, C M; Marquardt, R R

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments involving 168 10-d-old weaned pigs were conducted to compare growth-promoting properties of dietary spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP), spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), and chicken egg-yolk antibodies (EYA) or egg-yolk powder (EYP, contains no specific antibodies) from d 0 to 14 postweaning. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (3.2 +/- 0.2 kg BW) were used to test the hypothesis that the superior performance of piglets fed SDPP-based diets was partly due to the presence of specific antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which could be replaced with EYA. Four experimental diets in a completely randomized design and arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial (SDPP without or with autoclaving [AuSDPP] and without [EYP] or with supplementation of EYA) were used. Autoclaving SDPP at 121degrees C for 15 min completely destroyed anti-K88/F18 antibodies. Overall feed intake and gain:feed ratio were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments and averaged 122.7 g/d and 0.688, respectively. However, pigs fed AuSDPP+EYP diets had poorer (P < 0.001) ADG compared with those fed SDPP+EYP or SDPP+EYA from 0 to 14 d. Scours were four times higher (P < 0.05) for treatment AuSDPP+EYP compared with all other treatments. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in AuSDPP+EYP- and AuSDPP+EYA-fed pigs. Also twice the number of piglets fed AuSDPP+EYP appeared unhealthy compared with piglets on treatment AuSDPP+EYA. In Exp. 2, 72 10-d-old weaned pigs (3.5 kg BW) were used to compare the effect of EYA supplementation and oral challenge of ETEC strain F18 on performance and visceral organ weights. The experimental diets consisted of SDAP+EYP, SDAP+EYA, SDPP+EYP, and SDPP+EYA. From d 0 to 7, and the entire experimental period, dietary treatment did not influence (P > 0.05) growth rate and feed consumption. Plasma urea N concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets fed the SDAP+EYP diet before and after the oral challenge. Gain:feed ratio, organ weights, villi heights, and

  16. Functional Role of N- and C-Terminal Amino Acids in the Structural Subunits of Colonization Factor CS6 Expressed by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Anusuya; Sabui, Subrata; Wajima, Takeaki; Hamabata, Takashi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT CS6 is a common colonization factor expressed by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. It is a two-subunit protein consisting of CssA and CssB in an equal stoichiometry, assembled via the chaperone-usher pathway into an afimbrial, oligomeric assembly on the bacterial cell surface. A recent structural study has predicted the involvement of the N- and C-terminal regions of the CS6 subunits in its assembly. Here, we identified the functionally important residues in the N- and C-terminal regions of the CssA and CssB subunits during CS6 assembly by alanine scanning mutagenesis. Bacteria expressing mutant proteins were tested for binding with Caco-2 cells, and the results were analyzed with respect to the surface expression of mutant CS6. In this assay, many mutant proteins were not expressed on the surface while some showed reduced expression. It appeared that some, but not all, of the residues in both the N and C termini of CssA and CssB played an important role in the intermolecular interactions between these two structural subunits, as well as chaperone protein CssC. Our results demonstrated that T20, K25, F27, S36, Y143, and V147 were important for the stability of CssA, probably through interaction of CssC. We also found that I22, V29, and I33 of CssA and G154, Y156, L160, V162, F164, and Y165 of CssB were responsible for CssA-CssB intermolecular interactions. In addition, some of the hydrophobic residues in the C terminus of CssA and the N terminus of CssB were involved in the stabilization of higher-order complex formation. Overall, the results presented here might help in understanding the pathway used to assemble CS6 and predict its structure. IMPORTANCE Unlike most other colonization factors, CS6 is nonfimbrial, and in a sense, its subunit composition and assembly are also unique. Here we report that both the N- and C-terminal amino acid residues of CssA and CssB play a critical role in the intermolecular interactions between them and assembly proteins

  17. Passive protection of suckling infant mice against F41-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains by intravenous inoculation of the dams with monoclonal antibodies against F41.

    PubMed Central

    Duchet-Suchaux, M; Menanteau, P; van Zijderveld, F G

    1992-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against five different epitope clusters of adhesion factor F41 (two MAbs per cluster) were tested for protection of infant mice against an oral challenge with F41-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) B2C and B41M. Infant mice suckling dams intravenously inoculated with MAbs were orally challenged, and the survival rates were measured for 12 days after inoculation and challenge. Irrespective of their epitope specificity, all F41 MAbs given in a single dose of 4 mg per dam had a protective effect against both ETEC strains. In contrast, one K99 MAb of the same isotype and given in the same dose as the F41 MAbs did not protect infant mice at all. A reduction in the dose of F41 MAbs to 0.032 mg per dam resulted in a decrease in protection. Two different MAbs against the same epitope cluster were not necessarily equally protective. Combining MAbs two by two, whether the MAbs recognized the same epitope cluster or not, resulted in protective activity essentially similar to that obtained with each MAb separately, without any improvement. Therefore, one MAb against any epitope may be sufficient for protection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers of MAbs in the serum of dams were similar, irrespective of the epitope specificity of the MAbs, and gradually decreased from day 1 to day 12 after inoculation. We found a good correlation between colostrum and milk ELISA titers of MAbs and serum ELISA titers of MAbs. Colostrum and milk MAb titers were 10-fold lower than corresponding serum MAb titers and stayed high until day 5 after inoculation. The most protective MAb had the highest ELISA titers in colostrum and milk for the first 5 days after inoculation. ETEC strain B2C colonized the intestines of infant mice suckling MAb-inoculated mothers until day 12 after challenge. Intestinal levels of the challenge strain were high on day 2 but never reached the very high numbers (10(9) to 10(10)) described previously in a

  18. Epitope mapping and characterization of antigenic determinants of heat-stable enterotoxin (STh) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, T; Nair, G B; Suzuki, K; Zhe, H X; Yokoo, Y; De Mol, P; Hemelhof, W; Butzler, J P; Takeda, Y; Shimonishi, Y

    1993-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the heat-stable enterotoxin (STh) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was produced. All four MAbs (8G7, 53-4, 11C, and SH1) bound to native STh in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to various degrees, with clone SH1 showing the best affinity. The MAbs were screened for neutralizing and guanylate cyclase-inhibiting activities by the suckling mouse assay and the cyclic GMP assay using T84 cells, respectively. The contact amino acid residues governing the reactivity of the four MAbs were precisely determined by using several chemically synthesized analogs of the various heat-stable enterotoxins (STa's). Three distinct antigenic sites of STh sufficiently removed from each other, one near the N terminus, another in the core functional region of the toxin, and the third in the C-terminal region, were recognized by the different MAbs. MAb SH1, which recognized Asn at position 4 and Tyr at position 5 from the N terminus was 100 times more potent in neutralizing the bioactivity of STh in the suckling mouse assay than was MAb 11C, which recognized Thr at position 16 and Tyr at position 19 from the N terminus of the STh molecule. The MAbs which recognized Leu at position 9 from the N terminus (MAb 53-4) and Tyr at position 19 from the N terminus (MAb 8G7) showed intermediate activities in the neutralization assay. The guanylate cyclase-inhibiting activities of SH1 and 11C essentially paralleled the results for the neutralization of bioactivity, while MAbs 53-4 and 8G7 exhibited reverse activity. These results indicate that MAbs that recognize the N-terminal residues which have been shown not to be essential for toxic activity have a potent protective capacity. None of the MAbs reacted with reduced and carboxy-methylated native STh. This suggests that all of the MAbs mediate their effect by reacting with conformation-dependent antigenic determinants. PMID:7678100

  19. Effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts on growth performance and aspects of gastrointestinal health of newly weaned piglets after challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2014-12-28

    In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts ( - SWE v. +SWE, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on post-weaning (PW) growth performance, faecal score, faecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin quantification, intestinal histology and cytokine mRNA of unchallenged and ETEC-challenged pigs. Pigs were ETEC challenged on day 9 PW. There was a maternal treatment × challenge (SWE × ETEC) interaction effect on growth performance and faecal score (P< 0.05). Pigs from SWE-supplemented sows and ETEC-challenged (SE) had higher average daily gain (ADG) during 0-13 d PW and reduced faecal score during 0-72 h post-challenge than those from basal-fed sows and ETEC-challenged (BE) (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference between unchallenged pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows (SC) and basal-fed sows (BC) (P>0.10). Pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows had reduced heat-labile enterotoxin gene copy numbers than those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). Maternal SWE supplementation increased the villus height in the ileum of pigs (P< 0.05). There was a SWE × ETEC interaction effect (P< 0.05) on IL-6 mRNA and a SWE × gastrointestinal (GI) region interaction effect (P< 0.05) on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TNF-α mRNA. IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in SC pigs than BC pigs (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in IL-6 mRNA between SE and BE pigs. The mRNA of TGF-β1 and TNF-α was down-regulated in the colon of pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows compared with those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in TGF-β1 and TNF-α mRNA in the ileum between the pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows and basal-fed sows. In conclusion, maternal SWE supplementation improves ADG and the aspects of GI health of weaned pigs following an ETEC challenge.

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor types collected from 1997 to 2001 in US military personnel during operation Bright Star in northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rockabrand, David M; Shaheen, Hind I; Khalil, Sami B; Peruski, Leonard F; Rozmajzl, Patrick J; Savarino, Stephen J; Monteville, Marshall R; Frenck, Robert W; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Putnam, Shannon D; Sanders, John W

    2006-05-01

    Operation Bright Star (OBS) is a biennial, multinational exercise in Egypt involving 15000 US troops. Consistent with past observations in deployed troops, diarrhea is the most significant cause of morbidity. Focused efforts are ongoing to develop vaccines against the most common pathogens affecting our troops. As part of these efforts, diarrhea surveillance was conducted during OBS to monitor pathogens associated with illness and to identify new vaccine targets. A retrospective review was conducted of prior studies with similar methods. Soldiers with diarrhea presenting to the OBS clinic provided a stool sample that was inoculated into Carey-Blair transport media. Within 3 days, the Cary-Blair tubes were transported to the Naval Medical Research Unit no. 3 in Cairo where bacterial culture was performed. As part of the evaluation, 5 Escherichia coli-like colonies were collected and tested for toxin production using the GM1-ELISA. Toxin-positive isolates were further tested for colonization factors (CF) by a dot-blot assay using a standardized panel of monoclonal antibodies against CFA/I, CS1-CS7, CS17, CS8 (CFA/III), CS12 (PCFO159), and CS14 (PCFO166). Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the most frequently isolated pathogen during each OBS from which data were collected. The rate of ETEC-associated diarrhea ranged from 22% to 58%. Over time, there were dramatic shifts in the frequency and distribution of CFs. Over the 5 years of study, an increasing number of ETEC isolates had no known CF identified, and in 2001, only 40% of ETEC was associated with known CFs. The most commonly identified CF was CS6. Diarrheal disease, particularly ETEC, continues to be a common malady among US military personnel deployed to Egypt. We have identified ETEC CF types, especially CS6, which should be considered potential vaccine candidates. However, despite intensive testing, CFs could not be identified in most of the ETEC isolated, highlighting the need for further studies to identify

  1. Strategies to overexpress enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonization factors for the construction of oral whole-cell inactivated ETEC vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease and deaths among children in developing countries and the major cause of traveler's diarrhea (TD). Since surface protein colonization factors (CFs) of ETEC are important for pathogenicity and immune protection is mainly mediated by locally produced IgA antibodies in the gut, much effort has focused on the development of an oral CF-based vaccine. The most extensively studied ETEC candidate vaccine is the rCTB-CF ETEC vaccine, containing recombinantly produced cholera B subunit and the most commonly encountered ETEC CFs on the surface of whole inactivated bacteria. Initial clinical trials with this vaccine showed significant immune responses against the key antigens in different age groups in Bangladesh and Egypt and protection against more severe TD in Western travelers. However, when tested in a phase-III trial in Egyptian infants, the protective efficacy of the vaccine was found to be low, indicating the need to improve the immunogenicity of the vaccine, e.g., by increasing the levels of the protective antigens. This review describes different strategies for the construction of recombinant nontoxigenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae candidate vaccine strains over-expressing higher amounts of ETEC CFs than clinical ETEC isolates selected to produce high levels of the respective CF, e.g., those ETEC strains which have been used in the rCTB-CF ETEC vaccine. Several different expression vectors containing the genes responsible for the expression and assembly of the examined CFs, all downstream of the powerful tac promoter, which could be maintained either with or without antibiotic selection, were constructed. Expression from the tac promoter was under the control of the lacI(q) repressor present on the plasmids. Following induction with isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, candidate vaccine strains over-expressing single CFs, unnatural combinations of two CFs, and also hybrid forms of

  2. Passive protection of suckling infant mice against F41-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains by intravenous inoculation of the dams with monoclonal antibodies against F41.

    PubMed

    Duchet-Suchaux, M; Menanteau, P; van Zijderveld, F G

    1992-07-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against five different epitope clusters of adhesion factor F41 (two MAbs per cluster) were tested for protection of infant mice against an oral challenge with F41-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) B2C and B41M. Infant mice suckling dams intravenously inoculated with MAbs were orally challenged, and the survival rates were measured for 12 days after inoculation and challenge. Irrespective of their epitope specificity, all F41 MAbs given in a single dose of 4 mg per dam had a protective effect against both ETEC strains. In contrast, one K99 MAb of the same isotype and given in the same dose as the F41 MAbs did not protect infant mice at all. A reduction in the dose of F41 MAbs to 0.032 mg per dam resulted in a decrease in protection. Two different MAbs against the same epitope cluster were not necessarily equally protective. Combining MAbs two by two, whether the MAbs recognized the same epitope cluster or not, resulted in protective activity essentially similar to that obtained with each MAb separately, without any improvement. Therefore, one MAb against any epitope may be sufficient for protection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers of MAbs in the serum of dams were similar, irrespective of the epitope specificity of the MAbs, and gradually decreased from day 1 to day 12 after inoculation. We found a good correlation between colostrum and milk ELISA titers of MAbs and serum ELISA titers of MAbs. Colostrum and milk MAb titers were 10-fold lower than corresponding serum MAb titers and stayed high until day 5 after inoculation. The most protective MAb had the highest ELISA titers in colostrum and milk for the first 5 days after inoculation. ETEC strain B2C colonized the intestines of infant mice suckling MAb-inoculated mothers until day 12 after challenge. Intestinal levels of the challenge strain were high on day 2 but never reached the very high numbers (10(9) to 10(10)) described previously in a

  3. Effect of different feed ingredients and additives on IPEC-J2 cells challenged with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, F; Speiser, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2016-08-01

    The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used as an in vitro model to assess effects of additives on the adhesion and cell toxic effects of a F4-positive (ETEC) and a F4-negative Escherichia coli (DSM 2840) strain. Bacterial adhesion was examined using flow cytometry in IPEC-J2 cells infected with bacteria stained with 5,6-carboxymethyl fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was performed to characterize the impact on IPEC-J2 monolayer integrity. The feed additives were prepared as aqueous extract and tested in different dilutions and incubation times. The F4-positive ETEC strain had a high adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells and reduced TEER shortly after the in vitro infection. The nonpathogenic E. coli strain DSM 2840 showed only low adhesion capacity and no TEER impairment. Infection with ETEC with added test extracts showed a reduction of bacterial adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells by an autolyzed yeast product (p < 0.05). Bovine colostrum, an additive containing thyme extract and an organic acid mix did not interfere with the ETEC adherence. The TEER decrease of the IPEC-J2 monolayer after ETEC infection was not affected by the added substances. In conclusion, interference with epithelial adhesion might be a protective mechanism of the tested yeast extract, indicating that the cell culture model might be suitable as screening tool to complement in vivo challenge trials with piglets. PMID:26275434

  4. Avirulent K88 (F4)+ Escherichia coli strains constructed to express modified enterotoxins protect young piglets from challenge with a virulent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain that expresses the same adhesion and enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Zhao, Mojun; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

    2012-10-12

    Virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is associated with fimbrial adhesins and enterotoxins such as heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Previous studies using a cell culture model suggest that exclusion of ETEC from attachment to epithelial cells requires expression of both an adhesin such as K88 (F4) fimbriae, and LT. To test the ability of non-pathogenic E. coli constructs to exclude virulent ETEC sufficiently to prevent clinical disease, we utilized a piglet ETEC challenge model. Thirty-nine 5-day-old piglets were inoculated with a placebo (control), or with either of the three K88(+)E. coli strains isogenic with regard to modified LT expression: 8017 (pBR322 plasmid vector control), non-toxigenic mutant 8221 (LT(R192G)) in pBR322, or 8488, with the LT gene fused to the STb gene in pBR322 (LT(R192G)-STb). Piglets were challenged with virulent ETEC Strain 3030-2 (K88(+)/LT/STb) 24h post-inoculation. K88ac receptor-positive piglets in the control group developed diarrhea and became dehydrated 12-24h post-challenge. Piglets inoculated with 8221 or 8488 did not exhibit clinical signs of ETEC disease; most piglets inoculated with 8017 showed diarrhea. Control pigs exhibited significant weight loss, increased blood total protein, and higher numbers of colony-forming units of 3030-2 E. coli in washed ileum and jejunum than treated pigs. This study shows for the first time that pre-inoculation with an avirulent strain expressing adhesive fimbriae and a non-toxic form of LT provides significant short term protection from challenge with a virulent ETEC strain that expresses the same fimbrial adhesion and enterotoxin. PMID:22541162

  5. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods.

  6. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods. PMID:24372617

  7. Distribution of Classical and Nonclassical Virulence Genes in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Chilean Children and tRNA Gene Screening for Putative Insertion Sites for Genomic Islands▿†

    PubMed Central

    Del Canto, Felipe; Valenzuela, Patricio; Cantero, Lidia; Bronstein, Jonathan; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Jorge; Prado, Valeria; Levine, Myron; Nataro, James; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Vidal, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea. Three adhesins (Tia, TibA, EtpA), an iron acquisition system (Irp1, Irp2, and FyuA), a GTPase (LeoA), and an autotransporter (EatA) are ETEC virulence-related proteins that, in contrast to the classical virulence factors (enterotoxins and fimbrial colonization factors) have not heretofore been targets in characterizing isolates from epidemiological studies. Here, we determined the occurrence of these nonclassical virulence genes in 103 ETEC isolates from Chilean children with diarrhea and described their association with O serogroups and classical virulence determinants. Because tia, leoA, irp2, and fyuA are harbored by pathogenicity islands inserted into the selC and asnT tRNA genes (tDNAs), we analyzed the regions flanking these loci. Ten additional tDNAs were also screened to identify hot spots for genetic insertions. Associations between the most frequent serogroups and classical colonization factor (CF)-toxin profiles included O6/LT-STh/CS1-CS3-CS21 (i.e., O6 serogroup, heat-labile [LT] and human heat-stable [STh] enterotoxins, and CFs CS1, -3 and -21), O6/LT-STh/CS2-CS3-CS21, and O104-O127/STh/CFAI-CS21. The eatA and etpA genes were detected in more than 70% of the collection, including diverse serogroups and virulence profiles. Sixteen percent of the ETEC strains were negative for classical and nonclassical adhesins, suggesting the presence of unknown determinants of adhesion. The leuX, thrW, and asnT tDNAs were disrupted in more than 65% of strains, suggesting they are hot spots for the insertion of mobile elements. Sequences similar to integrase genes were identified next to the thrW, asnT, pheV, and selC tDNAs. We propose that the eatA and etpA genes should be included in characterizations of ETEC isolates in future epidemiological studies to determine their prevalence in other geographical regions. Sequencing of tDNA-associated genetic insertions might identify new ETEC virulence

  8. First bacteraemic human infection with Escherichia albertii.

    PubMed

    Inglis, T J J; Merritt, A J; Bzdyl, N; Lansley, S; Urosevic, M N

    2015-11-01

    The facultative anaerobic Gram-negative species Escherichia albertii has been isolated from human faeces in gastrointestinal infection and from a range of wild bird species. Here we report the first case of a febrile infection associated with E. albertii bacteraemia in a 76-year-old woman with gastric dysplasia. PMID:27257499

  9. Effects of the -791(C→T) mutation in the promoter for tumor necrosis factor alpha on gene expression and resistance of Large White pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the immune system. In this study, TNF-α expression was analyzed in 11 tissues of 8 piglets resistant to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F18 and 8 ETEC F18-susceptible piglets from the Large White breed. The expression levels of TNF-α were high in immune organs (spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes). The levels were higher in ETEC F18-resistant piglets than in ETEC F18-susceptible piglets, with significant differences in spleen, kidney, thymus, lymph node, and duodenum (P < 0.05). The mutation TNF-α -791(C→T) and 3 genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were identified. The TNF-α expression levels in the spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, and duodenum were significantly higher in the TT pigs than in the CC pigs (P < 0.05). Thus, TNF-α -791(C→T) has significant effects on mRNA expression and may regulate ETEC F18 resistance of weaning piglets. Therefore, the -791(C→T) mutation of the TNF-α gene could be considered an important potential genetic marker of ETEC F18 resistance.

  10. Construction of Bifidobacterium infantis as a live oral vaccine that expresses antigens of the major fimbrial subunit (CfaB) and the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongping; Luo, Yaolin; Huang, Xueping; Song, Fangzhou; Liu, Geli

    2012-02-01

    We sought to develop Bifidobacterium infantis (BI) as a vehicle for the expression of heterologous antigens. Two proteins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were expressed in BI: CfaB, a major fimbrial subunit protein, and LTB, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin. The expression of CfaB and LTB in BI was verified by electrophoretic analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were then subjected to intragastric immunization with BI-CfaB and BI-LTB systems both separately and together. ELISA was used to characterize the serum and mucosal immune responses against ETEC antigens. The immunized rats were intraperitoneally challenged with wild-type ETEC H10407 to study the immune response in vivo. The serum titres of IgG and faecal IgA antibodies in the BI-CfaB plus BI-LTB mixed vaccination group were significantly greater than those in the other two groups, which were immunized with a single vaccine (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was seen between the two groups that received a single immunization. These results suggest that expressing CfaB and LTB in BI provides a probiotic system with immunogenic properties. Furthermore, the expression of LTB in BI preserved its mucosal adjuvant effect. So this study confirms that BI can be used as a novel oral vaccine expression system for a heterologous antigen and BI-LTB can provide mucosal adjuvant properties. PMID:22053005

  11. Development and accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and quantification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat labile and heat stable toxin genes in travelers' diarrhea samples.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Bonnie P; Ajami, Nadim J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Petrosino, Joseph F; DuPont, Herbert L; Highlander, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the leading bacterial pathogen of travelers' diarrhea, is routinely detected by an established DNA hybridization protocol that is neither sensitive nor quantitative. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that detect the ETEC toxin genes eltA, sta1, and sta2 in clinical stool samples were developed and tested using donor stool inoculated with known quantities of ETEC bacteria. The sensitivity of the qPCR assays is 89%, compared with 22% for the DNA hybridization assay, and the limits of detection are 10,000-fold lower than the DNA hybridization assays performed in parallel. Ninety-three clinical stool samples, previously characterized by DNA hybridization, were tested using the new ETEC qPCR assays. Discordant toxin profiles were observed for 22 samples, notably, four samples originally typed as ETEC negative were ETEC positive. The qPCR assays are unique in their sensitivity and ability to quantify the three toxin genes in clinical stool samples.

  12. Inverse relationship between heat stable enterotoxin-b induced fluid accumulation and adherence of F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in ligated jejunal loops of F4ab/ac fimbria receptor-positive swine.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Wijemanne, Prageeth; Berberov, Emil M; Kachman, Stephen D; Oestmann, Daniel J; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2013-01-25

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) increases bacterial adherence to porcine enterocytes in vitro and enhances small intestinal colonization in swine. Heat-stable enterotoxin-b (STb) is not known to affect colonization; however, through an induction of net fluid accumulation it might reduce bacterial adherence. The relationship between fluid accumulation and bacterial adherence in jejunal loops inoculated with ETEC strains that produce LT, STb, both, or neither toxin was studied. Ligated jejunal loops were constructed in weaned Yorkshire pigs in two independent experiments (Exp. 1, n=5, 8-week-old; Exp. 2, n=6, 6-8-week-old). Each pig was inoculated with six F4ac(+)E. coli strains: (1) LT(+), STb(+) parent (WAM2317); (2) STb(-) (ΔestB) mutant (MUN297); (3) MUN297 complemented with STb (MUN298); (4) LT(-) STb(-) (ΔeltAB ΔestB) mutant (MUN300); (5) MUN300 complemented with LT (MUN301); and (6) 1836-2 (non-enterotoxigenic, wild-type). Pigs were confirmed to be K88 (F4)ab/ac receptor-positive in Exp. 2 by testing for intestinal mucin-type glycoproteins and inferred to be receptor-positive in both Exp. 1 and 2 based on histopathologic evidence of bacterial adherence. Strains that produced STb induced marked fluid accumulation with the response (ml/cm) to WAM2317 and MUN298 significantly greater than that to the other strains (P<0.0001). Conversely, bacterial adherence scores based on immunohistochemistry and CFU/g of washed mucosa were both lowest in the strains that expressed STb and highest in those that did not. For the two experiments combined, the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) between fluid volume (ml/cm) and log CFU per gram was -0.57021 (P<0.0001); R(2)=0.3521 (n=197). These results support the hypothesis that enterotoxin-induced fluid accumulation flushes progeny organisms into the lumen of the bowel, thereby increasing the likelihood of fecal shedding and transmission of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID

  13. Behavior of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. PMID:24549200

  14. Enumeration of Gut-Homing β7-Positive, Pathogen-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells in Whole Blood from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli- and Vibrio cholerae-Infected Patients, Determined Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Technique.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Nishat, Naoshin Sharmin; Al Mahbuba, Deena; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Islam, Kamrul; Hossain, Lazina; Dey, Ayan; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-28

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are noninvasive mucosal pathogens that cause acute watery diarrhea in people in developing countries. Direct assessment of the mucosal immune responses to these pathogens is problematic. Surrogate markers of local mucosal responses in blood are increasingly being studied to determine the mucosal immune responses after infection. However, the volume of blood available in children and infants has limited this approach. We assessed whether an approach that first isolates β7-positive cells from a small volume of blood would allow measurement of the antigen-specific immune responses in patients with cholera and ETEC infection. β7 is a cell surface marker associated with mucosal homing. We isolated β7-expressing cells from blood on days 2, 7, and 30 and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay to assess the gut-homing antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) specific to pathogen antigens. Patients with ETEC diarrhea showed a significant increase in toxin-specific gut-homing ASCs at day 7 compared to the levels at days 2 and 30 after onset of illness and to the levels in healthy controls. Similar elevations of responses to the ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CS6 and CFA/I were observed in patients infected with CS6- and CFA/I-positive ETEC strains. Antigen-specific gut-homing ASCs to the B subunit of cholera toxin and cholera-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also observed on day 7 after the onset of cholera using this approach. This study demonstrates that a simple ELISPOT assay can be used to study the mucosal immunity to specific antigens using a cell-sorting protocol to isolate mucosal homing cells, facilitating measurement of mucosal responses in children following infection or vaccination.

  15. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin are responsible for LT-enhanced adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to porcine IPEC-J2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Peter Z; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhang, Weiping; Moxley, Rodney A; Kaushik, Radhey S; Francis, David H

    2013-06-28

    Previous studies in piglets indicate that heat labile enterotoxin (LT) expression enhances intestinal colonization by K88 adhesin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as wild-type ETEC adhered to intestinal epithelium in substantially greater numbers than did non-toxigenic constructs. Enzymatic activity of the toxin was also shown to contribute to the adhesion of ETEC and non-ETEC bacteria to epithelial cells in culture. To further characterize the contribution of LT to host cell adhesion, a nontoxigenic, K88-producing E. coli was transformed with either the gene encoding for LT holotoxin, a catalytically-attenuated form of the toxin [LT(R192G)], or LTB subunits, and resultant changes in bacterial adherence to IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells were measured. Strains expressing LT holotoxin or mutants were able to adhere in significantly higher numbers to IPEC-J2 cells than was an isogenic, toxin-negative construct. LT+ strains were also able to significantly block binding of a wild-type LT+ ETEC strain to IPEC-J2 cells. Adherence of isogenic strains to IPEC-J2 cells was unaltered by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that LT enhances ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells independent of host cell protein synthesis. However, pretreating IPEC-J2 cells with LT promoted adherence of negatively charged latex beads (a surrogate for bacteria which carry a negative change), which adherence was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting LT may induce a change in epithelial cell membrane potential. Overall, these data suggest that LT may enhance ETEC adherence by promoting an association between LTB and epithelial cells, and by altering the surface charge of the host plasma membrane to promote non-specific adherence.

  16. Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli, on Raw Nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and in Nopalitos Salads from Local Retail Markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Mdel Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in food is a significant public health concern. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) are foodborne bacteria. In Mexico, DEPs have been associated with diarrheal illness. There is no information about the presence of multidrug-resistant DEPs on fresh vegetables and in cooked vegetable salads in Mexico. "Nopalitos" (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a Cactacea extensively used as a fresh green vegetable throughout Mexico. The presence of generic E. coli and multidrug-resistant DEPs on raw whole and cut nopalitos and in nopalitos salad samples was determined. One hundred raw whole nopalitos (without prickles) samples, 100 raw nopalitos cut into small square samples, and 100 cooked nopalitos salad samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli was determined using the most probable number procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEP strains by standard test. Of the 100 whole nopalitos samples, 100 cut nopalitos samples, and 100 nopalitos salad samples, generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 80% and 10%, 74% and 10%, and 64% and 8%. Eighty-two DEP strains were isolated from positive nopalitos samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least six antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of multidrug-resistant and antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC, ETEC, and EPEC on raw nopalitos and in nopalitos salads in Mexico.

  17. Behavior of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited.

  18. Casein glycomacropeptide in the diet may reduce Escherichia coli attachment to the intestinal mucosa and increase the intestinal lactobacilli of early weaned piglets after an enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 challenge.

    PubMed

    Gustavo Hermes, Rafael; Molist, Francesc; Francisco Pérez, José; Gómez de Segura, Arantza; Ywazaki, Mauro; Davin, Roger; Nofrarías, Miquel; Korhonen, Timo K; Virkola, Ritva; Martín-Orúe, Susana María

    2013-03-28

    Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP), a glycoprotein originating during cheese manufacture, has shown promising effects by promoting the growth of some beneficial bacteria in vitro, although its activity has not been well explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of CGMP against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in vitro (Trial 1) and in vivo (Trial 2). In Trial 1, increasing concentrations of CGMP (0, 0.5, 1.5 or 2.5 mg/ml) were tested regarding its ability to block the attachment of ETEC K88 to ileal mucosa tissues obtained from piglets. Increasing the concentration of CGMP resulted in a gradual decrease in ETEC K88 attachment to the epithelial surface. In Trial 2, seventy-two piglets were distributed in a 2 × 2 factorial combination including or omitting CGMP in the diet (control diet v. CGMP) and challenged or not with ETEC K88 (yes v. no). Inclusion of CGMP increased crude protein, ammonia and isoacid concentrations in colon digesta. CGMP also increased lactobacilli numbers in ileum and colon digesta, and reduced enterobacteria counts in mucosa scrapings and the percentage of villi with E. coli adherence measured by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The inclusion of CGMP in the diets of challenged animals also prevented the increase of enterobacteria in ileal digesta. We can conclude that CGMP may improve gut health by diminishing the adhesion of ETEC K88 to the intestinal mucosa, by increasing the lactobacilli population in the intestine and by reducing the overgrowth of enterobacteria in the digestive tract of piglets after an ETEC K88 challenge. PMID:22850079

  19. Clinical trial to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli prototype vaccine containing CFA/I overexpressing bacteria and recombinantly produced LTB/CTB hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, A; Leach, S; Tobias, J; Carlin, N; Gustafsson, B; Jertborn, M; Bourgeois, L; Walker, R; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea containing killed recombinant E. coli bacteria expressing increased levels of ETEC colonization factors (CFs) and a recombinant protein (LCTBA), i.e. a hybrid between the binding subunits of E. coli heat labile toxin (LTB) and cholera toxin (CTB). We describe a randomized, comparator controlled, double-blind phase I trial in 60 adult Swedish volunteers of a prototype of this vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of the prototype vaccine, containing LCTBA and an E. coli strain overexpressing the colonization factor CFA/I, was compared to a previously developed oral ETEC vaccine, consisting of CTB and inactivated wild type ETEC bacteria expressing CFA/I (reference vaccine). Groups of volunteers were given two oral doses of either the prototype or the reference vaccine; the prototype vaccine was administered at the same or a fourfold higher dosage than the reference vaccine. The prototype vaccine was found to be safe and equally well-tolerated as the reference vaccine at either dosage tested. The prototype vaccine induced mucosal IgA (fecal secretory IgA and intestine-derived IgA antibody secreting cell) responses to both LTB and CFA/I, as well as serum IgA and IgG antibody responses to LTB. Immunization with LCTBA resulted in about twofold higher mucosal and systemic IgA responses against LTB than a comparable dose of CTB. The higher dose of the prototype vaccine induced significantly higher fecal and systemic IgA responses to LTB and fecal IgA responses to CFA/I than the reference vaccine. These results demonstrate that CF over-expression and inclusion of the LCTBA hybrid protein in an oral inactivated ETEC vaccine does not change the safety profile when compared to a previous generation of such a vaccine and that the prototype vaccine induces significant dose dependent mucosal immune responses against CFA/I and LTB. PMID:23306362

  20. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

  1. Enumeration of Gut-Homing β7-Positive, Pathogen-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells in Whole Blood from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli- and Vibrio cholerae-Infected Patients, Determined Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Technique.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Nishat, Naoshin Sharmin; Al Mahbuba, Deena; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Islam, Kamrul; Hossain, Lazina; Dey, Ayan; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are noninvasive mucosal pathogens that cause acute watery diarrhea in people in developing countries. Direct assessment of the mucosal immune responses to these pathogens is problematic. Surrogate markers of local mucosal responses in blood are increasingly being studied to determine the mucosal immune responses after infection. However, the volume of blood available in children and infants has limited this approach. We assessed whether an approach that first isolates β7-positive cells from a small volume of blood would allow measurement of the antigen-specific immune responses in patients with cholera and ETEC infection. β7 is a cell surface marker associated with mucosal homing. We isolated β7-expressing cells from blood on days 2, 7, and 30 and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay to assess the gut-homing antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) specific to pathogen antigens. Patients with ETEC diarrhea showed a significant increase in toxin-specific gut-homing ASCs at day 7 compared to the levels at days 2 and 30 after onset of illness and to the levels in healthy controls. Similar elevations of responses to the ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CS6 and CFA/I were observed in patients infected with CS6- and CFA/I-positive ETEC strains. Antigen-specific gut-homing ASCs to the B subunit of cholera toxin and cholera-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also observed on day 7 after the onset of cholera using this approach. This study demonstrates that a simple ELISPOT assay can be used to study the mucosal immunity to specific antigens using a cell-sorting protocol to isolate mucosal homing cells, facilitating measurement of mucosal responses in children following infection or vaccination. PMID:26512047

  2. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  3. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin are responsible for LT-enhanced adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to porcine IPEC-J2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Peter Z; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhang, Weiping; Moxley, Rodney A; Kaushik, Radhey S; Francis, David H

    2013-06-28

    Previous studies in piglets indicate that heat labile enterotoxin (LT) expression enhances intestinal colonization by K88 adhesin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as wild-type ETEC adhered to intestinal epithelium in substantially greater numbers than did non-toxigenic constructs. Enzymatic activity of the toxin was also shown to contribute to the adhesion of ETEC and non-ETEC bacteria to epithelial cells in culture. To further characterize the contribution of LT to host cell adhesion, a nontoxigenic, K88-producing E. coli was transformed with either the gene encoding for LT holotoxin, a catalytically-attenuated form of the toxin [LT(R192G)], or LTB subunits, and resultant changes in bacterial adherence to IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells were measured. Strains expressing LT holotoxin or mutants were able to adhere in significantly higher numbers to IPEC-J2 cells than was an isogenic, toxin-negative construct. LT+ strains were also able to significantly block binding of a wild-type LT+ ETEC strain to IPEC-J2 cells. Adherence of isogenic strains to IPEC-J2 cells was unaltered by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that LT enhances ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells independent of host cell protein synthesis. However, pretreating IPEC-J2 cells with LT promoted adherence of negatively charged latex beads (a surrogate for bacteria which carry a negative change), which adherence was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting LT may induce a change in epithelial cell membrane potential. Overall, these data suggest that LT may enhance ETEC adherence by promoting an association between LTB and epithelial cells, and by altering the surface charge of the host plasma membrane to promote non-specific adherence. PMID:23517763

  4. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2015-03-28

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets (23-d-old) were allocated to one of the following four groups: (1) killed at the beginning of the experiment (Base); (2) separated from the sow and fed BC (BC-fed); (3) separated from the sow and fed a MR (MR-fed); (4) kept with the sow (Sow-Milk). Blood was sampled on days 1 and 8, and faecal samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5 and 8. On day 8, piglets were killed and gastrointestinal digesta and intestinal segments were collected. The frequency of diarrhoea was found to be higher (P≤ 0·019) in MR-fed piglets than in BC-fed and Sow-Milk piglets. Piglets from the MR-fed group had the lowest lactic acid bacteria:haemolytic E. coli ratio (P(treat)= 0·064) in the faeces. The number of E. coli colonising the intestinal tissue was higher (P< 0·001) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the BC-fed and Sow-Milk groups. Piglets from the Sow-Milk group had a higher (P= 0·020) mucosal IgG concentration than those from the MR-fed group, but did not exhibit any difference when compared with piglets from the Base and BC-fed groups. Piglets from the BC-fed group exhibited a reduced (P≤ 0·037) expression level of Toll-like receptor-4 in the intestinal mucosa when compared with those from the MR-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas no differences were observed in piglets fed BC and conventionally reared by the sows. PMID:25743486

  5. Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay for the Detection of Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Genes in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains and Stool Specimens.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Vaishnavi; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A

    2016-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years in developing countries and are the leading bacterial agent of traveler's diarrhea in persons traveling to these countries. ETEC strains secrete heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins that induce diarrhea by causing water and electrolyte imbalance. We describe the validation of a real-time TaqMan PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect LT, ST1a, and ST1b enterotoxin genes in E. coli strains and in stool specimens. We validated LT/ST1b duplex and ST1a single-plex RT-PCR assay using a conventional PCR assay as a gold standard with 188 ETEC strains and 42 non-ETEC strains. We validated LT/ST1b duplex and ST1a single-plex RT-PCR assay in stool specimens (n = 106) using traditional culture as the gold standard. RT- PCR assay sensitivities for LT, ST1a, and ST1b detection in strains were 100%, 100%, and 98%; specificities were 95%, 98%, and 99%, and Pearson correlation coefficient r was 0.9954 between RT-PCR assay and the gold standard. In stool specimens, RT-PCR assay sensitivities for LT, ST1a, and ST1b detection were 97%, 100%, and 97%; and specificities were 99%, 94%, and 97%. Pearson correlation coefficient r was 0.9975 between RT-PCR results in stool specimens and the gold standard. Limits of detection of LT, ST1a, and ST1b by RT-PCR assay were 0.1 to1.0 pg/μL and by conventional PCR assay were 100 to1000 pg/μL. The accuracy, rapidity and sensitivity of this RT-PCR assay is promising for ETEC detection in public health/clinical laboratories and for laboratories in need of an independent method to confirm results of other culture independent diagnostic tests.

  6. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales‐Siles, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food‐borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  7. An Evidenced-Based Scale of Disease Severity following Human Challenge with Enteroxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Chad K.; Riddle, Mark S.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Sack, David A.; Chakraborty, Subhra; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Darsley, Michael; McKenzie, Robin; DeNearing, Barbara; Steinsland, Hans; Tribble, David R.; Bourgeois, A. Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background Experimental human challenge models have played a major role in enhancing our understanding of infectious diseases. Primary outcomes have typically utilized overly simplistic outcomes that fail to entirely account for complex illness syndromes. We sought to characterize clinical outcomes associated with experimental infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and to develop a disease score. Methods Data were obtained from prior controlled human ETEC infection studies. Correlation and univariate regression across sign and symptom severity was performed. A multiple correspondence analysis was conducted. A 3-parameter disease score with construct validity was developed in an iterative fashion, compared to standard outcome definitions and applied to prior vaccine challenge trials. Results Data on 264 subjects receiving seven ETEC strains at doses from 1x105 to 1x1010 cfu were used to construct a standardized dataset. The strongest observed correlation was between vomiting and nausea (r = 0.65); however, stool output was poorly correlated with subjective activity-impacting outcomes. Multiple correspondence analyses showed covariability in multiple signs and symptoms, with severity being the strongest factor corresponding across outcomes. The developed disease score performed well compared to standard outcome definitions and differentiated disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. Conclusion Frequency and volumetric definitions of diarrhea severity poorly characterize ETEC disease. These data support a disease severity score accounting for stool output and other clinical signs and symptoms. Such a score could serve as the basis for better field trial outcomes and gives an additional outcome measure to help select future vaccines that warrant expanded testing in pivotal pre-licensure trials. PMID:26938983

  8. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal

  9. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G.; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin–producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli

  10. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal

  11. Enterotoxigenicity of aeromonas strains in suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Jánossy, G; Tarján, V

    1980-01-01

    The enterotoxigenicity of 170 Aeromonas strains isolated from different sources (food poisoning, random food sampling, water, faeces) was examined by the suckling mouse test. The strains were grown on Syncaye culture medium covered with sterilized membrane for Kiil-kidney. The culture supernatants were inoculated orally. Ileal loop dilatation was compared to that produced by the international standard enterotoxic Escherichia coli B7A (O148 : H28) and B2C (O6 : H16) strains. Of the 87 Aeromonas hydrophila strains 69, of the 76 Aeromonas punctate subsp. caviae strains 9, the 6 Aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata strains 5, and 1 Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes gave a positive reaction in the test.

  12. Inheritance of porcine receptors for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4ad and their relation to other F4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rampoldi, A; Bertschinger, H U; Bürgi, E; Dolf, G; Sidler, X; Bratus, A; Vögeli, P; Neuenschwander, S

    2014-06-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli infections are a highly relevant cause of disease and death in young pigs. Breeding genetically resistant pigs is an economical and sustainable method of prevention. Resistant pigs are protected against colonization of the intestine through the absence of receptors for the bacterial fimbriae, which mediate adhesion to the intestinal surface. The present work aimed at elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the F4ad receptor which according to former investigations appeared quite confusing. Intestines of 489 pigs of an experimental herd were examined by a microscopic adhesion test modified in such a manner that four small intestinal sites instead of one were tested for adhesion of the fimbrial variant F4ad. Segregation analysis revealed that the mixed inheritance model explained our data best. The heritability of the F4ad phenotype was estimated to be 0.7±0.1. There are no relations to the strong receptors for variants F4ab and F4ac. Targeted matings allowed the discrimination between two F4ad receptors, that is, a fully adhesive receptor (F4adRFA) expressed on all enterocytes and at all small intestinal sites, and a partially adhesive receptor (F4adRPA) variably expressed at different sites and often leading to partial bacterial adhesion. In pigs with both F4ad receptors, the F4adRPA receptor is masked by the F4adRFA. The hypothesis that F4adRFA must be encoded by at least two complementary or epistatic dominant genes is supported by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium statistics. The F4adRPA receptor is inherited as a monogenetic dominant trait. A comparable partially adhesive receptor for variant F4ab (F4abRPA) was also observed but the limited data did not allow a prediction of the mode of inheritance. Pigs were therefore classified into one of eight receptor phenotypes: A1 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRFA); A2 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRPA); B (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adR-); C1 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRFA); C2 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRPA); D1 (F4abR-/F4acR-/F4ad

  13. Inheritance of porcine receptors for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4ad and their relation to other F4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rampoldi, A; Bertschinger, H U; Bürgi, E; Dolf, G; Sidler, X; Bratus, A; Vögeli, P; Neuenschwander, S

    2014-06-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli infections are a highly relevant cause of disease and death in young pigs. Breeding genetically resistant pigs is an economical and sustainable method of prevention. Resistant pigs are protected against colonization of the intestine through the absence of receptors for the bacterial fimbriae, which mediate adhesion to the intestinal surface. The present work aimed at elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the F4ad receptor which according to former investigations appeared quite confusing. Intestines of 489 pigs of an experimental herd were examined by a microscopic adhesion test modified in such a manner that four small intestinal sites instead of one were tested for adhesion of the fimbrial variant F4ad. Segregation analysis revealed that the mixed inheritance model explained our data best. The heritability of the F4ad phenotype was estimated to be 0.7±0.1. There are no relations to the strong receptors for variants F4ab and F4ac. Targeted matings allowed the discrimination between two F4ad receptors, that is, a fully adhesive receptor (F4adRFA) expressed on all enterocytes and at all small intestinal sites, and a partially adhesive receptor (F4adRPA) variably expressed at different sites and often leading to partial bacterial adhesion. In pigs with both F4ad receptors, the F4adRPA receptor is masked by the F4adRFA. The hypothesis that F4adRFA must be encoded by at least two complementary or epistatic dominant genes is supported by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium statistics. The F4adRPA receptor is inherited as a monogenetic dominant trait. A comparable partially adhesive receptor for variant F4ab (F4abRPA) was also observed but the limited data did not allow a prediction of the mode of inheritance. Pigs were therefore classified into one of eight receptor phenotypes: A1 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRFA); A2 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRPA); B (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adR-); C1 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRFA); C2 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRPA); D1 (F4abR-/F4acR-/F4ad

  14. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  15. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  16. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  17. A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  18. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:27228947

  19. Curli fimbria: an Escherichia coli adhesin associated with human cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; Werle, Catierine Hirsch; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of human cystitis. In this study, a preliminary molecular analysis carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that 100% of 31 E. coli strains isolated from patients with recurrent UTIs (urinary tract infections) showed the presence of the curli fimbria gene (csgA). Curli fimbria is known to be associated with bacterial biofilm formation but not with the adhesion of human cystitis-associated E. coli. Therefore, this work aimed to study how curli fimbria is associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) as an adhesion factor. For this purpose, the csgA gene was deleted from strain UPEC-4, which carries three adhesion factor genes (csgA, fimH and ompA). The wild-type UPEC-4 strain and its mutant (ΔcsgA) were analyzed for their adhesion ability over HTB-9 (human bladder carcinoma), Vero (kidney cells of African green monkey) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein) cells in the presence of α-d-mannose. All the wild-type UPEC strains tested (100%) were able to adhere to all three cell types, while the UPEC-4 ΔcsgA mutant lost its adherence to HTB-9 but continued to adhere to the HUVEC and Vero cells. The results suggest that curli fimbria has an important role in the adhesion processes associated with human UPEC-induced cystitis.

  20. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reserv...

  1. Cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and reconstitution of human myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, R; Szabo, A; Boxer, S G

    1985-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone for human myoglobin has been isolated from a human skeletal muscle cDNA library. The clone as isolated has a cDNA insert approximately one kilobase long and has 5' and 3' untranslated regions of approximately 80 and 530 base pairs, respectively. The sequence of the translated region corresponds exactly to that predicted for human myoglobin. The cDNA was expressed in high yield in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein consisting of the first 31 amino acids of the phage lambda cII gene, the tetrapeptide Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg, and the myoglobin sequence by following the approach of Nagai and Thogersen [Nagai, K. & Thogersen, M. C. (1984) Nature (London) 309, 810-812]. The fusion product was isolated, reconstituted with heme, cleaved with trypsin, and purified to generate a protein whose properties are indistinguishable from those for authentic human myoglobin. Myoglobin can be readily prepared on a gram scale by using these methods. Images PMID:3898068

  2. Evidence for a human-specific Escherichia coli clone.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Olivier; Lescat, Mathilde; O'Brien, Claire L; Gordon, David M; Tenaillon, Olivier; Denamur, Erick

    2008-04-01

    Escherichia coli is a widespread commensal of the vertebrate intestinal tract. Until recently, no strong association between a particular clone and a given host species has been found. However, members of the B2 subgroup VIII clone with an O81 serotype appear to be human host specific. To determine the degree of host specificity exhibited by this clone, a PCR-based assay was used to screen 723 faecal and clinical isolates from humans, and 904 faecal isolates from animals. This clone was not detected among the animal isolates, but was discovered in people living in Africa, Europe and South America. The clone is rarely isolated from people suffering from intestinal or extraintestinal disease and is avirulent in a mouse model of extraintestinal infection. Fine-scale epidemiological analysis suggests that this clone is competitively dominant relative to other members of the B2 phylogenetic group and that it has increased in frequency over the past 20 years. This clone appears to be a good candidate for use as a probiotic, and may be suitable as an indicator of human faecal contamination in microbial source tracking studies.

  3. The discovery of cholera - like enterotoxins produced by Escherichia coli causing secretory diarrhoea in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sack, R. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Non-vibrio cholera has been recognized as a clinical entity for as long as cholera was known to be caused by Vibrio cholerae. Until 1968, the aetiologic agent of this syndrome was not known. Following a series of studies in patients with non-vibrio cholera it was found that these patients had large concentrations of Escherichia coli in the small bowel and stools which produced cholera toxin-like enterotoxins, and had fluid and electrolyte transport abnormalities in the small bowel similar to patients with documented cholera. Furthermore, these patients developed antibodies to the cholera-like enterotoxin. Later studies showed that these strains, when fed to volunteers produced a cholera-like disease and that two enterotoxins were found to be produced by these organisms: a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) which is nearly identical to cholera toxin, and a heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), a small molecular weight polypeptide. E. coli that produced one or both of these enterotoxins were designated enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). ETEC are now known not only to cause a severe cholera-like illness, but to be the most common bacterial cause of acute diarrhoea in children in the developing world, and to be the most common cause of travellers’ diarrhoea in persons who visit the developing world. PMID:21415491

  4. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, S J; Looker, D L; Roehrich, J M; Cozart, P E; Durfee, S L; Tedesco, J L; Stetler, G L

    1990-01-01

    Synthetic genes encoding the human alpha- and beta-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The alpha- and beta-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to greater than 5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of alpha- and beta-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A0. The recombinant protein shows a reduction in Bohr and phosphate effects, which may be attributed to the presence of methionine at the amino termini of the alpha and beta chains. We have also expressed the alpha- and beta-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the alpha-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of alpha-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the beta-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble beta-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of alpha- and beta-globin in the same cell stabilizes alpha-globin and aids the correct folding of beta-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein. Images PMID:2236062

  5. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  6. Clinical implications of enteroadherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M P; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including nonintimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called "enteroadherent E. coli" categories subsequently produce toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  7. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  8. Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments.

    PubMed

    Skurnik, David; Bonnet, Daniel; Bernède-Bauduin, Claire; Michel, Rémy; Guette, Christian; Becker, Jean-Marie; Balaire, Corinne; Chau, Françoise; Mohler, Jacqueline; Jarlier, Vincent; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Moreau, Brigitte; Guillemot, Didier; Denamur, Erick; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    To investigate if the characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli are changing with the environment of the host, we studied intestinal E. coli from subjects having recently migrated from a temperate to a tropical area. We determined the phylogenetic group, the prevalence of the antibiotic resistance, the presence of integrons and the strain diversity in faecal isolates from 25 subjects originally from metropolitan France and expatriated to French Guyana. These characteristics were compared with those of 25 previously studied Wayampi Amerindian natives of French Guyana and from 25 metropolitan French residents. The three groups of subjects were matched for age and sex, had not taken antibiotics for at least 1 month, nor had been hospitalized within the past year. In all, the characteristics of intestinal E. coli from Expatriates were intermediate between those found in residents from metropolitan France and those found in natives of French Guyana. Prevalence of carriage of resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Expatriates was intermediate between French residents and Wayampi as were the prevalence of integrons in E. coli (12.3% versus 16.3% and 7.8% respectively), and the intra-host diversity of E. coli (2.3 strains/subject versus 1.9 and 3.1, respectively); lastly, in Expatriates, the prevalence of carriage of phylogenetic group B2 strains was lower than in French residents (16% versus 56%, P = 0.005), while carriage of phylogenetic group A strains was lower than in Wayampi (56% versus 88%, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that the composition of the commensal intestinal flora of humans is not static but changes dynamically in response to new environmental conditions.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli of calves and the role of calves as reservoirs for human pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kolenda, Rafał; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common causes of diarrhea and septicemia in calves. Moreover, calves form a major reservoir for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to humans. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of publications on E. coli as calf pathogens and the role of calves as reservoir have not been done so far. We reviewed studies between 1951 and 2013 reporting the presence of virulence associated factors (VAFs) in calf E. coli and extracted the following information: year(s) and country of sampling, animal number, health status, isolate number, VAF prevalence, serotypes, diagnostic methods, and biological assays. The prevalence of VAFs or E. coli pathotypes was compared between healthy and diarrheic animals and was analyzed for time courses. Together, 106 papers with 25,982 E. coli isolates from 27 countries tested for VAFs were included. F5, F17, and F41 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) - VAFs of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were significantly associated with calf diarrhea. On the contrary, ETEC VAF F4 fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin as well as enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) were not associated with diarrhea. The prevalence increased overtime for ST-positive isolates, but decreased for F5- and STEC-positive isolates. Our study provides useful information about the history of scientific investigations performed in this domain so far, and helps to define etiological agents of calf disease, and to evaluate calves as reservoir hosts for human pathogenic E. coli. PMID:25815276

  10. Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA₂:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-03-01

    ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. PMID:23375979

  11. Analysis of the first two genes of the CS1 fimbrial operon in human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype 0139:H28.

    PubMed

    Jordi, B J; van Vliet, A H; Willshaw, G A; van der Zeijst, B A; Gaastra, W

    1991-05-15

    An oligonucleotide, derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the CS1 fimbrial subunit protein was used to identify the subunit gene on recombinant plasmid pDEP23 containing the structural genes of the CS1 fimbrial operon. The nucleotide sequence of the subunit gene (csoA), encoding a protein of 171 amino acids, was determined. Flanking it upstream, a gene (csoB) encoding a protein of 238 amino acids was found. The CsoB and CsoA proteins are homologous to the CfaA and CfaB proteins in the CFA/I fimbrial operon. For all the CS1 producing strains investigated the structural genes are located on plasmids. Like CFA/I fimbriae, CS1 fimbriae are only expressed in the presence of a positive regulator, CfaD for CFA/I and Rns for CS1, respectively. The promoter region upstream of the csoB gene was cloned in front of the promoterless alkaline phosphatase (phoA) gene of the promoter-probe vector pCB267. PhoA activity was enhanced approximately two-fold by the introduction of compatible plasmids containing either rns or cfaD.

  12. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains.

    PubMed

    Norman, Keri N; Clawson, Michael L; Strockbine, Nancy A; Mandrell, Robert E; Johnson, Roger; Ziebell, Kim; Zhao, Shaohua; Fratamico, Pina M; Stones, Robert; Allard, Marc W; Bono, James L

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx 2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reservoir of O26 strains harboring stx 1; however the reservoir of these emerging stx 2 strains is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in human and cattle-derived strains in order to compare differences in polymorphism derived genotypes and virulence gene profiles between the two host species. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 182 epidemiologically unrelated O26 strains, including 109 human-derived strains and 73 non-human-derived strains. A panel of 289 O26 strains (241 STEC and 48 non-STEC) was subsequently genotyped using a set of 283 polymorphisms identified by whole genome sequencing, resulting in 64 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses identified seven clusters within the O26 strains. The seven clusters did not distinguish between isolates originating from humans or cattle; however, clusters did correspond with particular virulence gene profiles. Human and non-human-derived strains harboring stx 1 clustered separately from strains harboring stx 2, strains harboring eae, and non-STEC strains. Strains harboring stx 2 were more closely related to non-STEC strains and strains harboring eae than to strains harboring stx 1. The finding of human and cattle-derived strains with the same polymorphism derived genotypes and similar virulence gene profiles, provides evidence that similar strains are found in cattle and humans and transmission between the two species may occur.

  13. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Keri N.; Clawson, Michael L.; Strockbine, Nancy A.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Johnson, Roger; Ziebell, Kim; Zhao, Shaohua; Fratamico, Pina M.; Stones, Robert; Allard, Marc W.; Bono, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reservoir of O26 strains harboring stx1; however the reservoir of these emerging stx2 strains is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in human and cattle-derived strains in order to compare differences in polymorphism derived genotypes and virulence gene profiles between the two host species. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 182 epidemiologically unrelated O26 strains, including 109 human-derived strains and 73 non-human-derived strains. A panel of 289 O26 strains (241 STEC and 48 non-STEC) was subsequently genotyped using a set of 283 polymorphisms identified by whole genome sequencing, resulting in 64 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses identified seven clusters within the O26 strains. The seven clusters did not distinguish between isolates originating from humans or cattle; however, clusters did correspond with particular virulence gene profiles. Human and non-human-derived strains harboring stx1 clustered separately from strains harboring stx2, strains harboring eae, and non-STEC strains. Strains harboring stx2 were more closely related to non-STEC strains and strains harboring eae than to strains harboring stx1. The finding of human and cattle-derived strains with the same polymorphism derived genotypes and similar virulence gene profiles, provides evidence that similar strains are found in cattle and humans and transmission between the two species may occur. PMID:25815275

  14. Ribotype and serotype diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from poultry and human sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli isolates from the poultry and human sources were analyzed to evaluate the genetic relatedness and serotype. Ribotype was determined using the RiboPrinter® Microbial Characterization System following DNA digestion with the restriction enzyme EcoRI. A total of 41 ribogroups were iso...

  15. Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Mediates Na+/H+ Exchanger 4 Inhibition Involving cAMP in T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Ana R.; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R.; Bezerra, Camila N. A.; Cornejo, Marcelo; Norambuena, Katrina; Toledo, Fernando; Araos, Joaquín; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Malnic, Gerhard; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains lead to diarrhoea in humans due to heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins. STa increases Cl-release in intestinal cells, including the human colonic carcinoma T84 cell line, involving increased cGMP and membrane alkalization due to reduced Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) activity. Since NHEs modulate intracellular pH (pHi), and NHE1, NHE2, and NHE4 are expressed in T84 cells, we characterized the STa role as modulator of these exchangers. pHi was assayed by the NH4Cl pulse technique and measured by fluorescence microscopy in BCECF–preloaded cells. pHi recovery rate (dpHi/dt) was determined in the absence or presence of 0.25 μmol/L STa (30 minutes), 25 μmol/L HOE-694 (concentration inhibiting NHE1 and NHE2), 500 μmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP, spontaneous nitric oxide donor), 100 μmol/L dibutyryl cyclic GMP (db-cGMP), 100 nmol/L H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), or 10 μmol/L forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator). cGMP and cAMP were measured in cell extracts by radioimmunoassay, and buffering capacity (ßi) and H+ efflux (JH+) was determined. NHE4 protein abundance was determined by western blotting. STa and HOE-694 caused comparable reduction in dpHi/dt and JH+ (~63%), without altering basal pHi (range 7.144–7.172). STa did not alter ßi value in a range of 1.6 pHi units. The dpHi/dt and JH+ was almost abolished (~94% inhibition) by STa + HOE-694. STa effect was unaltered by db-cGMP or SNP. However, STa and forskolin increased cAMP level. STa–decreased dpHi/dt and JH+ was mimicked by forskolin, and STa + HOE-694 effect was abolished by H89. Thus, incubation of T84 cells with STa results in reduced NHE4 activity leading to a lower capacity of pHi recovery requiring cAMP, but not cGMP. STa effect results in a causal phenomenon (STa/increased cAMP/increased PKA activity/reduced NHE4 activity) ending with intracellular acidification that could have consequences in the gastrointestinal cells function promoting

  16. Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin Mediates Na+/H+ Exchanger 4 Inhibition Involving cAMP in T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Ana R; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R; Bezerra, Camila N A; Cornejo, Marcelo; Norambuena, Katrina; Toledo, Fernando; Araos, Joaquín; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Malnic, Gerhard; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains lead to diarrhoea in humans due to heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins. STa increases Cl-release in intestinal cells, including the human colonic carcinoma T84 cell line, involving increased cGMP and membrane alkalization due to reduced Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) activity. Since NHEs modulate intracellular pH (pHi), and NHE1, NHE2, and NHE4 are expressed in T84 cells, we characterized the STa role as modulator of these exchangers. pHi was assayed by the NH4Cl pulse technique and measured by fluorescence microscopy in BCECF-preloaded cells. pHi recovery rate (dpHi/dt) was determined in the absence or presence of 0.25 μmol/L STa (30 minutes), 25 μmol/L HOE-694 (concentration inhibiting NHE1 and NHE2), 500 μmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP, spontaneous nitric oxide donor), 100 μmol/L dibutyryl cyclic GMP (db-cGMP), 100 nmol/L H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), or 10 μmol/L forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator). cGMP and cAMP were measured in cell extracts by radioimmunoassay, and buffering capacity (ßi) and H+ efflux (JH+) was determined. NHE4 protein abundance was determined by western blotting. STa and HOE-694 caused comparable reduction in dpHi/dt and JH+ (~63%), without altering basal pHi (range 7.144-7.172). STa did not alter ßi value in a range of 1.6 pHi units. The dpHi/dt and JH+ was almost abolished (~94% inhibition) by STa + HOE-694. STa effect was unaltered by db-cGMP or SNP. However, STa and forskolin increased cAMP level. STa-decreased dpHi/dt and JH+ was mimicked by forskolin, and STa + HOE-694 effect was abolished by H89. Thus, incubation of T84 cells with STa results in reduced NHE4 activity leading to a lower capacity of pHi recovery requiring cAMP, but not cGMP. STa effect results in a causal phenomenon (STa/increased cAMP/increased PKA activity/reduced NHE4 activity) ending with intracellular acidification that could have consequences in the gastrointestinal cells function promoting human

  17. Escherichia coli lipoprotein binds human plasminogen via an intramolecular domain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tammy; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Brissette, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipoprotein (Lpp) is a major cellular component that exists in two distinct states, bound-form and free-form. Bound-form Lpp is known to interact with the periplasmic bacterial cell wall, while free-form Lpp is localized to the bacterial cell surface. A function for surface-exposed Lpp has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that the presence of C-terminal lysinses in the surface-exposed region of Lpp would facilitate binding to the host zymogen plasminogen (Plg), a protease commandeered by a number of clinically important bacteria. Recombinant Lpp was synthesized and the binding of Lpp to Plg, the effect of various inhibitors on this binding, and the effects of various mutations of Lpp on Lpp–Plg interactions were examined. Additionally, the ability of Lpp-bound Plg to be converted to active plasmin was analyzed. We determined that Lpp binds Plg via an atypical domain located near the center of mature Lpp that may not be exposed on the surface of intact E. coli according to the current localization model. Finally, we found that Plg bound by Lpp can be converted to active plasmin. While the consequences of Lpp binding Plg are unclear, these results prompt further investigation of the ability of surface exposed Lpp to interact with host molecules such as extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, and the role of these interactions in infections caused by E. coli and other bacteria. PMID:26500634

  18. Enterotoxigenicity of colonising coliform bacteria in tropical sprue and blind-loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klipstein, F A; Engert, R F; Short, H B

    1978-08-12

    The enterotoxigenicity of strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli, which represented the predominant coliform species isolated from the jejunum of 12 patients with tropical sprue and 5 with the blind-loop syndrome, was quantitatively assessed in terms of the ability of toxin preparations to induce water secretion as assayed by in-vivo perfusion in the rat jejunum. All 12 patients with sprue harboured 1 or more highly toxigenic strains--14 of the 16 strains isolated from this group produced heat-labile and/or heat-stable toxins which were as potent as toxins derived from strains isolated from persons with acute diarrhoea and documented as toxigenic. None of the 9 strains isolated from patients with the blind-loop syndrome produced potent toxins. This difference between the coliform bacteria in sprue and the blind-loop syndrome probably accounts, at least partly, for the different intestinal response in these two disorders to contamination by these organisms.

  19. Recommendations regarding the development of combined enterotoxigenic Eschericha coli and Shigella vaccines for infants.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard I; Clifford, Allison

    2015-02-18

    PATH hosted a workshop on October 14 and 15, 2013 in Washington, DC to solicit expert opinions on the potential merits and challenges of developing combined enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella vaccine products to benefit children in developing countries. This article summarizes the key issues raised during the workshop and provides an analysis of the recommendations regarding the strategic, clinical and regulatory, and manufacturing considerations for the development of a combined enteric vaccine, which aim to guide future vaccine development efforts and donor investment strategies in this area. Notwithstanding the potential technical, legal, financial, and other constraints that would be faced in developing a combined ETEC/Shigella vaccine, it is clear that this is the preferred approach over standalone products. There are many advantages to a combined vaccine, such as the potential cost-effectiveness and easier logistics of introducing a combined vaccine instead of two standalone vaccines in low-resource, endemic countries.

  20. Human MAIT-cell responses to Escherichia coli: activation, cytokine production, proliferation, and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Joana; Sobkowiak, Michał J.; Sandberg, Johan K.; Leeansyah, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T cells are a large and relatively recently described innate-like antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. These cells recognize riboflavin metabolites from a range of microbes presented by evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex, class I-related molecules. Given the innate-like characteristics of mucosa-associated invariant T cells and the novel type of antigens they recognize, new methodology must be developed and existing methods refined to allow comprehensive studies of their role in human immune defense against microbial infection. In this study, we established protocols to examine a range of mucosa-associated invariant T-cell functions as they respond to antigen produced by Escherichia coli. These improved and dose- and time-optimized experimental protocols allow detailed studies of MR1-dependent mucosa-associated invariant T-cell responses to Escherichia coli pulsed antigen-presenting cells, as assessed by expression of activation markers and cytokines, by proliferation, and by induction of apoptosis and death in major histocompatibility complex, class I-related–expressing target cells. The novel and optimized protocols establish a framework of methods and open new possibilities to study mucosa-associated invariant T-cell immunobiology, using Escherichia coli as a model antigen. Furthermore, we propose that these robust experimental systems can also be adapted to study mucosa-associated invariant T-cell responses to other microbes and types of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27034405

  1. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  2. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from humans and animals differ in major phenotypical traits and virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Uber, Ana Paula; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Irino, Kinue; Beutin, Lothar; Ghilardi, Angela C R; Gomes, Tânia A T; Liberatore, Ana Maria A; de Castro, Antônio F P; Elias, Waldir P

    2006-03-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is characterized by the expression of the aggregative adherence pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the phenotypic and genotypic relationships among 86 EAEC strains of human and animal (calves, piglets and horses) feces. Serotypes and the presence of EAEC virulence markers were determined, and these results were associated with ribotyping. Strains harboring aggR (typical EAEC) of human origin were found carrying several of the searched markers, while atypical EAEC harbored none or a few markers. The strains of animal origin were classified as atypical EAEC (strains lacking aggR) and harbored only irp2 or shf. Strains from humans and animals belonged to several different serotypes, although none of them prevailed. Sixteen ribotypes were determined, and there was no association with virulence genes profiles or serotypes. Relationship was not found among the strains of this study, and the assessed animals may not represent a reservoir of human pathogenic typical EAEC.

  3. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Johnson, James R; Gordon, David M

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed.

  4. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Michaela D. J.; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J.; Johnson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed. PMID:26002899

  5. Isolation, Detection, and Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Payam; Wu, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an extensively studied anaerobic bacterium comprising the normal flora of the human gut. B. fragilis is known to be one of the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples and has been shown to cause a wide range of pathologies in humans [1, 2]. As an opportunistic pathogen B. fragilis can cause abscess formation and bacteremia [2]. Additionally in its enterotoxigenic form, B. fragilis is a known cause of diarrheal illness, is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and has been recently characterized in patients with colon cancer [3 - 5]. As research in the field of the gut microbiome continues to expand at an ever increasing rate due to advances in the availability of next generation sequencing and analysis tools it is important to outline various molecular methods that can be employed in quickly detecting and isolating relevant strains of B. fragilis. This review outlines methods that are routinely employed in the isolation and detection of B. fragilis, with an emphasis on characterizing enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strains. PMID:27335618

  6. Inhibition of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae by gangliosides from human milk.

    PubMed Central

    Otnaess, A B; Laegreid, A; Ertresvåg, K

    1983-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae was associated with the ganglioside fraction of human milk. Both the milk fat and skim milk contained gangliosides that inhibited the toxins. The most purified milk fraction contained three glycolipid components, of which two migrated close to ganglioside GM1 on thin-layer chromatography plates. A component with a slightly different mobility from GM1 appeared to be associated with the inhibitory activity. Milk ganglioside fraction, derived from 2 ml of human milk, contained 1 to 4 micrograms of lipid-bound sialic acid and completely inhibited 0.1 micrograms of cholera toxin in rabbit intestinal loop experiments. It is suggested that human milk gangliosides, although present only in trace amounts, may be important in protecting infants against enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. PMID:6341242

  7. Screening for enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jacqueline I; Aitchison, Alan; Purcell, Rachel V; Greenlees, Rosie; Pearson, John F; Frizelle, Frank A

    2016-08-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is a commensal bacterium found in the gut of most humans, however enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains (ETBF) have been associated with diarrhoea and colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to establish a method of screening for the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (bft) gene in stool samples, as a means of determining if carriage of ETBF is detected more often in CRC patients than in age-matched healthy controls. Stool samples from 71 patients recently diagnosed with CRC, and 71 age-matched controls, were screened by standard and quantitative PCR using primers specific for the detection of the bft gene. Bacterial template DNA from stool samples was prepared by two methods: a sweep, where all colonies growing on Bacteroides Bile Esculin agar following stool culture for 48 h at 37 °C in an anaerobic environment were swept into sterile water and heat treated; and a direct DNA extraction from each stool sample. The bft gene was detected more frequently from DNA isolated from bacterial sweeps than from matched direct DNA extractions. qPCR was found to be more sensitive than standard PCR in detecting bft. The cumulative total of positive qPCR assays from both sample types revealed that 19 of the CRC patients had evidence of the toxin gene in their stool sample (27%), compared to seven of the age-matched controls (10%). This difference was significant (P = 0.016). Overall, ETBF carriage was detected more often in CRC patient stool samples compared to controls, but disparate findings from the different DNA preparations and testing methods suggests that poor sensitivity may limit molecular detection of ETBF in stool samples. PMID:27166180

  8. A strategy for the production of soluble human senescence marker protein-30 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moonsuk S; Saxena, Ashima; Chilukuri, Nageswararao

    2010-03-12

    Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) has been reported to hydrolyze diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a surrogate compound of chemical warfare nerve agents. Thus, SMP30 has the potential to be useful as a prophylactic against chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity. Our efforts to generate human SMP30 in bacteria using a variety of expression vectors invariably resulted in insoluble and inactive preparations. In this study, properly folded and active recombinant human SMP30 (rHuSMP30) was produced in Escherichia coli by coexpressing it with molecular chaperones in a combined strategy. The coexpression of rHuSMP30 with GroES/GroEL/Tf at 15 degrees C, combined with the addition of a membrane fluidizer, increased osmolytes, and a two-step expression resulted in the highest enhancement of solubility and DFPase activity. Our results pave the way for exploring the use of rHuSMP30 against organophosphate and nerve agent toxicity.

  9. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John E; Ngowi, Helena A; Msoffe, Peter L M; Mtambo, Madundo M; Scheutz, Flemming; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment

  10. Multilocus sequence typing and virulence gene profiles associated with Escherichia coli from human and animal sources.

    PubMed

    Manges, Amee R; Harel, Josée; Masson, Luke; Edens, Thaddeus J; Portt, Andrea; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Zhanel, George G; Kropinski, Andrew M; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether specific sequence types, and their shared virulence gene profiles, may be associated with both human and food animal reservoirs. A total of 600 Escherichia coli isolates were assembled from human (n=265) and food-animal (n=335) sources from overlapping geographic areas and time periods (2005-2010) in Canada. The entire collection was subjected to multilocus sequence typing and a subset of 286 E. coli isolates was subjected to an E. coli-specific virulence gene microarray. The most common sequence type (ST) was E. coli ST10, which was present in all human and food-animal sources, followed by ST69, ST73, ST95, ST117, and ST131. A core group of virulence genes was associated with all 10 common STs including artJ, ycfZ, csgA, csgE, fimA, fimH, gad, hlyE, ibeB, mviM, mviN, and ompA. STs 73, 92, and 95 exhibited the largest number of virulence genes, and all were exclusively identified from human infections. ST117 was found in both human and food-animal sources and shared virulence genes common in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages. Select groups of E. coli may be found in both human and food-animal reservoirs.

  11. Tracking pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface: banded mongoose and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, R; Ponder, M; Alexander, K A

    2013-06-01

    A primary challenge to managing emerging infectious disease is identifying pathways that allow pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we evaluated fecal bacterial transmission between banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and humans in northern Botswana. Fecal samples were collected from banded mongoose living in protected areas (n = 87, 3 troops) and surrounding villages (n = 92, 3 troops). Human fecal waste was collected from the same environment (n = 46). Isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics. Resistant E. coli isolates from mongoose were compared to human isolates using rep-PCR fingerprinting and MLST-PCR. Antimicrobial resistant isolates were identified in 57 % of the mongoose fecal samples tested (range 31-78% among troops). At least one individual mongoose fecal sample demonstrated resistance to each tested antibiotic, and multidrug resistance was highest in the protected areas (40.9%). E. coli isolated from mongoose and human sources in this study demonstrated an extremely high degree of genetic similarity on rep-PCR (AMOVA, F ST = 0.0027, p = 0.18) with a similar pattern identified on MLST-PCR. Human waste may be an important source of microbial exposure to wildlife. Evidence of high levels of antimicrobial resistance even within protected areas identifies an emerging health threat and highlights the need for improved waste management in these systems.

  12. Cloning and expression of human erythropoietin cDNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Huang, S

    1984-01-01

    Human erythropoietin (Ep) cDNA has been cloned in Escherichia coli by using pBR322 as a vector. Polyadenylylated RNA was isolated from selected human renal carcinomas with elevated Ep titers. The presence of Ep mRNA was detected by immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products with monoclonal antibody to human Ep. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322 by homopolymeric dG . dC tailing. The cDNA library was initially screened by colony hybridization with 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized from size-fractionated mRNA enriched in Ep message. Positive colonies were further screened immunologically by in situ radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibody to human Ep. Three positive clones were identified that express the Ep gene sequences as a beta-lactamase fusion protein. These clones contain inserts of approximately 1400, 600, and 200 base pairs. Human renal Ep mRNA, of which the translation products immunoreact with anti-Ep on immunoblots, was hybrid-selected by plasmid DNA from these recombinants. Purified human Ep competes with 35S-labeled hybrid-selected translation products for antibody binding. Images PMID:6371819

  13. Host-specific induction of Escherichia coli fitness genes during human urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Hazen, Tracy H; Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Smith, Sara N; Ernst, Robert D; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-12-23

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI), manifested by inflammation of the urinary bladder, in humans and is a major global public health concern. Molecular pathogenesis of UPEC has been primarily examined using murine models of UTI. Translational research to develop novel therapeutics against this major pathogen, which is becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant, requires a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis during human UTIs. Total RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and comparative transcriptional analysis of UTI samples to the UPEC isolates cultured in human urine and laboratory medium were used to identify novel fitness genes that were specifically expressed during human infection. Evidence for UPEC genes involved in ion transport, including copper efflux, nickel and potassium import systems, as key fitness factors in uropathogenesis were generated using an experimental model of UTI. Translational application of this study was investigated by targeting Cus, a bacterial copper efflux system. Copper supplementation in drinking water reduces E. coli colonization in the urinary bladder of mice. Additionally, our results suggest that anaerobic processes in UPEC are involved in promoting fitness during UTI in humans. In summary, RNA-seq was used to establish the transcriptional signature in UPEC during naturally occurring, community acquired UTI in women and multiple novel fitness genes used by UPEC during human infection were identified. The repertoire of UPEC genes involved in UTI presented here will facilitate further translational studies to develop innovative strategies against UTI caused by UPEC.

  14. Metabolic modeling of common Escherichia coli strains in human gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-Dong; Zhao, Yuqi; Huang, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    The recent high-throughput sequencing has enabled the composition of Escherichia coli strains in the human microbial community to be profiled en masse. However, there are two challenges to address: (1) exploring the genetic differences between E. coli strains in human gut and (2) dynamic responses of E. coli to diverse stress conditions. As a result, we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. The metabolic models show obvious strain-specific characteristics, both in network contents and in behaviors. We predicted optimal biomass production for three models on four different carbon sources (acetate, ethanol, glucose, and succinate) and found that these stress-associated genes were involved in host-microbial interactions and increased in human obesity. Besides, it shows that the growth rates are similar among the models, but the flux distributions are different, even in E. coli core reactions. The correlations between human diabetes-associated metabolic reactions in the E. coli models were also predicted. The study provides a systems perspective on E. coli strains in human gut microbiome and will be helpful in integrating diverse data sources in the following study.

  15. Tracking pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface: banded mongoose and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, R; Ponder, M; Alexander, K A

    2013-06-01

    A primary challenge to managing emerging infectious disease is identifying pathways that allow pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we evaluated fecal bacterial transmission between banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and humans in northern Botswana. Fecal samples were collected from banded mongoose living in protected areas (n = 87, 3 troops) and surrounding villages (n = 92, 3 troops). Human fecal waste was collected from the same environment (n = 46). Isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics. Resistant E. coli isolates from mongoose were compared to human isolates using rep-PCR fingerprinting and MLST-PCR. Antimicrobial resistant isolates were identified in 57 % of the mongoose fecal samples tested (range 31-78% among troops). At least one individual mongoose fecal sample demonstrated resistance to each tested antibiotic, and multidrug resistance was highest in the protected areas (40.9%). E. coli isolated from mongoose and human sources in this study demonstrated an extremely high degree of genetic similarity on rep-PCR (AMOVA, F ST = 0.0027, p = 0.18) with a similar pattern identified on MLST-PCR. Human waste may be an important source of microbial exposure to wildlife. Evidence of high levels of antimicrobial resistance even within protected areas identifies an emerging health threat and highlights the need for improved waste management in these systems. PMID:23612855

  16. Human intestinal cells modulate conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance plasmids between clinical Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Sommer, Morten O A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co-cultured with human intestinal cells. We show that filtered media from co-cultures contain a factor that reduces conjugation efficiency. Protease treatment of the filtered media eliminates this inhibition of conjugation. This data suggests that a peptide or protein based factor is secreted on the apical side of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut.

  17. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Whipp, S C; Argenzio, R A; Levine, M M; Giannella, R A

    1983-09-01

    Three strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), originally isolated from humans and previously shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers by unknown mechanisms, and one rabbit EPEC strain were shown to attach intimately to and efface microvilli and cytoplasm from intestinal epithelial cells in both the pig and rabbit intestine. The attaching and effacing activities of these EPEC were demonstrable by light microscopic examination of routine histological sections and by transmission electron microscopy. It was suggested that intact colostrum-deprived newborn pigs and ligated intestinal loops in pigs and rabbits may be useful systems to detect EPEC that have attaching and effacing activities and for studying the pathogenesis of such infections. The lesions (attachment and effacement) produced by EPEC in these systems were multifocal, with considerable animal-to-animal variation in response to the same strain of EPEC. The EPEC strains also varied in the frequency and extent of lesion production. For example, three human EPEC strains usually caused extensive lesions in rabbit intestinal loops, whereas two other human EPEC strains usually did not produce lesions in this system.

  18. Multiple-host sharing, long-term persistence, and virulence of Escherichia coli clones from human and animal household members.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Clabots, Connie; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2008-12-01

    During a 3-year surveillance, six household members (five humans and the family dog) yielded 14 Escherichia coli clones. Virulence genes, group B2, and having caused cystitis (in the mother or dog) corresponded to colonization endpoints (number of samples, colonies, hosts, and dates). The dog's cystitis clone was the most extensively recovered clone.

  19. Characterization of Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Outi; Kagambèga, Assèta; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste; Barro, Nicolas; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-11-01

    Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) cause serious foodborne infections that lead to diarrheal disease and sequelae worldwide. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, STEC strains from environmental and human sources have not been isolated and characterized before. In this study, 21 STEC strains were isolated from food samples of animal origin and human feces using colony hybridization of the Shiga toxin gene stx. The STEC strains belonged to 15 different serotypes, including O43:H2, O8:H(-), and O2:H2. All strains were positive for stx(1) and 10 also for stx(2). The most common stx(1) subtype was stx(1a), and the most common stx(2) subtype was stx(2b). In five strains, stx(2) subtypes stx(2a) and/or stx(2c), which were previously associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, were present. Some of the strains possessed the gene saa, encoding autoagglutinating adhesin. None of the strains possessed the gene eae, encoding intimin. Two STEC strains carried also an enterotoxigenic E. coli-associated gene estIa, encoding heat-stable enterotoxin. The STEC isolated from food in Burkina Faso are potentially pathogenic for humans based on the virulence gene combinations that they possess and phenotypes that they express. PMID:23134285

  20. tkt1, located on a novel pathogenicity island, is prevalent in avian and human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are important pathogens of human and animal hosts. Some human and avian extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are indistinguishable on the basis of diseases caused, multilocus sequence and phylogenetic typing, carriage of large virulence plasmids and traits known to be associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli virulence. Results The gene tkt1 identified by a previous signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis study, was found on a 16-kb genomic island of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) O1, the first pathogenic Escherichia coli strain whose genome has been completely sequenced. tkt1 was present in 39.6% (38/96) of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, while only 6.25% (3/48) of E. coli from the feces of apparently healthy chickens was positive. Further, tkt1 was predominantly present in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group, as compared to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli of other phylogenetic groups. The tkt1-containing genomic island is inserted between the metE and ysgA genes of the E. coli K12 genome. Among different extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli of the B2 phylogenetic group, 61.7% of pathogenic Escherichia coli, 80.6% of human uropathogenic E.coli and 94.1% of human neonatal meningitis-causing E. coli, respectively, harbor a complete copy of this island; whereas, only a few avian fecal E. coli strains contained the complete island. Functional analysis showed that Tkt1 confers very little transketolase activity but is involved in peptide nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion These results suggest tkt1 and its corresponding genomic island are frequently associated with avian and human ExPEC and are involved in bipeptide metabolism. PMID:22471764

  1. Comparison of ruminant and human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains.

    PubMed

    Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Puentes, Beatriz; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jorge; Orden, José A

    2012-03-23

    The presence of 12 genes associated with virulence in human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) was studied within a collection of 20 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and 206 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolated from ruminants. In addition, virulence genes and the clonal relationship of 49 atypical EPEC O26 strains isolated from humans and ruminants were compared to clarify whether ruminants serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans. A great diversity in the content of virulence gene was found. Thus, the espH, espG and map genes were detected in more than 85% of ruminant AEEC strains; the tccP2, espI, efa1/lifA, ehxA and paa genes were present in 50-70% of strains; and other genes such as tccP, espP, katP and toxB were detected in <25% of strains. EHEC strains contained more virulence genes than atypical EPEC strains. Our results suggest for the first time that the efa1/lifA gene is associated with diarrhea in newborn ruminants and that the AEEC strains with the H11 flagellar antigen are potentially more virulent than the non-H11 AEEC strains. Importantly, we identified a new intimin variant gene, eaeρ, in three ruminant atypical EPEC strains. The comparison of ruminant and human EPEC O26 strains showed that some ruminant strains possess virulence gene profiles and pulse-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes similar to those of human strains. In conclusion, our data suggest that atypical EPEC is a heterogeneous group with different pathogenic potential and that ruminants could serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans.

  2. Comparison of ruminant and human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains.

    PubMed

    Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Puentes, Beatriz; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jorge; Orden, José A

    2012-03-23

    The presence of 12 genes associated with virulence in human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) was studied within a collection of 20 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and 206 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolated from ruminants. In addition, virulence genes and the clonal relationship of 49 atypical EPEC O26 strains isolated from humans and ruminants were compared to clarify whether ruminants serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans. A great diversity in the content of virulence gene was found. Thus, the espH, espG and map genes were detected in more than 85% of ruminant AEEC strains; the tccP2, espI, efa1/lifA, ehxA and paa genes were present in 50-70% of strains; and other genes such as tccP, espP, katP and toxB were detected in <25% of strains. EHEC strains contained more virulence genes than atypical EPEC strains. Our results suggest for the first time that the efa1/lifA gene is associated with diarrhea in newborn ruminants and that the AEEC strains with the H11 flagellar antigen are potentially more virulent than the non-H11 AEEC strains. Importantly, we identified a new intimin variant gene, eaeρ, in three ruminant atypical EPEC strains. The comparison of ruminant and human EPEC O26 strains showed that some ruminant strains possess virulence gene profiles and pulse-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes similar to those of human strains. In conclusion, our data suggest that atypical EPEC is a heterogeneous group with different pathogenic potential and that ruminants could serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans. PMID:21958746

  3. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Colonization of Human Colonic Epithelium In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Steven B.; Cook, Vivienne; Tighe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis and more severe complications, such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pathology is most pronounced in the colon, but to date there is no direct clinical evidence showing EHEC binding to the colonic epithelium in patients. In this study, we investigated EHEC adherence to the human colon by using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) of colonic biopsy samples and polarized T84 colon carcinoma cells. We show for the first time that EHEC colonizes human colonic biopsy samples by forming typical attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions which are dependent on EHEC type III secretion (T3S) and binding of the outer membrane protein intimin to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). A/E lesion formation was dependent on oxygen levels and suppressed under oxygen-rich culture conditions routinely used for IVOC. In contrast, EHEC adherence to polarized T84 cells occurred independently of T3S and intimin and did not involve Tir translocation into the host cell membrane. Colonization of neither biopsy samples nor T84 cells was significantly affected by expression of Shiga toxins. Our study suggests that EHEC colonizes and forms stable A/E lesions on the human colon, which are likely to contribute to intestinal pathology during infection. Furthermore, care needs to be taken when using cell culture models, as they might not reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:25534942

  4. Escherichia coli out in the cold: Dissemination of human-derived bacteria into the Antarctic microbiome.

    PubMed

    Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Smith, James J; Stark, Jonathon S; Gillings, Michael R; Gordon, David M

    2016-08-01

    Discharge of untreated sewage into Antarctic environments presents a risk of introducing non-native microorganisms, but until now, adverse consequences have not been conclusively identified. Here we show that sewage disposal introduces human derived Escherichia coli carrying mobile genetic elements and virulence traits with the potential to affect the diversity and evolution of native Antarctic microbial communities. We compared E. coli recovered from environmental and animal sources in Antarctica to a reference collection of E. coli from humans and non-Antarctic animals. The distribution of phylogenetic groups and frequency of 11 virulence factors amongst the Antarctic isolates were characteristic of E. coli strains more commonly associated with humans. The rapidly emerging E. coli ST131 and ST95 clones were found amongst the Antarctic isolates, and ST95 was the predominant E. coli recovered from Weddell seals. Class 1 integrons were found in 15% of the Antarctic E. coli with 4 of 5 identified gene cassette arrays containing antibiotic resistance genes matching those common in clinical contexts. Disposing untreated sewage into the Antarctic environment does disseminate non-native microorganisms, but the extent of this impact and implications for Antarctic ecosystem health are, as yet, poorly understood. PMID:27179324

  5. Effects of temperature on Escherichia coli overproducing beta-lactamase or human epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, J J; Kim, E; Telford, J N; Wong, E Y; Tacon, W C; Shuler, M L; Wilson, D B

    1990-01-01

    The effects of temperature on strains of Escherichia coli which overproduce and excrete either beta-lactamase or human epidermal growth factor were investigated. E. coli RB791 cells containing plasmid pKN which has the tac promoter upstream of the gene for beta-lactamase were grown and induced with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside in batch culture at 37, 30, 25, and 20 degrees C. The lower temperature greatly reduced the formation of periplasmic beta-lactamase inclusion bodies, increased significantly the total amount of beta-lactamase activity, and increased the purity of extracellular beta-lactamase from approximately 45 to 90%. Chemostat operation at 37 and 30 degrees C was difficult due to poor cell reproduction and beta-lactamase production. However, at 20 degrees C, continuous production and excretion of beta-lactamase were obtained for greater than 450 h (29 generations). When the same strain carried plasmid pCU encoding human epidermal growth factor, significant cell lysis was observed after induction at 31 and 37 degrees C, whereas little cell lysis was observed at 21 and 25 degrees C. Both total soluble and total human epidermal growth factor increased with decreasing temperature. These results indicate that some of the problems of instability of strains producing high levels of plasmid-encoded proteins can be mitigated by growth at lower temperatures. Further, lower temperatures can increase for at least some secreted proteins both total plasmid-encoded protein formed and the fraction that is soluble. Images PMID:2155574

  6. Escherichia coli out in the cold: Dissemination of human-derived bacteria into the Antarctic microbiome.

    PubMed

    Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Smith, James J; Stark, Jonathon S; Gillings, Michael R; Gordon, David M

    2016-08-01

    Discharge of untreated sewage into Antarctic environments presents a risk of introducing non-native microorganisms, but until now, adverse consequences have not been conclusively identified. Here we show that sewage disposal introduces human derived Escherichia coli carrying mobile genetic elements and virulence traits with the potential to affect the diversity and evolution of native Antarctic microbial communities. We compared E. coli recovered from environmental and animal sources in Antarctica to a reference collection of E. coli from humans and non-Antarctic animals. The distribution of phylogenetic groups and frequency of 11 virulence factors amongst the Antarctic isolates were characteristic of E. coli strains more commonly associated with humans. The rapidly emerging E. coli ST131 and ST95 clones were found amongst the Antarctic isolates, and ST95 was the predominant E. coli recovered from Weddell seals. Class 1 integrons were found in 15% of the Antarctic E. coli with 4 of 5 identified gene cassette arrays containing antibiotic resistance genes matching those common in clinical contexts. Disposing untreated sewage into the Antarctic environment does disseminate non-native microorganisms, but the extent of this impact and implications for Antarctic ecosystem health are, as yet, poorly understood.

  7. Sex-dependent competitive dominance of phylogenetic group B2 Escherichia coli strains within human hosts.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Cornall, Samantha J; Kennedy, Karina; Colligon, Peter; Gordon, David M

    2014-12-01

    Escherichia coli can be divided into several distinct phylogenetic groups that differ in their capacity to cause disease. However, what drives the relative abundance of these different phylogenetic groups in the commensal intestinal community of humans is poorly understood. This study investigated how host age and sex influences E. coli community structure in humans. Faecal samples were collected from 205 outpatients in Australia. Different strains within each sample were identified using rep-PCR profiles and their phylogenetic group membership was determined by quadruplex PCR. Female individuals carrying a dominant B2 strain were found to possess fewer strains than those carrying dominant A or B1 strains. Additionally, strains from the same phylogenetic group were more likely to co-occur in females. By contrast, strain diversity and phylogenetic group associations did not differ significantly from random in males. Host age was found to have a significant effect on the phylogenetic group of the dominant strain. Together these findings indicate that the distribution of the different phylogenetic groups within the human intestinal tract may be mediated by a complex interaction between the host environment and the competitive interactions between strains.

  8. Microarray based comparative genotyping of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli strains from food animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Szmolka, Ama; Anjum, Muna F; La Ragione, Roberto M; Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Nagy, Béla

    2012-04-23

    Recent data from the European and Hungarian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems have indicated that the routine use of gentamicin in human and veterinary medicine frequently leads to the selection of gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to provide molecular characterization of gentamicin resistance in clinical and commensal E. coli strains representing humans and food producing animals by genotyping for antimicrobial resistance and virulence using a miniaturized microarray. All 50 strains tested proved to be multidrug resistant defined as resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes. Antimicrobial resistances genes such as aadA1-like, strB, bla(TEM), sul1 and tet(A) or tet(B), and corresponding phenotypes (streptomycin-, ampicillin-, sulfamethoxazole- and tetracycline resistance) were detected in >50% of isolates regardless of the host or clinical background. However, certain genes encoding gentamicin resistance such as aac(6')-Ib and ant(2″)-Ia as well as catB3-like genes for phenicol resistance were only detected in human isolates. Among virulence genes, the increased serum survival gene iss was predominant in all host groups. Although the majority of gentamicin resistant E. coli strains were characterized by diverse antimicrobial resistance, and virulence gene patterns, accentuated links between catB3-like, aac(6')-Ib, bla(CTX-M-1) and sat genes could be detected in human strains. Further resistance/virulence gene associations (tet(A) with iroN and iss) were detected in poultry strains. In conclusion, the simultaneous characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of representative clinical and commensal strains of E. coli should be useful for the identification of emerging genotypes with human and or animal health implications.

  9. Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Endostatin in Periplasm of Escherichia coli Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Mohajeri, Abbas; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Karimi, Pouran; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recombinant human endostatin (rhEs) is an angiogenesis inhibitor which is used as a specific drug in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. In the current research, we developed an efficient method for expressing soluble form of the rhEs protein in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli via fusing with pelB signal peptide. Methods: The human endostatin (hEs) gene was amplified using synthetic (hEs) gene as a template; then, cloned and expressed under T7 lac promoter. IPTG was used as an inducer for rhEs expression. Next, the osmotic shock was used to extraction of protein from the periplasmic space. The presence of rhEs in the periplasmic space was approved by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Results: The results show the applicability of pelB fusion protein system usage for secreting rhEs in the periplasm of E. coli in the laboratory scale. The rhEs represents approximately 35 % (0.83mg/l) of the total cell protein. Conclusion: The present study apparently is the first report of codon-optimized rhEs expression as a fusion with pelB signal peptide. The results presented the successful secretion of soluble rhEs to the periplasmic space. PMID:27478780

  10. Intein mediated hyper-production of authentic human basic fibroblast growth factor in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Keith W. Y.; Sivakumar, T.; Wong, W. K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Human basic fibroblast growth factor is a functionally versatile but very expensive polypeptide. In this communication, employing a novel amplification method for the target gene and genetic optimization of a previously engineered expression construct, pWK3R, together with a refined fed-batch fermentation protocol, we report an achievement of a phenomenal yield of 610 mg/L of the 146 aa authentic human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in Escherichia coli. Construct pWK3R was first modified to form plasmid pWK311ROmpAd, which was devoid of the ompA leader sequence and possessed two copies of a DNA segment encoding a fusion product comprising an intein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae vascular membrane ATPase (VMA), and bFGF. When E. coli transformant JM101 [pWK311ROmpAd] was cultivated using the refined fed-batch fermentation protocol, superb expression resulting in a total yield of 610 mg/L of bFGF was detected. Despite existing in high levels, the bFGF remained to be soluble and highly bioactive. PMID:27653667

  11. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 1950–2002

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 1950–2002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (≥3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. PMID:22515968

  12. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26973622

  13. Expression and purification of recombinant human alpha-defensins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pazgier, Marzena; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2006-09-01

    Different strategies have been developed to produce small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) using recombinant techniques. Up to now, all efforts to obtain larger quantities of active recombinant human alpha-defensins have been only moderately successful. Here we report an effective method of biosynthesis of human alpha-defensins (hNP-1 to hNP-3 and hD-5 and hD-6) in the Escherichia coli. All the peptides, expressed as insoluble fusions with the peptide encoded by a portion of E. coli tryptophan operon (trp DeltaLE 1413 polypeptide), were isolated from the inclusion bodies by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and separated from the fusion leader by chemical cleavage. Fully reduced peptides that were purified according to a straightforward protocol were subsequently folded, oxidized, and subjected to functional and structural analyses. With the exception of hD-6, all recombinant alpha-defensins exhibit expected anti-E. coli activity, as measured by the colony counting method. The method described in this report is a low-cost, efficient way of generating alpha-defensins in quantities ranging from milligrams to grams. PMID:16839776

  14. Human milk oligosaccharides protect bladder epithelial cells against uropathogenic Escherichia coli invasion and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Espanola, Sophia D; Bode, Lars; Nizet, Victor

    2014-02-01

    The invasive pathogen uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Recurrent infection that can progress to life-threatening renal failure has remained as a serious global health concern in infants. UPEC adheres to and invades bladder epithelial cells to establish infection. Studies have detected the presence of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in urine of breast-fed, but not formula-fed, neonates. We investigated the mechanisms HMOs deploy to elicit protection in human bladder epithelial cells infected with UPEC CFT073, a prototypic urosepsis-associated strain. We found a significant reduction in UPEC internalization into HMO-pretreated epithelial cells without observing any significant effect in UPEC binding to these cells. This event coincides with a rapid decrease in host cell cytotoxicity, recognized by LIVE/DEAD staining and cell detachment, but independent of caspase-mediated or mitochondrial-mediated programmed cell death pathways. Further investigation revealed HMOs, and particularly the sialic acid-containing fraction, reduced UPEC-mediated MAPK and NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results indicate that HMOs can protect bladder epithelial cells from deleterious cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of UPEC infection, and may be one contributing mechanism underlying the epidemiological evidence of reduced UTI incidence in breast-fed infants.

  15. Identification of factors in human urine that inhibit the binding of Escherichia coli adhesins.

    PubMed Central

    Parkkinen, J; Virkola, R; Korhonen, T K

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies on the binding of Escherichia coli adhesins to the human urinary tract have indicated that the ability to recognize binding sites on the urinary tract epithelial cells is not a characteristic for P fimbriae only, but is also shared by some other adhesins that are not associated with pyelonephritis, especially S fimbriae. In the present study we have investigated whether human urine contains inhibitors of the binding of E. coli adhesins. Normal human urine was found to inhibit hemagglutination by S and type 1 fimbriae but not P fimbriae. The major inhibitor of S fimbriae in normal urine was identified as Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, and the interaction with S fimbriae is probably mediated by its sialyloligosaccharide chains. No significant variation was observed in the inhibitory effect of T-H glycoprotein preparations originating from different individuals. In contrast to S fimbriae, the major inhibitors of type 1 fimbriae in urine were identified as low-molecular-weight compounds. Gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and alpha-mannosidase treatment indicated that they were neutral alpha-mannosides, probably manno-oligosaccharides with three to five saccharides. Studies of urine samples collected from several individuals indicated the common occurrence of these inhibitory alpha-mannosides. Type 1 fimbriae bound to immobilized T-H glycoprotein, but, unlike S fimbriae, their binding was poorly inhibited by soluble T-H glycoprotein. Some urine samples were also found to contain low-molecular-weight inhibitors for the O75X adhesin of E. coli. These results emphasize that to function as a virulence factor in human urinary tract infections, an adhesin must evidently recognize such receptor structures at the infection sites that are not excreted in soluble form in urine. This prerequisite is filled by P fimbriae but not by type 1 or S fimbriae. PMID:2901405

  16. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Cecilia S M Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E; Satorres, Sara E; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia Del C

    2013-12-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  17. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Cecilia S.M. Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E.; Satorres, Sara E.; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia del C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers’ intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  18. Functional expression of soluble forms of human CD38 in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, K B; O'Donoghue, K; Graeff, R M; Lee, H C; Branton, W D

    1995-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (cADPR), a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), mobilizes calcium from intracellular stores in many cells. The synthesis of cADPR from NAD+ and its subsequent hydrolysis to ADPR is catalyzed by an ADP-ribosyl cyclase and a cADPR hydrolase, respectively. The ADP-ribosyl cyclase cloned from the ovotestis of the marine invertebrate Aplysia californica has amino acid sequence homology to the human lymphocyte surface antigen CD38. CD38 has been shown to catalyze both the formation and the hydrolysis of cADPR. In this study, we produced soluble, enzymatically active CD38 using recombinant expression techniques in bacteria and yeast. We engineered a gene coding for a soluble form of CD38 by excision of the region of the gene coding for the N-terminal amino acids representing the putative membrane spanning sequence and short putative intracellular sequence. For expression in bacteria (Escherichia coli), this construct was cloned into the pFlag-1 plasmid which allows induced, periplasmic expression and relatively simple purification of the soluble CD38. For expression in yeast (Pichia pastoris) the CD38 sequence was further modified to eliminate four putative N-linked glycosylation sites and the resulting construct was expressed as a secreted protein. Both systems produce soluble enzymes of approximately 30 kDa and both recombinant enzymes display similar cyclase and hydrolase activities. PMID:7663169

  19. Microcin determinants are associated with B2 phylogroup of human fecal Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Micenková, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Štaudová, Barbora; Kohoutová, Darina; Čejková, Darina; Woznicová, Vladana; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Bureš, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli strains are classified into four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and strains of these phylogroups differ in a number of characteristics. This study tested whether human fecal E. coli isolates belonging to different phylogroups differ in prevalence of bacteriocinogenic isolates and prevalence of individual bacteriocinogenic determinants. A set of 1283 fecal E. coli isolates from patients with different diseases was tested for the presence of DNA regions allowing classification into E. coli phylogroups and for the ability to produce bacteriocins (23 colicins and 7 microcins). Of the isolates tested, the most common was phylogroup B2 (38.3%) followed by phylogroups A (28.3%), D (26.3%) and B1 (7.2%). Altogether, 695 bacteriocin producers were identified representing 54.2% of all tested isolates. The highest prevalence of bacteriocin producers was found in group B2 (60.3%) and the lowest in group B1 (44.6%). Determinants encoding colicins E1, Ia, and microcin mV were most common in phylogroup A, determinants encoding microcins mM and mH47 were most common in phylogroup B2, and determinant encoding mB17 was most common in phylogroup D. The highest prevalence of bacteriocinogeny was found in phylogroup B2, suggesting that bacteriocinogeny and especially the synthesis of microcins was associated with virulent and resident E. coli strains.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

    1990-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

  1. Properties of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase expressed from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    LeVan, K M; Goldberg, E

    1991-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the C4 isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) was engineered for expression in Escherichia coli. The Ldh-c open reading frame was constructed as a cassette for production of the native protein. The modified Ldh-c cDNA was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pKK223-3. Transformed E. coli cells were grown to mid-exponential phase, and induced with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside for positive regulation of the tac promoter. Induced cells expressed the 35 kDa subunit, which spontaneously formed the enzymically active 140 kDa tetramer. Human LDH-C4 was purified over 200-fold from litre cultures of cells by AMP and oxamate affinity chromatography to a specific activity of 106 units/mg. The enzyme was inhibited by pyruvate concentrations above 0.3 mM, had a Km for pyruvate of 0.03 mM, a turnover number (nmol of NADH oxidized/mol of LDH-C4 per min at 25 degrees C) of 14,000 and was heat-stable. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1996957

  2. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development. PMID:27766259

  3. Development of a fluorometric microplate antiadhesion assay using uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human uroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Lindsey L; Mathison, Bridget D; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Chew, Boon P

    2014-05-23

    A fluorometric microplate assay has been developed to determine Escherichia (E.) coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells (UEC). P-fimbriated E. coli were labeled with BacLight Green and preincubated 30 min with human urine or standard. Fluorescent-E. coli were added to UEC in mircoplates at a 400:1 ratio, incubated 1 h, and washed, and the fluorescence intensity was measured. Specific labeling and adherence were confirmed by flow cytometry. A myricetin (1) standard curve (0-30 μg/mL) was developed; the lower limit of detection was 0.1 μg/mL, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.88 μg/mL (intra- and interassay coefficients of variance were <10% and <15%, respectively). Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) extracts, quercetin (2), and procyanidins B1 (3), B2 (4), and C1 (5) showed similar inhibition. Antiadhesion activity of urine samples from subjects (n = 12) consuming placebo or V. macrocarpon beverage determined using this assay was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.78; p < 0.01) with a radiolabeled-E. coli assay.

  4. Human Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression in Escherichia coli using Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Cumulative Power.

    PubMed

    Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hemayatkar, Mahdi; Davami, Fatemeh; Barkhordary, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Soleimani, Mohammad; Davoudi, Noushin; Khalaj, Vahid

    2010-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease, which is composed of five distinct structural domains with 17 disulfide bonds, representing a model of high-disulfide proteins in human body. One of the most important limitations for high yield heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the expression of complex proteins with multiple disulfide bridges. In this study the combination of two distinct strategies, manipulated cytoplasm and native periplasm, was applied to produce the functional full length tPA enzyme in E. coli. Using a PelB signal peptide sequence at 5' site of tPA gene, the expression cassette was prepared and subsequently was transformed into a strain with manipulated oxidizing cytoplasm. Then the induction was made to express the protein of interest. The SDS-PAGE analysis and gelatin hydrolysis confirmed the successful expression of functional tPA. The results of this study showed that complex proteins can be produced in E. coli using the cumulative power of both cytoplasm and periplasm.

  5. Human Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression in Escherichia coli using Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Cumulative Power

    PubMed Central

    Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hemayatkar, Mahdi; Davami, Fatemeh; Barkhordary, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Soleimani, Mohammad; Davoudi, Noushin; Khalaj, Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease, which is composed of five distinct structural domains with 17 disulfide bonds, representing a model of high-disulfide proteins in human body. One of the most important limitations for high yield heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the expression of complex proteins with multiple disulfide bridges. In this study the combination of two distinct strategies, manipulated cytoplasm and native periplasm, was applied to produce the functional full length tPA enzyme in E. coli. Using a PelB signal peptide sequence at 5′ site of tPA gene, the expression cassette was prepared and subsequently was transformed into a strain with manipulated oxidizing cytoplasm. Then the induction was made to express the protein of interest. The SDS-PAGE analysis and gelatin hydrolysis confirmed the successful expression of functional tPA. The results of this study showed that complex proteins can be produced in E. coli using the cumulative power of both cytoplasm and periplasm. PMID:23408156

  6. Adrenoceptor hyporeactivity is responsible for Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced acute vascular dysfunction in humans.

    PubMed

    Pleiner, Johannes; Heere-Ress, Elisabeth; Langenberger, Herbert; Sieder, Anna E; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela; Mittermayer, Fritz; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Böhm, Johannes; Jansen, Burkhard; Wolzt, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Impaired response to catecholamines contributes to the altered hemodynamics in sepsis, which has been attributed to excessive NO formation. We have studied the systemic hemodynamic and local forearm responses and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression during experimental endotoxemia in humans. Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) was administered at doses of 1 or 2 ng/kg to healthy volunteers. In 10 subjects, the systemic pressor effect of phenylephrine was assessed before and after the administration of LPS. In 9 further subjects, forearm blood flow responses to intra-arterial noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glyceryl trinitrate, and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) were studied at baseline and after LPS administration. Peripheral blood was collected and analyzed for iNOS mRNA and protein. Four hours after LPS, the response of systolic blood pressure (P<0.0005) and heart rate (P<0.05) to phenylephrine was significantly reduced. In the forearm, noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction was also reduced by approximately 50% (P<0.01), but L-NMMA responsiveness was unchanged. iNOS mRNA or protein was not increased. Marked vascular adrenoceptor hyporeactivity is detectable in the absence of increased NO activity or iNOS expression in endotoxemia, arguing against major involvement of vascular iNOS activity in the acute systemic vasodilation to LPS.

  7. Complete solubilization and purification of recombinant human growth hormone produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Hyun Soo; Seo, Kyung Hye; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Choi, Jun-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    High-level expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) leads to the formation of insoluble aggregates as inclusion bodies devoid of biological activity. Until recently, significant efforts have been made to improve the recovery of active hGH from inclusion bodies. Here, we developed an efficient procedure for the production of completely soluble hGH by minimizing the formation of inclusion bodies and optimizing protein purification conditions. Under the newly established conditions we were able to obtain most of the total hGH in the soluble fraction. We show that the soluble protein can be efficiently purified in high yield by a series of chromatographic procedures. We analyzed the resulting hGH using various analytical techniques such as reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism (CD). These multiple analyses support the conclusion that we obtained highly pure hGH with the expected molecular mass and intact secondary structure. The biological activity of purified hGH was also confirmed by evaluating its growth-promoting effect using a cell proliferation assay. Taken together, we describe a straightforward strategy for the production of completely soluble and biologically active hGH in E. coli.

  8. Role of uropathogenic Escherichia coli OmpT in the resistance against human cathelicidin LL-37.

    PubMed

    Brannon, John R; Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Desloges, Isabelle; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2013-08-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are among the most prevalent causative agents of urinary tract infections. To establish infection, UPEC must overcome the bactericidal action of host antimicrobial peptides. Previously, the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli outer membrane protease, OmpT, was shown to degrade and inactivate the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. This study aims to investigate the involvement of UPEC OmpT in LL-37 degradation. An ompT deletion mutant was generated in the prototypical UPEC strain CFT073. Western blot analysis showed that the OmpT protein level is moderate in CFT073. In agreement, OmpT was shown to partially cleave LL-37. However, no difference in the minimum inhibitory concentration of LL-37 was observed between CFT073 and the ompT mutant. Plasmid complementation of ompT, which led to increased OmpT levels, resulted in complete cleavage of LL-37 and a fourfold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration. The analysis of other UPEC isolates showed similar OmpT activity levels as CFT073. Although UPEC OmpT can cleave LL-37, we conclude that the low level of OmpT limits its contribution to LL-37 resistance. Collectively, these data suggest that UPEC OmpT is likely accompanied by other LL-37 resistance mechanisms.

  9. Intein-mediated one-step purification of Escherichia coli secreted human antibody fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wan-Yi; Miller, Keith D.; Coolbaugh, Michael; Wood, David W.

    2011-02-25

    In this work, we apply self-cleaving affinity tag technology to several target proteins secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm, including two with disulfide bonds. The target proteins were genetically fused to a self-cleaving chitin-binding domain intein tag for purification via a chitin agarose affinity resin. By attaching the intein-tagged fusion genes to the PelB secretion leader sequence, the tagged target proteins were secreted to the periplasmic space and could be recovered in active form by simple osmotic shock. After chitin-affinity purification, the target proteins were released from the chitin-binding domain tag via intein self-cleaving. This was induced by a small change in pH from 8.5 to 6.5 at room temperature, allowing direct elution of the cleaved target protein from the chitin affinity resin. The target proteins include the E. coli maltose-binding protein and b-lactamase enzyme, as well as two human antibody fragments that contain disulfide bonds. In all cases, the target proteins were purified with good activity and yield, without the need for refolding. Overall, this work demonstrates the compatibility of the DI-CM intein with the PelB secretion system in E. coli, greatly expanding its potential to more complex proteins.

  10. Purification and DNA-binding properties of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Tsunokawa, Y; Sugimura, T; Terada, M

    1989-11-15

    Unfused human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli using a lambda PL promoter system. The protein was isolated from the cells as inclusion bodies, extracted by 6 M guanidine-HCl, and purified by chromatography. The purified protein had high affinity to DNA and was demonstrated for the first time to bind to a specific sequence within the long control region of HPV 16. PMID:2556128

  11. Single Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Simultaneously the Six Categories of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Associated with Enteric Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Maricel; Kruger, Eileen; Durán, Claudia; Lagos, Rosanna; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria; Toro, Cecilia; Vidal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We designed a multiplex PCR for the detection of all categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. This method proved to be specific and rapid in detecting virulence genes from Shiga toxin-producing (stx1, stx2, and eae), enteropathogenic (eae and bfp), enterotoxigenic (stII and lt), enteroinvasive (virF and ipaH), enteroaggregative (aafII), and diffuse adherent (daaE) Escherichia coli in stool samples. PMID:16208019

  12. Refolding and purification of recombinant human PDE7A expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wito; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Kronbach, Thomas; Dettmer, Dietrich

    2002-06-01

    We have investigated the refolding and purification of the catalytic domain of human 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 7A1 (PDE7A1) expressed in Escherichia coli. A cDNA encoding an N-terminal-truncated PDE7A1(147-482-His) was amplified by RT-PCR from human peripheral blood cells and inserted into the vector pET21-C for bacterial expression of the enzyme fused to a C-terminal His-tag. The PDE was found to be expressed in the form of inclusion bodies which could be refolded to an active enzyme in buffer containing high concentrations of arginine hydrochloride, ethylene glycol, and magnesium chloride at pH 8.5. The PDE7A1(147-482-His) construct could be purified after dialysis and concentration steps by either Zn2+-IDA-Sepharose chromatography or ResourceQ ion-exchange chromatography to homogeneity. In comparison to the metal-chelate column, the ResourceQ purification resulted in a distinctly better yield and enrichment of the protein. Both the Vmax (0.46 micromol. min(-1). mg(-1) ) and the K(m) (0.1 microM) of the purified enzyme were found to be comparable with published data for native or recombinant catalytically active expressed PDE7A1. Using SDS/PAGE, a molecular mass of 39 kDa was determined (theoretical value 38.783 kDa). As known from several other mammalian PDEs, size-exclusion chromatography using refolded PDE7A1(147-482-His) indicated the formation of dimers. The purified enzyme was soluble at concentrations up to 100 microg/ml. A further increase of protein concentration resulted, however, in precipitation of the enzyme.

  13. Escherichia coli O157:H7: Animal Reservoir and Sources of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ferens, Witold A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review surveys the literature on carriage and transmission of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in the context of virulence factors and sampling/culture technique. EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype are worldwide zoonotic pathogens responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. EHEC O157:H7 strains are carried primarily by healthy cattle and other ruminants, but most of the bovine strains are not transmitted to people, and do not exhibit virulence factors associated with human disease. Prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 is probably underestimated. Carriage of EHEC O157:H7 by individual animals is typically short-lived, but pen and farm prevalence of specific isolates may extend for months or years and some carriers, designated as supershedders, may harbor high intestinal numbers of the pathogen for extended periods. The prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle peaks in the summer and is higher in postweaned calves and heifers than in younger and older animals. Virulent strains of EHEC O157:H7 are rarely harbored by pigs or chickens, but are found in turkeys. The bacteria rarely occur in wildlife with the exception of deer and are only sporadically carried by domestic animals and synanthropic rodents and birds. EHEC O157:H7 occur in amphibian, fish, and invertebrate carriers, and can colonize plant surfaces and tissues via attachment mechanisms different from those mediating intestinal attachment. Strains of EHEC O157:H7 exhibit high genetic variability but typically a small number of genetic types predominate in groups of cattle and a farm environment. Transmission to people occurs primarily via ingestion of inadequately processed contaminated food or water and less frequently through contact with manure, animals, or infected people. PMID:21117940

  14. Longitudinal Characterization of Escherichia coli in Healthy Captive Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Jonathan B.; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Trent, Ava M.; Murphy, Tami; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of non-human primates (NHPs) are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of human beings and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract as well as the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was previously experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight toward the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals. PMID:26664923

  15. Killing of an encapsulated strain of Escherichia coli by human serum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P W; Kroll, H P

    1983-01-01

    Changes in cell viability and in factors affecting metabolic integrity were examined after exposure of Escherichia coli LP1092 to human serum. Antibody-dependent classical pathway activity accounted for the rapid killing of strain LP1092 by complement. Removal of serum lysozyme by bentonite absorption or by neutralization with anti-human lysozyme immunoglobulin G resulted in a reduction in the rate of killing; optimal activity could be restored by the addition of physiological amounts of egg-white lysozyme. The pattern of 86Rb+ and alkaline phosphatase release obtained after serum treatment did not support the view that complement simultaneously disrupts cytoplasmic and outer membrane integrity. Macromolecular synthesis was affected late in the reaction sequence; complete inhibition of precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA, and protein occurred only after almost total loss of bacterial colony-forming ability. Addition of chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, to the bactericidal system resulted in a marked reduction in the rate of serum killing. Killing was completely inhibited by an inhibitor (KCN) and an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) of oxidative phosphorylation. Exposure of LP1092 cells to serum was followed by a rapid and large increase in intracellular ATP levels; ATP synthesis did not occur when bacteria were exposed to dialyzed serum, which killed LP1092 cells at a much reduced rate. Addition of glucose or serum ultrafiltrate to dialyzed serum restored optimal bactericidal activity. We suggest that optimal killing of gram-negative bacteria is an energy-dependent process requiring an input of bacterially generated ATP. PMID:6185430

  16. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Pande, Abhay H

    2015-11-01

    Human PON1 (h-PON1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent serum enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate) a wide range of substrates. It is a multifaceted enzyme and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, and organophosphate (OP)-detoxifying properties. Thus, h-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of therapeutic intervention against these conditions in humans. Insufficient hydrolyzing activity of native h-PON1 against desirable substrate affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) of h-PON1 having enhanced activity. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop such variant(s). However, generation of rh-PON1 using E. coli expression system has been elusive until now because of the aggregation of over-expressed rh-PON1 protein in inactive form as inclusion bodies (IBs) in the bacterial cells. In this study, we have over-expressed rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) proteins as IBs in E. coli, and refolded the inactive enzymes present in the IBs to their active form using in vitro refolding. The active enzymes were isolated from the refolding mixture by ion-exchange chromatography. The catalytic properties of the refolded enzymes were similar to their soluble counterparts. Our results show that the pure and the active variant of rh-PON1 enzyme having enhanced hydrolyzing activity can be produced in large quantities using E. coli expression system. This method can be used for the industrial scale production of rh-PON1 enzymes and will aid in developing h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.

  17. Genetic features of human and bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described

  18. Genetic features of human and bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described

  19. Characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, V P; Gyles, C L; Friendship, R W

    1988-01-01

    Porcine verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were characterized with respect to frequency of occurrence, serogroup, and association with disease, weaning, and selected properties of the bacterium. Of 668 strains of E. coli from southern Ontario pigs with enteric disease, 32 (4.8%) produced verotoxin at 10(3)-10(7) cytotoxic doses per mL of culture supernatant. Of 22 isolates which belonged to O serogroups 138, 139 and 141, 15 produced verotoxin. Among other enterotoxigenic types of E. coli, two of 57 isolates of O157:K"V17" and two of 96 isolates of O149:K91 were verotoxigenic. The remaining 13 verotoxigenic E. coli belonged to O groups 2, 107, 120, 121 and 130. An additional 21 verotoxigenic E. coli belonging to O groups 138, 139 and 141 and three to O157:K"V17" were identified in a collection of 47 E. coli recovered from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Verotoxigenic E. coli were associated with postweaning diarrhea, bloody stools, sudden death and edema disease. They were isolated at similar frequencies (14%) from healthy weaned pigs, and from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Isolation rates from neonates were low and significantly different from rates in weaned pigs. Neutralizing antibody to verotoxin was not detected in the sera of 45 pigs, which included pigs from herds with a history of edema disease. Verotoxin was not associated with production of colicin, hemolysin, or enterotoxins or with any of 23 biochemical properties of the organisms. The serological data indicate that porcine verotoxigenic E. coli are not a common source of verotoxigenic E. coli for humans. Porcine verotoxin may play a role in postweaning diarrhea and absence of detectable neutralizing antibody in serum may be an important aspect of pathogenesis. PMID:3048621

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated human gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Tamplin, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Human disease caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a function of the number of cells that are present at potential sites of infection and host susceptibility. Such infectious doses are a result, in part, of the quantity of cells that are ingested and that survive human host defenses, such as the low-pH environment of the stomach. To more fully understand the kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 survival in gastric fluid, individual E. coli O157:H7 strains were suspended in various media (i.e., saline, cooked ground beef [CGB], and CGB containing a commercial antacid product [CGB+A]), mixed at various proportions with simulated human gastric fluid (SGF), and then incubated at 37 degrees C for up to 4 h. The highest inactivation rate among nine E. coli O157:H7 strains was observed in saline. Specifically, the average survival rates in 100:1 and 10:1 proportions of SGF-saline were -1.344 +/- 0.564 and -0.997 +/- 0.388 log(10) CFU/h, respectively. In contrast, the average inactivation rate for 10 E. coli O157:H7 strains suspended in 10:1 SGF-CGB was -0.081 +/- 0.068, a rate that was 12-fold lower than that observed for SGF-saline. In comparison, the average inactivation rate for Shigella flexneri strain 5348 in 100:1 and 10:1 SGF-saline was -8.784 and -17.310, respectively. These latter inactivation rates were 7- to 17-fold higher than those for E. coli O157:H7 strains in SGF-saline and were 4-fold higher than those for E. coli O157:H7 strains in SGF-CGB. The survival rate of E. coli O157:H7 strain GFP80EC increased as the dose of antacid increased from one-half to twice the prescribed dose. A similar trend was observed for the matrix pH over the range of pH 1.6 to 5.7, indicating that pH is a primary factor affecting E. coli O157:H7 survival in SGF-CGB+A. These results can be used in risk assessment to define dose-response relationships for E. coli O157:H7 and to evaluate potential surrogate organisms.

  1. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, Ilse; Willemsen, Ina; Rijnsburger, Martine; Eustace, Andrew; Xu, Li; Hawkey, Peter; Heck, Max; Savelkoul, Paul; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Huijsdens, Xander; Kluytmans, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We determined the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes of Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat and humans in the Netherlands. Raw meat samples were obtained, and simultaneous cross-sectional surveys of fecal carriage were performed in 4 hospitals in the same area. Human blood cultures from these hospitals that contained ESBL genes were included. A high prevalence of ESBL genes was found in chicken meat (79.8%). Genetic analysis showed that the predominant ESBL genes in chicken meat and human rectal swab specimens were identical. These genes were also frequently found in human blood culture isolates. Typing results of Escherichia coli strains showed a high degree of similarity with strains from meat and humans. These findings suggest that the abundant presence of ESBL genes in the food chain may have a profound effect on future treatment options for a wide range of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Optimization of inclusion body solubilization and renaturation of recombinant human growth hormone from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K; Mukhopadhyay, R; Mukhija, R; Krishnan, A; Garg, L C; Panda, A K

    2000-03-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. In 10 h of fed-batch fermentation, 1.6 g/L of r-hGH was produced at a cell concentration of 25 g dry cell weight/L. Inclusion bodies from the cells were isolated and purified to homogeneity. Various buffers with and without reducing agents were used to solubilize r-hGH from the inclusion bodies and the extent of solubility was compared with that of 8 M urea as well as 6 M Gdn-HCl. Hydrophobic interactions as well as ionic interactions were found to be the dominant forces responsible for the formation of r-hGH inclusion bodies during its high-level expression in E. coli. Complete solubilization of r-hGH inclusion bodies was observed in 100 mM Tris buffer at pH 12.5 containing 2 M urea. Solubilization of r-hGH inclusion bodies in the presence of low concentrations of urea helped in retaining the existing native-like secondary structures of r-hGH, thus improving the yield of bioactive protein during refolding. Solubilized r-hGH in Tris buffer containing 2 M urea was found to be less susceptible to aggregation during buffer exchange and thus was refolded by simple dilution. The r-hGH was purified by use of DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography and the pure monomeric r-hGH was finally obtained by using size-exclusion chromatography. The overall yield of the purified monomeric r-hGH was approximately 50% of the initial inclusion body proteins and was found to be biologically active in promoting growth of rat Nb2 lymphoma cell lines.

  3. Synthetic genes for human muscle-type adenylate kinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tanaka, T; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gene coding for the human muscle-type cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1) was chemically synthesized and directly expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of trp promoter. The DNA duplex of 596 bp was designed and constructed from 40 oligonucleotide fragments of typically 30 nucleotides in length. Twelve unique restriction sites were fairly evenly spaced in the synthetic gene to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis at any part of this recombinant protein. The genes for mutant hAK1 (Tyr 95----Phe 95, Y95F hAK1; Arg 97----Ala 97, R97A hAK1) were constructed by cassette mutagenesis and utilized restriction sites incorporated in the hAK1 gene. The recombinant hAK1 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step chromatographic procedure with a good yield, and showed the same adenylate kinase activity as that of authentic hAK1. Preliminary kinetic studies show that the enzymatic activity (Vmax app,cor/Et) of Y95F hAK1 was slightly greater than that of recombinant hAK1, whereas R97A hAK1 still possessed approximately 4% of recombinant hAK1 activity. These results suggest that the Arg-97 residue is important but not essential for catalytic activity, and that Tyr-95 can be replaced by phenylalanine without substantial effects on the enzymatic activity. Moreover, preliminary estimates of the apparent kinetic parameters suggest that these residues are not required for MgATP binding, and therefore they do not appear to be part of the MgATP binding site.

  4. Bacteriostatic effect of human milk and bovine colostrum on Escherichia coli: importance of bicarbonate.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E; Humphreys, J

    1977-01-01

    At pH 7.4 and in the presence of NaHCO3, human milk and bovine colostrum inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O111. Adding sufficient iron to saturate the iron-binding capacity of the lactoferrin present in the milk or colostrum prevented bacteriostasis. At pH 6.8 neither molk nor colostrum inhibited E. coli 0111. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaHCO3 resulted in the development of bacteriostatic activity. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaOH was ineffective. Dialyzed colostrum and milk inhibited bacterial growth at pH 6.8 in the absence of added NaHCO3; addition of citrate or iron abolished bacteriostasis. The chromatographic elution profile of tyrosyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) from iron-replete E. coli differs significantly from that of tyrosyl-tRNA from iron-deficient organisms. Examination of the elution profile tyrosyl-tRNA from E. coli 0111 growing in colostrum without added NaHCO3 showed that such bacteria were fully replete in iron. The nature of the elution profile of tyrosyl-tRNA also showed that iron was freely available to the bacteria when citrate was added to dialyzed colostrum but not available in its absence, even at pH 6.8. Results support the idea that the bacteriostatic action of milk and colostrum, due to the combined action of antibody and lactoferrin, depends on the addition of bicarbonate to counteract the iron-mobilizing effect of the citrate normally present in these secretions. PMID:14890

  5. Expression and purification of human tryptophan hydroxylase from Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Jeffrey; Knappskog, Per M; Pereira, Jacinto; Ekern, Trude; Toska, Karen; Kuitert, Baukje B; Levine, David; Gronenborn, Angela M; Martinez, Aurora; Haavik, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) from several mammalian species has previously been cloned and expressed in bacteria. However, due to the instability of wild type TPH, most successful attempts have been limited to the truncated forms of this enzyme. We have expressed full-length human TPH in large amounts in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris and purified the enzyme using new purification protocols. When expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli, the maltose-binding protein-TPH (MBP-TPH) fusion protein was more soluble than native TPH and the other fusion proteins and had a 3-fold higher specific activity than the His-Patch-thioredoxin-TPH and 6xHis-TPH fusion proteins. The purified MBP-TPH had a V(max) of 296 nmol/min/mg and a K(m) for L-tryptophan of 7.5+/-0.7 microM, compared to 18+/-5 microM for the partially purified enzyme from P. pastoris. To overcome the unfavorable properties of TPH, the stabilizing effect of different agents was investigated. Both tryptophan and glycerol had a stabilizing effect, whereas dithiothreitol, (6R)-5,6,7,8,-tetrahydrobiopterin, and Fe(2+) inactivated the enzyme. Irrespective of expression conditions, both native TPH expressed in bacteria or yeast, or TPH fusion proteins expressed in bacteria exhibited a strong tendency to aggregate and precipitate during purification, indicating that this is an intrinsic property of this enzyme. This supports previous observations that the enzyme in vivo may be stabilized by additional interactions.

  6. Survival of Escherichia coli O26:H11 exceeds that of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as assessed by simulated human digestion of contaminated raw milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Thévenot, Jonathan; Denis, Sylvain; Callon, Cécile; Livrelli, Valérie; Alric, Monique; Montel, Marie-Christine; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2014-02-17

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of human foodborne outbreaks. The consumption of raw milk dairy products may be an important route of STEC infection. For successful foodborne transmission, STEC strains must survive stress conditions met during gastrointestinal transit in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of two STEC strains of serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H11 during simulated human digestion in the TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) of contaminated uncooked pressed cheeses. The survival of cheese microflora during in vitro gastrointestinal transit was also determined for the first time. The level of STEC increased from 2 log₁₀ CFU/ml to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during the first 24h of cheese making and remained stable at around 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during cheese ripening and conservation. During transit through the artificial stomach and duodenum, levels of STEC decreased: 0.2% of E. coli O157:H7 and 1.8% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 150 min in the gastric compartment, compared with 14.3% for the transit marker. Bacterial resumption was observed in the jejunum and ileum: 35.8% of E. coli O157:H7 and 663.2% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 360 min in the ileal compartment, compared with 12.6% for the transit marker. The fate of STEC was strain-dependent, the survival of E. coli O26:H11 being 13 times greater than that of E. coli O157:H7 at the end of digestion in the cumulative ileal deliveries. These data provide a better understanding of STEC behavior during gastrointestinal transit in humans after ingestion of contaminated cheese.

  7. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  8. Isolation of Mutants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Based on the Toxicity of the Enzyme in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Ellen Z.; Bebernitz, Geraldine A.; Gluzman, Yakov

    1990-07-01

    The protease encoded by the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to be toxic to strain BL21(DE3). This toxicity provided a convenient selection for isolating mutants of the protease that are nontoxic and enzymatically inactive. This strong correlation between functional protease and toxicity resulted in rapid identification of several protease mutations, including mutations that exhibit temperature sensitivity. A total of 24 missense mutations and 7 nonsense mutations were identified. The described selection procedure may have wider applications for isolating mutants of other eukaryotic proteins that exhibit a toxic phenotype in E. coli.

  9. Primary Amine Oxidase of Escherichia coli Is a Metabolic Enzyme that Can Use a Human Leukocyte Molecule as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maksimow, Mikael; Elima, Kati; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Skurnik, Mikael; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Siitonen, Anja; McPherson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO), encoded by the tynA gene, catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines into aldehydes through a well-established mechanism, but its exact biological role is unknown. We investigated the role of ECAO by screening environmental and human isolates for tynA and characterizing a tynA-deletion strain using microarray analysis and biochemical studies. The presence of tynA did not correlate with pathogenicity. In tynA+ Escherichia coli strains, ECAO enabled bacterial growth in phenylethylamine, and the resultant H2O2 was released into the growth medium. Some aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibited the enzymatic activity of ECAO, which could affect the growth of tynA+ bacteria. Our results suggest that tynA is a reserve gene used under stringent environmental conditions in which ECAO may, due to its production of H2O2, provide a growth advantage over other bacteria that are unable to manage high levels of this oxidant. In addition, ECAO, which resembles the human homolog hAOC3, is able to process an unknown substrate on human leukocytes. PMID:26556595

  10. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  11. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic. PMID:19244916

  12. A potential camel reservoir for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing human infection in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Fadlelmula, Ali; Al-Hamam, Naser Abdallah; Al-Dughaym, Abdulla Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is continuing to increase. Consequently, efficient approaches to identify sources of resistance are required. This study aimed to compare Escherichia coli isolates from the intestinal tract of camels with isolates from human urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Al Ahsa Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), for antimicrobial resistance and identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A microbiological study was conducted on 100 samples of cecal contents from camels and 100 urine samples from female UTI patients, to isolate and confirm E. coli using the VITEK 2 Automated System. Sensitivity patterns and identification of ESBLs were analyzed using the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Molecular techniques were used to detect E. coli drug-resistant clones. The presence rate of E. coli in camels was 26.0 % (n = 26/100), and in human samples, the rate of E. coli was 33.0 % (n = 33/100). ESBLs were reported for the first time in KSA, in 26.9 % (n = 5/26) of camel samples and 36.4 % (n = 8/33) of human samples. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) index was 0.13 and 0.17, for camels and humans, respectively. Escherichia coli drug-resistant O25b:H4-sequence type 131(ST131) clone was detected in two camel and two human isolates. This study demonstrates a high presence rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) in camels for the first time in KSA. Confirmation of MDR strains and E. coli ST131 clone in human and camel isolates suggests that camels could be a potential reservoir for resistant E. coli strains contributing to the increase in antimicrobial resistance in KSA.

  13. Characterization of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 isolated from human in Poland between 1996 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Wołkowicz, T; Chróst, A; Szych, J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 infections can be comparable with STEC O157 infections in severity of the acute haemolytic-uremic syndrome HUS and long-term sequelae. Among O26 STEC isolates, highly virulent clone O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29 (ST 29) emerged in Germany in mid-1990s and spread to European countries. However, up to date, no STEC O26:H11/H- belonging to ST29 has been documented in Poland. In this study, we determined the relationship and clonal structure, stx genotypes, plasmid gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine human STEC O26:H11/H- strains from human patients in Poland between 1996 and 2014. Of the 9 human STEC O26:H11/H- strains, two belonged to ST29 and were isolated from two children with HUS and renal failure with sepsis respectively. These strains showed the molecular characteristics of the emerging human-pathogenic ST29 clone (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+, ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). The remaining STEC O26:H11/H- strains examined in this study, belonged to ST21, with plasmid genes profiles frequently reported in ST21 strains in Europe. STEC O26 infections with serious human health consequences highlight the need of continuous surveillance of non-O157 STEC and implementation of the diagnostic approaches focused on their detection. Significance and impact of the study: These study provides the first data on the occurrence of emerging Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 ST 29 clone in human patients in Poland. Those strains show the molecular characteristics of highly virulent new ST29 pathotype (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+ ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). These results demonstrated prompt efforts to implement diagnostic approaches detection of those pathogen in the European countries.

  14. Lactoferrin and free secretory component of human milk inhibit the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Nascimento; Giugliano, Loreny Gimenes

    2001-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is considered one of the major causes of diarrhoea in children living in developing countries. The ability of diarrhoeagenic strains of E. coli to adhere to and colonize the intestine is the first step towards developing the disease. EPEC strains adhere to enterocytes and HeLa cells in a characteristic pattern known as localized adherence. Many epidemiological studies of diarrhoea have shown that breast-feeding protects infants from intestinal infections. Both immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin elements of human milk are thought to contribute to the protection from diarrhoeal agents. Results The effects of human milk and its protein components on the localized adherence of EPEC were investigated. Non-immunoglobulin components of human milk responsible for the inhibition of EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells were isolated by chromatographic fractionation of human whey proteins. Besides secretory immunoglobulin A, which has been previously reported to affect the adhesion of EPEC, free secretory component (fSC) and lactoferrin (Lf) were isolated. Even in concentrations lower than those usually found in whole milk, fSC and Lf were able to inhibit the adhesion of EPEC. α-lactalbumin was also isolated, but showed no activity on EPEC adhesion. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the immunoglobulin fraction, the free secretory component and lactoferrin of human milk inhibit EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells. These results indicate that fSC and Lf may be important non-specific defence factors against EPEC infections. PMID:11690544

  15. Characterization and biofilm forming ability of diarrhoeagenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infants and young animals.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Deepthi; Dhaka, Pankaj; Vergis, Jess; Negi, Mamta; Mohan, Vysakh; Kumar, Manesh; Doijad, Swapnil; Poharkar, Krupali; Kumar, Ashok; Malik, Satyaveer Singh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram; Rawool, Deepak B

    2015-02-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important pathotype that causes infection in humans and animals. EAEC isolates (n=86) recovered from diarrhoeal cases in human infants (37) and young animals (49) were characterized as 'typical' and/or 'atypical' EAEC strains employing PCR for virulence associated genes (cvd432, aaiA, astA, pilS, irp2, ecp, pic, aggR, aafA, aggA, and agg3A). Besides, biofilm formation ability of human and animal EAEC isolates was assessed using microtiter plate assay. In addition, the transcriptional profile of biofilm associated genes (fis and ecp) was also evaluated and correlated with biofilm formation assay for few selected EAEC isolates of human and animal origins. Overall, a diverse virulence gene profile was observed for the EAEC isolates of human and animal origins as none of the EAEC isolates revealed the presence of all the genes that were targeted. Nine 'typical' EAEC isolates were identified (6 from humans and 3 from animals) while, the majority of the isolates were 'atypical' EAEC strains. Isolation and identification of three 'typical' EAEC isolates from animals (canines) appears to be the first report globally. Further, based on the observations of the biofilm formation assay, the study suggested that human EAEC isolates in particular were comparatively more biofilm producers than that of the animal EAEC isolates. The fis gene was highly expressed in majority of 'typical' EAEC isolates and the ecp gene in 'atypical' EAEC isolates.

  16. Nonimmunoglobulin fraction of human milk inhibits bacterial adhesion (hemagglutination) and enterotoxin binding of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M; Ahrén, C

    1981-01-01

    Human milk and colostrum samples were divided into an immunoglobulin and a nonimmunoglobulin fraction by immunosorbent chromatography. The ability of these fractions to inhibit bacterial cell adhesion and enterotoxin receptor binding of Vibrio cholerae and various Escherichia coli isolates was then tested by in vitro assays. The strongest effect was generally seen with the nonimmunoglobulin fractions, which were shown to significantly inhibit E. coli cell adhesion (hemagglutination) mediated by CFA/I, CFA/II, or K88 fimbriae (but not type 1 pili) and V. cholerae hemagglutination, as well as the binding of cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin to GM1 ganglioside. Also, the immunoglobulin fractions had significant inhibitory activity in some of these systems. The results are interpreted to suggest that human milk and colostrum may contain secreted structure analogs of the cell receptors for some bacterial adhesions and enterotoxins; this might contribute to the protective effect of milk against enteric infections. PMID:7021421

  17. Molecular screening of virulence genes in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from human blood culture in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koga, Vanessa L; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Cyoia, Paula S; Neves, Meiriele S; Vidotto, Marilda C; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is one of the main etiological agents of bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. In the present study, 20 E. coli isolates from human hemocultures were characterized to identify genetic features associated with virulence (pathogenicity islands markers, phylogenetic group, virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and conjugative plasmids) and these results were compared with commensal isolates. The most prevalent pathogenicity island, in strains from hemoculture, were PAI IV536, described by many researchers as a stable island in enterobacteria. Among virulence genes, iutA gene was found more frequently and this gene enconding the aerobactin siderophore receptor. According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found. Additionally, through plasmid analysis, 14 isolates showed plasmids and 3 of these were shown to be conjugative. Although in stool samples of healthy people the presence of commensal strains is common, human intestinal tract may serve as a reservoir for ExPEC.

  18. Adhesion of marine cryptic Escherichia isolates to human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vignaroli, Carla; Sante, Laura Di; Magi, Gloria; Luna, Gian Marco; Di Cesare, Andrea; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Facinelli, Bruna; Biavasco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Five distinct cryptic lineages (clades I–V) have recently been recognized in the Escherichia genus. The five clades encompass strains that are phenotypically and taxonomically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli sensu stricto; however, scant data are available on their ecology, virulence and pathogenic properties. In this study 20 cryptic E. coli strains isolated from marine sediments were investigated to gain insights into their virulence characteristics and genetic traits. The ability to adhere to intestinal cells was highest among clade V strains, which also harbored the genes involved in gut colonization as well as the genes (pduC and eut operon) typically found in environmentally adapted E. coli strains. The pduC gene was significantly associated with clade V. Multilocus sequence typing of three representative clade V isolates revealed new sequence types (STs) and showed that the strains shared two allelic loci (adk 51 and recA 37). Our findings suggest that cryptic Escherichia lineages are common in coastal marine sediments and that this habitat may be suitable for their growth and persistence outside the host. On the other hand, detection in clade V strains of a gene repertoire and adhesion properties similar to those of intestinal pathogenic strains could indicate their potential virulence. It could be argued that there is a dual nature of cryptic clade V strains, where the ability to survive and persist in a secondary habitat does not involve the loss of the host-associated lifestyle. Clade V could be a group of closely related, environmentally adapted E. coli strains. PMID:25216085

  19. Adhesion of marine cryptic Escherichia isolates to human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, Carla; Di Sante, Laura; Magi, Gloria; Luna, Gian Marco; Di Cesare, Andrea; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Facinelli, Bruna; Biavasco, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    Five distinct cryptic lineages (clades I-V) have recently been recognized in the Escherichia genus. The five clades encompass strains that are phenotypically and taxonomically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli sensu stricto; however, scant data are available on their ecology, virulence and pathogenic properties. In this study 20 cryptic E. coli strains isolated from marine sediments were investigated to gain insights into their virulence characteristics and genetic traits. The ability to adhere to intestinal cells was highest among clade V strains, which also harbored the genes involved in gut colonization as well as the genes (pduC and eut operon) typically found in environmentally adapted E. coli strains. The pduC gene was significantly associated with clade V. Multilocus sequence typing of three representative clade V isolates revealed new sequence types (STs) and showed that the strains shared two allelic loci (adk 51 and recA 37). Our findings suggest that cryptic Escherichia lineages are common in coastal marine sediments and that this habitat may be suitable for their growth and persistence outside the host. On the other hand, detection in clade V strains of a gene repertoire and adhesion properties similar to those of intestinal pathogenic strains could indicate their potential virulence. It could be argued that there is a dual nature of cryptic clade V strains, where the ability to survive and persist in a secondary habitat does not involve the loss of the host-associated lifestyle. Clade V could be a group of closely related, environmentally adapted E. coli strains.

  20. Siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the virulence-associated interactive metabolome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human urine

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; Lv, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) growth in women’s bladders during urinary tract infection (UTI) incurs substantial chemical exchange, termed the “interactive metabolome”, which primarily accounts for the metabolic costs (utilized metabolome) and metabolic donations (excreted metabolome) between UPEC and human urine. Here, we attempted to identify the individualized interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine. We were able to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC by employing a combination of metabolomics and genetics. Our results revealed that the interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine was markedly different from that between non-UPEC and human urine, and that UPEC triggered much stronger perturbations in the interactive metabolome in human urine. Furthermore, siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the individualized interactive metabolome, which we found to be a critical component of UPEC virulence. The individualized virulence-associated interactive metabolome contained 31 different metabolites and 17 central metabolic pathways that were annotated to host these different metabolites, including energetic metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism. Changes in the activities of these pathways mechanistically pinpointed the virulent capability of siderophore biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide novel insights into UPEC virulence, and we propose that siderophores are potential targets for further discovery of drugs to treat UPEC-induced UTI. PMID:27076285

  1. Siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the virulence-associated interactive metabolome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human urine.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; Lv, Haitao

    2016-04-14

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) growth in women's bladders during urinary tract infection (UTI) incurs substantial chemical exchange, termed the "interactive metabolome", which primarily accounts for the metabolic costs (utilized metabolome) and metabolic donations (excreted metabolome) between UPEC and human urine. Here, we attempted to identify the individualized interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine. We were able to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC by employing a combination of metabolomics and genetics. Our results revealed that the interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine was markedly different from that between non-UPEC and human urine, and that UPEC triggered much stronger perturbations in the interactive metabolome in human urine. Furthermore, siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the individualized interactive metabolome, which we found to be a critical component of UPEC virulence. The individualized virulence-associated interactive metabolome contained 31 different metabolites and 17 central metabolic pathways that were annotated to host these different metabolites, including energetic metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism. Changes in the activities of these pathways mechanistically pinpointed the virulent capability of siderophore biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide novel insights into UPEC virulence, and we propose that siderophores are potential targets for further discovery of drugs to treat UPEC-induced UTI.

  2. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  3. Virulence potential for extraintestinal infections among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans--the Trojan horse within our gut.

    PubMed

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-03-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains is the intestinal microbiota. Nevertheless, studies focused on the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among the bowel microbiota in healthy human individuals practically do not exist and a strong bias towards pathogenic strains among the E. coli data set is obvious. To assess the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among E. coli from the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans, we performed a search for data on the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and pathogenicity islands among fecal E. coli found in published studies, including studies comparing isolates from patients suffering from extraintestinal E. coli infections with E. coli from feces of healthy humans. An extensive literature search, including more than 500 published papers, revealed 24 papers with data on prevalences of ≥ 5 virulence-associated genes among 21 E. coli collections including ≥ 20 fecal/rectal strains obtained from healthy individuals and 4 papers with prevalences of pathogenicity islands among E. coli collections from healthy humans. The gathered data are presented in this minireview and clearly show that potential ExPEC strains are present among fecal isolates with a prevalence of around ≥ 10%.

  4. Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for secretory expression of artificial genes for human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovskaya, L.E.; Ruzin, A.V.; Shingarova, L.N.; Korobko, V.G.

    1995-11-01

    A number of recombinant plasmids for expression of artificial genes encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were constructed. A hybrid gene was obtained that contains a sequence encoding the leader peptide and a tandem of two IgG-binding domains of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus coupled, through an enteropepdidase linker, to a synthetic gmcsf gene. The construction enables Escherichia coli to carry out biosynthesis of the hybrid protein and its subsequent transport into the periplasmic space of bacteria. Another hybrid gene, combining sequences for the signal peptide of the E. coli outer membrane protein OmpA and GM-CSF, was obtained using polymerase chain reaction. The localization of the mature protein produced by the hybrid gene was found to depend on the strength of the promoter used. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of human von Ebner gland protein expressed in Escherichia coli: implications for its physiological role.

    PubMed

    Creuzenet, C; Mangroo, D

    1998-11-01

    The human von Ebner gland protein (VEG) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The sequence and mass of the recombinant protein were confirmed, and far and near UV circular dichroic analyses showed that the protein was properly folded. The secondary structure of recombinant VEG consisted of 75% beta-sheets and 12% alpha-helices, and it was found to be stable under acidic conditions, in the presence of alcohol, and at high temperatures. The denaturation temperature was 79 degreesC at pH 3.5, with a denaturation enthalpy (DeltaHd) of 160,600 J/mol. Fluorescence analysis and measurement of the denaturation temperature by circular dichroism did not detect any interaction between VEG and extremely bitter (denatonium benzoate, caffein) or sweet (aspartame) compounds. These results suggest that VEG may not function as a shuttle for transfer of sapid molecules to taste receptors.

  6. Binding of Soluble Natural Ligands to a Soluble Human T-Cell Receptor Fragment Produced in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilyard, Katherine L.; Reyburn, Hugh; Chung, Shan; Bell, John I.; Strominger, Jack L.

    1994-09-01

    An Escherichia coli expression system has been developed to produce milligram quantities of the variable domains of a human T-cell receptor from a cytotoxic T cell that recognizes the HLA-A2-influenza matrix peptide complex as a single polypeptide chain. The recombinant protein was purified by metal-chelate chromatography and then refolded in a redox buffer system. The refolded protein was shown to directly bind both Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and the major histocompatibility complex protein-peptide complex using a BIAcore biosensor. Thus this preparation of a single-chain, variable-domain, T-cell receptor fragment can bind both of its natural ligands and some of it is therefore a functional fragment of the receptor molecule.

  7. Disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the big six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from food animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 144 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. An overall moderate prevalence of 38.9% antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed in these strains. Animal strains had a lower p...

  8. Genome Sequence and Annotation of a Human Infection Isolate of Escherichia coli O26:H11 Involved in a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Galia, Wessam; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Loukiadis, Estelle; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Leriche, Françoise; Brugère, Hubert; Shima, Ayaka; Oswald, Eric; Cournoyer, Benoit; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of raw milk cheese can expose populations to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). We report here the genome sequence of an E. coli O26:H11 strain isolated from humans during the first raw milk cheese outbreak described in France (2005).

  9. Genomic Diversity of Enterotoxigenic Strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Jessica V.; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strains of Bacteroides fragilis are the subset of strains that secrete a toxin called fragilysin (Bft). Although ETBF strains are known to cause diarrheal disease and have recently been associated with colorectal cancer, they have not been well characterized. By sequencing the complete genome of four ETBF strains, we found that these strains exhibit considerable variation at the genomic level. Only a small number of genes that are located primarily in the Bft pathogenicity island (BFT PAI) and the flanking CTn86 conjugative transposon are conserved in all four strains and a fifth strain whose genome was previously sequenced. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that the BFT PAI was acquired by non-toxigenic (NTBF) strains multiple times during the course of evolution. At the phenotypic level, we found that the ETBF strains were less fit than the NTBF strain NCTC 9343 and were susceptible to a growth-inhibitory protein that it produces. The ETBF strains also showed a greater tendency to form biofilms, which may promote tumor formation, than NTBF strains. Although the genomic diversity of ETBF strains raises the possibility that they vary in their pathogenicity, our experimental results also suggest that they share common properties that are conferred by different combinations of non-universal genetic elements. PMID:27348220

  10. Association of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Infection with Inflammatory Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Cynthia L.; Islam, Salequl; Saha, Amit; Arjumand, Maleka; Alam, Nur Haque; Faruque, A. S. G.; Salam, M. A.; Shin, Jai; Hecht, David; Weintraub, Andrej; Sack, R. Bradley; Qadri, Firdausi

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrheal illnesses remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with increasing recognition of long-term sequelae, including postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and growth faltering, as well as cognitive deficits in children. Identification of specific etiologic agents is often lacking. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) may contribute to the burden of colonic inflammatory diarrheal disease. The study goal was to investigate the pathogenesis of ETBF diarrheal illnesses. Methods We performed an observational study of children and adults with acute diarrheal illnesses in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2004 through November 2005, to define the clinical presentation, intestinal inflammatory responses, and systemic and intestinal antibody responses to ETBF. Other enteric pathogens were also evaluated. Results ETBF was identified to cause a clinical syndrome with marked abdominal pain and nonfebrile inflammatory diarrhea in both children (age, >1 year) and adults. Fecal leukocytes, lactoferrin, and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor–α)—as well as B. fragilis toxin systemic antitoxin responses—increased rapidly in ETBF-infected patients. Evidence of intestinal inflammation often persisted for at least 3 weeks, despite antibiotic therapy. Conclusions ETBF infection is a newly recognized cause of inflammatory diarrhea in children and adults. Future studies are needed to evaluate the role of ETBF in persistent colonic inflammation and other morbid sequelae of acute diarrheal disease. PMID:18680416

  11. Vaginal carriage of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynski, P; van Belkum, A; Pituch, H; Verbrugh, H; Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F

    1997-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacterial species that is involved in gynecological infections and pathology. The incidence of vaginal carriage is largely unknown, and in order to study this, 120 pregnant women attending a general hospital for delivery were examined. Cultures were positive for eight of these women (6.6%). Interestingly, potential clonal relatedness could be demonstrated among several of the nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains. Among the strains, only one produced metalloprotease enterotoxin. The presence of the gene for the metalloprotease, giving rise to the pathogenic effect on cultured eukaryotic HT29/C1 cells, was confirmed by a newly designed specific PCR assay. The enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strain was analyzed with the help of arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and PCR-mediated ribotyping. The ETBF strain was shown to be genetically different compared to several other strains obtained from diverse sources. Our data indicate a relatively high vaginal B. fragilis carriage rate among pregnant women in Warsaw, Poland. Although neither ETBF nor B. fragilis colonization presented a clinical problem, the possible genetic relatedness among the colonizing B. fragilis strains indicates the need for additional research in the field of ETBF transmission and molecular epidemiology. PMID:9350755

  12. Expression, purification, and characterization of human osteoclastic protein-tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Sui, Yuan; Cui, Yue; Lin, Peng; Li, Wannan; Xing, Shu; Wang, Deli; Hu, Min; Fu, Xueqi

    2015-03-01

    Osteoclastic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP-oc) is a structurally unique transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that contains only a relatively small intracellular PTP catalytic domain, does not have an extracellular domain, and lacks a signal peptide proximal to the NH2 terminus. The present study reports the expression, purification, and characterization of the intracellular catalytic domain of PTP-oc (ΔPTP-oc). ΔPTP-oc was expressed in Escherichia coli cells as a fusion with a six-histidine tag and was purified via nickel affinity chromatography. When with para-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) as a substrate, ΔPTP-oc exhibited classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Its responses to temperature and ionic strength were similar to those of other PTPs. The optimal pH value of ΔPTP-oc is approximately 7.0, unlike other PTPs, whose optimal pH values are approximately 5.0. PMID:25462809

  13. Clonal relationship between human and avian ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in North-Eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Agabou, A; Lezzar, N; Ouchenane, Z; Khemissi, S; Satta, D; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P; Pantel, A

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates, patterns, and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and to assess connections between chicken commensal, human commensal, and pathogenic ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates. All E. coli isolates collected from chickens, their farmers, and patients in the Constantine region (North-east Algeria) were analyzed for bla and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene contents, phylogroups, Rep-PCR profiles, and multilocus sequence types. A high prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones (51.4 % to ciprofloxacin) was recorded in avian isolates. Of these, 22.2 % carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, whereas lower resistance levels to these antibiotics were recorded in chicken farmers' isolates. None of the commensal isolates harbored the qnr, qepA, or oqxAB genes. One human pathogenic isolate was ertapenem-resistant and harbored the bla OXA-48 gene, 84 showed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype, with bla CTX-M-15 gene prevalent in 87.2 % of them. Seventy isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, with aac(6')-Ib-cr present in 72.8 %, qnrB in 5.7 %, and qnrS in 10 %. Three Rep-PCR profiles were common to chicken commensal and human pathogenic isolates (phylogroups D and B1; ST21, ST48, and ST471 respectively); one was found in both chicken and chicken-farmer commensal strains (D; ST108), while another profile was identified in a chicken-farmer commensal strain and a human pathogenic one (B1; ST19). These findings suggest clonal and epidemiologic links between chicken and human ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates and the important role that poultry may play in the epidemiology of human E. coli infections in the Constantine region.

  14. Identification of potentially diarrheagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains present in Canadian food animals at slaughter and in retail meats.

    PubMed

    Comery, Raven; Thanabalasuriar, Ajitha; Garneau, Philippe; Portt, Andrea; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Harel, Josée; Manges, Amee R; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2013-06-01

    This study identified and characterized enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in the Canadian food supply. Eighteen of 450 E. coli isolates from food animal sources were identified as atypical EPEC (aEPEC). Several of the aEPEC isolates identified in this study possessed multiple virulence genes, exhibited adherence and attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion formation, disrupted tight junctions, and were coclassified with the extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) pathotypes. PMID:23584785

  15. The human homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease V is a nucleolar protein with affinity for branched DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Fladeby, Cathrine; Vik, Erik Sebastian; Laerdahl, Jon K; Gran Neurauter, Christine; Heggelund, Julie E; Thorgaard, Eirik; Strøm-Andersen, Pernille; Bjørås, Magnar; Dalhus, Bjørn; Alseth, Ingrun

    2012-01-01

    Loss of amino groups from adenines in DNA results in the formation of hypoxanthine (Hx) bases with miscoding properties. The primary enzyme in Escherichia coli for DNA repair initiation at deaminated adenine is endonuclease V (endoV), encoded by the nfi gene, which cleaves the second phosphodiester bond 3' of an Hx lesion. Endonuclease V orthologs are widespread in nature and belong to a family of highly conserved proteins. Whereas prokaryotic endoV enzymes are well characterized, the function of the eukaryotic homologs remains obscure. Here we describe the human endoV ortholog and show with bioinformatics and experimental analysis that a large number of transcript variants exist for the human endonuclease V gene (ENDOV), many of which are unlikely to be translated into functional protein. Full-length ENDOV is encoded by 8 evolutionary conserved exons covering the core region of the enzyme, in addition to one or more 3'-exons encoding an unstructured and poorly conserved C-terminus. In contrast to the E. coli enzyme, we find recombinant ENDOV neither to incise nor bind Hx-containing DNA. While both enzymes have strong affinity for several branched DNA substrates, cleavage is observed only with E. coli endoV. We find that ENDOV is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of human cells. As nucleoli harbor the rRNA genes, this may suggest a role for the protein in rRNA gene transactions such as DNA replication or RNA transcription.

  16. Human CCT4 and CCT5 Chaperonin Subunits Expressed in Escherichia coli Form Biologically Active Homo-oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, Oksana A.; Chen, Bo; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Ludtke, Steven J.; Chiu, Wah; King, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Chaperonins are a family of chaperones that encapsulate their substrates and assist their folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), is a hetero-oligomeric complex composed of two rings, each formed from eight different CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1) subunits. Each CCT subunit may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. We have expressed each human CCT subunit individually in Escherichia coli to investigate whether they form chaperonin-like double ring complexes. CCT4 and CCT5, but not the other six CCT subunits, formed high molecular weight complexes within the E. coli cells that sedimented about 20S in sucrose gradients. When CCT4 and CCT5 were purified, they were both organized as two back-to-back rings of eight subunits each, as seen by negative stain and cryo-electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the hetero-oligomeric double-ring TRiC purified from bovine testes and HeLa cells. Both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers hydrolyzed ATP at a rate similar to human TRiC and were active as assayed by luciferase refolding and human γD-crystallin aggregation suppression and refolding. Thus, both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers have the property of forming 8-fold double rings absent the other subunits, and these complexes carry out chaperonin reactions without other partner subunits. PMID:23612981

  17. The Human Homolog of Escherichia coli Endonuclease V Is a Nucleolar Protein with Affinity for Branched DNA Structures

    PubMed Central

    Laerdahl, Jon K.; Gran Neurauter, Christine; Heggelund, Julie E.; Thorgaard, Eirik; Strøm-Andersen, Pernille; Bjørås, Magnar; Dalhus, Bjørn; Alseth, Ingrun

    2012-01-01

    Loss of amino groups from adenines in DNA results in the formation of hypoxanthine (Hx) bases with miscoding properties. The primary enzyme in Escherichia coli for DNA repair initiation at deaminated adenine is endonuclease V (endoV), encoded by the nfi gene, which cleaves the second phosphodiester bond 3′ of an Hx lesion. Endonuclease V orthologs are widespread in nature and belong to a family of highly conserved proteins. Whereas prokaryotic endoV enzymes are well characterized, the function of the eukaryotic homologs remains obscure. Here we describe the human endoV ortholog and show with bioinformatics and experimental analysis that a large number of transcript variants exist for the human endonuclease V gene (ENDOV), many of which are unlikely to be translated into functional protein. Full-length ENDOV is encoded by 8 evolutionary conserved exons covering the core region of the enzyme, in addition to one or more 3′-exons encoding an unstructured and poorly conserved C-terminus. In contrast to the E. coli enzyme, we find recombinant ENDOV neither to incise nor bind Hx-containing DNA. While both enzymes have strong affinity for several branched DNA substrates, cleavage is observed only with E. coli endoV. We find that ENDOV is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of human cells. As nucleoli harbor the rRNA genes, this may suggest a role for the protein in rRNA gene transactions such as DNA replication or RNA transcription. PMID:23139746

  18. Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Activities of Plant Products against Enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces two types of enterotoxins: heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa and STb). These molecules are involved in the induction of secretory diarrhea in animals including humans. This condition is currently treated using a fluid replacement therapy and antibiotics. This treatment is often not available to people in developing countries, and several die from the condition provoke by ETEC. Over the years, plants and plant extracts have been use as traditional medicine to treat various gastrointestinal ailments including diarrhea. Many of these plant products have been claimed to be active against diarrhea, however few have been extensively studied. The main objective of this review was to gather the scattered information on the antidiarrheal activities reported for various plant products on ETEC. This includes two major effects: (1) The inhibitory effect on bacterial growth or viability and (2) The interference with ETEC enterotoxins activity upon the intestinal epithelium. We will focus on plant products and extracts for which we have major indications of their biological activity against ETEC and their enterotoxins. Because Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is structurally, antigenically and mechanistically related to LT, it will also be discussed in this review. PMID:24212181

  19. Seasonal distribution and prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in different aquatic environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chien; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Kao, Po-Min; Tao, Chi-Wei; Ho, Ying-Ning; Kuo, Chun-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-02-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are the most common agents of diarrhea. Waterborne DEC could pose a potential health risk to human through agricultural, household, recreational, and industrial use. There are few published reports on the detection of DEC and its seasonal distribution in aquatic environments. The presence of DEC in different types of aquatic environments was investigated in this study. Water samples were collected from major rivers, water reservoirs, and recreational hot springs throughout Taiwan. Moreover, an intensive water sampling plan was carried out along Puzih River. The detection of DEC target genes was used to determine the presence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among the 383 water samples analyzed, DEC was found in 122 (31.8%) samples. The detection rate varied by genotype, raging from 3.6% for STEC to 17.2% for EPEC. The DEC detection rate was higher from river waters than reservoirs and hot springs. In addition, DEC was detected at a higher rate in spring and summer. The presence of EPEC was significantly associated with total coliform levels among hot spring samples. Moreover, the presence of ETEC in river water samples was associated with heterotrophic plate counts. Water with EPEC differed significantly in pH from Puzih River samples. These results suggest that seasonal characteristics may affect the presence of DEC in different aquatic environments, and water quality indicators may be indicative of the presence of DEC.

  20. Seasonal distribution and prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in different aquatic environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chien; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Kao, Po-Min; Tao, Chi-Wei; Ho, Ying-Ning; Kuo, Chun-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-02-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are the most common agents of diarrhea. Waterborne DEC could pose a potential health risk to human through agricultural, household, recreational, and industrial use. There are few published reports on the detection of DEC and its seasonal distribution in aquatic environments. The presence of DEC in different types of aquatic environments was investigated in this study. Water samples were collected from major rivers, water reservoirs, and recreational hot springs throughout Taiwan. Moreover, an intensive water sampling plan was carried out along Puzih River. The detection of DEC target genes was used to determine the presence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among the 383 water samples analyzed, DEC was found in 122 (31.8%) samples. The detection rate varied by genotype, raging from 3.6% for STEC to 17.2% for EPEC. The DEC detection rate was higher from river waters than reservoirs and hot springs. In addition, DEC was detected at a higher rate in spring and summer. The presence of EPEC was significantly associated with total coliform levels among hot spring samples. Moreover, the presence of ETEC in river water samples was associated with heterotrophic plate counts. Water with EPEC differed significantly in pH from Puzih River samples. These results suggest that seasonal characteristics may affect the presence of DEC in different aquatic environments, and water quality indicators may be indicative of the presence of DEC. PMID:26454073

  1. Incidence of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolated from young children with diarrhoea in the west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Sedighi, Iraj; Zamani, Alireza; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadrosadat, Taravat

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) represents a main group of enteric pathogens that cause human diarrhoea. Because it is not simply distinguished from normal flora by simple laboratory methods, modern molecular diagnostic assays are necessary. Although it is neither necessary nor applicable to perform PCR for all patients, it is of many advantages to verify the prevalence of DEC in different areas by this method. Knowing the prevalence of DEC in an area, we can focus on few pathogens and narrow our antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different DEC categories in children diarrhoea in the west of Iran.The stool specimens of 251 children with diarrhoea were collected from June to September 2007. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the presence of enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), entero-invasive (EIEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and entero-aggregative (EAEC) strains. ETEC strains were isolated from 13 and EAEC strains from 16 children. STEC was detected in 7 children, and no EIEC was isolated. Finally, EPEC strains were isolated in 41 cases. EAEC and EPEC are the most frequent DECs in children less than 10 years of age in West of Iran.

  2. Efficient expression of human soluble guanylate cyclase in Escherichia coli and its signaling-related interaction with nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fangfang; Wang, Hongyan; Ying, Tianlei; Huang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Xiangshi

    2010-07-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), as a nitric oxide (NO) sensor, is a critical heme-containing enzyme in NO-signaling pathway of eukaryotes. Human sGC is a heterodimeric hemoprotein, composed of a alpha-subunit (690 AA) and a heme-binding beta-subunit (619 AA). Upon NO binding, sGC catalyzes the conversion of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) to 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). cGMP is a second messenger and initiates the nitric oxide signaling, triggering vasodilatation, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neuronal transmission etc. The breakthrough of the bottle neck problem for sGC-mediated NO singling was made in this study. The recombinant human sGC beta1 subunit (HsGC beta 619) and its truncated N-terminal fragments (HsGC beta 195 and HsGC beta 384) were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and purified successfully in quantities. The three proteins in different forms (ferric, ferrous, NO-bound, CO-bound) were characterized by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. The homology structure model of the human sGC heme domain was constructed, and the mechanism for NO binding to sGC was proposed. The EPR spectra showed a characteristic of five-coordinated heme-nitrosyl species with triplet hyperfine splitting of NO. The interaction between NO and sGC was investigated and the schematic mechanism was proposed. This study provides new insights into the structure and NO-binding of human sGC. Furthermore, the efficient expression system of E. coli will be beneficial to the further studies on structure and activation mechanism of human sGC. PMID:20063108

  3. Human microbiota-secreted factors inhibit shiga toxin synthesis by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    de Sablet, Thibaut; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vareille, Marjolaine; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine

    2009-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The main virulence factor responsible for the more serious disease is the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), which is released in the gut after oral ingestion of the organism. Although it is accepted that the amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 in the gut is critical for the development of disease, the eukaryotic or prokaryotic gut factors that modulate Stx2 synthesis are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of prokaryotic molecules released by a complex human microbiota on Stx2 synthesis by E. coli O157:H7. Stx2 synthesis was assessed after growth of E. coli O157:H7 in cecal contents of gnotobiotic rats colonized with human microbiota or in conditioned medium having supported the growth of complex human microbiota. Extracellular prokaryotic molecules produced by the commensal microbiota repress stx(2) mRNA expression and Stx2 production by inhibiting the spontaneous and induced lytic cycle mediated by RecA. These molecules, with a molecular mass of below 3 kDa, are produced in part by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a predominant species of the normal human intestinal microbiota. The microbiota-induced stx(2) repression is independent of the known quorum-sensing pathways described in E. coli O157:H7 involving SdiA, QseA, QseC, or autoinducer 3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the regulatory activity of a soluble factor produced by the complex human digestive microbiota on a bacterial virulence factor in a physiologically relevant context. PMID:19064636

  4. Human microbiota-secreted factors inhibit shiga toxin synthesis by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    de Sablet, Thibaut; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vareille, Marjolaine; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine

    2009-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The main virulence factor responsible for the more serious disease is the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), which is released in the gut after oral ingestion of the organism. Although it is accepted that the amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 in the gut is critical for the development of disease, the eukaryotic or prokaryotic gut factors that modulate Stx2 synthesis are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of prokaryotic molecules released by a complex human microbiota on Stx2 synthesis by E. coli O157:H7. Stx2 synthesis was assessed after growth of E. coli O157:H7 in cecal contents of gnotobiotic rats colonized with human microbiota or in conditioned medium having supported the growth of complex human microbiota. Extracellular prokaryotic molecules produced by the commensal microbiota repress stx(2) mRNA expression and Stx2 production by inhibiting the spontaneous and induced lytic cycle mediated by RecA. These molecules, with a molecular mass of below 3 kDa, are produced in part by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a predominant species of the normal human intestinal microbiota. The microbiota-induced stx(2) repression is independent of the known quorum-sensing pathways described in E. coli O157:H7 involving SdiA, QseA, QseC, or autoinducer 3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the regulatory activity of a soluble factor produced by the complex human digestive microbiota on a bacterial virulence factor in a physiologically relevant context.

  5. Expression and purification of human WWP2 HECT domain in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahong; Zheng, Jimin; She, Yimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-06-01

    WWP2 (WW domain-containing protein 2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the NEDD4-like protein family involved in various cell regulations, such as carcinogenesis, transcription control and cellular transport. Compared with homologues, WWP2 is difficult to express and no practical protocols have been developed for WWP2 preparation in large scale. Recently, domain structures of homologues of WWP2 have been determined by crystallography and NMR, but none for WWP2 has been attained. In this work, through a combination of extensive screening of ∼100 constructs, expression strategies and host systems, we have found a soluble HECT domain truncation (WHP2) of WWP2 which is amendable for preparation scale expression in Escherichia coli. We have also established a relatively simple purification process to achieve highly pure WHP2 protein by employing immobilized metal-affinity chromatography followed by salting out, ion exchange chromatography and finally, size exclusion chromatography. We are able to obtain about 60mg/L of the soluble WHP2. The identity and structure of the expressed WHP2 have been analyzed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism. The native ability of WHP2 to bind different partners has been revealed by pull-down assay.

  6. High cell density cultivation of recombinant Escherichia coli for prodrug of recombinant human GLPs production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Ma, Xue; Hou, Zheng; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Mingkai; Jia, Min; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(2) has been attracting increasing interest on account of its prominent benefits in type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical applications are limited by the short half-life in vivo. To overcome this limitation, a new polymer of GLP-1 was developed by prodrug strategy. In this study a recombinant protein, rhGLPs, was successfully constructed, cloned into plasmid pET30a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress(DE3)RP in the form of inclusion body. The recombinant fusion protein productivity could be enhanced by high cell density culture of the recombinant strain. As a result, about 40 g wet weight cells per liter were obtained. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 75 column and refolded using reverse dilution and dialysis methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were undertaken to determine the purity and molecular weight of rhGLPs. Bioactivity assay revealed that it had glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing action in vivo. PMID:22771632

  7. Oligoribonuclease is a common downstream target of lithium-induced pAp accumulation in Escherichia coli and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Mechold, Undine; Ogryzko, Vasily; Ngo, Saravuth; Danchin, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    We identified Oligoribonuclease (Orn), an essential Escherichia coli protein and the only exonuclease degrading small ribonucleotides (5mer to 2mer) and its human homologue, small fragment nuclease (Sfn), in a screen for proteins that are potentially regulated by 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (pAp). We show that both enzymes are sensitive to micromolar amounts of pAp in vitro. We also demonstrate that Orn can degrade short DNA oligos in addition to its activity on RNA oligos, similar to what was documented for Sfn. pAp was shown to accumulate as a result of inhibition of the pAp-degrading enzyme by lithium, widely used to treat bipolar disorder, thus its regulatory targets are of significant medical interest. CysQ, the E.coli pAp-phosphatase is strongly inhibited by lithium and calcium in vitro and is a main target of lithium toxicity in vivo. Our findings point to remarkable conservation of the connection between sulfur- and RNA metabolism between E.coli and humans. PMID:16682444

  8. Refolding and purification of the human secreted group IID phospholipase A2 expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Raquel Gomes; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2009-10-01

    The secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are water-soluble enzymes that bind to the surface of both artificial and biological lipid bilayers and hydrolyze the membrane phospholipids. The tissue expression pattern of the human group IID secretory phospholipase A2 (hsPLA2-IID) suggests that the enzyme is involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammatory responses. With an aim to establish an expression system for the hsPLA2-IID in Escherichia coli, the DNA-coding sequence for hsPLA2-IID was subcloned into the vector pET3a, and expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli (BL21). A protocol has been developed to refold the recombinant protein in the presence of guanidinium hydrochloride, using a size-exclusion chromatography matrix followed by dilution and dialysis to remove the excess denaturant. After purification by cation-exchange chromatography, far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra of the recombinant hsPLA2-IID indicated protein secondary structure content similar to the homologous human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2. The refolded recombinant hsPLA2-IID demonstrated Ca(2+)-dependent hydrolytic activity, as measuring the release free fatty acid from phospholipid liposomes. This protein expression and purification system may be useful for site-directed mutagenesis experiments of the hsPLA2-IID which will advance our understanding of the structure-function relationship and biological effects of the protein.

  9. The selective augmentation by recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha of neutrophil responses to pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, R; Petersen, M M; Williams, D; Matthews, N; Williams, J D

    1990-01-01

    Endotoxin release may amplify the neutrophil (PMN) responses to bacterial infection through the release of monocyte-derived tumour necrosis factor (TNF). The present study was designed to assess the effect of recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) on the in vitro response of human PMN to two defined strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli. In the absence of rhTNF-alpha, a P-fimbriate strain caused significant release of the PMN secondary granule marker vitamin B12-binding protein (B12 BP), and a low level of release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Type 1-fimbriate strain 504, however, stimulated the release of the primary granule marker myeloperoxidase (MPO) and PMN chemiluminescence (CL), in addition to B12 BP and LTB4 release. Following rhTNF-alpha (10(-9) M) pretreatment, the release of LTB4 by PMN stimulated with the P-fimbriate strain was synergistically augmented, while B12 BP and MPO release were additively increased. In contrast, rhTNF-alpha did not significantly affect any of the responses by the type 1-fimbriate strain. These results suggest selectivity in the priming of PMN by rhTNF-alpha and confirm the independence of PMN responses to phagocytic stimuli. PMID:2162324

  10. Production, purification, and crystallization of human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme derived from an Escherichia coli expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, J. J.; Grasberger, B. L.; Trakshel, G.; Huston, E. E.; Helaszek, C. T.; Smallwood, A. M.; Ator, M. A.; Banks, T. M.; Brake, P. G.; Ciccarelli, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is a cysteine protease that catalyzes the conversion of the inactive precursor form of IL-1 beta to an active mature form. The mature form of IL-1 beta is involved in mediating inflammatory responses and in the progression of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported on the production of active human ICE in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system (Wang XM et al., 1994, Gene 145:273-277). Because the levels of expression achieved with this system were limiting for the purpose of performing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies, we examined the production of ICE in Escherichia coli. By using a tac promoter-based expression system and fusion to thioredoxin we were able to recover high levels of active ICE protein. The expressed protein, which was distributed between the soluble and insoluble fractions, was purified to homogeneity from both fractions using a combination of classical and affinity chromatography. Comparisons of ICE derived from both fractions indicated that they were comparable in their specific activities, subunit composition, and sensitivities to specific ICE inhibitors. The combined yields of ICE obtained from the soluble and insoluble fractions was close to 1 mg/L of induced culture. Recombinant human ICE was crystallized in the presence of a specific ICE inhibitor in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. This readily available source of ICE will facilitate the further characterization of this novel and important protease. PMID:8535252

  11. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Lim, J J; Heimer, E P; Kramer, R A

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the protease domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1, various regions of the pol open reading frame were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum directed against the conserved retroviral protease active site was used to identify pol precursor and processed species containing the presumed protease domain. The smallest product that accumulates is about 11 kDa as measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE. This size agrees with that predicted from the presence in this region of two Phe-Pro sequences, which is one of the cleavage sites recognized by HIV protease. DNA encoding only the predicted 11-kDa protein was cloned, bypassing the need for autoprocessing, and the protein was expressed to a high level in E. coli. This form is active as demonstrated by its ability to specifically cleave protease-deficient pol protein in vivo in E. coli. Extracts of E. coli containing the 11-kDa protease also process human immunodeficiency virus gag substrates in vitro. These results demonstrate that the 11-kDa protease is sufficient for enzymatic activity and are consistent with a major role for this form in virus maturation. Images PMID:3282230

  12. In vitro adhesion properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, food, and humans

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Nathalie; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Thévenot, Jonathan; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Livrelli, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are able to cause serious illnesses ranging from diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). These bacteria colonize the digestive tract of humans and produce Shiga-toxins, which are considered to be essential for virulence and are crucial in lethal infection. Colon colonization is supposed to be a determinant step in the development of the infection, but the virulence traits that mediate this step are unclear. We analyzed the ability of 256 STEC strains belonging to seropathotype A (the most virulent O157:H7 serotype) to seropathotype E (not involved in human disease) to adhere to HEp-2, HCT-8, and T84 cell lines. Of the 256 STEC tested most (82%) were non-adherent in our assays. The adhesion levels were globally low and were not related to pathogenicity, although the highest levels were associated to O26:H11 and O103:H2 strains of seropathotype B (associated with HUS but less commonly than serotype O157:H7), possessing both the eae and toxB genes. PMID:25774152

  13. High-level expression and purification of recombinant human growth hormone produced in soluble form in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Levarski, Zdenko; Šoltýsová, Andrea; Krahulec, Ján; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turňa, Ján

    2014-08-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was one of the first recombinant proteins approved for the treatment of human growth disorders. Its small size (191 amino acids), possession of only 2 disulphide bonds and absence of posttranslational modifications make Escherichia coli the host of choice for its production on any scale. In this work, we have utilized an efficient T7 based expression system to produce high levels of soluble thioredoxin-hGH (Trx-hGH) fusion protein. We outline a relatively simple three step purification process employing two immobilized metal-affinity chromatography and one anion-exchange steps and removal of fusion partner by enterokinase cleavage yielding native hGH. The ability of cell populations to produce quantities of up to 1 g/L of the soluble Trx-hGH fusion protein has been tested in flask cultivations as well as in batch and fed-batch bioreactor runs. The sequence and structure of derived hGH were confirmed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism and its native function, to induce cell proliferation, was confirmed by employing a Nb2 cell line proliferation assay.

  14. Expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) in human bladder epithelial cells infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Isak; Säve, Susanne; Kruse, Robert; Persson, Katarina

    2013-02-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins inhibit pro-inflammatory signalling mediated by Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. To evade the immune response some pathogens appear to modify the host SOCS proteins. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are able to subvert the host response evoked by bladder epithelial cells, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UPEC can modify the host SOCS and STAT3 response. Real time RT-PCR studies demonstrated an increased SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in the isolated human bladder epithelial cell lines (RT-4 and 5637) in response to cytokines. UPEC strain IA2 increased SOCS3, but not SOCS1, mRNA levels with a peak at 6 h after infection. The increase of SOCS3 was confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting. The UPEC strain IA2 caused a time-dependent decrease in the phosphorylation of STAT3. This study demonstrates that UPEC are able to affect SOCS3 and STAT3 signalling in human uroepithelial cells. The finding that UPEC are able to induce mediators involved in suppression of host cytokine signalling may help to elucidate how UPEC may circumvent the host response during urinary tract infection.

  15. Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New Zealand1

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Adrian L.; Campbell, Donald M.; Duncan, Gail E.; Prattley, Deborah; Carter, Philip; Besser, Thomas E.; Shringi, Smriti; Hathaway, Steve; Marshall, Jonathan C.; French, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern worldwide. To compare the local and large-scale geographic distributions of genotypes of STEC O157:H7 isolates obtained from various bovine and human sources during 2008–2011, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga toxin–encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Using multivariate methods, we compared isolates from the North and South Islands of New Zealand with isolates from Australia and the United States. The STEC O157:H7 population structure differed substantially between the 2 islands and showed evidence of finer scale spatial structuring, which is consistent with highly localized transmission rather than disseminated foodborne outbreaks. The distribution of SBI types differed markedly among isolates from New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Our findings also provide evidence for the historic introduction into New Zealand of a subset of globally circulating STEC O157:H7 strains that have continued to evolve and be transmitted locally between cattle and humans. PMID:25568924

  16. Human platelet activation by Escherichia coli: roles for FcγRIIA and integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Callum N.; Kerrigan, Steven W.; Cox, Dermot; Henderson, Ian R.; Watson, Steve P.; Arman, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gram-negative Escherichia coli cause diseases such as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in which thrombotic disorders can be found. Direct platelet–bacterium interactions might contribute to some of these conditions; however, mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli leading to thrombus formation are poorly understood. While the IgG receptor FcγRIIA has a key role in platelet response to various Gram-positive species, its role in activation to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli, including the potential role of FcγRIIA. Using light-transmission aggregometry, measurements of ATP release and tyrosine-phosphorylation, we investigated the ability of two E. coli clinical isolates to activate platelets in plasma, in the presence or absence of specific receptors and signaling inhibitors. Aggregation assays with washed platelets supplemented with IgGs were performed to evaluate the requirement of this plasma component in activation. We found a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation in response to E. coli. IgG and αIIbβ3 engagement was required for FcγRIIA activation. Moreover, feedback mediators adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) were essential for platelet aggregation. These findings suggest that human platelet responses to E. coli isolates are similar to those induced by Gram-positive organisms. Our observations support the existence of a central FcγRIIA-mediated pathway by which human platelets respond to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27025455

  17. Human platelet activation by Escherichia coli: roles for FcγRIIA and integrin αIIbβ3.

    PubMed

    Watson, Callum N; Kerrigan, Steven W; Cox, Dermot; Henderson, Ian R; Watson, Steve P; Arman, Mònica

    2016-09-01

    Gram-negative Escherichia coli cause diseases such as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in which thrombotic disorders can be found. Direct platelet-bacterium interactions might contribute to some of these conditions; however, mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli leading to thrombus formation are poorly understood. While the IgG receptor FcγRIIA has a key role in platelet response to various Gram-positive species, its role in activation to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli, including the potential role of FcγRIIA. Using light-transmission aggregometry, measurements of ATP release and tyrosine-phosphorylation, we investigated the ability of two E. coli clinical isolates to activate platelets in plasma, in the presence or absence of specific receptors and signaling inhibitors. Aggregation assays with washed platelets supplemented with IgGs were performed to evaluate the requirement of this plasma component in activation. We found a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation in response to E. coli. IgG and αIIbβ3 engagement was required for FcγRIIA activation. Moreover, feedback mediators adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) were essential for platelet aggregation. These findings suggest that human platelet responses to E. coli isolates are similar to those induced by Gram-positive organisms. Our observations support the existence of a central FcγRIIA-mediated pathway by which human platelets respond to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Human Atypical Sorbitol-Fermenting Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157 Reveals High Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kossow, Annelene; Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Rhode, Sophie; Hansen, Kevin; Fruth, Angelika; Rüter, Christian; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Alongside the well-characterized enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, serogroup O157 comprises sorbitol-fermenting typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC/aEPEC) strains that carry the intimin-encoding gene eae but not Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx). Since little is known about these pathogens, we characterized 30 clinical isolates from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or uncomplicated diarrhea with respect to their flagellin gene (fliC) type and multilocus sequence type (MLST). Moreover, we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the phylogenetic relationship with other eae-positive EHEC serotypes and the composition of the rfbO157 region. fliC typing resulted in five fliC types (H7, H16, H34, H39, and H45). Isolates of each fliC type shared a unique ST. In comparison to the 42 HUS-associated E. coli (HUSEC) strains, only the stx-negative isolates with fliCH7 shared their ST with EHEC O157:H7/H(-) strains. With the exception of one O157:H(-) fliCH16 isolate, HUS was exclusively associated with fliCH7. WGS corroborated the separation of the fliCH7 isolates, which were closely related to the EHEC O157:H7/H(-) isolates, and the diverse group of isolates exhibiting different fliC types, indicating independent evolution of the different serotypes. This was also supported by the heterogeneity within the rfbO157 region that exhibited extensive recombinations. The genotypic subtypes and distribution of clinical symptoms suggested that the stx-negative O157 strains with fliCH7 were originally EHEC strains that lost stx The remaining isolates form a distinct and diverse group of atypical EPEC isolates that do not possess the full spectrum of virulence genes, underlining the importance of identifying the H antigen for clinical risk assessment. PMID:26984976

  19. Serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of human diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates circulating in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, X; Zheng, S; Yu, F; Kong, H; Yang, Q; Cui, D; Chen, N; Lou, B; Li, X; Tian, L; Yang, X; Xie, G; Dong, Y; Qin, Z; Han, D; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Tang, Y-W; Li, L

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infection is a major health problem in developing countries. The prevalence and characteristics of DEC have not been thoroughly investigated in China. Consecutive faecal specimens from outpatients with acute diarrhoea in nine sentinel hospitals in southeastern China were collected from July 2009 to June 2011. Bacterial and viral pathogens were detected by culture and RT-PCR, respectively. DEC isolates were further classified into five pathotypes using multiplex PCR. The O/H serotypes, sequence types (STs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the DEC isolates were determined. A total of 2466 faecal specimens were collected, from which 347 (14.1%) DEC isolates were isolated. DEC was the dominant bacterial pathogen detected. The DEC isolates included 217 EAEC, 62 ETEC, 52 EPEC, 14 STEC, one EIEC and one EAEC/ETEC. O45 (6.6%) was the predominant serotype. Genotypic analysis revealed that the major genotype was ST complex 10 (87, 25.6%). Isolates belonging to the serogroups or genotypes of O6, O25, O159, ST48, ST218, ST94 and ST1491 were highly susceptible to the majority of antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates belonging to O45, O15, O1, O169, ST38, ST226, ST69, ST31, ST93, ST394 and ST648 were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC accounted for the majority of bacterial pathogens causing acute diarrhoea in southeastern China, and it is therefore necessary to test for all DEC, not only the EHEC O157:H7. Some serogroups or genotypes of DEC were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC surveillance should be emphasized. PMID:23521436

  20. Serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of human diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates circulating in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, X; Zheng, S; Yu, F; Kong, H; Yang, Q; Cui, D; Chen, N; Lou, B; Li, X; Tian, L; Yang, X; Xie, G; Dong, Y; Qin, Z; Han, D; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Tang, Y-W; Li, L

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infection is a major health problem in developing countries. The prevalence and characteristics of DEC have not been thoroughly investigated in China. Consecutive faecal specimens from outpatients with acute diarrhoea in nine sentinel hospitals in southeastern China were collected from July 2009 to June 2011. Bacterial and viral pathogens were detected by culture and RT-PCR, respectively. DEC isolates were further classified into five pathotypes using multiplex PCR. The O/H serotypes, sequence types (STs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the DEC isolates were determined. A total of 2466 faecal specimens were collected, from which 347 (14.1%) DEC isolates were isolated. DEC was the dominant bacterial pathogen detected. The DEC isolates included 217 EAEC, 62 ETEC, 52 EPEC, 14 STEC, one EIEC and one EAEC/ETEC. O45 (6.6%) was the predominant serotype. Genotypic analysis revealed that the major genotype was ST complex 10 (87, 25.6%). Isolates belonging to the serogroups or genotypes of O6, O25, O159, ST48, ST218, ST94 and ST1491 were highly susceptible to the majority of antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates belonging to O45, O15, O1, O169, ST38, ST226, ST69, ST31, ST93, ST394 and ST648 were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC accounted for the majority of bacterial pathogens causing acute diarrhoea in southeastern China, and it is therefore necessary to test for all DEC, not only the EHEC O157:H7. Some serogroups or genotypes of DEC were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC surveillance should be emphasized.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli from Human and Animal Sources Uncovers Multiple Resistances from Human Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, A. Mark; Murinda, Shelton E.; Graves, Alexandria K.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli are widely used as indicators of fecal contamination, and in some cases to identify host sources of fecal contamination in surface water. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 600 generic E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment from creeks and channels along the middle Santa Ana River (MSAR) watershed of southern California, USA, after a 12 month study. Evaluation of E. coli populations along the creeks and channels showed that E. coli were more prevalent in sediment compared to surface water. E. coli populations were not significantly different (P = 0.05) between urban runoff sources and agricultural sources, however, E. coli genotypes determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were less diverse in the agricultural sources than in urban runoff sources. PFGE also showed that E. coli populations in surface water were more diverse than in the sediment, suggesting isolates in sediment may be dominated by clonal populations.Twenty four percent (144 isolates) of the 600 isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Most multiple resistances were associated with inputs from urban runoff and involved the antimicrobials rifampicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The occurrence of a greater number of E. coli with multiple antibiotic resistances from urban runoff sources than agricultural sources in this watershed provides useful evidence in planning strategies for water quality management and public health protection. PMID:21687635

  2. Production of specific IgY antibody to the recombinant FanC protein produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Zibaee, Saeed; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are one of the primary causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in humans, pigs, and sheep. IgY technology has been identified as a promising alternative to generating a mass amount of specific antibody for use in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics. The purpose of this study was to produce specific antibody by egg yolk antibody (IgY) to recombinant FanC protein from ETEC. Materials and Methods: FanC (K99) gene was amplified from ETEC by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned and subcloned into pTZ57R/T and pET32a (+) vectors, respectively. Recombinant vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). Protein expression was investigated by 1 mM IPTG induction. Hens were immunized by the purified recombinant FanC protein. The activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were detected by dot-blotting, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. Results: We obtained FanC specific IgYs by immunizing the hens with the recombinant FanC protein. The anti-FanC IgY showed binding specifically to the FanC protein of ETEC. Conclusion: The results emphasize that specific IgY against the recombinant FanC protein could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27746871

  3. Uncoupling of allosteric and oligomeric regulation in a functional hybrid enzyme constructed from Escherichia coli and human ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan; Long, Marcus J C; Rigney, Mike; Parvez, Saba; Blessing, William A; Aye, Yimon

    2013-10-01

    An N-terminal-domain (NTD) and adjacent catalytic body (CB) make up subunit-α of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo dNTP biosynthesis. A strong linkage exists between ligand binding at the NTD and oligomerization-coupled RNR inhibition, inducible by both dATP and nucleotide chemotherapeutics. These observations have distinguished the NTD as an oligomeric regulation domain dictating the assembly of inactive RNR oligomers. Inactive states of RNR differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes (α6 in human versus α4β4 in Escherichia coli , wherein β is RNR's other subunit); however, the NTD structurally interconnects individual α2 or α2 and β2 dimeric motifs within the respective α6 or α4β4 complexes. To elucidate the influence of NTD ligand binding on RNR allost