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Sample records for human gastric juice

  1. Reduced amoxicillin uptake into human gastric mucosa when gastric juice pH is high.

    PubMed Central

    Cardaci, G; Lambert, J R; King, R G; Onishi, N; Midolo, P

    1995-01-01

    Amoxicillin when administered with gastric acid suppressors has been shown to be effective in eradication of Helicobacter pylori in 50 to 80% of subjects. The aim of this investigator-blind crossover study was to determine if gastric mucosal amoxicillin uptake was affected by increasing gastric juice pH. Fifteen male subjects (7 H. pylori positive and 8 H. pylori negative) were randomized to receive 150 mg of ranitidine twice a day, 300 mg of ranitidine twice a day, or no drug for 2 days prior to upper endoscopy. The last dose of ranitidine was given 60 min prior to upper endoscopy, and amoxicillin (500 mg) was given 30 min prior to upper endoscopy. The amoxicillin concentrations in mucosal biopsy samples, gastric juice, and serum were determined by a standard microbiological bioassay technique. Mean amoxicillin levels were greater in samples of antrum, fundus, and duodenum for volunteers who received no ranitidine than in those receiving 300 mg of ranitidine (P < 0.05) and those receiving 150 mg of ranitidine (P < 0.05 except for fundus). Amoxicillin levels in the antrum, fundus, and duodenum were negatively correlated with gastric juice pH (P < 0.005 for antrum; P < 0.001 for fundus and duodenum). There was no correlation between gastric juice pH and amoxicillin levels in either gastric juice or serum. The amoxicillin concentration in gastric juice was significantly higher with 300 mg of ranitidine than with no ranitidine (P < 0.05). Thus, lower gastric juice pH is associated with a higher rate of mucosal uptake of amoxicillin. PMID:8540720

  2. [Methodologic studies of N-acetylneuraminic acid determination in human gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Schuchert, A; Fritsch, W P; Strohmeyer, G

    1987-05-01

    Mucus protects the gastric mucous membrane from aggressive substances in the gastric juice. It consists of glycoproteins, the composition of which determines its ability of viscosity, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. There is a special interest in sialic acids, which are found mostly in humans as N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA). NANA is estimated by the thiobarbituric acid method. A special feature of this method is that only free sialic acids are estimated. A mild acid hydrolysis is necessary in order to measure the total NANA-content. Some conditions of the hydrolysis are investigated with respect to the special properties of the gastric juice. Hydrolysis sulfuric acid 0.01 mol/l results in an about 10% higher yield than hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l. A maximal yield of hydrolysates is found when the gastric juice pH is adjusted to 2.0. After 45 minutes hydrolysis at 80 degrees C in a water bath there is for at least 60 minutes a constant NANA-concentration in the gastric juice samples. Human bile has no influence on the estimation with the thiobarbituric acid method. In regard to these conditions of hydrolysis pentagastrin (6 micrograms/kg KG s. c.) does not change the NANA-secretion over 60 minutes in patients with duodenal ulcer. During an intragastric bile salt infusion the NANA-output remains unchanged over 45 minutes.

  3. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  5. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Paul M., E-mail: schlosser.paul@epa.gov; Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function ofmore » Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.« less

  6. Human Gastrointestinal Metabolism of the Cistanches Herba Water Extract in Vitro: Elucidation of the Metabolic Profile Based on Comprehensive Metabolite Identification in Gastric Juice, Intestinal Juice, Human Intestinal Bacteria, and Intestinal Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Peng, Ying; Wang, Mengyue; Tu, Pengfei; Li, Xiaobo

    2017-08-30

    Cistanches Herba is taken orally as a health food supplement and medicinal plant in Asian countries. It consists of the stems of Cistanche deserticola (CD) and Cistanche tubulosa (CT). The gastrointestinal metabolism of the multiple components contained in Cistanches Herba is crucial for the discovery of bioactive constituents. This study aims to elucidate the comprehensive metabolic profile of the Cistanches Herba water extract by simulating human gastrointestinal metabolism in vitro independently and sequentially using four models: gastric juice, intestinal juice, human intestinal bacteria, and human intestinal microsomes. A total of 35 and 18 metabolites were characterized from CD and CT water extracts, respectively. These metabolites were formed through reduction, methylation, dimethylation, deglycosylation, decaffeoyl, derhamnose, dehydrogenation, and glucuronidation. The difference in metabolites of the Cistanches Herba water extract and single compounds and the difference in metabolites of CD and CT water extracts were caused by the oligosaccharides and polysaccharides in Cistanches Herba.

  7. Kinetics of chlorambucil in vitro: effects of fluid matrix, human gastric juice, plasma proteins and red cells.

    PubMed

    Löf, K; Hovinen, J; Reinikainen, P; Vilpo, L M; Seppälä, E; Vilpo, J A

    1997-03-14

    The mechanisms involved in the bioavailability of chlorambucil or 4-[p-(bis[2-hydroxyethyl]amino)phenyl]-butyric acid are poorly understood. The effects of different matrices on the disintegration of chlorambucil were investigated by HPLC, 1H NMR, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Cellular incorporation and protein binding of the drug in vitro was assessed with [3H]-chlorambucil. Decomposition of chlorambucil and its major metabolite, phenylacetic acid mustard, to mono- and dihydroxy derivatives, was significantly faster in water than in PBS, (phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4). The hydrolysis of chlorambucil was as fast in plasma ultrafiltrate as in PBS; plasma proteins, preferentially albumin, prevented this disintegration. In phosphate-buffered media, two additional stabile hydrolysis products were found which were characterised as the mono- and bis-phosphates of 4-[p-(bis[2-hydroxyethyl]amino)phenyl]butyric acid, results of the reaction of nucleophilic buffer species with the aziridinium ion intermediates. Chlorambucil bound covalently to plasma proteins and was incorporated into red cells. These interactions are likely to have a significant role in vivo, reducing the bioavailability of the drug. High H+ concentration associated with high chloride concentration in human gastric juice had a stabilizing effect on chlorambucil. Incorporation of [3H]-chlorambucil into red cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by whole human plasma as well as by albumin. We conclude that the chemico-biological interactions demonstrated in the present investigation provide explanations for the remarkable pharmacokinetic differences observed intra- and inter-individually in the clinical use of chlorambucil. The present information is important, when clinical or in vitro evaluation of efficacy and bioavailability of chlorambucil is considered.

  8. Gastric juice, gastric tissue and blood antibiotic concentrations following omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiko; Spiller, Robin C; Barrett, David A; Wibawa, Judata I D; Kumagai, Naoki; Tsuchimoto, Kanji; Tanaka, Takeshi

    2003-08-01

    Amoxicillin and clarithromycin are key antibiotics in proton pump inhibitor-based Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies. To study gastric mucus and tissue concentrations and collect basic data about optimal antibacterial doses. Plasma, gastric mucosa and gastric juice antibiotic concentrations were measured following either low- or high-dose amoxicillin (750 or 1000 mg b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (400 or 500 mg b.i.d.) given in combination with omeprazole 20 mg bid to 12 male volunteers in an open crossover design. Gastric juice and mucosal biopsy collection was performed either 2 (n=6) or 6 hours (n=6) after dosing. Amoxicillin concentrations 2 hours after high dosage were gastric juice > gastric body > antral mucosa > plasma. At 6 hours, plasma and gastric juice concentrations were still above the MIC for amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria but no antibiotic was detectable in mucosa samples. Clarithromycin concentrations after high dosage were gastric juice > mucosa > serum; all above the MIC for clarithromycin-susceptible bacteria at both 2 and 6 hours. Both dosage regimens provided effective antibiotic concentrations in gastric juice at 2 hours. After dosing, both antibiotics demonstrated high gastric tissue concentrations via local diffusion while clarithromycin also provided sustained delivery (6 hours) via gastric mucosa penetration.

  9. Transfer and distribution of amoxicillin in the rat gastric mucosa and gastric juice and the effects of rabeprazole

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hai-lun; Hu, Yong-mei; Bao, Jun-jun; Xu, Jian-ming

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the distribution of amoxicillin in the gastric juice and gastric mucosa of rats and to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole on amoxicillin concentrations in various compartments. Methods: One hundred and sixty anesthetized rats were divided into five groups, and given intravenously different doses of amoxicillin or amoxicillin and rabeprazole. The pH value and volume of gastric juice was aspirated were measured and separated gastric mucosa was homogenized. The concentrations of amoxicillin in the plasma, gastric juice and gastric mucosa were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The maximum concentrations of amoxicillin in gastric juice and gastric mucosa were significantly lower than those in plasma (P<0.001). Concentrations in the glandular stomach mucosa were higher than those in the forestomach mucosa. Rabeprazole did not significantly change the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin in the plasma and did not alter gastric antibiotic clearance or the gastric transfer fraction of amoxicillin in gastric juice. However, rabeprazole did increase the amoxicillin concentration and pH value in gastric juice and reduced the volume of the gastric juice. Conclusion: Amoxicillin could penetrate the gastric mucosa and achieve therapeutic concentrations at the target site after transfer from the blood to the stomach. Rabeprazole increased the amoxicillin concentration in gastric juice by decreasing the gastric juice volume but did not affect its concentration in blood or gastric mucosa. PMID:20305682

  10. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  11. Levels of malondialdehyde in the gastric juice: Its association with Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Chiang, Wei-Chih; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie S W; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Su, Wei-Wen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2018-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes elevation of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and this association may be due to the bacterium causing reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to DNA in the gastric epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastric juice MDA levels in relation to H. pylori infection and associated gastric diseases. Gastric juice samples were obtained from 117 patients undergoing endoscopy, and gastric juice MDA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. We compared the MDA levels between patients with and without H. pylori infection and assessed the differences of MDA levels between chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer postsurgical resection. Malondialdehyde levels in gastric juice were significantly higher in chronic gastritis patients with H. pylori infection than in those without H. pylori infection (P < .0001). In patients without H. pylori infection, patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer postsurgical resection had significantly higher gastric juice MDA level than patients with chronic gastritis. As a whole, patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer postsurgical resection also had significantly higher MDA levels in gastric juice as compared to patients with chronic gastritis (P < .01). However, the difference of gastric juice MDA levels between gastric intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer postsurgical resection was not significant. Malondialdehyde in gastric juice could be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker for H. pylori infection and associated gastric diseases. The gastric juice MDA levels increased proportionally with the severity of gastric diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Histamine in the plasma and gastric juice of cats during infusions of [14C]histamine

    PubMed Central

    Born, G. V. R.; Sewing, K.-Fr.

    1967-01-01

    1. In anaesthetized cats with gastric fistulae, the relation was investigated between the rate of gastric secretion and the histamine contents of the plasma and the gastric juice during intravenous infusions of [14C]histamine for 3 hr. 2. In the first hour only, some endogenous histamine appeared in the gastric juice. 3. There was no quantitative relation between the histamine that was infused and that which appeared in the gastric juice. 4. There was no correlation between the rate of gastric secretion and the concentration of histamine in either plasma or gastric juice. 5. It was concluded that the secretion of histamine into the gastric juice was not essential to gastric secretion. PMID:6065886

  13. Sucralfate protects blood clots from peptic digestion by gastric juice in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nysaeter, Gunnar; Berstad, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    To test in vitro the ability of sucralfate to protect a blood clot from peptic digestion by gastric juice. Blood clots adhering to the bottom of plastic tubes were exposed to native acidic gastric juice or gastric juice to which Al-Mg antacids, sucralfate or alkali had been added. The tubes were tilted regularly at room temperature and clot digestion monitored by measuring the diameters of the clots. After 15 h, the liquids, but not the adherent clots, were poured out and the tubes refilled with native acidic gastric juice. Further clot digestion was measured, as before. Native gastric juice digested the clots completely during approximately 7 h, while in neutralized gastric juice or in gastric juice containing antacids or sucralfate no digestion was seen. In the second experiment, native gastric juice completely digested all remaining clots, except those previously exposed to sucralfate. A dose-response study indicated that gastric juice containing 3% or more of sucralfate had this long-lasting, clot-protective effect. In vitro, sucralfate adheres to and protects blood clots from digestion by gastric juice pepsin. This unique effect of sucralfate may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. [Enzymes in gastric juice. An aid in the diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Marino Alarcón, O; Concho Lugo, H; Silva Larralte, T; Tauil Bsereni, E; Solano Nava, P; Machado, D; Chacón Patiño, A

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we measured the activities of the following enzymes: LDH (lactic dehydrogenase), beta-glucuronidase, acid maltase, phosphohexoseisomerase (PHI) and acid proteases in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer (n = 50) (Case Group), in endoscopically normal subjects (n = 50) and in subjects with different non tumor-like digestive pathologies (n = 55) (Control Groups). In the patients with gastric carcinoma we found a significant increase in LDH, beta-glucuronidase, PHI and acid maltase activities and a decreased activity of acid proteases. The results agree with previous findings from other workers. The variations of enzyme activities in gastric juice can help to differentiate between malignant and benign processes of the gastric mucosa.

  15. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  16. Development of simultaneous analysis of tryptophan metabolites in serum and gastric juice - an investigation towards establishing a biomarker test for gastric cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Min; Park, Won Sang; Song, Kyo Young; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jung, Byung Hwa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate changes in tryptophan metabolism and discover diagnostic biomarkers for gastric cancer, a quantitative method was developed for tryptophan and its seven metabolites (indole-3-lactic acid, anthranilic acid, serotonin, nicotinic acid, kynurenic acid, kynurenine and 3-indoxyl sulfate) in both human serum and gastric juice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum and gastric juice were prepared with a simple protein precipitation using aqueous 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. As a result, it was found that the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism was activated in gastric cancer and that the metabolic ratio of kynurenine/tryptophan, which reflects the enzyme activity of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, was associated with the observed metabolic changes. Finally, the investigation of tryptophan metabolites, especially kynurenic acid, in serum and gastric juice might serve as biomarkers for gastric cancer. The findings in this study provide critical information of tryptophan metabolism which can be applied to a serum-based diagnostic test for gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Keevil, J G; Osman, H E; Reed, J D; Folts, J D

    2000-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is responsible for much mortality and morbidity around the world. Platelets are involved in atherosclerotic disease development and the reduction of platelet activity by medications reduces the incidence and severity of disease. Red wine and grapes contain polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids, which can reduce platelet aggregation and have been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. Citrus fruits contain different classes of polyphenolics that may not share the same properties. This study evaluated whether commercial grape, orange and grapefruit juices, taken daily, reduce ex vivo platelet activity. In a randomized cross-over design, ten healthy human subjects (ages 26-58 y, five of each gender) drank 5-7.5 mL/(kg. d) of purple grape juice, orange juice or grapefruit juice for 7-10 d each. Platelet aggregation (whole blood impedance aggregometry, Chronolog Model #590) at baseline was compared to results after consumption of each juice. Drinking purple grape juice for one week reduced the whole blood platelet aggregation response to 1 mg/L of collagen by 77% (from 17.9 +/- 2.3 to 4.0 +/- 6.8 ohms, P = 0.0002). Orange juice and grapefruit juice had no effect on platelet aggregation. The purple grape juice had approximately three times the total polyphenolic concentration of the citrus juices and was a potent platelet inhibitor in healthy subjects while the citrus juices showed no effect. The platelet inhibitory effect of the flavonoids in grape juice may decrease the risk of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction.

  18. The stability of amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole in gastric juice: relevance to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Erah, P O; Goddard, A F; Barrett, D A; Shaw, P N; Spiller, R C

    1997-01-01

    Although omeprazole is an important component in anti-Helicobacter pylori therapeutic regimes using clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole, the mechanism by which it enhances antimicrobial action is unknown. One potential explanation for this effect is increased antibiotic chemical stability resulting from gastric pH changes induced by co-administration of omeprazole. The chemical stability of clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole was investigated in aqueous solutions and in human gastric juice collected before and after a 7-day course of omeprazole. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were prepared in buffered aqueous solutions of pH 1.0 to 8.0 and in gastric juice of pH 2.0 and 7.0. The gastric juice samples were obtained from fasted H. pylori-negative volunteers before and after they had received a 7-day course of omeprazole. All the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analysed at intervals by HPLC. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were stable in aqueous solutions of pH 4.0-7.0, pH 5.0-8.0 and pH 2.0-7.0, respectively. At pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 19.0 +/- 0.2 h, 1.3 +/- 0.05 h and 2200 +/- 1100 h, respectively. In gastric juice samples of pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 15.2 +/- 0.3 h, 1.0 +/- 0.04 h and > or = 800 h, respectively. The half-lives of the drugs in the gastric juice samples of pH 7.0 were all > 68 h. The co-administration of omeprazole with amoxycillin or clarithromycin is likely to increase the chemical stability of amoxycillin and clarithromycin in gastric juice. Clarithromycin degrades rapidly at normal gastric pH (1.0-2.0) but amoxycillin and metronidazole are sufficiently stable at this pH to maintain an antibacterial concentration in the stomach.

  19. [Post-cholecystectomy condition: duodeno-gastric reflux and bile acid concentration in the gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Koelsch, K A; Kühne, C; Zemlin, C

    1979-07-01

    In cholecystectomized patients highly significantly more frequently a duodenogastric reflux was found than in a group of patients with a healthy abdomen and a group of patients with cholelithiasis. The average concentration of bile acid in the gastric juice was after the removal of the gall-bladder manifoldly higher than in the control groups. The number of patients with concentrated reflux was also highly significantly larger than in patients with cholelithiasis not operated on and in patients with a healthy abdomen. Despite the high reflux rate and the high concentration of the bile acids influencing on the mucous membrane of the stomach the number of patients with ulcera ventriculi was not significantly larger than in a group of not cholecystectomized persons. These observations plead for the fact that the bile acids in the duodenogastric reflux alone are not to be regarded as an ulcerogenic agent, but that perhaps other components of the duodenal juice have to be considered as causes of lesions of the gastric mucous membrane.

  20. Gastric Juice-Based Real-Time PCR for TailoredHelicobacter PyloriTreatment: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianhui; Song, Zhiqiang; He, Lihua; Lin, Sanren; Gong, Yanan; Sun, Lu; Zhao, Fei; Gu, Yixin; You, Yuanhai; Zhou, Liya; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    A gastric juice-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was established to identify Helicobacter pylori infection, clarithromycin susceptibility and human CYP2C19 genotypes and to guide the choice of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin treatment for tailored H. pylori eradication therapy. From January 2013 to November 2014, 178 consecutive dyspeptic patients were enrolled for collection of gastric biopsy samples and gastric juice by endoscopy at the Peking University Third Hospital; 105 and 73 H. pylori -positive and -negative patients, respectively, were included in this study. H. pylori infection was defined as samples with both a strongly positive rapid urease test (RUT) and positive H. pylori histology. A series of primers and probes were distributed into four reactions for identifying the H. pylori cagH gene coupled with an internal control ( Rnase P gene), A2142G and A2143G mutants of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G681A of CYP2C19*2 and G636A of CYP2C19*3 . The E-test and DNA sequencing were used to evaluate the H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility phenotype and genotype. The SNPs CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 were also evaluated by nucleotide sequencing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of this gastric juice-based real-time PCR assay were evaluated by comparing with the same measures obtained through gastric biopsy-based PCR and culture. The H. pylori diagnostic sensitivities of the culture, PCR, and gastric biopsy- and gastric juice-based real-time PCR assays were 90.48% (95/105), 92.38% (97/105), 97.14% (102/105) and 100% (105/105), respectively; the specificities of the above methods were all 100%. Higher false-negative rates were found among the gastric biopsy samples assessed by culture (10.48%, 11/105), PCR (7.62%, 8/105) and real-time PCR (2.86%, 3/105) than in gastric juice by real-time PCR. Regarding

  1. [Changes of epidermal growth factor level in blood serum, saliva and gastric juice in children with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, E A; Vidmanova, T A; Viskova, I N; Kolesov, S A; Korkotashvili, L V; Shirokova, N Iu; Kan'kova, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate EGF content in biological mediums in children with duodenum ulcer depending on phase of the disease and different variants of its course. The present study was performed in Federal State Establishment "Nizhniy Novgorod Research Institute of Children Gastroenterology", Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. 92 children, between the ages of 8 to 17, with duodenum ulcer were under observation. Endoscopy was performed by Pentax endoscope (FG-24V). EGF detection was performed in blood serum, gastric juice and saliva by ELISA method with Human EGF Kit, "Invitrogen", USA. The peculiarities of EGF level changes in human biological mediums, depending on phase of the disease. The highest EGF level was detected with acute peptic ulcer in the presence of ulcerous defects. EGF level increasing was marked out in the remission phaseas ulcerous defects healing, and it didn't reach normal values in gastric juice. EGF content changes in biological mediums were revealed with different variants of duodenum ulcer clinical course in children. The lowest EGF level was marked out in blood, saliva and gastric juice with unfavorable course of the disease (frequent relapses, cicatricial-ulcerous strains formation), which can serve as a prognostic factor.

  2. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-03-15

    Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.

  3. Helicobacter pylori-derived extracellular vesicles increased in the gastric juices of gastric adenocarcinoma patients and induced inflammation mainly via specific targeting of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Il; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Seo, Jiwon; Kim, Beom Jin; Rho, Mina; Han, Jin Kwan; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2017-05-12

    Evidence indicates that Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of chronic gastritis and perhaps gastric malignancy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the evolutional process of malignancy due to their genetic material cargo. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance and biological mechanism of H. pylori EVs on the pathogenesis of gastric malignancy. We performed 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis of gastric juices either from endoscopic or surgical patients. From each sample of gastric juices, the bacteria and EVs were isolated. We evaluated the role of H. pylori EVs on the development of gastric inflammation in vitro and in vivo. IVIS spectrum and confocal microscopy were used to examine the distribution of EVs. The metagenomic analyses of the bacteria and EVs showed that Helicobacter and Streptococcus are the two major bacterial genera, and they were significantly increased in abundance in gastric cancer (GC) patients. H. pylori EVs are spherical and contain CagA and VacA. They can induce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β by macrophages, and IL-8 by gastric epithelial cells. Also, EVs induce the expression of interferon gamma, IL-17 and EV-specific immunoglobulin Gs in vivo in mice. EVs were shown to infiltrate and remain in the mouse stomach for an extended time. H. pylori EVs, which are abundant in the gastric juices of GC patients, can induce inflammation and possibly cancer in the stomach, mainly via the production of inflammatory mediators from gastric epithelial cells after selective uptake by the cells.

  4. Helicobacter pylori-derived extracellular vesicles increased in the gastric juices of gastric adenocarcinoma patients and induced inflammation mainly via specific targeting of gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Il; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Seo, Jiwon; Kim, Beom Jin; Rho, Mina; Han, Jin Kwan; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Evidence indicates that Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of chronic gastritis and perhaps gastric malignancy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the evolutional process of malignancy due to their genetic material cargo. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance and biological mechanism of H. pylori EVs on the pathogenesis of gastric malignancy. We performed 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis of gastric juices either from endoscopic or surgical patients. From each sample of gastric juices, the bacteria and EVs were isolated. We evaluated the role of H. pylori EVs on the development of gastric inflammation in vitro and in vivo. IVIS spectrum and confocal microscopy were used to examine the distribution of EVs. The metagenomic analyses of the bacteria and EVs showed that Helicobacter and Streptococcus are the two major bacterial genera, and they were significantly increased in abundance in gastric cancer (GC) patients. H. pylori EVs are spherical and contain CagA and VacA. They can induce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β by macrophages, and IL-8 by gastric epithelial cells. Also, EVs induce the expression of interferon gamma, IL-17 and EV-specific immunoglobulin Gs in vivo in mice. EVs were shown to infiltrate and remain in the mouse stomach for an extended time. H. pylori EVs, which are abundant in the gastric juices of GC patients, can induce inflammation and possibly cancer in the stomach, mainly via the production of inflammatory mediators from gastric epithelial cells after selective uptake by the cells. PMID:28496197

  5. [COMPOSITION OF GASTRIC JUICE AND BILE IN RATS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Gorenko, Z A; Grinchenko, O A; Veselsky, S P; Baban, V M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas, which is characterized by destruction of pancreatic secretory parenchyma and progressing exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Usually these patients have complications as cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and liver failure, and various gastric dysfunctions. The data of clinical observations do not reveal fully the functional state of the stomach and liver in chronic pancreatitis also remains an open question about the quality of the gastric juices and bile by this pathology. Therefore our aim was to investigate the secretory functions of the stomach and liver features in rats at the experimental chronic pancreatitis. This pathology modeled using L-arginine. Basal gastric secretion was investigated in chronic experiment by aspiration method for 10th and 63rd days, and pancreas and liver--in acute experiments at 13th and 68th days after the last administration of L-arginine. It was established that the character of the secretory response of the digestive tract depends on the duration of the pathology course. On the 10th day the functional state of the gastric secretory glands in rats with chronic pancreatitis characterized by twice increase of gastric acid production but decrease the level of hexosamines on 23.8% (P < 0.001) that indicate a increase of gastric content aggressiveness and mucus producing cells secretory insufficiency. In these animals the rate of total protein decreased on 61.7% (P < 0.05). On the 13th day observed the increase of pancreatic juice on 332% (P < 0.01), hepatic secret volume on 74.9% (P < 0.001) and redistribution in the cholates spectrum: glycocholates level increased but tauro-, free and total dehydroxylated bile acids decreased. These changes suggest deterioration of bile detergent properties, inhibition of acidic pathway of bile acids biosynthesis and conjugation of cholates with taurine. In two months total deficit of amino acids in gastric juice correlated with

  6. Dietary glutamate signal evokes gastric juice excretion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Khropycheva, Raisa; Andreeva, Julia; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; Zolotarev, Vasiliy

    2011-01-01

    Dietary-free L-glutamate (Glu) in the stomach interacts with specific Glu receptors (T1R1/T1R3 and mGluR1-8) expressed on surface epithelial and gastric gland cells. Furthermore, luminal Glu activates the vagal afferents in the stomach through the paracrine cascade including nitric oxide and serotonin (5-HT). To elucidate the role of dietary Glu in neuroendocrine control of the gastrointestinal phase of gastric secretion. In Pavlov or Heidenhain gastric pouch dogs, secretion was measured in the pouch while monosodium glutamate (MSG) was intubated into the main stomach alone or in combination with liquid diets. In both experimental models, supplementation of the amino acid-rich diet with MSG (100 mmol/l) enhanced secretions of acid, pepsinogen and fluid, and elevated plasma gastrin-17. However, MSG did not affect secretion stimulated by the carbohydrate-rich diet and had no effect on basal secretion when applied in aqueous solution. Effects of MSG were abolished by denervation of the stomach and proximal small intestine with intragastrically applied lidocaine and partially suppressed with the 5-HT(3) receptor blocker granisetron. Supplementation of amino acid-rich liquid diets with MSG enhances gastrointestinal phase secretion through neuroendocrine pathways which are partially mediated by 5-HT. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Natural18O and13C-urea in gastric juice: a new route for non-invasive detection of ulcers.

    PubMed

    Maity, Abhijit; Pal, Mithun; Som, Suman; Maithani, Sanchi; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2017-01-01

    The 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT), developed a few decades ago, is widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect only the presence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori infection; however, the actual disease state, i.e. whether the person harbouring H. pylori has peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD), is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the present 13 C-UBT has numerous limitations, drawbacks and pitfalls owing to the ingestion of 13 C-labelled external urea. Here, we show that H. pylori is able to utilize the natural 13 C and 18 O-urea inherently present in the gastric juice in humans for its urease activity which has never been explored before. In vitro measurements of isotopic fractionations of gastric juice urea provide new insights into the actual state of the infection of PUD or NUD. We also provide evidence of the unusual 13 C and 18 O-isotopic fractionations of breath CO 2 that are distinctively altered in individuals with PUD encompassing both gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as with NUD by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori in the gastric niche without oral administration of any 13 C-enriched external urea. This deepens our understanding of the UBT exploiting the natural 13 C and 18 O-gastric juice urea in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, reveals the actual disease state of PUD or NUD and thus offers novel opportunities for a simple, robust, cost-effective and non-toxic global strategy devoid of any 13 C-enriched urea for treating these common diseases by a single breath test. Graphical Abstract Urea breath test without any external urea.

  8. Influence of artificial gastric juice composition on bioaccessibility of cobalt- and tungsten-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Harvey, Christopher J; Sbarra, Deborah C; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    The dissolution of metal-containing particles in the gastric compartment is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of artificial gastric juice chemical composition on bioaccessibility of metals associated with ingestion-based health concerns. Dissolution rates were evaluated for well-characterized feedstock cobalt, tungsten metal, and tungsten carbide powders, chemically bonded pre-sintered (spray dryer material) and post-sintered (chamfer grinder) cemented tungsten carbide materials, and an admixture of pure cobalt and pure tungsten carbide, prepared by mechanically blending the two feedstock powders. Dissolution of each study material was evaluated in three different formulations of artificial gastric juice (from simplest to most chemically complex): American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Approximately 20% of cobalt dissolved in the first dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.02 days) and the remaining 80% was released in the second long-term dissolution phase (t(1/2) = 0.5 to 1 days). Artificial gastric juice chemical composition did not influence dissolution rate constant values (k, g/cm(2)day) of cobalt powder, either alone or as an admixture. Approximately 100% of the tungsten and tungsten carbide that dissolved was released in a single dissolution phase; k-values of each material differed significantly in the solvents: NIOSH > ASTM > USP (p<0.05). The k-values of cobalt and tungsten carbide in pre- and post-sintered cemented tungsten carbide powders were significantly different from values for the pure feedstock powders. Solvent composition had little influence on oral bioaccessibility of highly soluble cobalt and our data support consideration of the oral exposure route as a contributing pathway to total-body exposure. Solvent composition appeared to influence bioaccessibility of the low soluble tungsten compounds, though

  9. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  10. Survival of human norovirus surrogates in milk, orange, and pomegranate juice, and juice blends at refrigeration (4 °C).

    PubMed

    Horm, Katie Marie; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-08-01

    Fresh fruits, juices, and beverages have been implicated in human noroviral and hepatitis A virus outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in juices (orange and pomegranate juices), juice blends (pomegranate and orange juice) and milk over 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Juices, juice blends, and milk were inoculated with each virus over 21 days, serially diluted in cell culture media, and plaque assayed. MNV-1 showed no reduction in titer after 21 days in orange juice and milk, but moderate reduction (1.4 log) in pomegranate juice from a titer of 5 log(10) PFU/ml. However, MNV-1 was completely reduced after 7 days in the orange and pomegranate juice blend. FCV-F9 from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml was completely reduced after 14 days in orange as well as pomegranate juice and by ∼ 3 logs after 21 days in milk at 4 °C. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was completely reduced after 1 day in the orange and pomegranate juice blend at 4 °C. MS2 was reduced by ∼ 1.28 log after 21 days in orange juice from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml, and <1 log after 21 days in milk or pomegranate juice, with juice blends showing minimal reduction (<1 log) after 21 days at 4 °C. These results show the survival pattern of noroviruses that aid in the transmission of foodborne viral outbreaks. The data obtained can be used in quantitative viral risk assessment studies and to develop improved measures to prevent virus survival towards controlling outbreaks. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Tsuruoka, Shu-ichi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Gohki; Obi, Yuri; Kaneda, Tae; Takahashi, Masaki; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Fujimura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9. METHODS The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects. CONCLUSIONS Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations. PMID:19694738

  12. Growth of probiotic lactobacilli in the presence of oleic acid enhances subsequent survival in gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, B M; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of various C18 fatty acids with 0-2 double bonds in either cis or trans configuration on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survival was analysed in simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. The incorporation of Tween 80 (1 g l-1) in the growth media enhanced subsequent survival of stationary-phase cultures up to 1000-fold following 90 min acid exposure compared with controls grown without Tween 80. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in bacterial content of oleic acid [C18:1 (9c), up to 55-fold] after growth of bacteria in MRS supplemented with Tween 80. The inclusion of various C18 fatty acids in the growth media revealed that only oleic and vaccenic acids [C18:1 (11t)] had protective effects on the survival of Lb. rhamnosus GG when exposed to the acidic environment. Comparative analysis with other lactobacilli indicated that all strains exhibited increased survival when grown in the presence of Tween 80. Further work with a neomycin-resistant mutant with 48% of the F0F1-ATPase activity of the parent indicated that the Tween 80 effect was independent of the complex. The mechanisms behind the effect of fatty acid protection were investigated and proton permeability assays showed that cultures grown in the presence of Tween 80 had higher extracellular pH than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction of oleic acid and a significant increase in stearic acid (C18:0) (P<0.05) content of bacterial cells following exposure of Tween 80-supplemented cultures to simulated gastric juice. Overall, the data suggest that probiotic lactobacilli can use an exogenous oleic acid source to increase their acid survival and the underlying mechanism most likely involves the ability of increased membrane oleic acid to be reduced by H+ to stearic acid.

  13. Effects of Simulated Gastric Juice on CAD/CAM Resin Composites-Morphological and Mechanical Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Backer, Adriana D; Münchow, Eliseu A; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T; Platt, Jeffrey A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of simulated gastric juice on CAD/CAM resin composites by means of morphological and mechanical (i.e., hardness) evaluations. Fourteen specimens of each resin composite (Lava Ultimate and Paradigm MZ100) were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. They were submitted to erosive challenges in a simulated gastric juice (pH = 1.2) solution for 6 and 24 hours. Vickers microhardness and surface roughness (R a , R q ) evaluations were taken before (baseline) and after acid exposure. Morphological analysis was obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls's test (α = 0.05). Paradigm MZ100 demonstrated higher microhardness than Lava Ultimate regardless of the storage time period (p ≤ 0.001), and microhardness was not affected by the acidic challenge (p = 0.58). After 6 hours of acid exposure, a significant decrease in R a and R q was seen for Paradigm MZ100 when compared to the baseline (R a p = 0.032; R q p = 0.013); however, for Lava Ultimate only Rq decreased (p = 0.021), while R a remained unchanged (p = 0.38). After 24 hours of acid exposure, while Paradigm MZ100 exhibited no additional changes in surface roughness (p ≥ 0.75), Lava Ultimate became rougher (R a p = 0.041; R q p = 0.014), as confirmed by SEM imaging. The acidic scenario tested in the present study changed the surface roughness of the resin composites but not their Vickers microhardness. Moreover, both resin composites seem suitable for use under acidic scenarios, although Paradigm MZ100 showed enhanced stability compared to Lava Ultimate. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. [Significance of identification of fungi in gastric juice of patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-wen; Wu, Ming; Li, Ying; Zeng, Jing-jing; Li, Ming-li; He, Yun; Li, Dan-hui; Cui, Man-li

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the direct relationship and significance between the pH value of gastric juice and positive fungi in culture critical patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit (ICU) by analyzing and identifying the type of fungi and their sensitivity to antifungal therapy. A prospective study was conducted.One hundred and sixty patients (between December, 2008 and October, 2011) with artificial airway lasting longer than 48 hours were studied in the ICU at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University. The gastric juice specimens were collected through a nasogastric tube, their pH values were measured using precise litmus paper. These samples were divided into six groups according to their pH values: pH ≤ 2.0, pH 2.1-3.0, pH 3.1-4.0, pH 4.1-5.0, pH 5.1-6.0 and pH 6.1-7.0, and then fungi were cultured in these specimens with different pH values. Susceptibility of different fungicide drugs were also investigated. The susceptibility of fungi to gastric juice with different pH values was also investigated. The relationship between 28-day survival rate and the presence of fungi in gastric juice was analyzed in order to analyze the relationship of the presence of fungi in gastric juice and clinical outcome. (1) No fungal growth was found in the gastric juice with pH value lower than 4.0, and the positive rate of fungal culture was significantly increased when the pH value of gastric juice raised. (2) The positive rate of fungal growth was 27.9% (55/197), in which, the positive rate of Candida and non-Candida fungi was 38.2% (21/55) and 61.8% (34/55) respectively, and the difference was significant statistically [χ(2) = 4.16, P < 0.05]. (3) The fungal positive rate was 40.0% (22/55) and 60.0% (33/55) respectively, in survivors (102 cases) and non-survivors (58 cases). The percentage of Candida infection and non-Candida infection was 54.5% (12/22) and 45.5% (10/22) respectively, in survivors, and it was 27.3% (9/33) and 72.7% (24/33), respectively, in

  15. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Beads in Simulated Gastric Juices and Bile Salt Solution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki-Yong; Heo, Tae-Ryeon

    2000-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The initial cell numbers in the beads affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in beads and establishing optimal entrapment conditions. PMID:10653768

  16. Identification of prostate-specific antigen and spermatozoa from a mixture of semen and simulated gastric juice.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Scott; Gartside, Bill

    2009-05-01

    The detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and visualization of spermatozoa from forensic-type samples containing semen exposed to simulated gastric juice was investigated as a support for forensic practice. Samples of simulated gastric juice mixed with semen were prepared and incubated for up to 4 h at 37 degrees C. Samples were deposited on cotton cloth and on ceramic plates and allowed to dry. The samples were examined for the presence of PSA using the Seratec PSA Semiquant immunochromatographic membrane test. Microscope slides were prepared, stained, and analyzed for spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were detected in all samples, and PSA was detected on neat samples and on samples from the ceramic plate after incubation for up to 4 h. PSA was not detected in the samples deposited on cotton cloth at incubation times greater than 15 min. This may serve as a support for examinations performed when vomit or vomit-stained evidence is submitted for analysis.

  17. The Potential Health Benefits of Noni Juice: A Review of Human Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Isami, Fumiyuki; Uwaya, Akemi; Jensen, Claude Jarakae

    2018-04-11

    Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for a precise understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice are. A review of published human intervention studies suggests that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation as well as systemic inflammation. Human intervention studies also indicate that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to notable antioxidant activity in noni juice, more so than other fruit juices which served as trial placebos. It is this antioxidant effect and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations as far as its general application to noni juice products; all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles.

  18. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  19. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Nutritive Value of Organic and Conventional White Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata) and Anti-Apoptotic Activity in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells of Sauerkraut Juice Produced Therof.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Kazimierczak, Renata; Marszałek, Krystian; Drela, Nadzieja; Kiernozek, Ewelina; Toomik, Peeter; Matt, Darja; Luik, Anne; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2017-09-20

    White cabbage is one of the most important vegetables grown both in Poland and worldwide. Cabbage contains considerable amounts of bioactive compounds such as glucosinolates, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Some experiments indicate that vegetables from organic production contain more bioactive compounds than those from conventional production, however, only a few studies have been conducted on cruciferous plants. The presented study has proved that organic fresh cabbage, compared to the conventional one, contained significantly less total flavonoids in both years of experiments (3.95 ± 0.21 mg/100 g FW and 3.71 ± 0.33 mg/100 g FW), several flavonoid compounds, total chlorophylls (1.51 ± 0.17 mg/100 g FW and 1.30 ± 0.22 mg/100 g FW) carotenoids, nitrites (0.55 ± 0.04 mg/kg FW and 0.45 ± 0.02 mg/kg FW), and nitrates (0.50 ± 0.13 g/kg FW and 0.47 ± 0.11 g/kg FW). The organic sauerkraut juice, compared to the conventional one, contained significantly more total polyphenols (5.39 ± 0.22 mg/100 g FW and 9.05 ± 1.10 mg/100 g FW) as well as several flavonoids. Only CONV sauerkraut juice produced with the highest N level of fertilization induced a statistical significant increase of the level of necrosis of human stomach gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS.

  1. Effect of sea buckthorn berries and pulp in a liquid emulsion on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH in horses.

    PubMed

    Huff, N K; Auer, A D; Garza, F; Keowen, M L; Kearney, M T; McMullin, R B; Andrews, F M

    2012-01-01

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) are rich in vitamin C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, plant sterols, lignans, and minerals. A feed supplement containing sea buckthorn berries might have efficacy in treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses. To test the efficacy of a commercially available formulation of sea buckthorn berries and pulp (SeaBuck SBT Gastro-Plus) for treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses. Eight Thoroughbred and Thoroughbred-cross horses (3-10 years of age, 5 geldings and 3 mares, 380-600 kg body weight). This study was a 2-period crossover in which all horses received no treatment (untreated controls; n = 8) and treatment (SeaBuckSBT Gastro-Plus, 4 ounces [35.6 g berries and pulp], twice daily; n = 8) mixed with a pelleted complete feed (18% crude fiber; 9% starch; 14% crude protein). Horses were treated for 4 weeks followed by a 1-week (d28-d35) alternating feed-deprivation period to induce or worsen existing ulcers. Gastroscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 28, and 35. Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer number and severity scores were assigned by a masked investigator. Mean nonglandular gastric ulcer scores significantly (P < .05) increased in all horses after day 28, as a result of intermittent feed deprivation. Mean nonglandular gastric ulcer number (P = .84) and severity (P = .51) were not significantly different between SBT-treated and untreated control horses. However, mean glandular ulcer number (P = .02) and glandular ulcer severity (P = .02) were significantly lower in the SBT-treated horses compared with the untreated control at week 5. SeaBuck SBT Gastro-Plus liquid fed to horses did not show efficacy in treatment or prevention of naturally occurring nonglandular ulcers in horses; however, glandular ulcer scores were significantly lower in SBT-treated horses after feed deprivation. Thus, SBT might have efficacy in prevention of glandular ulcers in

  2. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squee...

  3. Human Embryonic Gastric Xenografts in Nude Mice: a New Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lozniewski, Alain; Muhale, Filipe; Hatier, Renee; Marais, Armelle; Conroy, Marie-Christine; Edert, Danielle; le Faou, Alain; Weber, Michele; Duprez, Adrien

    1999-01-01

    In vitro or animal models have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, extrapolation to humans of results obtained with these heterologous models remains difficult. We have developed a new model for the study of H. pylori infection that uses human entire embryonic stomachs engrafted in nude mice. At 80 days after implantation, 22 of these xenografts, which exhibited a mature gastric epithelium, were inoculated with 107 to 108 CFU of either H. pylori LB1, a freshly isolated H. pylori strain (n = 12), or H. pylori ATCC 49503 (n = 10). After 12-week examination, H. pylori LB1 persistently colonized the antrum of all inoculated grafts, as assessed by culture (mucus and mucosa), immunohistochemistry (mucosa), and a rapid urease test (mucus). H. pylori ATCC 49503, either before or after in vivo passage, permitted only a transient 2-week colonization in one of the five inoculated grafts in both groups. Colonization was always associated with an increase of gastric juice pH. A mild neutrophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa was noted solely in infected grafts. Transmission electron microscopy showed adherence of H. pylori organisms to epithelial cell surface. In six animals, intracytoplasmic location of this bacterium was observed in the antrum or the fundus. These results allow us to propose this model as a new ex vivo model for the study of specific H. pylori-gastric cell interactions. PMID:10085020

  4. Survival and inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in blueberry juice by high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Horm, Katie Marie; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico M; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Human noroviruses (HNoV) have been implicated in gastrointestinal outbreaks associated with fresh produce, juices, and ready-to-eat foods. In order to determine the risk of HNoV transmission by contaminated blueberry juice, survival characteristics of cultivable HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77) after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration temperatures (4°C) were studied. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied as a novel processing method for noroviral surrogate inactivation in blueberry juice. Blueberry juice or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2 as control) was inoculated with each virus, stored over 21 days at 4°C or subjected to HPH, and plaque assayed. FCV-F9 (∼5 log(10) PFU/mL) was undetectable after 1 day in blueberry juice at 4°C. MNV-1 (∼4 log(10) PFU/ml) showed minimal reduction (1 log(10) PFU/mL) after 14 days, with greater reduction (1.95 log(10) PFU/mL; p < 0.05) after 21 days in blueberry juice at 4°C. Bacteriophage MS2 (∼6 log(10) PFU/mL) showed significant reduction (1.93 log(10) PFU/mL; p < 0.05) after 2 days and was undetectable after 7 days in blueberry juice at 4°C. FCV-F9 remained viable in PBS for up to 21 days (2.28 log(10) PFU/mL reduction), while MNV-1 and MS2 survived after 21 days (1.08 and 0.56 log(10) PFU/mL reduction, respectively). Intriguingly, FCV-F9 and bacteriophage MS2 showed reduction after minimal homogenization pressures in blueberry juice (pH = 2.77), possibly due to the combination of juice pH, juice components, and mechanical effects. MNV-1 in blueberry juice was only slightly reduced at 250 (0.33 log(10) PFU/mL) and 300 MPa (0.71 log(10) PFU/mL). Virus surrogate survival in blueberry juice at 4°C correlates well with the ease of HNoV transmission via juices. HPH for viral inactivation in juices is dependent on virus type, and higher homogenization pressures may be needed for MNV-1 inactivation.

  5. THE DIVERSION OF THE PANCREATIC JUICE FROM THE DUODENUM INTO THE STOMACH. ITS EFFECTS UPON THE LEVEL OF GASTRIC ACIDITY AND UPON THE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Ernest G.

    1917-01-01

    The mechanism described for maintaining the optimum level of gastric acidity is designated by Boldyreff as the "self regulation of the acidity of the contents of the stomach." In support of Boldyreff's hypothesis is the evidence obtained from many experiments carried out both on man and on animals, in which solutions of alkali and acid have been placed in the stomach. The introduction of acid fluid has led to a regurgitation of alkaline duodenal contents, whereas the introduction of alkaline solutions has called forth a secretion of acid gastric juice. The experiments reported in this paper were carried out for the purpose of ascertaining how the stomach would react, in as far as the secretion of hydrochloric acid is concerned, to a more or less continuous influx of relatively strong alkaline fluid, prolonged throughout the cycle of digestion. Numerous studies have shown that any serious interference with the process of regurgitation leads to a rise in the acidity level of the stomach; i.e., to a state of hyperacidity. There is but little evidence, however, to indicate whether the acidity level will be depressed temporarily or permanently (hypoacidity) when alkaline material, in considerable amounts, continues to enter the stomach. The influx of alkaline fluid was provided for by transplanting the larger pancreatic duct into the wall of the stomach after ligating and dividing the lesser duct. Specimens of test meal for analysis were withdrawn through gastric fistulas made after the method of Janeway. Animals prepared in this manner served also to furnish additional information regarding the possible relation of the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice to certain acute inflammatory and chronic sclerotic changes in the pancreas. From the results of these experiments it appears that the presence of a considerable amount of pancreatic juice in the stomach throughout the period of digestion leads only to a moderate decrease in the acidity level of the ingesta in the

  6. Green Juice in Human Metabolism: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Marina; Ferreira, Eduarda Jardim; Moreira, Isabel Taís da Silva; Avila, Richard Chuquel Silveira de; Oliveira, Alcyr Alves de; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Braganhol, Elizandra; Barschak, Alethéa Gatto

    2018-04-27

    Fruits and vegetables contain many compounds presenting potential antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a green juice recipe in adult metabolism in order to identify new preventive dietary sources. This was a single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Recruitment and data were, respectively, made and collected at the Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre. Individuals who met all the inclusion criteria during the period of recruitment were included. Green juice (experimental group) or placebo (control group) were consumed from Monday to Friday between 8 and 9 am, in the amount of 300 mL for 60 days (except Saturdays and Sundays). To verify the effect of green juice on metabolism, the following were evaluated: (a) glycemia, plasma lipid profile, renal and liver functions, redox profile, and antioxidant enzymes; (b) anthropometry; and (c) well-being and anxiety. This study included 14 participants in the test group (juice group) and 13 controls (placebo group), with mean ages of 31.07 and 30.15 years, respectively. We did not observe a significant difference between the treatments. Dietary properties of vegetable and fruit juices are an area of significant interest. Together with an analysis of previous works, we suggest that green juice did not cause an improvement in metabolic function and there is a need for further research on this issue, mainly through different interventions and other samples.

  7. Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ted; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi; Goettl, Christopher D; Kittleson, Katrina M; Roe, Cindy M; Kastello, Gary M; Ragsdale, Frances R

    2008-03-01

    This cross-sectional study determined the phenolic composition of an over-the-counter cranberry juice (CBJ) with high-performance liquid chromatography and examined the effects of low- and normal-calorie CBJ formulations on the postprandial glycemic response in healthy humans. The CBJ used in this study contained seven phenolic acids, with 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acid being the primary components, and 15 flavonol glycosides, with myricetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-galactoside being the most prevalent. CBJ proanthocyanidins consisted of three different tetramers and a heptamer, which were confirmed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis. Participants received one of the following six treatments: nothing (no water/beverage), water (480 mL), unsweetened low-calorie CBJ (38 Cal/480 mL), normal-calorie CBJ (280 Cal/480 mL), isocaloric normal calorie (high fructose corn syrup [HFCS]), or isocaloric low-calorie beverages. No significant differences in postprandial blood glucose or insulin were observed in the groups receiving nothing, water, or low-calorie treatments. In contrast, the ingestion of normal-calorie CBJ and normal-calorie control beverage resulted in significantly higher blood glucose concentrations 30 minutes postprandially, although the differences were no longer significant after 180 minutes. Plasma insulin of normal-calorie CBJ and control (HFCS) recipients was significantly higher 60 minutes postprandially, but not significantly different 120 minutes postprandially. CBJ ingestion did not affect heart rate or blood pressure. This study suggests that the consumption of a low-calorie CBJ rich in previously uncharacterized trimer and heptamer proanthocyanidins is associated with a favorable glycemic response and may be beneficial for persons with impaired glucose tolerance.

  8. Orange juice (poly)phenols are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; van der Hooft, Justin; Clifford, Michael N; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Kellerhals, Michele B; Crozier, Alan

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols by monitoring urinary flavanone metabolites and ring fission catabolites produced by the action of the colonic microbiota. Our objective was to identify and quantify metabolites and catabolites excreted in urine 0-24 h after the acute ingestion of a (poly)phenol-rich orange juice by 12 volunteers. Twelve volunteers [6 men and 6 women; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.9-37.2] consumed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before first drinking 250 mL pulp-enriched orange juice, which contained 584 μmol (poly)phenols of which 537 μmol were flavanones, and after a 2-wk washout, the procedure was repeated, and a placebo drink was consumed. Urine collected for a 24-h period was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 14 metabolites were identified and quantified in urine by using HPLC-MS after orange juice intake. Hesperetin-O-glucuronides, naringenin-O-glucuronides, and hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate were the main metabolites. The overall urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites corresponded to 16% of the intake of 584 μmol (poly)phenols. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 8 urinary catabolites were also excreted in significantly higher quantities after orange juice consumption. These catabolites were 3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, hippuric acid, 3'-hydroxyhippuric acid, and 4'-hydroxyhippuric acid. These aromatic acids originated from the colonic microbiota-mediated breakdown of orange juice (poly)phenols and were excreted in amounts equivalent to 88% of (poly)phenol intake. When combined with the 16% excretion of metabolites, this percentage raised the overall urinary excretion to ∼ 100% of

  9. A metabolomic evaluation of the phytochemical composition of tomato juices being used in human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    Juices from the traditional red tomato and a unique tangerine tomato variety are being investigated as health promoting foods in human clinical trials. However, it is unknown how the tangerine and red tomato juices differ in biologically relevant phytochemicals beyond carotenoids. Here liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to evaluate broadly the similarities and differences in carotenoids and other phytochemicals between red and tangerine tomato juices intended for clinical interventions. This untargeted approach was successful in the rapid detection and extensive characterization of phytochemicals belonging to various compound classes. The tomato juices were found to differ significantly in a number of phytochemicals, including carotenoids, chlorophylls, neutral lipids, and cinnamic acid derivatives. The largest differences were in carotenoids, including lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, neurosporene, and ζ-carotene. Smaller, but significant, differences were observed in polar phytochemicals, such as chlorogenic acid, hydroxyferulic acid, phloretin-di-C-glycoside, and isopropylmalic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection and proteomic characterization of extracellular vesicles in human pancreatic juice.

    PubMed

    Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Benke, Márton; Rodriguez, Marta; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Sódar, Barbara W; Szvicsek, Zsuzsanna; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Vukman, Krisztina V; Kittel, Ágnes; Wiener, Zoltán; Vékey, Károly; Harsányi, László; Szűcs, Ákos; Turiák, Lilla; Buzás, Edit I

    2018-04-30

    The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer has remained virtually unchanged with a high mortality rate compared to other types of cancers. An earlier detection would provide a time window of opportunity for treatment and prevention of deaths. In the present study we investigated extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by directly assessing EV size-based subpopulations in pancreatic juice samples of patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. In addition, we also studied blood plasma and pancreatic cancer cell line-derived EVs. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed of 102 EV preparations from human pancreatic juices, blood, and pancreatic cancer cell lines Capan-1 and MIA PaCa-2. EV preparations were also characterized by electron microscopy, tunable resistive pulse sensing, and flow cytometry. Here we describe the presence of EVs in human pancreatic juice samples. Pancreatic juice EV-associated proteins that we identified as possible candidate markers for pancreatic cancer included mucins, such as MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and MUC16, CFTR, and MDR1 proteins. These candidate biomarkers could also be detected by flow cytometry in EVs found in pancreatic juice and those secreted by pancreatic cancer cell lines. Together our data show that detection and characterization of EVs directly in pancreatic juice is feasible and may prove to be a valuable source of potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Longtine, Mark S.; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D.

    2012-01-01

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus. PMID:22374759

  12. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human norovirus surrogate reduction in milk and juice blends by high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Horm, Katie Marie; Harte, Federico Miguel; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Novel processing technologies such as high pressure homogenization (HPH) for the inactivation of foodborne viruses in fluids that retain nutritional attributes are in high demand. The objectives of this research were (i) to determine the effects of HPH alone or with an emulsifier (lecithin) on human norovirus surrogates-murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)-in skim milk and orange juice, and (ii) to determine HPH effects on FCV-F9 and MNV-1 in orange and pomegranate juice blends. Experiments were conducted in duplicate at 0, 100, 200, 250, and 300 MPa for <2 s and plaque was assayed in duplicate. In milk, FCV-F9 was reduced by ≥4 and ∼1.3 log PFU/ml at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively, and ≥4- and ∼1-log PFU/ml reductions were obtained in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. In orange juice or milk combined with lecithin, FCV-F9 was reduced to nondetectable levels at 300 MPa, and by 1.77 and 0.78 log PFU/ml at 250 MPa. MNV-1 in milk was reduced by ∼1.3 log PFU/ml only at 300 MPa, and by ∼0.8 and ∼0.4 log PFU/ml in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. MNV-1 in milk or orange juice containing lecithin at 300 MPa showed 1.32- and 2.5-log PFU/ml reductions, respectively. In the pomegranate-orange juice blend, FCV-F9 was completely reduced, and MNV-1 was reduced by 1.04 and 1.78 log PFU/ml at 250 and 300 MPa, respectively. These results show that HPH has potential for commercial use to inactivate foodborne virus surrogates in juices.

  14. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value <0.05. Consumption of apple juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (P<0.001). No differences in reported GI symptoms were seen between treatments. Both juices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in

  15. CMIP is oncogenic in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Xingyu; Chen, Weidong; Tang, Qinqing; Fang, Maoyong; Qian, Yeben

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence, metastasis and resistance to drug treatment are the main barrier to survival of patients with advanced stage gastric cancer. Further study of the molecular mechanisms involved will improve the therapeutic options for gastric cancer. In a previous study, c-Maf was discovered as an oncogene transduced in the avian AS42 retrovirus, and was found to be overexpressed in multiple myeloma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. c-Maf inducing protein (CMIP) is involved in the c-Maf signaling pathway, which was reported to serve an important role in human minimal change nephrotic syndrome and in human reading and language related behavior. However, the relationship between CMIP and human gastric cancer has not yet been reported. In the present study, CMIP protein levels in gastric cancer tissues and cells were measured using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis; the expression of CMIP protein was significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal gastric tissues. Expression was positively associated with poorer clinical parameters, relapse-free survival and overall survival. Furthermore, using cell counting, Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays, together with flow cytometry, CMIP depletion by RNA interference was observed to reduce the capacity of gastric cancer cells to proliferate and migrate in vitro. Furthermore, the upstream and downstream genes of CMIP were analyzed by luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which indicated that CMIP was a direct target of miR-101-3p. In addition, CMIP knockdown was observed to result in the downregulation of MDM2 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression at the mRNA level. In conclusion, CMIP demonstrated an oncogenic role in human gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, micro

  16. Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiated human lymphocytes from healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Itaki, Chieko; Saito, Ayako; Yonezawa, Toko; Aizawa, Koichi; Hirai, Ayumi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tomisato; Mariya, Yasushi; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2017-05-12

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0.25 mg β-carotene, per day for 3 weeks and then refrain from drinking it for 3 weeks. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected before and after the intake period of tomato juice and after the washout period. The blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 Gy. Cytogenetic damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the dicentrics (DIC) assay. The level of oxidative stress was determined using serum 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROMs). The concentration of carotenoids in plasma was measured at the three time points. The levels of 8-oxo-dG tended to decrease during the intake period and increase during the washout period. A non-significant inverse correlation was noted between the plasma concentration of lycopene plus β-carotene and the level of 8-oxo-dG (P = 0.064). The radiation-induced MN and DIC frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner, and when compared at the same dose, the MN and DIC frequencies decreased during the intake period compared with those at baseline and then increased during the washout period. The results suggest that continuous tomato juice consumption non-significantly decreases extracellular 8-oxo-dG, d-ROMs, and MN. Tomato juice intake had minimal or no effect on radiation-induced 8-oxo-dG and d-ROMs. For most radiation doses, continuously tomato juice intake lowered the levels of MN and DIC. Tomato juice

  17. EPHA2/EFNA1 expression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ritsuko; Kataoka, Hideki; Sato, Naomi; Kanamori, Masao; Ihara, Megumi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Ravshanov, Sanjar; Wang, You-Jie; Li, Zhong-You; Shimamura, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Konno, Hiroyuki; Shinmura, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2005-01-01

    The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (EPH)A2 receptor, tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed and phosphorylated in several types of human tumors and has been associated with malignant transformation. A recent report, however, indicated that stimulation of the EPHA2 receptor ligand, ephrinA1 (EFNA1), inhibits the growth of EPHA2-expressing breast cancer. The authors examined the expression of EPHA2 and EFNA1 using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four gastric cancer cell lines and 49 primary gastric cancer samples, as well as in normal gastric tissue. EPHA2 was more highly expressed in tumor tissue than in normal tissue in 27 cases (55%). EFNA1 was overexpressed in tumor tissue in 28 cases (57%). No significant correlation was detected between the expression levels and histologic features such as tumor size, age, vessel invasion, or lymph node involvement. However, EPHA2 overexpression was more prominent in macroscopic type 3 and 4 tumors than in type 1 or 2 advanced gastric cancer. The authors observed EPHA2 expression in three of the four gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, KATO3, and MKN74) that were examined. In one cell line, TMK1, EPHA2 expression was barely detectable using northern blotting, RT-PCR, and western blotting. In contrast, EFNA1 was detected in all cell lines. In the gastric cancer cell lines that endogenously expressed EPHA2, stimulation with ephrinA1-Fc led to decreased EPHA2 protein expression and increased EPHA2 phosphorylation. Finally, the growth of EPHA2-expressing cells was inhibited by repetitive stimulation with soluble ephrinA1-Fc. Taken together, these findings suggest that EPHA2 and EFNA1 expression may influence the behavior of human gastric cancer.

  18. Gallic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chiu, Ying-Ming; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chin-Tung; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tsay, Gregory J; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate worldwide. Current treatment of gastric cancer includes surgery and chemotherapy as the main modalities, but the potentially severe side-effects of chemotherapy present a considerable challenge. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found to exert an anticancer effect against a variety of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer activity of Galla chinensis and its main component gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assay and cell death ELISA were used to determine the apoptotic effect of Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. To determine the pathway and relevant components by which gallic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated through, cells were transfected with siRNA (Fas, FasL, DR5, p53) using Lipofectamine 2000. Reults: Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid induced apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gallic acid induced up-regulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in AGS cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced gallic acid-induced cell death. In addition, p53 was shown to be involved in gallic acid-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression as well as cell apoptosis in AGS cells. These results suggest that gallic acid has a potential role in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of orange juice components in humans

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Henning, Susanne M.; Custer, Laurie J.

    2008-01-01

    Seven healthy females and six males consumed daily 256 mg vitamin C, 229 mg hesperidin (main flavonoid occurring as glycoside), 6 mg carotenoids (mainly luteins and cryptoxanthins), and 0.16 mg folate by incorporation of daily 236 mL of not-from-concentrate orange juice (OJ) into their habitual diet. At the end of three weeks mean vitamin C, folate, carotenoid, and flavanone plasma concentrations increased significantly relative to baseline by 59% (p<0.001), 46% (p=0.018), and 22% (p<0.001), and 8 fold (p=0.045), respectively. Flavanones were excreted in urine 9 fold more at the end of the intervention (p=0.01) but returned to baseline two days after study completion. After the 3-week intervention plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E did not change. 8-Hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in white blood cells declined by 16% (p=0.38; n=11), and in individuals with high baseline concentrations by 29% (p=0.36; n=7), respectively. LDL-/HDL-cholesterol ratio decreased but cholesterol (HDL, LDL, total) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance plasma concentrations did not change significantly. We conclude from this pilot study that OJ is an excellent food source to enhance circulating concentrations of valuable hydrophilic as well as lipophilic phytochemicals. PMID:15969493

  20. The susceptibility of Streptococcus thermophilus 14085 to organic acid, simulated gastric juice, bile salt and disinfectant as influenced by cold shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiu-Hui; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium which is used as the starter organism for the fermentation of yoghurt and some cheese. In the present study, S. thermophilus BCRC 14085 was subjected to cold shock treatment by exposure at 10 °C for 2 h. The effect of cold shock on the susceptibility of S. thermophilus in subsequent lethal stress environments such as simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0-3.0), bile solution (2.0%) and various organic acids (0.75 M, pH 3.5) including propionic, lactic, acetic, citric and tartaric acid was investigated. In addition, the survival of cold-shocked and non-shocked S. thermophilus exposed to disinfectants, Clidox-S and Quatricide, were compared. Results revealed that cold shock enhanced the tolerance of S. thermophilus in the presence of simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 and 2.8), while in bile solution, the population increase of cold-shocked cells is higher than that of non-shocked cells after 12 h of incubation. Furthermore, the susceptibility of S. thermophilus, regardless of cold shock, to organic acid varied with the kinds of organic acid examined. The cold-shocked S. thermophilus showed a significantly less survival (P < 0.05) than that of the non-shocked cells when exposed to lactic or acetic acid. Furthermore, cold shock reduced the survival of S. thermophilus when exposed to Quatricide but not Clidox-S. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer. PMID:21779520

  2. Genome Sequence of Helicobacter bizzozeroniiStrain CIII-1, an Isolate from Human Gastric Mucosa ▿

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Thomas; Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    The canine-adapted Helicobacter bizzozeroniiis the only nonpylori Helicobacterspecies isolated from human gastric biopsy tissue. Here we present the genome sequence of strain CIII-1, isolated from a 45-year-old female patient with severe gastric symptoms. This is the first genome sequence of nonpylori gastric Helicobacterisolated from human gastritis. PMID:21705603

  3. Retinoblastoma gene structure and product expression in human gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Constância, M.; Seruca, R.; Carneiro, F.; Silva, F.; Castedo, S.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) in human gastric carcinogenesis is yet to be clarified. We report on the analysis of RB1 structure and protein (pRB) expression in gastric carcinomas using Southern blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The relationship between pRB expression and cell proliferation was assessed by a proliferation marker (PCNA) in a subset of cases. Non-neoplastic mucosas were studied, as controls, by the same methodology. We found a close relationship between pRB expression and PCNA in non-neoplastic mucosas as well as in gastric carcinomas. All tumours were immunohistochemically positive for pRB, although with a variable proportion of non-immunoreactive cells. Carcinomas of the diffuse type showed absence of pRB expression in a larger proportion of neoplastic cells than carcinomas of the intestinal type (P < 0.05). Analysis of the RB1 structure using probe p68RS2.0 revealed allelic imbalance in 29% of informative cases. No homozygous deletions and/or rearrangements were detected with p68RS2.0 and cDNA probes. Western analysis revealed no abnormal patterns of pRB. Our data therefore suggest that major alterations affecting the RB1 gene are rather infrequent in human gastric carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7947078

  4. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  5. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Müllertz, Anette; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2013-11-01

    To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological characterization of the aspirates was conducted on a TA AR-G2 rheometer, using cone and plate geometry. Lipase activity was measured by continuous titration of released free fatty acid from tributyrate. Further, pH, osmolality, buffer capacity, and surface tension were measured and the total protein content and bile salt level were determined using assay kits. Rheological examination of HGA showed non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior with predominant elastic behavior in the linear range. The apparent viscosity was measured to be in the range of 1.7-9.3 mPas at a shear rate of 50s(-1). The FaSSGF and HCl pH 1.2 have no shear-thinning properties and showed lower viscosity (1.1 mPas at 50 s(-1)). The observed viscosity of the HGA will decrease the intrinsic dissolution rate of drugs. The activity of the gastric lipase was 7.4 ± 4.0 U/mL (N = 6, n = 3) and 99.0 ± 45.3 U/mL (N = 19, n = 3) at pH 2.8 and 5.4, respectively. pH, surface tension, buffer capacity, bile salt concentration, and osmolality were measured and compared with literature data. The rheological behavior and the mean apparent viscosity of HGA are significantly different from that of water and should therefore be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of orange juice intake on vitamin C concentrations and biomarkers of antioxidant status in humans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoña; Plaza, Lucía; Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Martín, Antonio

    2003-09-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with improved health and a decreased prevalence of chronic degenerative processes. The objectives were to assess the bioavailability of vitamin C from orange juice and its influence on plasma vitamin C and 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (8-epi-PGF(2 alpha)) concentrations in a healthy human population. Six men and 6 women consumed 500 mL commercial fresh-squeezed orange juice/d for 14 d, corresponding to an intake of 250 mg ascorbic acid/d. On the first day of the study, the subjects drank the juice in one dose (dose-response study), and on days 2-14 they consumed 250 mL in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected every hour for 6 h on the first day and again on days 7 and 14. Baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.03) among the women than among the men (56.4 +/- 4.4 compared with 44.3 +/- 3.5 micromol/L). In the dose-response study, the maximum increase in plasma vitamin C occurred 3 h postdose in both the men and the women. Vitamin C concentrations remained significantly higher on days 7 and 14 than at baseline. Baseline concentrations of 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) were significantly higher (P = 0.03) among the men than among the women (249.6 +/- 25.4 compared with 177.7 +/- 6.2 pg/mL) but decreased significantly (P = 0.04) by day 14 of the intervention. A significant inverse correlation was observed between vitamin C and 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) (r = -0.791, P = 0.0022). Among smokers, baseline vitamin C was lower and 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) higher than among nonsmokers. Drinking orange juice (500 mL/d) increases plasma concentrations of vitamin C and reduces concentrations of 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) in humans. These effects were significantly more pronounced in smokers.

  7. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen.

  8. Discriminating gastric cancer and gastric ulcer using human plasma amino acid metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Jing, Fangyu; Hu, Xin; Cao, Yunfeng; Xu, Minghao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Jing, Yu; Hu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yu; Zhu, Zhitu

    2018-04-06

    Patients with gastric ulcer (GU) have a significantly higher risk of developing gastric cancer (GC), especially within 2 years after diagnosis. The main way to improve the prognosis of GC is to predict the tumorigenesis and metastasis in the early stage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of human plasma amino acid metabolic profile for discriminating GC and GU. In this study, we first used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique to characterize the plasma amino acid metabolism in GC and GU patients. Plasma samples were collected from 84 GC patients and 82 GU patients, and 22 amino acids were detected in each patient. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was performed to analyze the data of these amino acids. We observed seven differential amino acids between GC and GU. A regression analysis model was established using these seven amino acids. Finally, a panel of five differential amino acids, including glutamine, ornithine, histidine, arginine and tryptophan, was identified for discriminating GC and GU with good specificity and sensitivity. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate diagnostic ability of the regression model and area under the curve was 0.922. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential values of plasma amino acid metabolic profile and metabolomic analysis technique in assisting diagnosis of GC. More studies are needed to highlight the theoretical strengths of metabolomics to understand the potential metabolic mechanisms in GC. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Glutathione prevents ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio, C; Taranto, D; Beneduce, F; del Vecchio Blanco, C; de Vincentiis, A; Nardi, G; Romano, M

    1993-01-01

    Whether parenteral administration of reduced glutathione prevented ethanol induced damage to and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in the human gastric mucosa was investigated. Ten healthy volunteers underwent endoscopy on three separate occasions. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by spraying 80% ethanol on to the gastric mucosa through the biopsy channel of the endoscope. The gastric mucosal score, total sulfhydryls, glutathione, and cysteine were evaluated in basal conditions and after ethanol administration with and without pretreatment with parenteral glutathione. Glutathione significantly decreased the extent of ethanol induced macroscopic injury to the mucosa of the gastric body and antrum. Glutathione's protective effect is associated with appreciable inhibition of ethanol induced depletion of gastric sulfhydryl compounds. This is the first report of protection against ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage by a sulfhydryl containing agent in humans. PMID:8432465

  10. Blueberry proanthocyanidins against human norovirus surrogates in model foods and under simulated gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-05-01

    Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C. Equal amounts of each virus (5 log PFU/ml) was mixed with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) prepared either in AJ, or 2% milk, or simulated gastric fluids and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Controls included phosphate buffered saline, malic acid (pH 7.2), AJ, 2% milk or simulated gastric and intestinal fluids incubated with virus over 24 h at 37 °C. The tested viruses were reduced to undetectable levels within 15 min with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) in AJ (pH 3.6). However, antiviral activity of B-PAC was reduced in milk. FCV-F9 was reduced by 0.4 and 1.09 log PFU/ml with 2 and 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk, respectively and MNV-1 titers were reduced by 0.81 log PFU/ml with 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk after 24 h. B-PAC at 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced titers of the tested viruses to undetectable levels within 30 min. Overall, these results show the potential of B-PAC as preventive and therapeutic options for foodborne viral illnesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Yoghurt impacts on the excretion of phenolic acids derived from colonic breakdown of orange juice flavanones in humans.

    PubMed

    Roowi, Suri; Mullen, William; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Human urine was collected over a 24 h period after the consumption of 250 mL of (i) water, (ii) orange juice, and (iii) orange juice plus 150 mL of full fat natural yoghurt. The orange juice contained 168 micromol of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside and 18 micromol of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside. GC-MS analysis of the urine identified nine phenolic acids, five of which, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acid, dihydroferulic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acid and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, were associated with orange juice consumption indicating that they were derived from colonic catabolism of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. The overall 0-24 h excretion of the five phenolic acids was 6.7 +/- 1.8 micromol after drinking water and this increased significantly (p < 0.05) to 62 +/- 18 micromol, equivalent to 37% of the ingested flavanones, following orange juice consumption. When the orange juice was ingested with yoghurt excretion fell back markedly to 9.3 +/- 4.4 micromol. This was not due to a difference in mouth to caecum transit time, as measured with breath hydrogen production, though possibly there may have been a slowing of the bulk of the meal reaching the large intestine which may then have altered the catabolism of the flavanones to phenolic acids by the colonic microbiota.

  12. A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

  13. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Alén, Begoña O.; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S.; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer. PMID:26716511

  14. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-02

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  15. Cornelian cherry (cornus MAS L.) juices as a source of minerals in human diet.

    PubMed

    Krośniak, M; Gastoł, M; Szałkowski, M; Zagrodzki, P; Derwisz, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral content of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), as this fruit and its preservatives may be considered as important nutritional supplements. Potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) were present in Cornelian cherry juice as measured by atomic absorption. Compared to other juices obtained from plum, pear, and apple, Cornelian cherry juice contained high levels of Ca, reaching 10-fold higher (323 mg/L) levels than other juices (14-77 mg/L). With respect to the remaining elements, K, Na, Fe, Zn, and Mn, the levels noted for Cornus mas juice were also higher than in other juices studied. The reverse was true for Cu, for which levels were lower. Data indicate that Cornelian cherry juices are rich in various essential elements and might be considered as an important dietary mineral supplementation for individuals deficient in nutritional elements.

  16. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice...

  17. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice...

  18. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  19. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes (Vitis labrusca) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:29686894

  1. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M O; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2014-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products.

  2. A human gastric simulator (HGS) to study food digestion in human stomach.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro stomach model, the Human Gastric Simulator (HGS), for studying gastric digestion of foods. The HGS is designed in such a way as to simulate the continuous peristaltic movement of stomach walls, with similar amplitude and frequency of contraction forces as reported in vivo. The HGS mainly consists of a latex vessel, simulating the stomach chamber, and a series of rollers secured on belts that are driven by motor and pulleys to create a continuous contraction of the latex wall. It also incorporates gastric secretion, emptying systems, and temperature control that enable accurate simulation of dynamic digestion process for detailed investigation of the changes in the physical chemical properties of ingested foods. The simulated gastric contraction force demonstrates a similar pattern as in vivo stomach forces. The precise control of gastric secretion and emptying and the adjustable mechanical forces in the HGS provide a useful tool to study transformation of food constituents under simulated physiological conditions. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. The human gastric microbiota: Is it time to rethink the pathogenesis of stomach diseases?

    PubMed

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2015-06-01

    Although long thought to be a sterile organ, due to its acid production, the human stomach holds a core microbiome. To provide an update of findings related to gastric microbiota and its link with gastric diseases. We conducted a systematic review of the literature. The development of culture-independent methods facilitated the identification of many bacteria. Five major phyla have been detected in the stomach: Firmicutes, Bacteroidites, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. At the genera level, the healthy human stomach is dominated by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Rothia and Haemophilus; however, the composition of the gastric microbiota is dynamic and affected by such factors as diet, drugs and diseases. The interaction between the pre-existing gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection might influence an individual's risk of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. The maintenance of bacterial homeostasis could be essential for the stomach's health and highlights the chance for therapeutic interventions targeting the gastric microbiota, even if gastric pH, peristalsis and the mucus layer may prevent bacteria colonization; and the definition of gastric microbiota of the healthy stomach is still an ongoing challenging task.

  4. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2016-03-01

    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, Inge Lise F; Rasmussen, Salka E; Cornett, Claus; Barron, Denis; Bouisset, Florilene; Offord, Elizabeth; Williamson, Gary

    2010-06-01

    We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma-time curve of naringenin from (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P < 0.0001), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 5.4-fold higher (P < 0.0001) and Tmax was decreased from 311 to 92 min (P = 0.002) compared to untreated orange juice (1), indicating a change in absorption site from the colon to the small intestine. Furthermore, the amount in urine was increased from 7 to 47 % (P < 0.0001) of the dose after consumption of the alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice (2). All urine samples contained both naringenin-7- and -4'-O-glucuronides. In addition, to examine the effect of dose and alpha-rhamnosidase treatment on hesperetin conjugate profiles, a further treatment where (3) orange juice fortified with three times the original content of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside was used. Five hesperetin metabolites (3'-O-glucuronide; 7-O-glucuronide; 5,7-O-diglucuronide; 3',7-O-diglucuronide; 3'-O-sulphate) were present after all treatments (1-3), with the same profile of the conjugates. The present data show that bioavailability of naringenin is increased by conversion from rutinoside to glucoside, but the profile of the conjugates of flavanones formed and excreted in urine is neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold change in dose.

  6. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    PubMed

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for < or = 7 days and then were incubated in pH 2.5 SGF at 37 degrees C for 4 h. Cells survived better in apple juice than in TSB containing organic acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P < 0.05). Although the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in refrigerated acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  7. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  8. Integrated expression analysis identifies transcription networks in mouse and human gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Soutto, Mohammed; Rahman, Bushra; Fazili, Muhammad W; Peng, DunFa; Blanca Piazuelo, Maria; Chen, Heidi; Kay Washington, M; Shyr, Yu; El-Rifai, Wael

    2017-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Tff1 knockout (KO) mouse model develops gastric lesions that include low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and adenocarcinomas. In this study, we used Affymetrix microarrays gene expression platforms for analysis of molecular signatures in the mouse stomach [Tff1-KO (LGD) and Tff1 wild-type (normal)] and human gastric cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissue samples. Combined integrated bioinformatics analysis of mouse and human datasets indicated that 172 genes were consistently deregulated in both human gastric cancer samples and Tff1-KO LGD lesions (P < .05). Using Ingenuity pathway analysis, these genes mapped to important transcription networks that include MYC, STAT3, β-catenin, RELA, NFATC2, HIF1A, and ETS1 in both human and mouse. Further analysis demonstrated activation of FOXM1 and inhibition of TP53 transcription networks in human gastric cancers but not in Tff1-KO LGD lesions. Using real-time RT-PCR, we validated the deregulated expression of several genes (VCAM1, BGN, CLDN2, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, EpCAM, IFITM1, MMP9, MMP12, MMP14, PDGFRB, PLAU, and TIMP1) that map to altered transcription networks in both mouse and human gastric neoplasia. Our study demonstrates significant similarities in deregulated transcription networks in human gastric cancer and gastric tumorigenesis in the Tff1-KO mouse model. The data also suggest that activation of MYC, STAT3, RELA, and β-catenin transcription networks could be an early molecular step in gastric carcinogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of the food additive sulfite on nitrite-dependent nitric oxide production under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2012-02-01

    The food additive sulfite is mixed with saliva, which contains nitrite, in the oral cavity, and the mixture is mixed with gastric juice in the stomach. In the stomach, salivary nitrite can be transformed to nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the effects of sulfite on nitrite-dependent NO production were investigated using acidified saliva (pH 2.6) and acidic buffer solutions (pH 2.0). Sulfite enhanced NO production in acidified saliva and acidic buffer solutions, and the enhancement increased with the increase in sulfite concentration from 0 to 0.1 mM, whereas suppressed NO production and the suppression increased as the concentration was increased over 0.2 mM. The enhancement was due to the increase in reaction rate between nitrous acid and nitrososulfonate (ONSO(3)(-)) that was formed by the reaction of nitrous acid with hydrogen sulfite, and the suppression was due to the increase in hydrogen sulfite-dependent consumption rate of ONSO(3)(-). A salivary component SCN(-) (1 mM) enhanced and suppressed NO production induced by 1 mM nitrite when sulfite concentrations were lower and higher than 1 mM, respectively. ONSO(3)(-) formed from hydrogen sulfite and nitrosyl thiocyanate (ONSCN), which was produced by the reaction of nitrous acid with SCN(-), seemed to contribute to the enhancement and suppression. NO production induced by nitrite/ascorbic acid systems was suppressed by sulfite, and the suppressive effects were decreased by SCN(-), whereas sulfite-induced suppression of NO production in nitrite/rutin systems was increased by SCN(-). During reactions of nitrite with sulfite in the presence and absence of SCN(-), oxygen was taken up. The oxygen uptake is discussed to be due to autoxidation of NO and radical chain reactions initiated by hydrogen sulfite radicals. The results of the present study suggest that sulfite can enhance and suppress nitrite-dependent NO production. It is discussed that radicals including hydrogen sulfite radicals can be formed through the

  10. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; de la Peña, Gema; Sánchez-Martín, Carolina C; Teresa Guerra, M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2009-10-01

    The NADPH oxidase enzyme system is the main source of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation has been found to be abnormally enhanced in several chronic diseases. Evidence is accumulating that polyphenols may have the potential to improve cardiovascular health, although the mechanism is not fully established. Consumption of concentrated red grape juice, rich in polyphenols, has been recently shown to reduce NADPH oxidase activity in circulating neutrophils from human subjects. In the present work we studied whether red grape juice polyphenols affected NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcription level. For this, we used human neutrophils and mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, HL-60-derived neutrophils and the endothelial cell line EA.hy926.Superoxide production was measured with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate or lucigenin, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Each experiment was performed at least three times. In all cell types tested, red grape juice, dealcoholised red wine and pure polyphenols decreased superoxide anion production. Red grape juice and dealcoholised red wine selectively reduced p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox expression at both mRNA and protein levels, without affecting the expression of p67phox. Pure polyphenols, particularly quercetin, also reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, especially p47phox, in all cell types tested. The present results showing that red grape juice polyphenols reduce superoxide anion production provide an alternative mechanism by which consumption of grape derivatives may account for a reduction of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases related to NADPH oxidase superoxide overproduction.

  11. Plasma kinetics and urinary excretion of the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin in humans after ingestion of orange juice and grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Erlund, I; Meririnne, E; Alfthan, G; Aro, A

    2001-02-01

    The flavanones naringenin and hesperetin exhibit estrogenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. Orange juice and grapefruit juice contain high amounts of these compounds, and therefore their intake from the diet can be relatively high. No data are available regarding plasma concentrations or plasma kinetics of flavanones. The objectives of this study were to develop methods allowing the analysis of naringenin and hesperetin from plasma and urine and to study their plasma kinetics and urinary excretion. We also wanted to assess whether plasma or urine flavanone concentrations can be used as biomarkers of intake. Healthy volunteers ingested orange juice (five women and three men) or grapefruit juice (two women and three men) once (8 mL/kg). Eleven blood samples and urine were collected between 0 and 24 h after juice administration. Flavanones were analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Naringenin and hesperetin were bioavailable from the studied juices, but interindividual variation in bioavailability was remarkable. The resulting plasma concentrations were comparatively high, and the peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 0.6 +/- 0.4 micromol/L (means +/- SD) for naringenin from orange juice and 6.0 +/- 5.4 micromol/L for naringenin from grapefruit juice. The corresponding value for hesperetin from orange juice was 2.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/L. The elimination half-lives were between 1.3 and 2.2 h, and therefore plasma concentrations reflect short-term intake. The relative urinary excretion varied depending on the flavanone source and dose and was 30.2 +/- 25.5% and 1.1 +/- 0.8% for naringenin from grapefruit juice and orange juice, respectively, and 5.3 +/- 3.1% for hesperetin from orange juice. The considerable difference in the relative urinary excretion of naringenin from the two juices was most likely caused by dose-dependent renal clearance rather than differences in bioavailability (as indicated by the similar C(max)-to-dose ratios). The

  12. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Zuan; Yao, Huai-Qi; Zhu, Sen-Zhi; Li, Qiu-Yuan; Guo, Guang-Hua; Yu, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Human Stomach Microbiota in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoqin; Torres, Javier; Hu, Nan; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Humphrys, Michael S.; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Ravel, Jacques; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Goldstein, Alisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications. PMID:28730144

  14. Molecular Characterization of the Human Stomach Microbiota in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Torres, Javier; Hu, Nan; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Humphrys, Michael S; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Ravel, Jacques; Taylor, Philip R; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico. The 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region was sequenced using MiSeq platform for taxonomic profiles. PICRUSt was used to predict functional profiles. Human Microbiome Project was used for comparison. We showed that Hp is the most abundant member of gastric microbiota in both Chinese and Mexican samples (51 and 24%, respectively), followed by oral-associated bacteria. Taxonomic (phylum-level) profiles of stomach microbiota resembled oral microbiota, especially when the Helicobacter reads were removed. The functional profiles of stomach microbiota, however, were distinct from those found in other body sites and had higher inter-subject dissimilarity. Gastric microbiota composition did not differ by Hp colonization status or stomach anatomic sites, but did differ between paired non-malignant and tumor tissues in either Chinese or Mexican samples. Our study showed that Hp is the dominant member of the non-malignant gastric tissue microbiota in many gastric cancer patients. Our results provide insights on the gastric microbiota composition and function in gastric cancer patients, which may have important clinical implications.

  15. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  16. Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio for in vitro detection of human gastric pre-cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Q.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, X.

    2010-07-01

    Oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance (DR) ratio (R540/R575) method based on DR spectral signatures is used for early diagnosis of malignant lesions of human gastric epithelial tissues in vitro. The DR spectra for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues were measured using a spectrometer with an integrating sphere detector in the spectral range from 400 to 650 nm. The results of measurement showed that the average DR spectral intensity for the epithelial tissues of normal stomach is higher than that for the epithelial tissues of chronic and malignant stomach and that for the epithelial tissues of chronic gastric ulcer is higher than that for the epithelial tissues of malignant stomach. The average DR spectra for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues show dips at 542 and 577 nm owing to absorption from oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2). The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios of HbO2 bands are 6.84% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and chronic gastric ulcer, 14.7% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma and 22.6% between the epithelial tissues of normal stomach and undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. It is evident from results that there were significant differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios of HbO2 bands for four different kinds of gastric epithelial tissues in vitro ( P < 0.01).

  17. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  18. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lown, K S; Bailey, D G; Fontana, R J; Janardan, S K; Adair, C H; Fortlage, L A; Brown, M B; Guo, W; Watkins, P B

    1997-01-01

    The increase in oral availability of felodipine and other commonly used medications when taken with grapefruit juice has been assumed to be due to inhibition of CYP3A4, a cytochrome P450 that is present in liver and intestine. To evaluate the effect of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion on CYP3A4 expression, 10 healthy men were given 8 oz of grapefruit juice three times a day for 6 d. Before and after receiving grapefruit juice, small bowel and colon mucosal biopsies were obtained endoscopically, oral felodipine kinetics were determined, and liver CYP3A4 activity was measured with the [14C N-methyl] erythromycin breath test in each subject. Grapefruit juice did not alter liver CYP3A4 activity, colon levels of CYP3A5, or small bowel concentrations of P-glycoprotein, villin, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6. In contrast, the concentration of CYP3A4 in small bowel epithelia (enterocytes) fell 62% (P = 0.0006) with no corresponding change in CYP3A4 mRNA levels. In addition, enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 measured before grapefruit juice consumption correlated with the increase in Cmax when felodipine was taken with either the 1st or the 16th glass of grapefruit juice relative to water (r = 0. 67, P = 0.043, and r = 0.71, P = 0.022, respectively). We conclude that a mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on oral felodipine kinetics is its selective downregulation of CYP3A4 in the small intestine. PMID:9153299

  19. Potential prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic markers for human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chia-Siu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2014-10-14

    The high incidence of gastric cancer (GC) and its consequent mortality rate severely threaten human health. GC is frequently not diagnosed until a relatively advanced stage. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Thus, early screening and diagnosis are critical for improving prognoses in patients with GC. Gastroscopy with biopsy is an appropriate method capable of aiding the diagnosis of specific early GC tumor types; however, the stress caused by this method together with it being excessively expensive makes it difficult to use it as a routine method for screening for GC on a population basis. The currently used tumor marker assays for detecting GC are simple and rapid, but their use is limited by their low sensitivity and specificity. In recent years, several markers have been identified and tested for their clinical relevance in the management of GC. Here, we review the serum-based tumor markers for GC and their clinical significance, focusing on discoveries from microarray/proteomics research. We also review tissue-based GC tumor markers and their clinical application, focusing on discoveries from immunohistochemical research. This review provides a brief description of various tumor markers for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics, and we include markers already in clinical practice and various forthcoming biomarkers.

  20. Inhibition selectivity of grapefruit juice components on human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tassaneeyakul, W; Guo, L Q; Fukuda, K; Ohta, T; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-06-15

    Five compounds including furanocoumarin monomers (bergamottin, 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB)), furanocoumarin dimers (4-¿¿6-hydroxy-71-¿(1-hydroxy-1-methyl)ethyl-4-methyl-6-(7-oxo-7H- furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenyl]oxy]-3,7-dimethyl- 2-octenyl]oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g]¿1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-1) and 4-¿¿6-hydroxy-7¿¿4-methyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-6-(7-oxo-7H-furo¿3, 2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenylŏxy-3, 7-dimethyl-2-octenylŏxy-7H-furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-4)), and a sesquiterpene nootkatone have been isolated from grapefruit juice and screened for their inhibitory effects toward human cytochrome P450 (P450) forms using selective substrate probes. Addition of ethyl acetate extract of grapefruit juice into an incubation mixture resulted in decreased activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. All four furanocoumarins clearly inhibited CYP3A4-catalyzed nifedipine oxidation in concentration- and time-dependent manners, suggesting that these compounds are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. Of the furanocoumarins investigated, furanocoumarin dimers, GF-I-1 and GF-I-4, were the most potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal rate of inactivation (K(I)) values for bergamottin, DHB, GF-I-1, and GF-I-4 were calculated, respectively, as 40.00, 5. 56, 0.31, and 0.13 microM, whereas similar values were observed on their inactivation rate constant at infinite concentration of inhibitor (k(inact), 0.05-0.08 min(-1)). Apparent selectivity toward CYP3A4 does occur with the furanocoumarin dimers. In contrast, bergamottin showed rather stronger inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 than on CYP3A4. DHB inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activities at nearly equivalent potencies. Among P450 forms investigated, CYP2E1 was the least sensitive to the inhibitory effect of furanocoumarin components. A sesquiterpene nootkatone has no significant effect on P450 activities investigated except for CYP2A6 and CYP2C19

  1. Curcumin induces apoptotic cell death and protective autophagy in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Yang, Jin; Li, Haining; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zheng, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Curcumin possesses an anticancer effect against a wide assortment of tumors with selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in the curcumin‑induced anticancer effect remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of curcumin against human gastric cancer cell growth and the molecular mechanism involved. Our results demonstrated that curcumin inhibited the viabilities of gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28 in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin treatment induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis in a dose‑responsive manner. Western blotting of apoptosis‑related proteins further confirmed the pro-apoptotic potential of curcumin. After exposure to curcumin, a robust induction of autophagy was observed in gastric cancer cells, which was characterized by the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and an increase in the levels of autophagy‑related proteins. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was suppressed in gastric cancer cells with curcumin treatment. However, administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly promoted the apoptotic cell death induced by curcumin. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death and protective autophagy in human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Autophagy inhibitor treatment may provide a novel and effective strategy for improving the anticancer effect of curcumin against gastric cancer.

  2. Computer-assisted stereological analysis of gastric volume during the human embryonic period.

    PubMed Central

    Macarulla-Sanz, E; Nebot-Cegarra, J; Reina-de la Torre, F

    1996-01-01

    Morphometric data concerning human embryos and fetuses have become more clinically informative since ultrasound was employed to make prenatal measurements and software preprocessing techniques improved the previous fuzzy ultrasound signals (Mahoney, 1992). The aim of this study was to determine the volume of the human stomach during the embryonic period and to compare its rate of growth with that during the early fetal period. To calculate gastric volume, computer imaging techniques were applied on cross sections of a graded series of human embryos (from Carnegie stage 11) and fetuses. Gastric volume increased progressively, except for a decrease between stages 12 and 13 due principally to the reduction of the right gastric wall. The growth of the left wall of the stomach was predominant over that of the right. Until stage 20 the stomach volume increased due to the predominant growth of the walls, after this stage the gastric cavity volume increased rapidly, and the rate of growth of the gastric volume reached similar values to that of the early fetal period. We concluded that in the beginning the human stomach grows due to the predominant growth of its walls, chiefly of the left, and from stage 20 because of the predominant expansion of its cavity, which may be related to the capacity to swallow amniotic fluid at the end of the embryonic period. The diminution of the right gastric wall volume (stages 12-13) is consistent with an extension of the omental bursa into the mesodermal anlage of the stomach. PMID:8621339

  3. Consumption of watermelon juice increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and beta-carotene in humans.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alison J; Vinyard, Bryan T; Wiley, Eugene R; Brown, Ellen D; Collins, Julie K; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Baker, Robert A; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2003-04-01

    Watermelon is a rich natural source of lycopene, a carotenoid of great interest because of its antioxidant capacity and potential health benefits. Assessment of bioavailability of lycopene from foods has been limited to tomato products, in which heat processing promotes lycopene bioavailability. We examined the bioavailability of lycopene from fresh-frozen watermelon juice in a 19-wk crossover study. Healthy, nonsmoking adults (36-69 y) completed three 3-wk treatment periods, each with a controlled, weight-maintenance diet. Treatment periods were preceded by "washout" periods of 2-4 wk during which lycopene-rich foods were restricted. All 23 subjects consumed the W-20 (20.1 mg/d lycopene, 2.5 mg/d beta-carotene from watermelon juice) and C-0 treatments (controlled diet, no juice). As a third treatment, subjects consumed either the W-40 (40.2 mg/d lycopene, 5.0 mg/d beta-carotene from watermelon juice, n = 12) or T-20 treatment (18.4 mg/d lycopene, 0.6 mg/d beta-carotene from tomato juice, n = 10). After 3 wk of treatment, plasma lycopene concentrations for the W-20, W-40, T-20 and C-0 treatments were (least squares means +/- SEM) 1078 +/- 106, 1183 +/- 139, 960 +/- 117 and 272 +/- 27 nmol/L, respectively. Plasma concentrations of beta-carotene were significantly greater after W-20 (574 +/- 49 nmol/L) and W-40 (694 +/- 73 nmol/L) treatments than after the C-0 treatment (313 +/- 27 nmol/L). Plasma lycopene concentrations did not differ at wk 3 after W-20, W-40 and T-20 treatments, indicating that lycopene was bioavailable from both fresh-frozen watermelon juice and canned tomato juice, and that a dose-response effect was not apparent in plasma when the watermelon dose was doubled.

  4. Effect of amodiaquine on gastric histamine methyltransferase and on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Barth, H; Lorenz, W; Troidl, H

    1975-01-01

    1 Amodiaquine was found to be a potent inhibitor in vitro of gastric histamine methyltransferase from human and canine corpus and from pig antrum. The ID50 for the enzyme, purified from pig antrum mucosa by ultracentrifugation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, was 2.5 muM. 2 In six dogs with Heidenhanin pouches the maximum secretory response to histamine (40 mug/kg i.m.) was augmented by i.m. injection of amodiaquine. The augmentation depended on the dose of amodiaquine, the optimum effect (40% increase in volume of gastric juice, 80% in acid output) being achieved with 2 mg/kg. The maximum secretory response to betazole was also enhanced by amodiaquine. 3 It was suggested that amodiaquine may enhance the histamine and betazole stimulated gastric secretion by an inhibition of gastric histamine methyltransferase in vivo. PMID:1203620

  5. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  6. Functional association between proximal and distal gastric motility during fasting and duodenal nutrient stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N Q; Fraser, R J; Bryant, L K; Holloway, R H

    2007-08-01

    A functional integration exists between proximal and distal gastric motor activity in dogs but has not been demonstrated in humans. To determine the relationship between proximal and distal gastric motor activity in humans. Concurrent proximal (barostat) and distal (antro-pyloro-duodenal (APD) manometry) gastric motility were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers (28 +/- 3 years) during (i) fasting and (ii) two 60-min duodenal infusions of Ensure((R)) (1 and 2 kcal min(-1)) in random order. Proximal and APD motor activity and the association between fundic and propagated antral waves (PAWs) were determined. During fasting, 32% of fundic waves (FWs) were followed by a PAW. In a dose-dependent fashion, duodenal nutrients (i) increased proximal gastric volume, (ii) reduced fundic and antral wave (total and propagated) activity, and (iii) increased pyloric contractions. The proportion of FWs followed by a distal PAW was similar between both infusions and did not differ from fasting. During nutrient infusion, nearly all PAWs were antegrade, propagated over a shorter distance and less likely to traverse the pylorus, compared with fasting. In humans, a functional association exists between proximal and distal gastric motility during fasting and duodenal nutrient stimulation. This may have a role in optimizing intra-gastric meal distribution.

  7. Genetic mutation analysis of human gastric adenocarcinomas using ion torrent sequencing platform.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Huo, Xinying; Ye, Hua; Tang, Chuanning; Nandakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Lou, Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Dong, Haichao; Sun, Hong; Jiang, Shouwen; Zhang, Guangchun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Dong, Zhishou; Guo, Baishuai; He, Yan; Yan, Chaowei; Wang, Lu; Su, Ziyi; Li, Yangyang; Gu, Dongying; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wu, Xiaomin; Wei, Xiaowei; Hong, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yangmei; Yang, Jinsong; Gong, Yonglin; Tang, Cuiju; Jones, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi; Chen, Jinfei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the one of the major causes of cancer-related death, especially in Asia. Gastric adenocarcinoma, the most common type of gastric cancer, is heterogeneous and its incidence and cause varies widely with geographical regions, gender, ethnicity, and diet. Since unique mutations have been observed in individual human cancer samples, identification and characterization of the molecular alterations underlying individual gastric adenocarcinomas is a critical step for developing more effective, personalized therapies. Until recently, identifying genetic mutations on an individual basis by DNA sequencing remained a daunting task. Recent advances in new next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, such as the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent sequencing platform, makes DNA sequencing cheaper, faster, and more reliable. In this study, we aim to identify genetic mutations in the genes which are targeted by drugs in clinical use or are under development in individual human gastric adenocarcinoma samples using Ion Torrent sequencing. We sequenced 737 loci from 45 cancer-related genes in 238 human gastric adenocarcinoma samples using the Ion Torrent Ampliseq Cancer Panel. The sequencing analysis revealed a high occurrence of mutations along the TP53 locus (9.7%) in our sample set. Thus, this study indicates the utility of a cost and time efficient tool such as Ion Torrent sequencing to screen cancer mutations for the development of personalized cancer therapy.

  8. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in intact and ulcerated human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M; Brough, J; Powe, D; Carter, G; Jenkins, D; Hawkey, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes angiogenesis and healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and bFGF expression is up regulated in such ulcers. However, little is known about expression of bFGF in human gastric mucosa. 
Aims—To investigate bFGF expression in intact human gastric mucosa and gastric ulcers and to determine whether low bFGF content or altered binding by mucosa is associated with ulceration. 
Subjects—Endoscopy outpatients, gastrectomy patients, and organ donors. 
Methods—bFGF was isolated by heparin affinity chromatography and characterised by western blotting and endothelial cell bioassay. bFGF was measured by immunoassay and its distribution defined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Binding of bFGF by heparan sulphate proteoglycans was investigated by sodium chloride and heparin extraction. 
Results—Bioactive bFGF (19 kDa) was detected in normal mucosa but bFGF mRNA was not found. bFGF expression was up regulated in granulation tissue endothelial cells, mononuclear cells, and epithelial cells at the ulcer rim. Gastric ulcer patients had constitutively low bFGF concentrations in intact antral mucosa which were not explained by changes in binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. 
Conclusions—bFGF expression is up regulated in human gastric ulcers. Low intact mucosal bFGF content is associated with gastric ulceration. 

 Keywords: basic fibroblast growth factor; gastric mucosa; heparan sulphate proteoglycan; peptic ulceration PMID:9824581

  9. The effect of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on the infectivity of human enteric viral surrogates.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-06-01

    The effect of cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2(ssRNA) bacteriophage, and phiX-174(ssDNA) bacteriophage was studied. Viruses at high (approximately 7 log(10) PFU/ml) or low (approximately 5 log(10) PFU/ml) titers were mixed with equal volumes of CJ, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 mg/ml final PAC concentration, or water and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. At low viral titers, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to CJ or the three tested PAC solutions. MNV-1 was reduced by 2.06 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 2.63, 2.75, and 2.95 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. MS2 titers were reduced by 1.14 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 0.55, 0.80, and 0.96 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. phi-X174 titers were reduced by 1.79 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 1.95, 3.67, and 4.98 log(10) PFU/ml with PAC at 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml, respectively. Experiments using high titers showed similar trends but with decreased effects. CJ and PAC show promise as natural antivirals that could potentially be exploited for foodborne viral illness treatment and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  11. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  12. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  13. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  14. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  15. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  16. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  17. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  18. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  19. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  20. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  1. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  2. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  3. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  4. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  5. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  6. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  7. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  8. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  9. Living cells of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 detected on gastric mucosa in humans.

    PubMed

    Shibahara-Sone, H; Gomi, A; Iino, T; Kano, M; Nonaka, C; Watanabe, O; Miyazaki, K; Ohkusa, T

    2016-06-01

    The probiotic strain Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 has been demonstrated to inhibit Helicobacter pylori activity, prevent injury to the gastric mucosa, and improve general gastric malaise symptoms in H. pylori positive patients. This study aimed to investigate the adhering activity and localisation of B. bifidum YIT 10347 to gastric cells and tissue in vitro, and in human in vivo to clarify the mechanism of its beneficial effects on the stomach. The in vitro study found the adhesion rate of B. bifidum YIT 10347 to human gastric epithelial cells was about 10 times higher than that of lactic acid bacteria and other bifidobacteria. In the human study, 5 H. pylori negative and 12 H. pylori positive subjects ingested milk fermented with B. bifidum YIT 10347. B. bifidum YIT 10347 cells were measured by RT-qPCR for in gastric biopsy samples. Living B. bifidum YIT 10347 cells were detected in the biopsy samples in H. pylori negative subjects (105 cells/g and 104 cells/g at 1 h and 2 h after ingestion, respectively) and H. pylori positive subjects (104 cells/g at 1 h after the ingestion). Moreover, immunostaining analysis of tissue sections found that B. bifidum YIT 10347 cells were located at the interstitial mucin layer of the stomach. These results suggest that cells of probiotic B. bifidum YIT 10347 adhered to the human gastric mucosa in a live state, and that the higher adhering activity of B. bifidum YIT 10347 to the gastric mucosa may be involved in its beneficial effects on the human stomach.

  10. Activities of adenosine deaminase and 5'-nucleotidase in cancereous and non-cancereous human gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Gocmen, Erdal; Tez, Mesut; Ozturk, Serdar; Koc, Mahmut; Demirci, Salim

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still one of the most common fatal types of cancer in the world. The abnormalities in purine metabolism are a characteristic feature of many human tumors. Little is known about the correlation between the activities of key enzymes of purine nucleotide pathway and some clinical indicators of gastric cancer invasiveness and aggressiveness. Seventeen (11 men, 6 women) patients with gastric cancer were admitted to the hospital. The activities of Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'NT) in their cancerous and non-cancerous tissues were measured. 5'NT activities were significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in non-cancerous tissues. 5'NT activities increased in gastric cancer tissues but had no association with clinicopathologic findings (Tab. 2, Ref. 9). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  11. High-pressurized orange juice consumption affects plasma vitamin C, antioxidative status and inflammatory markers in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoña; Plaza, Lucía; Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Martín, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    We examined the bioavailability of vitamin C in orange juice processed using high pressure (HP) and its effects on plasma levels of vitamin C, uric acid (UA), F2-isoprostanes (8-epiPGF(2alpha)), C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in a healthy human population. Subjects (6 men, 6 women) enrolled in the study consumed 500 mL/d of HP orange juice for 14 d, corresponding to an intake of 250 mg of vitamin C. On d 1 of the study, subjects drank the juice in one dose; on d 2 until the end of the study, d 14, they drank 250 mL in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected every h for 6 h, on d 1, and then on d 7 and 14 of the study. Baseline plasma vitamin C concentration was higher (P = 0.014) in women (55.8 +/- 3.8 micro mol/L) than in men (42.8 +/- 2.1 micro mol/L). The maximum plasma vitamin C increase occurred 3 h after drinking the juice, and it remained elevated on d 7 and 14. Plasma 8-epiPGF(2alpha) concentration did not differ between men and women at baseline. However, it was lower at the end of the study in both men (P = 0.044) and women (P = 0.034). Plasma levels of vitamin C and 8-epiPGF(2alpha) were inversely correlated (r = -0.615, P = 0.001). Plasma CRP concentrations tended to be lower on d 14 than at baseline in men (P = 0.317) and women (P = 0.235). Plasma PGE(2) was lower at the end of the study in both men and women (P juice increases plasma vitamin C, and decreases 8-epiPGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) levels in humans, which may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  12. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  13. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic

  14. Tissue metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer assessed by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Hailong; Deng, Pengchi; Liu, Chunqi; Li, Dandan; Jie, Hui; Zhang, Hu; Zhou, Zongguang; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2016-06-29

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most deadly cancer worldwide. Study on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis will play a significant role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. In this study, we reported the metabolic profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human gastric cancer subjects (n = 125) and normal controls (n = 54) based on (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) together with multivariate statistical analyses (PCA, PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and ROC curve). The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer tissues and normal controls, and meanwhile, the model excellently discriminated the stage-related of tissue samples (stage I, 30; stage II, 46; stage III, 37; stage IV, 12) and normal controls. A total of 48 endogenous distinguishing metabolites (VIP > 1 and p < 0.05) were identified, 13 of which were changed with the progression of gastric cancer. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of glycolysis, glutaminolysis, TCA, amino acids and choline metabolism, which were correlated with the occurrence and development of human gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristic diagnostic AUC of OPLS-DA model between cancer tissues and normal controls was 0.945. And the ROC curves among different stages cancer subjects and normal controls were gradually improved, the corresponding AUC values were 0.952, 0.994, 0.998 and 0.999, demonstrating the robust diagnostic power of this metabolic profiling approach. As far as we know, the present study firstly identified the differential metabolites in various stages of gastric cancer tissues. And the AUC values were relatively high. So these results suggest that the metabolic profiling of gastric cancer tissues has great potential in detecting this

  15. Significance of expression of heat shock protein90α in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Dong-Sheng; Dai, Jie; Bo, Ai-Hua; Fan, Jie; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the significance of hsp90α expression in human gastric cancer tissues. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used in clinical specimens from 33 cases of gastric cancer and 33 cases of gastritis with rabbit anti-human hsp90α multi-clonal antibody in order to explore the relationship between the expression of hsp90α in gastric carcinoma tissue and gastritis tissue as well as in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer and lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Hsp90α was detected in 88% of gastric carcinoma cases and 55% of gastritis cases. The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group (P < 0.01, P = 0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer and in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer was 88% and 55% respectively (P < 0.01, P = 0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in lymph node metastasis group and non-lymph node metastasis group was 100% and 60% respectively, and a significant correlation between hsp90α expression and lymph node metastasis was shown (P < 0.01, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The hsp90α expression rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group as well as that in the group of mucous membrane adjacent to cancer. The hsp90α expression in lymphatic node metastasis group was higher than that in non-lymphatic node metastasis group. The results indicate that increased hsp90α expression has a close relationship with occurrence and lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer. PMID:14606110

  16. Gastric Penetration of Amoxicillin in a Human Helicobacter pylori-Infected Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Lozniewski, Alain; Duprez, Adrien; Renault, Corinne; Muhale, Filipe; Conroy, Marie-Christine; Weber, Michele; Le Faou, Alain; Jehl, Francois

    1999-01-01

    The delivery of antibiotics into Helicobacter pylori-infected human stomachs is still poorly understood. Human embryonic gastric xenografts in nude mice have recently been proposed as a new model for the study of H. pylori infection. Using this model, we compared the penetration of amoxicillin, after intraperitoneal administration of a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight, into the gastric mucosae of infected and uninfected xenografts. The concentrations of this drug in serum and superficial gastric mucosae were determined at 20 min and 1 and 3 h after injection. Ten mice with H. pylori-infected grafts (n = 5) or uninfected grafts (n = 5) were studied. Mucosal samples were obtained by cryomicrotomy. The concentrations in serum were similar to those obtained in the serum of humans after oral administration of 1 g of amoxicillin. The mean area under the tissue concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 3 h obtained for mice with infected grafts was significantly higher than that obtained for the animals with uninfected grafts (P = 0.01). These results suggest that the penetration of amoxicillin into the superficial gastric mucosa may be substantially increased in the case of H. pylori infection. Thus, human xenografts in nude mice represent a new, well-standardized model for investigation of systemic delivery of drugs into H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. PMID:10428911

  17. Characterization of human normal and cancerous gastric submucosa based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiazhao; Chen, G.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-11-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. The initial diagnosis of gastric cancer often is delayed because up to 80 percent of patients are asymptomatic during the early stages of stomach cancer. So the ability to perform real-time in vivo histological diagnosis for early gastric cancer at the cellular level during ongoing endoscopy is a long-standing goal of endoscopists. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), MPM images of human normal and cancerous gastric submucosa were obtained at excitation wavelength of 800 nm. The features such as the appearance of abnormal cells and the large loss of collagen in cancerous gastric submucosa were extracted to be as significant indicators to distinguish cancerous submucosa from normal submucosa. With the implementation of multiphoton microscopy concept in endoscopy applications, multiphoton endoscopy might realize in vivo histological diagnosis goal of endoscopists.

  18. Characterization of human normal and cancerous gastric submucosa based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiazhao; Chen, G.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. The initial diagnosis of gastric cancer often is delayed because up to 80 percent of patients are asymptomatic during the early stages of stomach cancer. So the ability to perform real-time in vivo histological diagnosis for early gastric cancer at the cellular level during ongoing endoscopy is a long-standing goal of endoscopists. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), MPM images of human normal and cancerous gastric submucosa were obtained at excitation wavelength of 800 nm. The features such as the appearance of abnormal cells and the large loss of collagen in cancerous gastric submucosa were extracted to be as significant indicators to distinguish cancerous submucosa from normal submucosa. With the implementation of multiphoton microscopy concept in endoscopy applications, multiphoton endoscopy might realize in vivo histological diagnosis goal of endoscopists.

  19. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine.

  20. Effects of the gastric juice injection pattern and contraction frequency on the digestibility of casein powder suspensions in an in vitro dynamic rat stomach made with a 3D printed model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoai; Liao, Zhenkai; Wu, Peng; Chen, Liding; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2018-04-01

    Previously, we have prepared a version of the dynamic in vitro rat stomach system (DIVRS-II or Biomimic Rat II). It was constructed and tested by showing similar digestive behaviors with those occurred in vivo. In the present work, a 3D-printed plastic mold was employed to create highly repeatable silicone rat stomach model. It has been seen to have shortened the time to handcraft a model like that used in DIVRS-II. The maximum mechanical force of the current stomach model generated by rolling extrusion is found to be more stable probably due to the more uniform wall thickness of the new model. Then the effects of the simulated gastric secretion patterns and contraction frequency of the system on the in vitro digestibility of casein powder suspensions were investigated. The results have shown that the location of the gastric secretion injection has an impact on experimental digestibility. The position of rolling-extrusion area, established at the central part of glandular portion (stomach B), displayed the highest digestibility compared to that at the other locations. Furthermore, the extent of digestion was positively correlated with the contraction frequency of the model stomach system, with the maximum frequency of 12cpm giving the highest digestibility. This highest digestibility is almost the same as the average value found in vivo. The better digestive performance produced by optimizing the gastric secretion pattern and contraction frequency may be both resulted from the improved mixing efficiency of the food matrix with digestive juice. This study shows that it is possible to achieve what in vivo in a simulated digestion device, which may be used for future food and nutrition studies in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for the assessment of gastric emptying in humans: an overview.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1996-09-01

    A number of different methods are used for the measurement of gastric emptying in humans, and all have some advantages and disadvantages. The method of choice will depend on whether solid or liquid meals are to be studied, the level of precision required, the degree of invasiveness that the subject or patient will tolerate, ethical considerations, and the facilities available. It is easier to measure the emptying of liquid meals, but the emptying of solid meals is the true reflection of what happens during normal life, and is therefore of more clinical importance. Scintigraphy, with appropriate labelling of the test meal components and appropriate corrections applied to the images obtained, is the method of choice for clinical investigation of disturbed emptying patterns and can be applied to solid or liquid meals, but its application is limited by the need to restrict exposure to ionizing radiation. The double sampling gastric aspiration technique allows serial measurements of the composition of the gastric contents and of the volume and composition of gastric secretions but can be used only with liquid meals. Other imaging techniques (ultrasound, MRI) and epigastric impedance measurements produce results that correlate well with those obtained by scintigraphy or aspiration. MRI has the unique feature of allowing the physician to follow gastric emptying while at the same time being able to observe any morphological abnormalities which may contribute to abnormal gastric function. Tracer methods, such as following the appearance in blood of paracetamol, may be useful for screening purposes in large populations. Regardless of the method used, the investigator must be aware of the large interindividual variability which exists in the rate of gastric emptying in normal healthy individuals and of the factors known to influence the gastric pattern.

  2. SOX9 is expressed in normal stomach, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Sashikawa Kimura, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-11-01

    SOX9 is a marker for stem cells in the intestine and overexpression of SOX9 is found in some types of cancer. However, the expression of SOX9 in normal stomach, precancerous intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate SOX9 expression in the corpus and pyloric regions of the normal human stomach, premalignant intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma by using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated SOX9 expression in 46 clinical samples (early gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma including surrounding intestinal metaplasia) resected under esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A small amount of SOX9 was expressed in the neck/isthmus of the corpus region and SOX9 expression was predominantly restricted to the neck/isthmus of the pyloric region in normal human stomach. In the intestinal metaplastic mucosa, SOX9- and PCNA-positive cells were located at the base of the intestinal metaplastic mucosa. Almost all of the gastric carcinoma cells expressed SOX9. SOX9 is expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma in humans.

  3. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ in Humans.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2016-11-18

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and aflatoxin G₁ (AFG₁) were detected. The prevalence of AFB₁ was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG₁ was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB₁ between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer.

  4. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Mohamed F.; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected. The prevalence of AFB1 was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG1 was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB1 between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer. PMID:27869706

  5. DNA Methylation Predicts Progression of Human Gastric Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Barbara G.; Mera, Robertino; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Juan C.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Wilson, Keith T.; El-Rifai, Wael; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    Background Development of the intestinal subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma is marked by a progression of histopathological lesions. Residents of the Andean regions of Colombia are at high risk for gastric cancer. Methods A cohort of 976 Colombian subjects was followed over 16 years examining effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication and treatment with anti-oxidants on progression of lesions. We performed methylation analysis of DNA from baseline antral biopsies from 104 subjects for whom follow-up data were available for at least 12 years. Methylation was quantitated for AMPH, CDKN2A, CDH1, EN1, EMX1, NKX6-1, PCDH10, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3, ZIC1, and ZNF610 genes, using Pyrosequencing. Results Levels of DNA methylation were associated with baseline diagnosis for AMPH, EMX1, RPRM, RSPO2, SORCS3 and ZNF610. After adjusting for baseline diagnosis and H. pylori infection, methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2 and ZNF610 had progression coefficients that increased and p values that decreased over 6, 12 and 16 years. Methylation for SORCS3 was associated with progression at all 3 time points, but without the continual strengthening of the effect. Scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes were unrelated to progression. Conclusions Methylation levels of AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3 and ZNF610 predict progression of gastric lesions independent of the effect of duration of H. pylori infection, baseline diagnosis, gender of the patient, or scores for mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes. Impact DNA methylation levels in AMPH, PCDH10, RSPO2, SORCS3 and ZNF610 may contribute to identification of persons with gastric lesions likely to progress. PMID:26269563

  6. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA.

  7. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  8. RNAi-mediated RPL34 knockdown suppresses the growth of human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HUI; LIANG, SHAOHUA; YANG, XI; JI, ZHAONING; ZHAO, WENYING; YE, XIAOBING; RUI, JING

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that ribosomal proteins may have ribosome-independent functions and may be involved in various physiological and pathological processes. To examine the role of ribosomal protein L34 (RPL34) in cancer transformation, we assessed its expression in gastric cancer cell lines and found it highly expressed. We further used lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown RPL34 expression in the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated inhibition of RPL34 expression in SGC-7901 cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and arrested cells in the S phase. The results of the present study suggest that RPL34 plays a critical role in cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of human malignant gastric cells. PMID:26323242

  9. Polyphenols are intensively metabolized in the human gastrointestinal tract after apple juice consumption.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Huemmer, Wolfgang; Kempf, Michael; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

    2007-12-26

    Polyphenols are secondary plant compounds showing anticarcinogenic effects both in vitro and in animal experiments and may thus reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in man. The identification of polyphenol metabolites formed via their passage through the small intestine of healthy ileostomy subjects after apple juice consumption is presented. Identification and quantification of polyphenols and their metabolites were performed using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Total procyanidin content (TPA) was measured, and additionally the mean degree of polymerization (DPm) of the procyanidins was determined in the apple juice and ileostomy effluents. As products of polyphenol metabolism, D-(-)-quinic acid and methyl esters of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are liberated from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acid esters. 1-Caffeoylquinic acid and 3-caffeoylquinic acid were determined as products of isomerization. Phloretin 2'-O-glucoside (phloridzin) and phloretin 2'-O-xyloglucoside were metabolized into the corresponding aglycons phloretin and phloretin 2'-O-glucuronide and all were found in the ileostomy effluent. Ninety percent of the consumed procyanidins were recovered in the ileostomy effluent and therefore would reach the colon under physiologic circumstances. The DP m was reduced (DP m of apple juice=5.7) and varied depending on the time point of excretion. The gastrointestinal passage seems to play an important role in the colonic availability of apple polyphenols.

  10. In vitro culture and phenotypic and molecular characterization of gastric stem cells from human stomach.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Magali; Chomel, Jean-Claude; Mustapha, Pascale; Tran, Cong Tri; Garnier, Martine; Paris, Isabelle; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; Cremniter, Julie; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Turhan, Ali G; Burucoa, Christophe; Bodet, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Human gastric mucosa shows continuous self-renewal via differentiation from stem cells that remain poorly characterized. We describe an original protocol for culture of gastric stem/progenitor cells from adult human stomach. The molecular characteristics of cells were studied using TaqMan low-density array and qRT-PCR analyses using the well-characterized H1 and H9 embryonic stem cells as reference. Epithelial progenitor cells were challenged with H. pylori to characterize their inflammatory response. Resident gastric stem cells expressed specific molecular markers of embryonic stem cells (SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4), as well as others specific to adult stem cells, particularly LGR5 and CD44. We show that gastric stem cells spontaneously differentiate into epithelial progenitor cells that can be challenged with H. pylori. The epithelial progenitor response to H. pylori showed a cag pathogenicity island-dependent induction of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, chemokine (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL8, CCL20) and interleukine 33 expression. This study opens new outlooks for investigation of gastric stem cell biology and pathobiology as well as host-H. pylori interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Zhang, Xinghao; Wells, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse embryos led to conversion of fundic to antral epithelium, while β-catenin activation in hPSC-derived foregut progenitors promoted the development of human fundic-type gastric organoids (hFGOs). We then used hFGOs to identify temporally distinct roles for multiple signaling pathways in epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation of fundic cell types, including chief cells and functional parietal cells. While hFGOs are a powerful new model for studying the development of the human fundus and its lineages, they also represent a critical new model system to study the molecular basis of human gastric physiology, pathophysiology, and drug discovery. PMID:28052057

  13. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Zheng, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiukai; Huang, Jianzhen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit. PMID:23615464

  14. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  15. Behavior of copper oxide nanoparticles in gastrointestinal juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Yonghui; Li, Yue; Ji, Yongbo; Xu, Lina; Tan, Huiwen; Xu, Dongfang; Wei, Yongpeng

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the behavior of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in simulated gastrointestinal juices. It was found that CuO NPs agglomerated significantly in the gastric and small intestine phases, with a higher agglomeration in the small intestine than that in the gastric phase, which was consistent with the results on zeta potentials. Dissolution experiment showed that CuO NPs released more Cu2+ in the gastric phase (pH = 2.5) than that in the small intestine phase (pH = 7). This was due to much lower pH in gastric juice, leading to higher dissolution of CuO NPs.

  16. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, YAN-SHEN; HSU, HUI-PING; LAI, MING-DERG; YEN, MENG-CHI; LUO, YI-PEY; CHEN, YI-LING

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25333458

  17. High K+-Induced Relaxation by Nitric Oxide in Human Gastric Fundus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Choi, Woong; Sung, Rohyun; Kim, Hun Sik; Kim, Heon; Yoo, Ra Young; Park, Seon-Mee; Yun, Sei Jin; Song, Young-Jin; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate high K+-induced relaxation in the human gastric fundus. Circular smooth muscle from the human gastric fundus greater curvature showed stretch-dependent high K+ (50 mM)-induced contractions. However, longitudinal smooth muscle produced stretch-dependent high K+-induced relaxation. We investigated several relaxation mechanisms to understand the reason for the discrepancy. Protein kinase inhibitors such as KT 5823 (1 µM) and KT 5720 (1 µM) which block protein kinases (PKG and PKA) had no effect on high K+-induced relaxation. K+ channel blockers except 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a voltage-dependent K+ channel (KV) blocker, did not affect high K+-induced relaxation. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo (4,3-A)quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and 4-AP inhibited relaxation and reversed relaxation to contraction. High K+-induced relaxation of the human gastric fundus was observed only in the longitudinal muscles from the greater curvature. These data suggest that the longitudinal muscle of the human gastric fundus greater curvature produced high K+-induced relaxation that was activated by the nitric oxide/sGC pathway through a KV channel-dependent mechanism. PMID:23118553

  18. Involvement of aberrant miR-139/Jun feedback loop in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Wen-Long; Shi, Ming-Lei; Zhang, Le-Zhi; Zhang, Zhang; Li, Ping; Xing, Ling-Yue; Luo, Feng-Yan; Sun, Qiang; Zheng, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Zhi-Hu

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that some miRNAs could form feedback loops with their targets to fine-tune tissue homeostasis, while disruption of these loops constitutes an essential step towards human tumorigenesis. In this study, we report the identification of a novel negative feedback loop formed between miR-139 and its oncogenic target Jun. In this loop, miR-139 could inhibit Jun expression by targeting a conserved site on its 3'-UTR, whereas Jun could induce miR-139 expression in a dose dependent manner through a distant upstream regulatory element. Interestingly, aberration in this loop was found in human gastric cancer, where miR-139 was down-regulated and inversely correlated with Jun expression. Further functional analysis showed that restored expression of miR-139 in gastric cancer cells significantly induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell migration and proliferation as well as tumour growth through targeting Jun. Thus, our data strongly suggests a role of aberrant miR-139/Jun negative feedback loop in the development of human gastric cancer and miR-139 as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Given that miR-139 and Jun are deregulated in many cancers, our findings here might have broader implication in other types of human cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ursolic acid inhibits the invasive phenotype of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Aree

    2015-02-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in patients with gastric cancer. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound derived from medicinal herbs, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in various cancer cell systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells has yet to be reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid on the invasiveness of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells. Ursolic acid efficiently induced apoptosis, possibly via the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was increased by the administration of ursolic acid. In addition, ursolic acid significantly suppressed the invasive phenotype of the SNU-484 cells and significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, indicating that MMP-2 may be responsible for the anti-invasive activity of ursolic acid. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ursolic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells; therefore, ursolic acid may have a potential application as a chemopreventive agent to prevent the metastasis of gastric cancer or to alleviate the process of metastasis.

  20. Ursolic acid inhibits the invasive phenotype of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, EUN-SOOK; MOON, AREE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in patients with gastric cancer. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound derived from medicinal herbs, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in various cancer cell systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells has yet to be reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid on the invasiveness of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells. Ursolic acid efficiently induced apoptosis, possibly via the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was increased by the administration of ursolic acid. In addition, ursolic acid significantly suppressed the invasive phenotype of the SNU-484 cells and significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, indicating that MMP-2 may be responsible for the anti-invasive activity of ursolic acid. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ursolic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells; therefore, ursolic acid may have a potential application as a chemopreventive agent to prevent the metastasis of gastric cancer or to alleviate the process of metastasis. PMID:25621065

  1. Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of Sulindac on Human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun-Lin; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Nian; He, Heng-Yi; Qiao, Min-Min; Zhong, Jie; Xu, Jia-Yu

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of sulindac in inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells in comparison with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and MKN28 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC7721 were used for the study. Anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by Hoechst-33258 staining, electronography and DNA fragmentation. The protein of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Bcl-2 were detected by Western dot blotting. RESULTS: Sulindac could initiate growth inhibition and apoptosis of MKN45, MKN28, HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis were more sensitive in HepG2 cells than in SMMC7721 cells, MKN45 and MKN28 cells. After 24 h incubation with sulindac at 2 mmol•L¯¹ and 4 mmol•L¯¹, the level of COX-2 and Bcl-2 protein were lowered in MKN45, SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells but not in MKN28 cells. CONCLUSION: Sulindac could inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells and HCC cells effectively in vitro by apoptosis induction, which was associated with regression of COX- 2 and Bcl-2 expression. The growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC cells were greater than that of human gastric cancer cells. The different effects of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells may be related to the differentiation of the cells. PMID:11854904

  2. Distinctive interrelation of p53 with SCO2, COX, and TIGAR in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sung Il; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Lim, Sung-Jig

    2016-10-01

    p53, widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene, has recently been reported to regulate glucose metabolism in human cancers through the synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX), and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). In this study, we investigated the interrelations of the aforementioned proteins, particularly in human gastric cancer, with cancer progression, other clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcomes. One hundred and ten cases of primary gastric cancer occurring from June 2006 to June 2009 were investigated and classified into two groups according to the intensity of immunohistochemical staining for p53, SCO2, COX, and TIGAR. The clinicopathological data were organized and analyzed based on electronic medical records. In accordance with previous reports, the expression of p53 showed an inverse correlation with the expression of TIGAR (p=0.032) in gastric cancer cells. However, the expression of SCO2 and COX were not shown to be associated with the regulatory role of p53, unlike TIGAR expression. Nevertheless, a significantly high recurrence rate was found in a patient group with high COX expression (p=0.012). This study demonstrated that a high p53 expression could be associated with the promotion of glycolysis in gastric cancer via the modulation of TIGAR expression. In addition, a high COX expression appeared to be interrelated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, further studies regarding the underlying molecular interactions are required to provide more evidence to propose a novel mechanism that explains our findings in gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential growth factor induction and modulation of human gastric epithelial regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Chailler, Pierre; Rivard, Nathalie

    2005-05-15

    While several autocrine/paracrine growth factors (GFs) can all stimulate epithelial regeneration in experimentally wounded primary gastric cultures, clinical relevance for their non-redundant cooperative actions in human gastric ulcer healing is suggested by the sequential pattern of GF gene induction in vivo. Using new HGE cell lines able to form a coherent monolayer with tight junctions as well as using primary human gastric epithelial cultures, we show that EGF, TGF{alpha}, HGF and IGFs accelerate epithelial restitution upon wounding, independently of the TGF{beta} pathway (as opposed to intestinal cells). However, they differently modulate cell behavior: TGF{alpha} exerts strong effects (even more thanmore » EGF) on cytoplasmic spreading and non-oriented protruding activity of bordering cells whereas HGF preferentially coordinates single lamella formation, cell elongation and migration into the wound. IGF-I and IGF-II rather induce the alignment of bordering cells and maintain a compact monolayer front. The number of mitotic cells maximally increases with EGF, followed by TGF{alpha} and IGF-I,-II. The current study demonstrates that GFs differentially regulate the regeneration of human gastric epithelial cells through specific modulation of cell shape adaptation, migration and proliferation, further stressing that a coordination of GF activities would be necessary for the normal progression of post-wounding epithelial repair.« less

  4. [Effects of sinensetin on proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer AGS cells].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Ji, Guang; Cao, Aili; Shi, Jianrong; Shi, Hailian; Xie, Jianqun; Wu, Dazheng

    2011-03-01

    To study the effects and mechanisms of sinensetin on proliferation and apoptosis of human AGS gastric cancer cells. MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition rates of human AGS gastric cancer cells treated with sinsesectin in different concentrations and times. The cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was examined by Annexin-FITC/PI staining and DNA fragment analysis. The apoptosis morphology was observed by inverted fluorescence microscope after Hoechst 33342 staining. The protein expressions of p21 and p53 were detected by western blot. MTT assay showed that sinensetin inhibited the growth of AGS gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sinensetin blocked AGS cells in G2/ M and increased the apoptosis rates of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. DNA ladder was observed in cells treated with 60 micromol x L(-1) sinensetin for 48 h. The typical apoptotic morphological changes including cell nucleus shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were observed when treated with different dose of sinensetin. Western blot showed that sinensetin increased expressions of p53 and p21 in a dose-dependent manner. Sinensetin could inhibit human AGS gastric cancer cells proliferation and induce cell cycle block in G2/M phase and apoptosis. The up regulation of p53 and p21 protein might be one of the mechanisms.

  5. Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Iitaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Shingo; Nako, Yoshito; Liu, Mingyao; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-12-21

    To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics. The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  6. Milk Fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii Induces Apoptosis of HGT-1 Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Fabien J.; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Corcos, Laurent; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The “economically developed countries” life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. Methodology/Principal Findings A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy. Conclusions/Significance Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments. PMID:22442660

  7. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Fabien J; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Corcos, Laurent; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The "economically developed countries" life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy. Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments.

  8. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in Canine Gastric Epithelial Tumors: A Potential Human Model?

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Giuliano; Amadori, Dino; Talamonti, Chiara; Vignoli, Massimo; Capelli, Laura; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Ricci, Marianna; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2) are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas) were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7%) carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3%) as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥1+) in 8 (42.1%) cases and HER-2 (3+) in 11 (57.9%) cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80%) than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023). KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R). EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer. PMID:24454858

  9. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in canine gastric epithelial tumors: a potential human model?

    PubMed

    Terragni, Rossella; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano; Amadori, Dino; Talamonti, Chiara; Vignoli, Massimo; Capelli, Laura; Saunders, Jimmy H; Ricci, Marianna; Ricci, Marianna; Ulivi, Paola; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2) are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas) were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7%) carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3%) as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥ 1+) in 8 (42.1%) cases and HER-2 (3+) in 11 (57.9%) cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80%) than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023). KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R). EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer.

  10. [Correlation of Helicobacter pylori infection with the expression of COX-2 and EGFR and VEGF in human gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Ming; Ding, Yan-Bing; Shi, Rui-Hua; Gong, Wei-Juan; Xue, Yan

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the correlation of Helicobactor pylori (Hp) infection with the expression of COX-2, EGFR and VEGF in human gastric carcinoma. The expression of COX-2, EGFR and VEGF was detected by immunohistochemistry in samples of 61 gastric cancers and 20 cancer-adjacent tissues. Western blotting was performed in samples of 10 gastric cancers and corresponding cancer-adjacent tissues. Hp infection was detected in 47 patients by fast urea enzyme test and (13)C breath test. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the positive expressions of COX-2, EGFR and VEGF in gastric carcinoma were 59.02%, 36.07% and 60.66%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the normal mucosa (25.00%, 0 and 30.00%, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the expression of COX-2, EGFR and VEGF and gastric carcinoma. The expression of COX-2 and EGFR was 75.76% and 45.45% in the gastric carcinomas with Hp infection, significantly higher than that in those without (28.57% and 14.29%). The protein expression of COX-2, EGFR and VEGF detected by Western blot in gastric carcinomas was also significantly higher than that in normal mucosa. COX-2, EGFR and VEGF are overexpressed in gastric carcinoma, and there is a positive correlation among them. Hp infection may upregulate the expression of COX-2 and EGFR in gastric cancer tissues.

  11. Notch1 and Notch2 receptors regulate mouse and human gastric antral epithelial cell homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Gail B; Demitrack, Elise S; Keeley, Theresa M; Tam, Andrew; La Cunza, Nilsa; Dedhia, Priya H; Spence, Jason R; Simeone, Diane M; Saotome, Ichiko; Louvi, Angeliki; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tested the ability of Notch pathway receptors Notch1 and Notch2 to regulate stem and epithelial cell homoeostasis in mouse and human gastric antral tissue. Design Mice were treated with the pan-Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) or inhibitory antibodies targeting Notch1 and/or Notch2. Epithelial proliferation, apoptosis and cellular differentiation were measured by histological and molecular approaches. Organoids were established from mouse and human antral glands; growth and differentiation were measured after treatment with Notch inhibitors. Results Notch1 and Notch2 are the predominant Notch receptors expressed in mouse and human antral tissue and organoid cultures. Combined inhibition of Notch1 and Notch2 in adult mice led to decreased epithelial cell proliferation, including reduced proliferation of LGR5 stem cells, and increased apoptosis, similar to the response to global Notch inhibition with DBZ. Less pronounced effects were observed after inhibition of individual receptors. Notch pathway inhibition with DBZ or combined inhibition of Notch1 and Notch2 led to increased differentiation of all gastric antral lineages, with remodelling of cells to express secretory products normally associated with other regions of the GI tract, including intestine. Analysis of mouse and human organoids showed that Notch signalling through Notch1 and Notch2 is intrinsic to the epithelium and required for organoid growth. Conclusions Notch signalling is required to maintain gastric antral stem cells. Notch1 and Notch2 are the primary Notch receptors regulating epithelial cell homoeostasis in mouse and human stomach. PMID:26933171

  12. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric acid output by 57% to 95% of maximal acid output (MAO) and release of gastrin up to 5.1-fold compared with control. If beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation.

  13. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres.more » One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food.« less

  14. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Pasteurization enhanced the proteolysis of lactoferrin (P < 0.01) and reduced that of α-lactalbumin (only at 90 min) (P < 0.05). Strong emulsion destabilization was observed, with smaller aggregates and a higher specific surface for PHM (P < 0.05). Pasteurization did not affect gastric emptying (∼30-min half time) or pH (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 0.8) at 90 min. Overall, pasteurization had no impact on the gastric digestion of lipids and some proteins from human milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  15. Crocodile choline from Crocodylus siamensis induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-Mei; Fu, Qi-Rui; Li, Hua-Liang; Zheng, Ya-Hui; Chen, Shu-Ming; Hu, Xin-Yi; Chen, Qing-Xi; Chen, Qiong-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Crocodile choline, an active compound isolated from Crocodylus siamensis, was found to exert potent anti-cancer activities against human gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our study revealed that crocodile choline led to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase through attenuating the expressions of cyclins, Cyclin B1, and CDK-1. Furthermore, crocodile choline accelerated apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, the increase in reactive oxygen species production and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activation of caspase-3 along with the release of cytochrome c. In addition, this study, for the first time, shows that Notch pathway is remarkably deregulated by crocodile choline. The combination of crocodile choline and Notch1 short interfering RNA led to dramatically increased cytotoxicity than observed with either agent alone. Notch1 short interfering RNA sensitized and potentiated the capability of crocodile choline to suppress the cell progression and invasion of gastric cancer. Taken together, these data suggested that crocodile choline was a potent progression inhibitor of gastric cancer cells, which was correlated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and Notch pathway. Combining Notch1 inhibitors with crocodile choline might represent a novel approach for gastric cancer.

  16. [Support vector machine?assisted diagnosis of human malignant gastric tissues based on dielectric properties].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sa; Li, Zhou; Xin, Xue-Gang

    2017-12-20

    To achieve differential diagnosis of normal and malignant gastric tissues based on discrepancies in their dielectric properties using support vector machine. The dielectric properties of normal and malignant gastric tissues at the frequency ranging from 42.58 to 500 MHz were measured by coaxial probe method, and the Cole?Cole model was used to fit the measured data. Receiver?operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the discrimination capability with respect to permittivity, conductivity, and Cole?Cole fitting parameters. Support vector machine was used for discriminating normal and malignant gastric tissues, and the discrimination accuracy was calculated using k?fold cross? The area under the ROC curve was above 0.8 for permittivity at the 5 frequencies at the lower end of the measured frequency range. The combination of the support vector machine with the permittivity at all these 5 frequencies combined achieved the highest discrimination accuracy of 84.38% with a MATLAB runtime of 3.40 s. The support vector machine?assisted diagnosis is feasible for human malignant gastric tissues based on the dielectric properties.

  17. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reaction. 4. Aspirin increased bleeding from a rate on placebo of 1.2 microliters 10 min-1 geometric mean (95% confidence limits) (0.7-1.8) microliters 10 min-1 to 20.0 (11.6-34.2) microliters 10 min-1, (P less than 0.01). The rate of bleeding after aspirin preceded by ethamsylate [14.1 (8.5-23.4) microliters 10 min-1] was not significantly different from that after aspirin alone. 5. We conclude that ethamsylate does not reduce acute aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in healthy humans. PMID:2789070

  18. Cryptolepine, isolated from Sida acuta, sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Firoj; Toume, Kazufumi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay guided separation of Sida acuta whole plants led to the isolation of an alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), along with two kaempferol glycosides (2-3). Compound 1 showed strong activity in overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μm. Combined treatment of 1 and TRAIL sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at the aforementioned concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Glucose uptake in the human gastric cancer cell line, MKN28, is increased by insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Y; Sato, S; Marat, D; Doi, C; Yoshikawa, T; Saito, A; Ito, T; Tsuburaya, A; Yanuma, S

    1999-06-01

    The expression of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 was studied in three histologically different human gastric cancer cell lines, MKN28, MKN45, and STSA. RT-PCR demonstrated GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA in all three cell lines. MKN28 cells expressed GLUT4 protein more than MKN45 and STSA cells by immunohistochemistry. Insulin stimulation of MKN28 cells resulted in a 22% increase in glucose uptake over that found under basal conditions (0.60 +/- 0.05 fmol/cell per min after insulin stimulation versus 0.53 +/- 0.07 fmol/cell per 3 min at basal). No increase in glucose uptake occurred with insulin stimulation in MKN45 or STSA cells. We conclude that the insulin responsive GLUT4 is expressed in MKN28, MKN45, and STKM1 human gastric cancer cell lines, albeit in different amounts. The greater expression of this transporter in MKN28 cells is likely responsible for the cell's ability to increase glucose uptake with insulin stimulation. However, the role played by GLUT4 in regulating the amount of glucose uptake would not be large in those human gastric cancer cell lines.

  20. Measurement of human gastric motility by near-infrared light for the assessment of chronic mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teppei; Shiozawa, Naruhiro; Makikawa, Masaaki

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the relationship between mental stress and gastric motility and have tried to develop a measurement system of human gastric motility for the quantification of mental stress. A mental stress measurement system should be used easily in daily life. However, general measurement system as electrogastrography, endoscopy, CT, ultrasonic echogram isn't suitable for the home use. Then, we have developed non-invasive and compact measurement system of gastric motility using near-infrared (NIR) light. This system consists of NIR LEDs and an avalanche photodiode (APD). APD receives the NIR light transmitting outside the body from NIR LEDs and reflecting on the gastric wall. In the experiment, an ultrasonic echogram was used simultaneously to confirm our new method. The result showed that the waveform got by our method coincides with the cycle of contractile activity of stomach, and it was proved that our measurement system using NIR light could measure gastric motility. In addition, we performed chronic mental stress measurement intended for students to examine relationship between chronic mental stress and gastric motility. Experimental period was from two weeks before graduation examination to two weeks after graduation examination. The result showed that chronic mental stress may invoke gastric dysrhythmia, and chronic mental stress could be evaluated by long term monitoring of gastric motility using our NIR measurement system.

  1. Clearance of bile and trypsin in rat lungs following aspiration of human gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jason H; Chang, Jui-Chih; Foltz, Emily; Bell, Sadé M; Pi, Cinthia; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Parker, William; Davis, R Duane; Keshavjee, Shaf; Lin, Shu S

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical setting, there is no reliable tool for diagnosing gastric aspiration. A potential way of diagnosing gastric fluid aspiration entails bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with subsequent examination of the BAL fluid for gastric fluid components that are exogenous to the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine the longevity of the gastric fluid components bile and trypsin in the lung, in order to provide an estimate of the time frame in which assessment of these components in the BAL might effectively be used as a measure of aspiration. Human gastric fluid (0.5 mg/kg) was infused in the right lung of intubated male Fischer 344 rats (n = 30). Animals were sacrificed at specified times following the experimentally induced aspiration, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. Bile concentrations were analyzed by an enzyme-linked chromatogenic method, and the concentration of trypsin was quantified using an ELISA. Data were analyzed using non-linear regression and a one-phase decay equation. In this experimental model, the half-life of bile was 9.3 hours (r(2) = 0.81), and the half-life of trypsin was 9.0 hours (r(2) = 0.68). The half-lives of bile and trypsin in the rodent aspiration model suggest that the ability to detect aspiration may be limited to a few days post-aspiration. If studies using rats are any indication, it may be most effective to collect BAL samples within the first 24 hours of suspected aspiration events in order to detect aspiration.

  2. Anticancer effects of clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations on human gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2016-02-01

    Colchicine is a very cheap microtubule destabilizer. Because microtubules are an ideal target for anticancer drugs, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations have anticancer effects on gastric cancer cells, and its possible anticancer mechanisms. Two human gastric cancer cell lines (i.e., AGS and NCI-N87) were investigated by proliferative assay, microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and a nude mice study using clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations (2 ng/mL and 6 ng/mL for in vitro tests and 0.07 mg colchicine/kg/d for in vivo tests). Our results showed that colchicine had the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of both cell lines. The antiproliferative effects of colchicine on both cell lines were achieved only at the concentration of 6 ng/mL (p < 0.0001). In both cell lines, 18 genes were consistently upregulated and 10 genes were consistently downregulated by 6 ng/mL colchicine, compared with 2 ng/mL colchicine. Among these genes, only the upregulated DUSP1 gene may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of colchicine on gastric cancer cells. The nude mice (BALB/c-nu) experiment showed that colchicine-treated mice after 14 days of treatment had lower increased tumor volume ratios (p = 0.0199) and tumor growth rates (p = 0.024) than the control mice. In conclusion, colchicine has potential for the palliative treatment of gastric cancer. However, the anticancer effects are achieved only at high clinically acceptable colchicine concentrations. Monitoring the colchicine plasma concentration is mandatory if this drug is applied for the palliative treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Steingoetter, Andreas; Menne, Dieter; van der Voort, Ivo R; Kwiatek, Monika A; Boesiger, Peter; Weishaupt, Dominik; Thumshirn, Miriam; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The effects of macronutrients on gastric volume changes, emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms are incompletely understood. Three liquid meals of 500 ml (fat emulsion, 375 kcal; protein solution, 375 kcal; glucose solution, 400 kcal) were infused into the stomach of 12 healthy volunteers on three occasions. Studies were performed in seated body position using an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. MRI imaging sequences, assessing stomach and meal volumes, were performed prior to and at times t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after meal administration. Areas under the curve for the early emptying phase (0-15 and 0-45 min) were calculated, and characteristics of the volume curves were analyzed by a gastric emptying model. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-report scale. Initial (t = 0 min) and early postprandial gastric volumes were highest for glucose because of lower initial emptying. However, in the early emptying phase the characteristics of the volume curves for stomach and meal were uniform for all macronutrients. Perceptions of fullness and satiety were linearly associated with postprandial gastric volumes, but not with macronutrient composition. Isovolumic macronutrient meals modulate gastric volume response by initial meal emptying patterns. Macronutrient specific accommodation responses, as shown in barostat studies, are not reflected as gastric volume responses under noninvasive conditions.

  4. Organic vs conventionally grown Rio Red whole grapefruit and juice: comparison of production inputs, market quality, consumer acceptance, and human health-bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Lester, Gene E; Manthey, John A; Buslig, Béla S

    2007-05-30

    Most claims that organic produce is better tasting and more nutritious than nonorganic (conventional) produce are largely unsubstantiated. This is due mainly to a lack of rigor in research studies matching common production variables of both production systems, such as microclimate, soil type, fertilizer elemental concentration, previous crop, irrigation source and application, plant age, and cultivar. The aforementioned production variables common to both production systems were matched for comparison of Texas commercially grown conventional and certified organic Rio Red red-fruited grapefruit. Whole grapefruits from each production system were harvested between 800 and 1000 h at commercial early (November), mid- (January), and late season (March) harvest periods for three consecutive years. Within each harvest season, conventional and organic whole fruits were compared for marketable qualities (fruit weight, specific gravity, peel thickness, and peel color), and juices were compared for marketable qualities (specific gravity, % juice, and color), human health-bioactive compounds (minerals, ascorbic acid, lycopene, sugars, pectin, phenols, and nitrates), and consumer taste intensity and overall acceptance. Conventional fruit was better colored and higher in lycopene, and the juice was less tart, lower in the bitter principle naringin, and better accepted by the consumer panel than the organic fruit. Organic fruit had a commercially preferred thinner peel, and the juice was higher in ascorbic acid and sugars and lower in nitrate and the drug interactive furanocoumarins.

  5. Visceral response to acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation in healthy human

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shu-Kun; Ke, Mei-Yun; Wang, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Da-Bo; Zhang, Yan-Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the visceral response to acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation (RGES) in healthy humans and to derive optimal parameters for treatment of patients with obesity. METHODS: RGES with a series of effective parameters were performed via a bipolar mucosal electrode implanted along the great curvature 5 cm above pylorus of stomach in 12 healthy human subjects. Symptoms associated with dyspepsia and other discomfort were observed and graded during RGES at different settings, including long pulse and pulse train. Gastric myoelectrical activity at baseline and during different settings of stimulation was recorded by a multi-channel electrogastrography. RESULTS: The gastric slow wave was entrained in all the subjects at the pacing parameter of 9 cpm in frequency, 500 ms in pulse width, and 5 mA in amplitude. The frequently appeared symptoms during stimulation were satiety, bloating, discomfort, pain, sting, and nausea. The total symptom score for each subject significantly increased as the amplitude or pulse width was adjusted to a higher scale in both long pulse and pulse train. There was a wide diversity of visceral responses to RGES among individuals. CONCLUSION: Acute RGES can result in a series of symptoms associated with dyspepsia, which is beneficial to the treatment of obesity. Optimal parameter should be determined according to the individual sensitivity to electrical stimulation. PMID:16052685

  6. Dihydromyricetin induces cell apoptosis via a p53-related pathway in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, F J; Tian, X F; Liu, X W; Fu, L B; Wu, Y Y; Fang, X D; Jin, H Y

    2015-12-02

    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the AGS human gastric cancer cells and their underlying mechanisms. The effects of DHM on AGS cells were evaluated by using 3-(4, 5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase, and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining assays. The underlying mechanisms were determined by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that DHM significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited AGS cell proliferation and induced cell cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, Annexin V/PI double-staining assay showed that DHM promoted cell apoptosis in both, early and late stages. Furthermore, DHM also regulated the expression of apoptotic genes such as p53 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating the anticancer and pro-apoptosis effects of DHM on AGS human gastric cancer cells. The results strongly suggest that DHM may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  7. Exploratory study of oral mucosal colonization of human gastric Helicobacter pylori in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xueqin; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongming; Cui, Zhixin; Hu, Sijuan; Huang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, human gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was closely attached to the pre-treated mouse buccal mucosa by using artificial oral film to induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, in which Hp biofilm colonization was detected in three mice in Hp film group (Hp mesh biofilm accumulation under an optical microscope; Hp accumulated colonization under an electron microscope). There were no Hp biofilms detected in Hp smear group or the control group with black film. In this study, human gastric Hp was first used to artificially induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. The mouse model of oral infection with Hp was initially established, providing animal experimental evidences for oral conditions of growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice, and providing a workable animal modeling method for further research of joint infection of Hp on the mouth and stomach, as well as the relationship between oral Hp and gastric Hp. PMID:24753744

  8. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 regulate epithelial cell proliferation in mouse and human gastric corpus.

    PubMed

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Horita, Nobukatsu; Todisco, Andrea; Turgeon, D Kim; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human. Global Notch inhibition for 5 days reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse corpus, as well as in organoids derived from mouse and human corpus tissue. Proliferation effects were mediated through both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors, as demonstrated by targeting each receptor alone or in combination with Notch receptor inhibitory antibodies. Analysis of differentiation by marker expression showed no change to the major cell lineages; however, there was a modest increase in the number of transitional cells coexpressing markers of mucous neck and chief cells. In contrast to reduced proliferation after pathway inhibition, Notch activation in the adult stomach resulted in increased proliferation coupled with reduced differentiation. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse and human gastric corpus, which is consistent with previously defined roles for Notch in promoting stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the intestine and antral stomach. Here we demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is essential for proliferation of stem cells in the mouse and human gastric corpus. We identify NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as the predominant Notch receptors expressed in both mouse and human corpus and show that both receptors are required for corpus stem cell proliferation. We show that chronic Notch activation in corpus stem

  9. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 regulate epithelial cell proliferation in mouse and human gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Demitrack, Elise S.; Gifford, Gail B.; Keeley, Theresa M.; Horita, Nobukatsu; Todisco, Andrea; Turgeon, D. Kim; Siebel, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human. Global Notch inhibition for 5 days reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse corpus, as well as in organoids derived from mouse and human corpus tissue. Proliferation effects were mediated through both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors, as demonstrated by targeting each receptor alone or in combination with Notch receptor inhibitory antibodies. Analysis of differentiation by marker expression showed no change to the major cell lineages; however, there was a modest increase in the number of transitional cells coexpressing markers of mucous neck and chief cells. In contrast to reduced proliferation after pathway inhibition, Notch activation in the adult stomach resulted in increased proliferation coupled with reduced differentiation. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse and human gastric corpus, which is consistent with previously defined roles for Notch in promoting stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the intestine and antral stomach. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here we demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is essential for proliferation of stem cells in the mouse and human gastric corpus. We identify NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as the predominant Notch receptors expressed in both mouse and human corpus and show that both receptors are required for corpus stem cell proliferation. We show that chronic Notch

  10. The diurnal rhythm of the cytoprotective human trefoil protein TFF2 is reduced by factors associated with gastric mucosal damage: ageing, Helicobacter pylori infection, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Johns, C Emma; Newton, Julia L; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B

    2005-07-01

    To determine if the normal TFF2 diurnal rhythm is disrupted in those with increased risk of gastric morbidity. Trefoil proteins protect the gastrointestinal mucosa from damage and aid its repair. TFF2 is considered the major cytoprotective gastric trefoil protein. There is a marked circadian variation in gastric luminal TFF2 in young healthy volunteers with peak levels present during the night. Gastric juice was aspirated at two hourly intervals over a 24-h period via a nasogastric tube. TFF2 was measured by quantitative western transfer analysis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was measured by C13 urea breath test and by serology. The effects of H. pylori infection, sleep deprivation, and ageing, which cause increased gastric morbidity, on the TFF2 circadian rhythm were tested. H. pylori infection attenuated the increase in TFF2 that occurs during the night. The TFF2 diurnal rhythm was reduced in older people and both the TFF2 level reached and the time at which the maximum TFF2 concentration occurs were associated inversely with age (p < 0.005). Sleep deprivation delayed the normal night time increase in gastric TFF2 and resulted in an overall reduction in TFF2 secretion. H. pylori infection, ageing, and sleep deprivation cause a reduction in the TFF2 diurnal rhythm. The demonstration that the TFF2 rhythm is impaired in cohorts of individuals known to suffer gastric symptoms suggests that interventions to restore the normal TFF2 rhythm in those with poor mucosal protection could reduce morbidity.

  11. Notch1 and Notch2 receptors regulate mouse and human gastric antral epithelial cell homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Gail B; Demitrack, Elise S; Keeley, Theresa M; Tam, Andrew; La Cunza, Nilsa; Dedhia, Priya H; Spence, Jason R; Simeone, Diane M; Saotome, Ichiko; Louvi, Angeliki; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-06-01

    We tested the ability of Notch pathway receptors Notch1 and Notch2 to regulate stem and epithelial cell homoeostasis in mouse and human gastric antral tissue. Mice were treated with the pan-Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) or inhibitory antibodies targeting Notch1 and/or Notch2. Epithelial proliferation, apoptosis and cellular differentiation were measured by histological and molecular approaches. Organoids were established from mouse and human antral glands; growth and differentiation were measured after treatment with Notch inhibitors. Notch1 and Notch2 are the predominant Notch receptors expressed in mouse and human antral tissue and organoid cultures. Combined inhibition of Notch1 and Notch2 in adult mice led to decreased epithelial cell proliferation, including reduced proliferation of LGR5 stem cells, and increased apoptosis, similar to the response to global Notch inhibition with DBZ. Less pronounced effects were observed after inhibition of individual receptors. Notch pathway inhibition with DBZ or combined inhibition of Notch1 and Notch2 led to increased differentiation of all gastric antral lineages, with remodelling of cells to express secretory products normally associated with other regions of the GI tract, including intestine. Analysis of mouse and human organoids showed that Notch signalling through Notch1 and Notch2 is intrinsic to the epithelium and required for organoid growth. Notch signalling is required to maintain gastric antral stem cells. Notch1 and Notch2 are the primary Notch receptors regulating epithelial cell homoeostasis in mouse and human stomach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...

  15. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  17. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...

  18. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  19. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  20. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and...

  2. Electrolyte and plasma responses after pickle juice, mustard, and deionized water ingestion in dehydrated humans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na(+)) concentration ([Na(+)]p), plasma potassium (K(+)) concentration ([K(+)]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na(+) content. Crossover study. Laboratory. A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na(+) as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The dependent variables were [Na(+)]p, [K(+)]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na(+) content and plasma volume. Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na(+), 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K(+), and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na(+) in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na(+)]p, [K(+)]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na(+) content (P > .05). Ingesting a small bolus of PJ or large mass of mustard after dehydration did not exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause

  3. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C

    2014-02-12

    Context : Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective : To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na + ) concentration ([Na + ] p ), plasma potassium (K + ) concentration ([K + ] p ), plasma osmolality (OSM p ), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na + content. Design : Crossover study. Setting : Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants : A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s) : Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na + as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s) : The dependent variables were [Na + ] p , [K + ] p , OSM p , and percentage change in plasma Na + content and plasma volume. Results : Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na + , 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K + , and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na + in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na + ] p , [K + ] p , OSM p , or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na + content (P > .05

  4. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-05-23

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27(kip-1) increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27(kip-1).

  5. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Methods The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. Results The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27kip-1 increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27kip-1. PMID:26470770

  6. Structure of the human gastric bacterial community in relation to Helicobacter pylori status

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Contreras, Ana; Goldfarb, Kate C; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Karaoz, Ulas; Contreras, Mónica; Blaser, Martin J; Brodie, Eoin L; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2011-01-01

    The human stomach is naturally colonized by Helicobacter pylori, which, when present, dominates the gastric bacterial community. In this study, we aimed to characterize the structure of the bacterial community in the stomach of patients of differing H. pylori status. We used a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip, Affymetrix, Inc.) to hybridize 16S rRNA gene amplicons from gastric biopsy DNA of 10 rural Amerindian patients from Amazonas, Venezuela, and of two immigrants to the United States (from South Asia and Africa, respectively). H. pylori status was determined by PCR amplification of H. pylori glmM from gastric biopsy samples. Of the 12 patients, 8 (6 of the 10 Amerindians and the 2 non-Amerindians) were H. pylori glmM positive. Regardless of H. pylori status, the PhyloChip detected Helicobacteriaceae DNA in all patients, although with lower relative abundance in patients who were glmM negative. The G2-chip taxonomy analysis of PhyloChip data indicated the presence of 44 bacterial phyla (of which 16 are unclassified by the Taxonomic Outline of the Bacteria and Archaea taxonomy) in a highly uneven community dominated by only four phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Positive H. pylori status was associated with increased relative abundance of non-Helicobacter bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Spirochetes and Acidobacteria, and with decreased abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The PhyloChip detected richness of low abundance phyla, and showed marked differences in the structure of the gastric bacterial community according to H. pylori status. PMID:20927139

  7. Avicularin reversed multidrug-resistance in human gastric cancer through enhancing Bax and BOK expressions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Ji-Peng; Ma, Si-Quan; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Wen-De

    2018-04-07

    5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) and cisplatin (DDP) as important therapies in treatment of human gastric cancer have been widely determined. However, the therapeutic effects are usually hampered due to drug resistance or toxicity at high concentrations for application. Avicularin (AL, quercetin-3-α-l-arabinofuranoside), a bio-active flavonol isolated from a number of plants, has been reported to display diverse pharmacological properties. In this study, we explored the hypothesis by which AL reversed 5-Fu or DDP resistance in gastric cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, in vitro, the drug-resistant cancer cells were incubated to AL or DDP alone or the combination of AL and DDP. Then, MTT, colony formation, Hoechst 33258, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to investigate the effects of AL in the regulation of drug-resistance gastric cancer cells. The results indicated that AL treatment markedly re-sensitizes the drug resistant cells (SGC-7901/5-Fu and SGC-7901/DDP) to cytotoxicity of 5-Fu or DDP. Molecular mechanism analysis indicated that AL and DDP combination treatment enhanced apoptosis in SGC-7901/DDP cells, accompanied with the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP, as well as the activation of pro-apoptotic signals, including Bax and BOK. Significantly, down regulation of Bax or BOK expressions using Bax siRNA or BOK siRNA decreased the inhibitory role of DDP in apoptosis of SGC-7901/DDP cells pretreated with AL, demonstrating that AL-reversed DDP resistance was associated with Bax and BOK expression. In vivo, AL and DDP combination significantly reduced gastric tumor growth. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that co-treatment of AL and DDP significantly induced apoptosis, and reduced tumor cell proliferation in tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, we also found that the Bax, BOK, cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP expression in tumor tissues were highly induced by AL and DDP co-treatment. Together, our findings may provide a novel

  8. Effect of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Franke, A; Teyssen, S; Harder, H; Singer, M V

    2004-07-01

    There is a paucity of detailed and controlled studies on the action of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans. This study was designed to compare the effect of beer, red wine, whisky and their comparable pure ethanol solutions on gastric emptying in a controlled and randomized investigation. On separate days, 10 healthy, fasted subjects received the following solutions, in random order, through a gastric tube: 500 mL beer, red wine, comparable pure ethanol solutions (4% and 10% v/v), glucose (5.5% and 11.4% w/v) and water, 125 mL whisky and 40% (v/v) ethanol (both followed by 125 mL water) and 250 mL water. Gastric emptying of the test solutions was assessed using ultrasonography of the antrum. As measured by ultrasonography of the antrum, half emptying times of the ethanol solutions (4%, 10% and 40% v/v) were significantly (P < 0.05) longer (22.6 +/- 4.8, 22.7 +/- 4.3 and 27.8 +/- 3.3 min, respectively, n=10) than those of water (14.6 +/- 1.9 min (500 mL) and 13.2 +/- 1.7 min (250 mL), respectively). The half emptying times of beer (39.3 +/- 4.3 min) and red wine (72.6 +/- 7.6 min) were significantly longer than those of the corresponding ethanol concentrations, whereas whisky was emptied at nearly the same rate (26.4 +/- 5.9 min) as 40% (v/v) ethanol. Emptying of glucose 5.5% and 11.4% (w/v) was significantly and dose dependently slower (29.7 +/- 4.5 and 64.8 +/- 8.9 min) than water. 1) Pure ethanol in concentrations of 4%, 10% and 40% (v/v) inhibits gastric emptying. 2) The inhibitory effect of beer and red wine, but not of whisky, is stronger than that of their comparable ethanol concentrations. 3) Caloric content and non-alcoholic ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (beer and wine), but not in those produced by distillation (whisky), are most likely responsible for this effect.

  9. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-α associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.

  10. Modulation of CYP19 expression by cabbage juices and their active components: indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethene in human breast epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Licznerska, Barbara E; Szaefer, Hanna; Murias, Marek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white cabbage and sauerkraut juices of different origin and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and diindolylmethane (DIM) on expression of CYP19 gene encoding aromatase, the key enzyme of estrogen synthesis. Human breast cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A) were examined to compare the action of cabbage juices versus their active components (I3C, DIM). Real-time PCR and Western blot were used in order to analyse CYP19 mRNA and protein, respectively. Remarkable differences in the effect on CYP19 transcript and protein level were found between the cabbage juices (in 2.5-25 mL/L concentrations) and indoles (in 2.5-50 μM doses) in the three cell lines. While cabbage juices at the lower doses diminished the aromatase expression in nontumorigenic/immortalized MCF10A breast cells (0.25-0.86-fold change, P < 0.05), I3C and DIM were more efficient in decreasing the aromatase expression in estrogen-dependant MCF7 breast cancer cells (0.24-0.82-fold change, P < 0.05). Inhibition of aromatase by juice obtained from cabbage grown on industrial farm was correlated with the induction of apoptosis (1.7-1.8-fold change, P < 0.01) in MCF10A cells. In estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cells, up-regulation of CYP19 expression by I3C and DIM (1.5-2.0-fold change, P < 0.05) was observed. Similarly, in MCF7 cells juices increased aromatase expression (1.1-2.2-fold change, P < 0.05). These results, particularly that obtained in nontumorigenic/immortalized MCF10A cells, suggest that chemopreventive activity of cabbage against breast cancer observed in epidemiological studies may be partly explained by inhibition of the aromatase expression.

  11. Two weeks of watermelon juice supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability but not endurance exercise performance in humans.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Williams, Ewan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Wylie, Lee J; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-09-30

    This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo. Participants reported to the laboratory on days 14 and 16 of supplementation to assess the effects of the interventions on blood pressure, plasma [l-citrulline], plasma [l-arginine], plasma [nitrite], muscle oxygenation and time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. Compared to control and placebo, plasma [l-citrulline] (29 ± 4, 22 ± 6 and 101 ± 23 μM), [l-arginine] (74 ± 9, 67 ± 13 and 116 ± 9 μM) and [nitrite] (102 ± 29, 106 ± 21 and 201 ± 106 nM) were higher after watermelon juice supplementation (P < 0.01). However, systolic blood pressure was higher in the watermelon juice (130 ± 11) and placebo (131 ± 9) conditions compared to the control condition (124 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.05). The skeletal muscle oxygenation index during moderate-intensity exercise was greater in the watermelon juice condition than the placebo and control conditions (P < 0.05), but time-to-exhaustion during the severe-intensity exercise test (control: 478 ± 80, placebo: 539 ± 108, watermelon juice: 550 ± 143 s) was not significantly different between conditions (P < 0.05). In conclusion, while watermelon juice supplementation increased baseline plasma [nitrite] and improved muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise, it increased resting blood pressure and did not improve time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. These findings do not

  12. Gastric analysis with fractional test meals (ethanol, caffeine, and peptone meal), augmented histamine or pentagastrin tests, and gastric pH recording.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, S; Konturek, S J

    2003-12-01

    For centuries it was recognized that the stomach produces a juice, which has acidic properties, however, it was not until 1824 when Prout demonstrated the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. At the same time experiments on a patient with gastric fistula began by W. Beaumont showing alterations of acid secretion after meals and under various psychological conditions. After the discovery by L. Popielski in 1920 that histamine is a direct stimulant of oxyntic glands, histamine started to be used in the 1930s in gastric secretory tests. Then in 1949 the dose of histamine was established by K. Kowalewski to induce in humans maximal gastric secretion and in 1953 Kay from UK, using a similar dose of histamine (0.04 mg/kg), introduced augmented histamine test to determine maximal acid output. The digestive period of gastric secretion can be divided into 3 phases: cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. When an acidified meal reaches the antrum or proximal part of the small intestine, the inhibitory autoregulatory mechanisms are triggered. Using a peptone meal as a physiological stimulant of gastric secretion, Fordtran and Walsh designed in 1973 the intragastric titration method. Histamine stimulates H1 and H2 receptors, producing some side effects so Betazole (Histalog), an analogue of histamine was introduced, because of smaller side effects than with histamine. In 1967, pentagastrin, which contains a C-terminal amino-acid sequence of gastrin and does not exert serious side effects, was applied first in Poland as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion instead of histamine. At the present time, a 12 or 24 h pH-metry with a magnetic recording of gastric acidity using the Digitrapper was found to have a greater diagnostic value in assessment of gastric acid secretion under natural conditions including meal than classic gastric secretory tests. This technique has been widely used in detecting the duodeno-gastric or gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) and

  13. Expression of chromosomal regional maintenance protein-1 may be associated with subcellular survivin expression in human gastric and colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Michiko; Tashiro, Akito; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

    2016-12-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is a potential prognostic marker and molecular target for anticancer therapies. Chromosomal regional maintenance protein-1 (CRM-1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins such as survivin. The aims of the present study were to compare the expression and subcellular localization of CRM-1 in human gastric and colorectal carcinomas and to assess the association between CRM-1 and survivin expression in these tumor types. The nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression rates in gastric carcinoma were 61% (42/69) and 29% (20/69), respectively, while the nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression rates in colorectal carcinoma were 55% (43/78) and 37% (29/78), respectively. Nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression in colorectal carcinoma, but not gastric carcinoma. These results indicate that CRM-1 expression patterns differ between gastric and colorectal carcinomas and thus, we hypothesize that CRM-1-mediated nuclear export of survivin may be deregulated in gastric carcinoma. Therefore, CRM-1 may exhibit different functions in gastric and colorectal carcinoma.

  14. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  15. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  16. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  17. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  18. Grapefruit juice ingestion significantly reduces talinolol bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ute I; Seemann, Diana; Oertel, Reinhard; Miehlke, Stephan; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Fromm, Martin F; Kim, Richard B; Bailey, David G; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2005-04-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of single and repeated grapefruit juice ingestion relative to water on the oral pharmacokinetics of the nonmetabolized and P-glycoprotein-transported drug talinolol in humans and to assess the potential impact of grapefruit juice ingestion on P-glycoprotein and intestinal uptake transporters. The oral pharmacokinetics of 50 mg talinolol was determined with water, with 1 glass of grapefruit juice (300 mL), and after 6 days of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion (900 mL/d) in 24 healthy white volunteers. MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid and P-glycoprotein levels were measured in duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from 3 individuals before and after ingestion of grapefruit juice. Three commonly occurring polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene were also assessed. A single glass of grapefruit juice decreased the talinolol area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC), peak serum drug concentration (Cmax), and urinary excretion values to 56% (P < .001), 57% (P < .001), and 56% (P < .001), respectively, of those with water. Repeated ingestion of grapefruit juice had a similar effect (44% to 65% reduction; P < .01). Single or repeated juice ingestion did not affect renal clearance, elimination half-life, or time to reach Cmax (tmax). MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid and P-glycoprotein levels in duodenal biopsy specimens were not affected by grapefruit juice. MDR1 genotypes (C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) were not associated with altered talinolol pharmacokinetics. Because both single and repeated ingestion of grapefruit juice lowered rather than increased talinolol AUC, our findings suggest that constituents in grapefruit juice preferentially inhibited an intestinal uptake process rather than P-glycoprotein. Moreover, grapefruit juice did not alter intestinal P-glycoprotein expression.

  19. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover.

  20. Effects of allitridi on cell cycle arrest of human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Min-Wen; Ma, Rui; Shun, Li-Ping; Gong, Yue-Hua; Yuan, Yuan

    2005-09-21

    To determine the effect of allitridi on cell cycle of human gastric cancer (HGC) cell lines MGC803 and SGC7901 and its possible mechanism. Trypan blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the proliferation, inhibition of cells and damages of these cells were detected with electron microscope. Flow cytometry and cell mitotic index were used to analyze the change of cell cycle, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was used to examine expression of the p21(WAF1) gene. MGC803 cell growth was inhibited by allitridi with 24 h IC50 being 6.4 microg/mL. SGC7901 cell growth was also inhibited by allitridi with 24 h IC50 being 7.3 microg/mL. After being treated with allitridi at the concentration of 12 microg/mL for 24 h, cells were found to have direct cytotoxic effects, including broken cellular membrane, swollen and vesiculated mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticula, and mass lipid droplet. When cells were treated with allitridi at the concentration of 3, 6, and 9 microg/mL for 24 h, the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells was decreased and that of G2/M phase cells was significantly increased (P = 0.002) compared with those in the group. When cells were treated with allitridi at the concentration of 6 microg/mL, cell mitotic index was much higher (P = 0.003) than that of control group, indicating that allitridi could cause gastric cancer cell arrest in M phase. Besides, the expression levels of p21(WAF1) gene of MGC803 cells and p21(WAF1) gene of SGC7901 cells were remarkably upregulated after treatment. Allitridi can cause gastric cancer cell arrest in M phase, and this may be one of the mechanisms for inhibiting cell proliferation. Effect of allitridi on cells in M phase may be associated with the upregulation of p21(WAF1) genes. This study provides experimental data for clinical use of allitridi in the treatment of gastric carcinoma.

  1. The relationship of human milk leptin and macronutrients with gastric emptying in term breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Anna M; Gridneva, Zoya; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching T; Tie, Wan J; Khan, Sadaf; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundInfants breastfed on demand exhibit a variety of feeding patterns and self-regulate their nutrient intake, but factors influencing their gastric emptying (GE) are poorly understood. Despite research into appetite regulation properties of leptin, there is limited information about relationships between human milk leptin and infant GE.MethodsGastric volumes were calculated from ultrasound scans of infants' stomachs (n=20) taken before and after breastfeeding, and then every 12.5 min (median; range: 3-45 min) until the next feed. Skim milk leptin and macronutrient concentrations were measured and doses were calculated.ResultsThe leptin concentration was (mean±SD) 0.51±0.16 ng/ml; the leptin dose was 45.5±20.5 ng per feed. No relationships between both concentration and dose of leptin and time between the feeds (P=0.57; P=1, respectively) or residual stomach volumes before the subsequent feed (P=0.20; P=0.050) were found. Post-feed stomach volumes (GE rate) were not associated with leptin concentration (P=0.77) or dose (P=0.85).ConclusionGE in term breastfed infants was not associated with either skim milk leptin concentration or dose. Further investigation with inclusion of whole-milk leptin and other hormones that affect gastrointestinal activity is warranted.

  2. Bitter melon juice activates cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase causing apoptotic death of human pancreatic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, suggesting critical needs for additional drugs to improve disease outcome. In this study, we examined efficacy and associated mechanism of a novel agent bitter melon juice (BMJ) against pancreatic carcinoma cells both in culture and nude mice. BMJ anticancer efficacy was analyzed in human pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2, AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and annexin/propidium iodide assays. BMJ effect on apoptosis regulators was assessed by immunoblotting. In vivo BMJ efficacy was evaluated against MiaPaCa-2 tumors in nude mice, and xenograft was analyzed for biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results showed that BMJ (2–5% v/v) decreases cell viability in all four pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing strong apoptotic death. At molecular level, BMJ caused caspases activation, altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and cytochrome-c release into the cytosol. Additionally, BMJ decreased survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein but increased p21, CHOP and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38) levels. Importantly, BMJ activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a biomarker for cellular energy status, and an AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) reversed BMJ-induced caspase-3 activation suggesting activated AMPK involvement in BMJ-induced apoptosis. In vivo, oral administration of lyophilized BMJ (5mg in 100 µl water/day/mouse) for 6 weeks inhibited MiaPaCa-2 tumor xenograft growth by 60% (P < 0.01) without noticeable toxicity in nude mice. IHC analyses of MiaPaCa-2 xenografts showed that BMJ also inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and activates AMPK in vivo. Overall, BMJ exerts strong anticancer efficacy against human pancreatic carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its clinical

  3. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in fermented milk under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, L L; Leandro, E S; Freitas, F S; de Oliveira, M N V; Ferreira-Machado, A B; Borges, A C; de Moraes, C A

    2013-09-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 was assessed in fermented milk, both during the storage period and after exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, as well the detection of the gene fbpA involved in adherence to human gastrointestinal tract. L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 remained stable and viable for 28 days under refrigerated storage conditions. After one day of storage, that strain exhibited a one-log population reduction following exposure in tandem to simulated gastric and intestinal juices. After 14 days of storage, a two-log reduction was observed following 90 min of exposure to the simulated gastric conditions. However, the strain did not survive following exposure to the simulated intestinal juice. The observed tolerance to storage conditions and resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal conditions confirm the potential use of L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 as a probiotic, which is further reinforced by the detection of fbpA in this strain.

  4. Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Is Essential for Maintenance of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; Wang, Ning; Li, Tao; Guan, Lidong; Shi, Shuangshuang; Zeng, Quan; Pei, Xuetao; Chen, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal activation of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway has been described in a wide variety of human cancers and in cancer stem cells (CSCs), however, the role of SHH pathway in gastric CSCs has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the possibility that abnormal activation of the SHH pathway maintained the characteristics of gastric CSCs. First, we identified cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) from human gastric cancer cell lines (HGC-27, MGC-803 and MKN-45) using tumorsphere culture. Compared with adherent cells, the floating tumorsphere cells had more self-renewing capacity and chemoresistance. The cells expressing CSCs markers (CD44, CD24 and CD133) were also significantly more in tumorsphere cells than in adherent cells. More importantly, in vivo xenograft studies showed that tumors could be generated with 2×104 tumorsphere cells, which was 100-fold less than those required for tumors seeding by adherent cells. Next, RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the expression levels of Ptch and Gli1 (SHH pathway target genes) were significantly higher in tumorsphere cells than in adherent cells. The results of quantitative real-time PCR were similar to those of RT-PCR and Western blot. Further analysis revealed that SHH pathway blocked by cyclopamine or 5E1 caused a higher reduction in self-renewing capacity of HGC-27 tumorsphere cells than that of adherent cells. We also found that SHH pathway blocking strongly enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in HGC-27 tumorsphere cells in vitro and in vivo but had no significant effect in adherent cells. Finally, we isolated the tumorspheres from gastric cancer specimen, these cells also had chemoresistance and tumorigenic capacity, and SHH pathway maintained the gastric CSLCs characteristics of tumorsphere cells from primary tumor samples. In conclusion, our data suggested that SHH pathway was essential for maintenance of CSLCs in human gastric cancer. PMID:21394208

  5. Inhibition of the peritoneal metastasis of human gastric cancer cells by dextran sulphate in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    XU, YUANYI; HUANG, YUNNING; WANG, HONGHONG; LIU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of dextran sulphate (DS) on the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer by observing the adhesion and implantation of human gastric cancer cells in the omenta of nude mice. DS or PBS was added to the culture medium of gastric cancer MKN1 cells. The adhesion of the cancer cells to the culture dishes, and the morphological changes of fixed and living cancer cells were observed using fluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. In addition, the expression of integrin β1 was measured using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastric cancer BGC-823 cells were peritoneally injected into nude mice to develop an animal model. DS and PBS were peritoneally injected into the experimental and control groups, respectively, concurrently with the tumour cells. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed, and the number of carcinoma nodules with celiac implantation was counted. Integrin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The results showed that MKN1 cells strongly expressed integrin β1 in the cell membrane and clustered in vitro. DS inhibited the expression of integrin β1 and reduced cluster formation. In addition, the number of pseudopodia formed by the cells decreased, and the cells maintained a rounded shape. The expression of integrin β1 in the adherent and free cells in the experimental group was reduced to 74 and 38% of the levels in the control group, respectively. In the in vivo study, significantly fewer tumour nodules were observed in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.01). Integrin β1 expression in the experimental group was decreased significantly compared with that in the control group (P<0.01). The present study indicates that DS inhibits the adhesion of human gastric cancer cells, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of integrin β1. DS may inhibit the metastatic celiac implantation of human gastric cancer

  6. TXNL1-XRCC1 pathway regulates cisplatin-induced cell death and contributes to resistance in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, W; Wang, S; Chen, Q; Zhang, Y; Ni, P; Wu, X; Zhang, J; Qiang, F; Li, A; Røe, O D; Xu, S; Wang, M; Zhang, R; Zhou, J

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a cytotoxic platinum compound that triggers DNA crosslinking induced cell death, and is one of the reference drugs used in the treatment of several types of human cancers including gastric cancer. However, intrinsic or acquired drug resistance to cisplatin is very common, and leading to treatment failure. We have recently shown that reduced expression of base excision repair protein XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross complementing group1) in gastric cancerous tissues correlates with a significant survival benefit from adjuvant first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrated the role of XRCC1 in repair of cisplatin-induced DNA lesions and acquired cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer by using cisplatin-sensitive gastric cancer cell lines BGC823 and the cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell lines BGC823/cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum(II) (DDP). Our results indicated that the protein expression of XRCC1 was significantly increased in cisplatin-resistant cells and independently contributed to cisplatin resistance. Irinotecan, another chemotherapeutic agent to induce DNA damaging used to treat patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed on cisplatin, was found to inhibit the expression of XRCC1 effectively, and leading to an increase in the sensitivity of resistant cells to cisplatin. Our proteomic studies further identified a cofactor of 26S proteasome, the thioredoxin-like protein 1 (TXNL1) that downregulated XRCC1 in BGC823/DDP cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In conclusion, the TXNL1-XRCC1 is a novel regulatory pathway that has an independent role in cisplatin resistance, indicating a putative drug target for reversing cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer. PMID:24525731

  7. PIV and CFD studies on analyzing intragastric flow phenomena induced by peristalsis using a human gastric flow simulator.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Neves, Marcos A; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Uemura, Kunihiko; Sato, Seigo; Ichikawa, Sosaku

    2014-08-01

    This study quantitatively analyzed the flow phenomena in model gastric contents induced by peristalsis using a human gastric flow simulator (GFS). Major functions of the GFS include gastric peristalsis simulation by controlled deformation of rubber walls and direct observation of inner flow through parallel transparent windows. For liquid gastric contents (water and starch syrup solutions), retropulsive flow against the direction of peristalsis was observed using both particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The maximum flow velocity was obtained in the region occluded by peristalsis. The maximum value was 9 mm s(-1) when the standard value of peristalsis speed in healthy adults (UACW = 2.5 mm s(-1)) was applied. The intragastric flow-field was laminar with the maximum Reynolds number (Re = 125). The viscosity of liquid gastric contents hardly affected the maximum flow velocity in the applied range of this study (1 to 100 mPa s). These PIV results agreed well with the CFD results. The maximum shear rate in the liquid gastric contents was below 20 s(-1) at UACW = 2.5 mm s(-1). We also measured the flow-field in solid-liquid gastric contents containing model solid food particles (plastic beads). The direction of velocity vectors was influenced by the presence of the model solid food particle surface. The maximum flow velocity near the model solid food particles ranged from 8 to 10 mm s(-1) at UACW = 2.5 mm s(-1). The maximum shear rate around the model solid food particles was low, with a value of up to 20 s(-1).

  8. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status of gastric cancer patients in Asia: results from a large, multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Geng, Jing-Shu; Li, Wencai; Nie, Xiu; Veloso, Januario; Wang, John; Hill, Julie; Mccloud, Philip; Bilous, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Current estimates of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positivity rate in gastric cancer vary widely in the literature, and there are limited data from countries in Asia. The primary aim of this study was to conduct a clinical audit of laboratories across seven countries in Asia to determine the incidence of HER2-positive gastric cancer in this region. Pathologists were asked to collect data on patient gender, age, cancer site, specimen type, tumor spread, type and grade, HER2 test results, including protein and/or gene copy enumeration, and final HER2 status on consecutive gastric cancer cases tested for HER2 in their laboratory over a 2-year period. HER2 results from 5,301 gastric cancers were submitted by 50 laboratories. The overall HER2-positivity rate was 9.7% which, after the exclusion of China, increased to 18.1%. The rate between countries ranged from 0% to 23.1%, and from 0% to 50.0% between laboratories. An equivocal HER2 result was recorded in 19.5% of cases. Despite the lack of centralized testing to confirm the accuracy of HER2 diagnoses, the incidence of HER2-positive gastric cancer observed here was comparable to that reported in the literature. Nevertheless, rates were highly variable between countries and laboratories, which suggests a lack of HER2 testing expertise in gastric cancer. Given that the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Eastern Asia are the highest in the world, efforts should focus on improving HER2 testing expertise in the region so that patients receive the appropriate treatment early in their disease. © 2016 The Authors. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Oncolytic reovirus combined with trastuzumab enhances antitumor efficacy through TRAIL signaling in human HER2-positive gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Shingo; Mori, Yoshinori; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Ebi, Masahide; Kubota, Eiji; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Johnston, Randal N; Asai, Kiyofumi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeting agent, trastuzumab, is effective for HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer therapy. As oncolytic reovirus is currently undergoing clinical trials internationally, we wanted to explore whether combination therapy using trastuzumab and reovirus might provide a novel, more effective therapeutic option for gastric cancer. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were examined in vitro, while molecular analysis of pathways responsible for cell damage was examined using polymerase chain reaction array. Activation of the proteins related to apoptosis, cell growth and survival was detected by Western blotting. Mouse tumor xenograft models were used to examine antitumor activity in vivo. Reovirus sensitized HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies provided evidence that the combination therapy is a more powerful modality against HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells than treatment using a single agent. Molecular analysis indicated that combination therapy induced significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in cancer cells. Antibody against TRAIL strongly inhibited cell toxicity caused by the combined treatment. These data suggest that reovirus may augment trastuzumab-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance.

  11. Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition-induced growth arrest of human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kanayo; Sakaguchi, Minoru, E-mail: sakaguti@gly.oups.ac.jp; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We examined the effects of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibition on p53 null gastric cancer cell growth. •POP inhibition-induced cell growth suppression was associated with an increase in a quiescent G{sub 0} state. •POP might regulate the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We recently reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells. The growth suppression was associated with pronounced G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest and increased levels of the CDKmore » inhibitor p27{sup kip1} and the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of POP inhibition-induced cell growth arrest using a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO III cells, which had a p53 gene deletion. POP specific inhibitors, 3-((4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl)-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolyl-thioprolinal, or RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the growth of KATO III cells irrespective of their p53 status. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was associated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle phase arrest and increased levels of p27{sup kip1} in the nuclei and the pRb2/p130 protein expression. Moreover, SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of KATO III cells was associated with an increase in the quiescent G{sub 0} state, defined by low level staining for the proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results indicate that POP may be a positive regulator of cell cycle progression by regulating the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle by KATO III cells.« less

  12. Mechanism of apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Ohta, S; Yanagihara, K; Nagata, K

    1997-06-15

    Human gastric carcinoma cell line HSC-39 has been shown to undergo apoptotic cell death in response to treatment with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). To understand better the cell death mechanism in this TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the expression of TGF-beta-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) on cell death events. TGF-beta1 induced TSC-22 gene expression in HSC-39 cells only when the cells had previously been adapted to the serum-free culture conditions required to undergo TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis. HSC-39 cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared with those transfected with a control vector. The cellular events characteristic of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were observed only in cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector. On immunostaining of the transfected cells, almost every cell that expressed TSC-22 tagged with influenza virus haemagglutinin exhibited the morphology of an apoptotic cell. Partial protection from the cell death effect of TGF-beta1 on HSC-39 cells was observed when cells were treated with acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-valyl-L-aspart-1-al (Ac-DEVD-CHO, an inhibitor specific for CPP32-type protease). Protection against cell death by the transfection of a TSC-22 expression vector was also offered by Ac-DEVD-CHO addition. These results suggest that TSC-22 elicits the apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells through the activation of CPP32-like protease and mediates the TGF-beta1 signalling pathway to apoptosis.

  13. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T.; Barlow, Brittney J.; O’Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E.; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. Design We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. Results The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1-expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body, although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1-expressing chief cells. While classically-described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed-type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Conclusions Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localization in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. PMID:24488499

  14. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of blackcurrant-based juice on atherosclerosis-related biomarkers in cultured macrophages and in human subjects after consumption of a high-energy meal.

    PubMed

    Huebbe, Patricia; Giller, Katrin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Arkenau, Anne; Adolphi, Berit; Portius, Sebastian; Arkenau, Cord N; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables may be associated with decreased CVD risk. In the present study, we investigated the effects of blackcurrant (BC) juice, rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in cultured macrophages in vitro and in human subjects with an atherosclerosis-prone phenotype (after consumption of a high-energy meal). In cultured macrophages (RAW264.7), BC treatment significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation as indicated by lower mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and lower nuclear p65 levels indicating decreased NF-κB activity. iNOS protein levels were lower and haem oxygenase 1 levels higher in BC-treated cells when compared with untreated controls. Subjects given a high-energy meal had elevated serum glucose and insulin levels with no significant difference between the BC-based juice and placebo treatment groups. TAG following meal ingestion tended to be attenuated after the BC treatment. Plasma ascorbic acid and radical-scavenging capacity were decreased following placebo meal consumption; however, BC significantly elevated both parameters compared with baseline and placebo ingestion. Plasma oxidised LDL, α-tocopherol and paraoxonase activity were unchanged in both treatment groups. Furthermore, production of TNF-α and IL-1β was not significantly changed by BC meal consumption. The present results suggest potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of BC in vitro in cultured macrophages. Although the observations were not directly transferable to a postprandial in vivo situation, the present results show that BC juice consumption may improve postprandial antioxidant status as indicated by higher ascorbic acid levels and free radical-scavenging capacity in plasma.

  16. Study on the inhibitory effect of allicin on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mei; Gao, Linghan; Pan, Jie; Wang, Xiaoye

    2014-01-01

    Allicin is the main active constituent of Allium sativum L., which is characterized by broad antibacterial spectrum (MarkosN et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2008); it also has apparent inhibitory effects on a variety of tumors. The Objective of the paper is to study the inhibitory effect of allicin on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. MTT assay and flow cytometry technique were applied to determine the inhibition rate of allicin on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. The results shows that different concentrations of allicin apparently inhibited the gastric cancer SGC7901 cells, cell growth inhibition rates in the experimental groups showed an upward trend with increased allicin concentration, which were concentration-dependent. Flow cytometry results found that the cell cycle was arrested in the G2/M phase. Allicin has an apparent inhibitory effect on proliferation of gastric cancer cells, and can induce their apoptosis. Compared with other chemotherapeutic drugs, allicin's anti-tumor effect is better; and toxic and side effects are relatively small.

  17. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Gang; Zou, Xi; Zhou, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of differentmore » differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.« less

  18. Suppression of gastric acid increases the risk of developing immunoglobulin E-mediated drug hypersensitivity: human diclofenac sensitization and a murine sensitization model.

    PubMed

    Riemer, A B; Gruber, S; Pali-Schöll, I; Kinaciyan, T; Untersmayr, E; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2010-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are common, although true allergies are detectable only in a subgroup of patients. The current study was prompted by a case observation, where a patient experienced generalized urticaria following his second course of diclofenac and proton pump inhibitor medication, and was found to have diclofenac-specific IgE. During recent years, our group has been investigating the importance of gastric digestion in the development of food allergies, demonstrating anti-acid medication as a risk factor for sensitization against food proteins. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the mechanism of food allergy induction described can also be causative in NSAID allergy, using diclofenac as a paradigm. We subjected BALB/c mice to several oral immunization regimens modelled after the patient's medication intake. Diclofenac was applied with or without gastric acid suppression, in various doses, alone or covalently coupled to albumin, a protein abundant in gastric juices. Immune responses were assessed on the antibody level, and functionally examined by in vitro and in vivo crosslinking assays. Only mice receiving albumin-coupled diclofenac under gastric acid suppression developed anti-diclofenac IgG1 and IgE, whereas no immune responses were induced by the drug alone or without gastric acid suppression. Antibody induction was dose dependent with the group receiving the higher dose of the drug showing sustained anti-diclofenac titres. The antibodies induced triggered basophil degranulation in vitro and positive skin tests in vivo. Gastric acid suppression was found to be a causative mechanism in the induction of IgE-mediated diclofenac allergy.

  19. Suppression of gastric acid increases the risk of developing Immunoglobulin E-mediated drug hypersensitivity: human diclofenac sensitization and a murine sensitization model

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, A. B.; Gruber, S.; Pali-Schöll, I.; Kinaciyan, T.; Untersmayr, E.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Hypersensitivity reactions towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are common, although true allergies are detectable only in a subgroup of patients. The current study was prompted by a case observation, where a patient experienced generalized urticaria following his second course of diclofenac and proton pump inhibitor medication, and was found to have diclofenac-specific IgE. During recent years, our group has been investigating the importance of gastric digestion in the development of food allergies, demonstrating anti-acid medication as a risk factor for sensitization against food proteins. Objective Here, we aimed to investigate whether the mechanism of food allergy induction described can also be causative in NSAID allergy, using diclofenac as a paradigm. Methods We subjected BALB/c mice to several oral immunization regimens modelled after the patient’s medication intake. Diclofenac was applied with or without gastric acid suppression, in various doses, alone or covalently coupled to albumin, a protein abundant in gastric juices. Immune responses were assessed on the antibody level, and functionally examined by in vitro and in vivo crosslinking assays. Results Only mice receiving albumin-coupled diclofenac under gastric acid suppression developed anti-diclofenac IgG1 and IgE, whereas no immune responses were induced by the drug alone or without gastric acid suppression. Antibody induction was dose dependent with the group receiving the higher dose of the drug showing sustained anti-diclofenac titres. The antibodies induced triggered basophil degranulation in vitro and positive skin tests in vivo. Conclusion Gastric acid suppression was found to be a causative mechanism in the induction of IgE-mediated diclofenac allergy. PMID:19817752

  20. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    PubMed

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  1. Low molecular weight phenolics of grape juice and winemaking byproducts: antioxidant activities and inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA strand breakage.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-12-17

    Bioactive compounds belonging to phenolic acids, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins of grape juice and winemaking byproducts were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). The concentration of phenolic compounds in different grape cultivars was in the order Tempranillo > Cora > Syrah > Isabel. The insoluble-bound fraction was most prominent, contributing 63 and 79% to the total for Isabel and Tempranillo, respectively. Juice-processing byproducts had a higher content of free than esterified phenolics, but the opposite was noted for winemaking byproducts. Insoluble-bound phenolics were up to 15 and 10 times more effective as antioxidants than those of free and esterified fractions, respectively, as evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and H2O2 scavenging activities and reducing power determinations. In general, insoluble-bound phenolics (100 ppm) were more effective in inhibiting copper-induced human LDL-cholesterol oxidation than free and esterified phenolics, exhibiting equal or higher efficacy than catechin. Phenolic extracts from all fractions inhibited peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand breakage. These findings shed further light for future studies and industrial application of grape byproducts, which may focus not only on the soluble phenolics but also on the insoluble-bound fraction.

  2. A comparison of the effects of intravenous tramadol, codeine, and morphine on gastric emptying in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Crighton, I M; Martin, P H; Hobbs, G J; Cobby, T F; Fletcher, A J; Stewart, P D

    1998-08-01

    We compared the effects of i.v. tramadol (1.25 mg/kg), codeine (1 mg/kg), morphine (0.125 mg/kg), and saline on gastric emptying in 10 healthy human volunteers using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Subjects received one treatment at each of four sessions, 2 wk apart. Gastric emptying was studied using the paracetamol absorption test. There were significant differences when comparing all treatments for concentration-time data (P = 0.002), peak serum paracetamol concentrations (Cmax; P < 0.001), times at Cmax (Tmax; P = 0.003), and areas under the curves from Time 0 to 360 min (AUC(0-360); P = 0.049). Morphine profoundly inhibited gastric emptying. Tramadol had measurable but statistically insignificant inhibitory effects on gastric emptying compared with saline (mean +/- SEM: Cmax 22.4 +/- 2.2 vs 26.8 +/- 2.5 mg/L [P = 0.19], Tmax 33 +/- 5.4 vs 19.5 +/- 2.3 min [P = 0.054] for tramadol versus saline, respectively). Compared with morphine, the Cmax (P < 0.01), Tmax, and AUC(0-360) (P < 0.05) values for tramadol were significantly different. The Tmax value for codeine (63.3 +/- 11.7) was greater than that for tramadol (P = 0.034). We conclude that tramadol has a measurable but smaller inhibitory effect on gastric emptying compared with other opioids. We compared the effect of tramadol, an unconventional opioid painkiller, on stomach emptying with that of codeine and morphine in a human volunteer study. Tramadol had a measurable but smaller effect and may have clinical and economic advantages in acute pain management compared with conventional painkillers.

  3. Secretion of Biologically Active Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by Transduced Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Gil-Soon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Park, Sun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer has the highest incidence rate among cancers in Asia. The advanced type of signet ring cell carcinoma has poor prognosis compared to other types of gastric cancer. The immuno-gene therapy with cytokine-based tumor vaccines has not yet been investigated for gastric cancer. The granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-based tumor vaccine has been demonstrated as the most potent stimulator for specific and long-lasting systemic tumor immunity. Materials and Methods In the present study, KATO III cells, the human signet ring cell gastric carcinoma cell line, were genetically modified by the transduction with the human GM-CSF cDNA or the modified hGM-CSF in replication-deficient retroviruses. The genomic integrations and mRNA expressions of the transgenes were determined by Southern and Northern blot analyses. Results Wild type (wt) or modified hGM-CSF was integrated into the genome of KATO III cells. The modified hGM-CSF mRNA was more stable than that of wt. The KATO III cells with the modified hGM-CSF produced higher level of hGM-CSF (12.4 - 19 ng/106 cells/48 hrs) than that with wt hGM-CSF, when determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The secreted recombinant hGM-CSF could support the proliferation of the GM-CSF-dependent cell line, indicating that the hGM-CSF secreted by the transduced KATO III cells has biological activities. Irradiated, transduced KATO III cells continued to secret hGM-CSF without proliferation. Conclusion Our results suggest that GM-CSF secreting KATO III cells could be tested for the treatment of gastric cancer as an allogeneic tumor vaccine as a part of immunotherapeutic treatment. PMID:18452266

  4. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by nanoscale hydroxyapatite in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Deng, Changsheng; Tang, Shengli; Zhang, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer effect on several human cancers, but the molecular mechanism of which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms by investigating the effects of nano-HAP on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Our results showed that nano-HAP significantly reduced cell viability, and induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells characterized by hypodiploid DNA contents, morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the increased expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, and decreased expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. Furthermore, the activation of caspases-3, and -9, but not activation of caspases-8 was induced by nano-HAP. Z-VAD-fmk, a universal caspase inhibitor, dose-dependently inhibited nano-HAP-induced apoptosis. This study demonstrates that nano-HAP inhibits the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells by inducing apoptosis, and the apoptotic pathway of nano-HAP-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent and caspase-dependent pathway.

  5. Human and Helicobacter pylori Interactions Determine the Outcome of Gastric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response is a critical hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection. Epithelial and myeloid cells produce effectors, including the chemokine CXCL8, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO), in response to bacterial components. Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies have emphasized that dysregulated and persistent release of these products leads to the development of chronic inflammation and to the molecular and cellular events related to carcinogenesis. Moreover, investigations in H. pylori-infected patients about polymorphisms of the genes encoding CXCL8 and inducible NO synthase, and epigenetic control of the ROS-producing enzyme spermine oxidase, have further proven that overproduction of these molecules impacts the severity of gastric diseases. Lastly, the critical effect of the crosstalk between the human host and the infecting bacterium in determining the severity of H. pylori-related diseases has been supported by phylogenetic analysis of the human population and their H. pylori isolates in geographic areas with varying clinical and pathologic outcomes of the infection. PMID:28124148

  6. The human non-gastric H,K-ATPase has a different cation specificity than the rat enzyme.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Herman G P; Koenderink, Jan B; Willems, Peter H G M; De Pont, Jan Joep H H M

    2007-03-01

    The primary sequence of non-gastric H,K-ATPase differs much more between species than that of Na,K-ATPase or gastric H,K-ATPase. To investigate whether this causes species-dependent differences in enzymatic properties, we co-expressed the catalytic subunit of human non-gastric H,K-ATPase in Sf9 cells with the beta(1) subunit of rat Na,K-ATPase and compared its properties with those of the rat enzyme (Swarts et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280, 33115-33122, 2005). Maximal ATPase activity was obtained with NH(4)(+) as activating cation. The enzyme was also stimulated by Na(+), but in contrast to the rat enzyme, hardly by K(+). SCH 28080 inhibited the NH(4)(+)-stimulated activity of the human enzyme much more potently than that of the rat enzyme. The steady-state phosphorylation level of the human enzyme decreased with increasing pH, [K(+)], and [Na(+)] and nearly doubled in the presence of oligomycin. Oligomycin increased the sensitivity of the phosphorylated intermediate to ADP, demonstrating that it inhibited the conversion of E(1)P to E(2)P. All three cations stimulated the dephosphorylation rate dose-dependently. Our studies support a role of the human enzyme in H(+)/Na(+) and/or H(+)/NH(4)(+) transport but not in Na(+)/K(+) transport.

  7. Preservation of orange juice using propolis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-10-01

    Orange juice is one of the most popular and the most consumed fruit juices all over the world, especially in Europe and the chemical food preservatives, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and their mixtures, have long been used in orange juice sold on the market. Excessive consumption of these preservatives may be hazardous to human health. Propolis, composed of resins collected from plant buds and exudates and mixed with salivary gland secretions and beeswax by honey bee workers, has been used as a human medicine and natural food preservative. We hypothesis that propolis, without alcohol, can serve as an alternative and non-synthetic preservative of orange juice. In this study, the preservative effect of propolis emulsion on orange juice was determined up to 35 days. Propolis emulsion (0.02 g/mL propolis, 12 mL), emulsion control (12 mL containing Tween-80, hydrophilic phospholipid and polyethylene glycol 400), sodium benzoate (0.4 g) and potassium sorbate (0.4 g) was each added to 388, 388, 400 and 400 mL orange juice respectively. Propolis emulsion showed significant inhibition of bacteria growth and l-ascorbic acid degradation. Orange juice pH value, titratable acidity, total phenolic content, color and antioxidant capacity were effectively maintained by propolis emulsion. A control solution with all the same emulsifying agents without propolis did not show these properties. It was concluded that propolis can be used as a natural additive agent in orange juice or other fruit juices as an alternative to chemical preservatives.

  8. Action of pure ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on the gastric mucosa in healthy humans: a descriptive endoscopic study.

    PubMed

    Knoll, M R; Kölbel, C B; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1998-03-01

    The action of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on the gastric mucosa in healthy humans is largely unknown. This study was designed to compare the effects of beer, white wine, whisky, and the comparable pure ethanol solutions on the gastric and duodenal mucosa in a controlled, randomized, double-blind endoscopic investigation. In 47 healthy human volunteers, 100 ml of beer, or white wine, or whisky, or a comparable pure ethanol solution (4%, 10%, 40% vol/vol), or isotonic saline as a control, were sprayed on the antral mucosa. The endoscopic appearance of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was assessed before, immediately after, and 30, 60, 240 minutes and 24 hours after instillation. The lesions were scored using an endoscopic grading system (0-5; 0 = normal mucosa and 5 = ten or more hemorrhagic lesions). Pure ethanol damaged the gastric mucosa in a dose-dependent fashion. The lesions occurred within 30 minutes, and reached a maximum after 60 minutes (antral score for 4% = 1.3; 10% = 1.8; 40% 3.8; control = 1.5). Beer, wine and whisky also induced gastric mucosal injury, but to a lesser extent than the comparable ethanol solutions. The 24-hour integrated endoscopic scores for beer and wine were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the corresponding ethanol content. In the case of pure ethanol > 10% and whisky, the lesions were still present 24 hours later (antral score for 10% = 1.5; 40% = 2.0; whisky = 2.3; control = 0). No lesions were observed in the duodenum. None of the volunteers reported any abdominal pain during the whole investigation. Intragastric application of 4%, 10%, and 40% vol/vol pure ethanol induces gastric, but not duodenal, mucosal lesions in a dose-dependent fashion. Beer, white wine, and whisky induce gastric mucosal lesions to a lesser degree than the corresponding ethanol content. Lesions induced by higher ethanol concentrations (> 10%) and whisky take more than 24 hours to heal. The lesser damage caused by alcoholic beverages may be due to the

  9. Expression of NF-κB and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Luo, He-Sheng; Yu, Bao-Ping

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of NF-κBp65 protein and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and their correlation in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. METHODS: Forty-one patients with primary gastric cancer, 15 with dysplasia, 23 intestinal metaplasia and 10 with normal gastric mucosa were included in this study. Expression of NF-κBp65 protein, hTERT mRNA and protein were determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The rate of p65 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma was 0%, 34.78%, 53.33% and 60.98%, respectively, while the rate of hTERT mRNA expression was 10.00%, 39.13%, 66.67% and 85.37% and the rate of hTERT protein expression was 0%, 30.43%, 60.00% and 78.05%, respectively. All the three parameters were significantly increased in dysplasia and carcinoma compared to normal mucosa, while the expression levels were also significantly higher in carcinoma than in intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.05). In gastric cancer tissues, nuclear staining rates of p65 and hTERT protein were both significantly associated with the degree of differentiation, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and invasion depth (P < 0.05). However, hTERT mRNA expression was only significantly associated with clinical stage. There was a positive correlation between p65 and hTERT mRNA (rs = 0.661 - 0.752, P < 0.01), and between hTERT protein and hTERT mRNA (rs = 0.609-0.750, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: NF-κBp65 and hTERT expressions are upregulated at the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis. NF-κB activation may contribute to hTERT expression and thereby enhance telomerase activity, which represents an important step in carcinogenesis progress. Wang W, Luo HS, Yu BP. Expression of NF-κB and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:14716817

  10. Troy is expressed in human stomach mucosa and a novel putative prognostic marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Franziska; Böger, Christine; Krüger, Sandra; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Röcken, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells of gastrointestinal tissues are characterized and controlled by an active Wnt signaling. Recently, the Wnt target gene Troy has been proposed as a neoplastic marker in the murine intestine. In this study, we explored the putative tumor biological significance of Troy in humans by using immunohistochemistry (104 cases), quantitative RT-PCR (50 cases) and cell culture experiments (MKN45, MKN74). In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, Troy was expressed by Muc5AC-positive foveolar epithelium, parietal cells, chief cells and cells of the intestinal metaplasia. In gastric cancer, Troy was found in the desmoplastic stroma and tumor cells. The overall staining intensity of the tumor cells was lower compared with the adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, Troy was found significantly more commonly in intestinal compared with diffuse type gastric cancer (p=0.001) and correlated inversely with tumor grade (p<0.001) and nodal spread (p=0.025). In the intestinal type, loss of Troy-expression was associated with a significantly worse overall survival (p=0.006). Subsequent cell culture experiments showed a Wnt dependent expression of Troy and a reduced colony formation ability of Troy-overexpressing MKN45-cells. Our results lead to the conjecture that Troy is also a negative regulator of WNT signaling in gastric cancer, which affects patient outcome. PMID:28881583

  11. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T; Barlow, Brittney J; O'Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R

    2014-11-01

    The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of the stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1 expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1 expressing chief cells. While classically described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localisation in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N; Crimmins, Dan L; Patterson, Bruce W; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D; Griest, Terry A; Rometo, David A; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J; Ladenson, Jack H; Polonsky, Kenneth S; Wice, Burton M

    2014-02-15

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10-14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1) was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions.

  14. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N.; Crimmins, Dan L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D.; Griest, Terry A.; Rometo, David A.; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10–14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol·kg−1·min−1 was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions. PMID:24356886

  15. Acidified bile acids increase hTERT expression via c-myc activation in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Peihua; Sun, Xuejun; Zheng, Jianbao; Wei, Guangbing; Zhang, Li; Wang, Hui; Yao, Jianfeng; Lu, Shaoying; Jia, Pengbo

    2015-06-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is upregulated in most cancer cell types as well in immortalized cells. The underlying mechanism for such upregulation, however, remains largely unknown. We report here that bile acids under acidified media increase hTERT expression via c-myc activation in primary human gastric cancer cell lines. Human gastric cancer MKN28, MGC803 and SGC7901 cells were treated with 100 µM deoxycholic acid (DCA) or chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) with or without acidified media in the presence or absence of the c-myc inhibitor 10058-F4 for 24 h. hTERT and c-myc protein levels were determined by western blot analysis. hTERT and c-myc mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. The promoter activities of hTERT and c-myc transcription were determined using promoter reporter luciferase assays for both. Telomerase enzyme activity was analyzed by stretch PCR. hTERT mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by bile acids in acidified media and were accompanied with enhanced telomerase activity. No changes were found at a pH of 7.0 or with acidified media alone. Similarly, the mRNA and protein levels of c-myc were also increased by bile acids in acidified media but not at a pH of 7.0 or with acidified media alone. Importantly, pharmacologic inhibition of c-myc using 10058-F4 prevented hTERT induction by DCA or CDCA in gastric cancer cells under acidic conditions. Bile acids (DCA and CDCA) under acidic conditions increased hTERT expression in human gastric cancer cells by activation of c-myc transcription. This suggests that acidified bile acids may promote tumorigenesis and affect cell ageing via telomerase activation.

  16. Comparison of gastric volumes in response to isocaloric liquid and mixed meals in humans.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, H; Camilleri, M; Cremonini, F; Foxx-Orenstein, A; Burton, D

    2004-10-01

    To compare gastric volume responses to ingestion of isocaloric liquid or mixed (solid-liquid) meals and document the intra- and interindividual reproducibility of gastric volume measurement using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging after i.v. 99mTc-pertechnetate. Eight healthy volunteers performed two studies at least 9 months apart. Gastric volumes were measured after a 317 kcal liquid nutrient meal. Within 2 weeks of the second liquid meal study, participants performed a third study, ingesting an isocaloric mixed meal. The order of the mixed and second liquid meals was randomized; Bland-Altman plot displayed data on repeated studies with liquid meal and paired t-test compared gastric volumes after mixed or liquid isocaloric meals. Fasting and postprandial gastric volumes associated with the two liquid meals were not significantly different; inter- and intra-individual coefficients of variation were 13 and 13.8%. In response to the mixed meal, there was a lower absolute postprandial volume and lower change in gastric volume over fasting volume compared with the response to the liquid meal (P = 0.0001). The SPECT measurement of gastric volumes in response to a nutrient liquid meal is reproducible. The magnitude of the volume response is greater after the liquid meal compared with the isocaloric mixed meal.

  17. Combining TRAIL and liquiritin exerts synergistic effects against human gastric cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice through potentiating apoptosis and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Yang, Xiao-Zhong; Wu, Shang-Nong; Wang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Jia-Ling; Yan, Wei; Ma, Tian-Heng

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most factors, leading to cancer-related death worldwide. However, the therapies to prevent gastric cancer are still limited and the emergence of drug resistance leads to development of new anti-cancer drugs and combinational chemotherapy regimens. Our study was aimed to explore the anti-gastric cancer effects of liquiritin (LIQ), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, which possesses a variety of pharmacological activities. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) preferentially inhibited tumor cells over other normal cells, when used in alone or in combination. The results indicated that LIQ, when applied in single, was moderately effective to suppress proliferation, and migration, as well as to induce apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of human gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and SNU-216, which are TRAIL-resistant. Significantly, when used in combination, the two drugs functioned synergistically to impede the progression and growth of human gastric cancer cells in vitro and gastric cancer cell xenograft nude mice in vivo. Both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis were induced by the two in combination via activating Caspases. And c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity was dramatically induced by TRAIL/LIQ. Importantly, TRAIL/LIQ-triggered apoptosis and JNK were dependent on ROS production. The data indicated that application of TRAIL/LIQ in combination had a potential value for clinical use to synergistically prevent human gastric cancer development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance of sonic hedgehog protein overexpression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanyang; Li, Fang; Tang, Bo; Shi, Yan; Hao, Yingxue; Yu, Peiwu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein in gastric cancer, and correlated it with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance of Shh protein was analyzed. Shh protein expression was evaluated in 113 cases of gastric cancer and 60 cases of normal gastric mucosa. The immunoreactivity was scored semi quantitatively as: 0 = absent; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; and 3 = strong. All cases were further classified into two groups, namely non-overexpression group with score 0 or 1, and overexpression group with score 2 or 3. The overexpression of Shh protein was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was then performed to determine the Shh protein prognostic significance in gastric cancer. In immunohistochemistry study, nineteen (31.7%) normal gastric mucosa revealed Shh protein overexpression, while eighty-one (71.7%) gastric cancer revealed overexpression. The expression of Shh protein were significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001), which was statistically correlated with age (P = 0.006), tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.042), pathologic staging (P = 0.017), and nodal metastasis (P = 0.019). We found no significant difference in both overall and disease free survival rates between Shh overexpression and non-expression groups P = 0.168 and 0.071). However, Shh overexpression emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.187, P = 0.041). Shh protein expression is upregulated and is statistically correlated with age, tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, pathologic staging, and nodal metastasis. The Shh protein overexpression is a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis in gastric cancer.

  19. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantlymore » suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.« less

  20. α-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of α-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with α-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results: Treatment with α-mangostin (3–10 μg/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, α-mangostin (7 μg/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the α-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. Conclusion: The anti-tumor effects of α-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:24976157

  1. α-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the anti-tumor effects of α-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with α-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Treatment with α-mangostin (3-10 μg/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, α-mangostin (7 μg/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the α-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. The anti-tumor effects of α-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway.

  2. Spheroid body-forming cells in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 possess cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianming; Ma, Lilin; Xu, Junfei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jie; Chen, Ruixin; Zhou, Youlang

    2013-02-01

    The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that cancer stem cells (CSCs), which possess self-renewal and other stem cell properties, are regarded as the cause of tumor formation, recurrence and metastasis. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. In this study, we enriched gastric cancer stem cells through spheroid body formation by cultivating the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 in defined serum-free medium. The stemness characteristics of spheroid body-forming cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were evaluated, and the expression levels of stemness genes and related proteins in the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were assessed. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining for the stem cell markers on spheroid body-forming cells was examined to evaluate the association between stemness factors (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) and the proposed CSC marker CD44. Our data demonstrated that non-adherent spheroid body-forming cells from the gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 cultured in stem cell-conditioned medium possessed gastric CSC properties, such as persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, high tumorigenic capacity and overexpression of CSC-related genes and proteins (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44), compared with the parental cells. More importantly, CD44-positive cells co-expressing the pluripotency genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog may represent gastric CSCs. Further experiments using more refined selection criteria such as a combination of two or multiple markers would be useful to specifically identify and purify CSCs.

  3. Impact of homogenization of pasteurized human milk on gastric digestion in the preterm infant: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Henry, Gwénaële; Dirson, Emelyne; Rousseau, Florence; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Bourlieu, Claire; Deglaire, Amélie

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that homogenization of Holder-pasteurized human milk (PHM) could improve fat absorption and weight gain in preterm infants, but the impact on the PHM digestive kinetics has never been studied. Our objective was to determine the impact of PHM homogenization on gastric digestion in preterm infants. In a randomized controlled trial, eight hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control to compare the gastric digestion of PHM and of homogenized PHM (PHHM). PHM was obtained from donors and, for half of it, was homogenized by ultrasonication. Over a six-day sequence, gastric aspirates were collected twice a day, before and 35, 60 or 90 min after the start of PHM or PHHM ingestion. The impact of homogenization on PHM digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested using a general linear mixed model. Results were expressed as means ± SD. Homogenization leaded to a six-fold increase in the specific surface (P < 0.01) of lipid droplets. The types of aggregates formed during digestion were different between PHM and PHHM, but the lipid fraction kept its initial structure all over the gastric digestion (native globules in PHM vs. blend of droplets in PHHM). Homogenization increased the gastric lipolysis level (P < 0.01), particularly at 35 and 60 min (22 and 24% higher for PHHM, respectively). Homogenization enhanced the proteolysis of serum albumin (P < 0.05) and reduced the meal emptying rate (P < 0.001, half-time estimated at 30 min for PHM and 38 min for PHHM). The postprandial gastric pH was not affected (4.7 ± 0.9 at 90 min). Homogenization of PHM increased the gastric lipolysis level. This could be a potential strategy to improve fat absorption, and thus growth and development in infants fed with PHM; however, its gastrointestinal tolerance needs to be investigated further. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

  4. Solubility of indium-tin oxide in simulated lung and gastric fluids: Pathways for human intake.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jens Christian Østergård; Cropp, Alastair; Paradise, Diane Caroline

    2017-02-01

    From being a metal with very limited natural distribution, indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is known of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably the liver, kidneys and spleen. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive tract, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to slowly dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung, this environment is likely to provide the major route for uptake of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Although dissolution through digestion may also lead to some uptake, the much shorter residence time is likely to lead to much lower risk of uptake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells induced by Euphorbia esula latex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhao-Ying; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ai-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Bin

    2016-04-07

    To investigate the effect of Euphorbia esula (E. esula) extract in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. E. esula extract at different concentrations was used to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells. Inhibition of proliferation was detected with thiazolyl blue assay, and apoptosis was detected with fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The mechanisms were studied by measurement of caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and Bax and Bcl2 mRNA expression. The thiazolyl blue assay showed that SGC-7901 cell viability and proliferation were inhibited significantly by E. esula extract in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the cell nuclei showed the characteristic changes of apoptosis, such as uneven staining and chromatin marginalization. Some key features of apoptosis were also observed under transmission electron microscopy, which included cellular shrinkage and the foaming or bubbling phenomenon. When the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, a sub-G1 peak could be seen clearly. Spectrophotometric assay of caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in the treated cells showed an approximately two-fold increase. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that Bax mRNA expression was upregulated, while Bcl2 mRNA expression was downregulated. E. esula extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells, in a caspase-dependent manner, involving upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2.

  6. Apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells induced by Euphorbia esula latex

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhao-Ying; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ai-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Euphorbia esula (E. esula) extract in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. METHODS: E. esula extract at different concentrations was used to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells. Inhibition of proliferation was detected with thiazolyl blue assay, and apoptosis was detected with fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The mechanisms were studied by measurement of caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and Bax and Bcl2 mRNA expression. RESULTS: The thiazolyl blue assay showed that SGC-7901 cell viability and proliferation were inhibited significantly by E. esula extract in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the cell nuclei showed the characteristic changes of apoptosis, such as uneven staining and chromatin marginalization. Some key features of apoptosis were also observed under transmission electron microscopy, which included cellular shrinkage and the foaming or bubbling phenomenon. When the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, a sub-G1 peak could be seen clearly. Spectrophotometric assay of caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in the treated cells showed an approximately two-fold increase. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that Bax mRNA expression was upregulated, while Bcl2 mRNA expression was downregulated. CONCLUSION: E. esula extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells, in a caspase-dependent manner, involving upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2. PMID:27053848

  7. Quercetin Suppresses CYR61-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ho Bong; Moon, Jeong Yong; Cho, Somi Kim

    2018-01-24

    Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in survival, tumorigenesis, and drug resistance. Therefore, we examined the effects of flavones against CYR61-overexpressing human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS (AGS-cyr61) cells, which show remarkable resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), adriamycin (ADR), tamoxifen (TAM), paclitaxel (PAC), and docetaxel (DOC). Among the tested flavones, quercetin had the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and significantly reduced the viability of AGS-cyr61 cells compared with AGS cells. Quercetin: (1) reduced multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B p65 subunit levels; (2) reversed multidrug resistance (MDR); (3) inhibited colony formation and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis; and (4) suppressed migration and down-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins in AGS-cyr61. Moreover, AGS-cyr61 cells treated with quercetin concentrations close to the IC 50 and simultaneously treated with 5-FU or ADR in the sub-lethal range showed strong synergism between quercetin and these two drugs. These findings indicate that CYR61 is a potential regulator of drug resistance and that quercetin may be a novel agent for improving the efficacy of anticancer drugs in AGS-cyr61 cells.

  8. Akebia saponin PA induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei-Ying; Lee, Dong Hwa; Joo, Eun Ji; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanism of akebia saponin PA (AS), a natural product isolated from Dipsacus asperoides in human gastric cancer cell lines. It was shown that AS-induced cell death is caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS cells. The apoptosis-inducing effect of AS was characterized by annexin V/propidium (PI) staining, increase of sub-G1 phase and caspase-3 activation, while the autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 II (LC3-II) conversion. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BaF1) decreased AS-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation, but caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO did not affect LC3-II accumulation or AS-induced cell viability, suggesting that AS induces autophagic cell death and autophagy contributes to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, AS activated p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which could be inhibited by BaF1, and caspase-3 activation was attenuated by both SB202190 and SP600125, indicating that AS-induced autophagy promotes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AS induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death and autophagy plays the main role in akebia saponin PA-induced cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium citrate inhibits the proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelia cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuan; Zhang, Xulong; Bo, Agula; Sun, Juan; Li, Minhui

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of sodium citrate on human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelia AGS cells. Numerous cytotoxicity-associated sodium citrate-induced effects were assessed, including cell viability and proliferation, cytokine expression and caspase activity. In vitro studies demonstrated that incubation with sodium citrate (>3.125 mM) inhibited AGS cell viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with sodium citrate for 24 h revealed that the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor increased with an increasing of dose of sodium citrate, whereas the IL-6 levels exhibited only a slight alteration. In addition, increases in caspase-3 and −9 activities were associated with increased duration of treatment and dosage of sodium citrate. Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with sodium citrate at higher concentrations or for longer durations exerts a cytotoxic effect on AGS cells via the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and the alteration in the levels of certain cytokines. PMID:29616124

  10. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  11. Effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Hong-Jun; Du, Mei; Zhang, Jin-Ling; Li, Liang

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice. BABL/c nude mice were selected as experimental animals and gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice model were established by subcutaneous injection of gastric cancer cells, randomly divided into different intervention groups. hGC-MSCs group were given different amounts of gastric cancer cells for subcutaneous injection, PBS group was given equal volume of PBS for subcutaneous injection. Then tumor tissue volume were determined, tumor-bearing mice were killed and tumor tissues were collected, mRNA expression of proliferation, invasion, EMT-related molecules were determined. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 d after intervention, tumor tissue volume of hGC-MSCs group were significantly higher than those of PBS group and the more the number of hGC-MSCs, the higher the tumor tissue volume; mRNA contents of Ki-67, PCNA, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-14, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and Twist in tumor tissue of hGC-MSCs group were higher than those of PBS group, and mRNA contents of Bax, TIMP1, TIMP2 and E-cadherin were lower than those of PBS group. hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue can promote the tumor growth in gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice, and the molecular mechanism includes promoting cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ascorbic acid supplementation and regular consumption of fresh orange juice increase the ascorbic acid content of human milk: studies in European and African lactating women.

    PubMed

    Daneel-Otterbech, Synøve; Davidsson, Lena; Hurrell, Richard

    2005-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of an increased intake of ascorbic acid (AA) on human milk AA output. We aimed to compare human milk AA content in European and African women and to evaluate the influence of increased AA intake on human milk AA output. Apparently healthy lactating women were recruited. AA was analyzed by titration with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. Mean human milk AA was approximately 50% lower (P < 0.001) in the African women (31 mg/kg; n = 171) than in the European women (63 mg/kg; n = 142). AA supplementation (1000 mg/d for 10 d) increased mean human milk AA from 19 to 60 mg/kg (P < 0.001) and from 60 to 70 mg/kg (P = 0.03) in 18 African and 10 European women, respectively. In 11 African women, mean human milk AA increased from 17 to 36 mg/kg (P < 0.001) after intake of 100 mg AA/d for 10 d. In African women, intake of 1 serving of orange juice per week had no significant effect, whereas 3 or 5 servings/wk ( approximately 100 mg AA/serving) for 6 wk increased mean human milk AA from 16 to 32 mg/kg (n = 13) and from 21 to 46 mg/kg (n = 13), respectively (P < 0.001). Human milk AA can be doubled or tripled by increased intake of AA in women with low human milk AA content at baseline. The response to a relatively high dose of AA was modest in European women in contrast with the 3-fold increase in mean human milk AA content in African women. These data indicate that human milk AA content is regulated.

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  14. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  15. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  16. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  18. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  19. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  20. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  5. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  6. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  8. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  9. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  11. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  12. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  13. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  16. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  18. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  19. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146.153 Section 146.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  1. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  2. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  3. Human Helicase RECQL4 Drives Cisplatin Resistance in Gastric Cancer by Activating an AKT-YB1-MDR1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dongliang; Fang, Hongbo; Niu, Kaifeng; Liu, Jing; Wu, Meng; Li, Shiyou; Zhu, Tienian; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Arora, Arvind; Lobo, Dileep N; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Chi, Zhenfen; Zhao, Yongliang

    2016-05-15

    Elevation of the DNA-unwinding helicase RECQL4, which participates in various DNA repair pathways, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenicity of various human cancers, including gastric cancer. In this study, we addressed the prognostic and chemotherapeutic significance of RECQL4 in human gastric cancer, which has yet to be determined. We observed significant increases in RECQL4 mRNA or protein in >70% of three independent sets of human gastric cancer specimens examined, relative to normal gastric tissues. Strikingly, high RECQL4 expression in primary tumors correlated well with poor survival and gastric cancer lines with high RECQL4 expression displayed increased resistance to cisplatin treatment. Mechanistic investigations revealed a novel role for RECQL4 in transcriptional regulation of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, through a physical interaction with the transcription factor YB1. Notably, ectopic expression of RECQL4 in cisplatin-sensitive gastric cancer cells with low endogenous RECQL4 was sufficient to render them resistant to cisplatin, in a manner associated with YB1 elevation and MDR1 activation. Conversely, RECQL4 silencing in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells with high endogenous RECQL4 suppressed YB1 phosphorylation, reduced MDR1 expression, and resensitized cells to cisplatin. In establishing RECQL4 as a critical mediator of cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells, our findings provide a therapeutic rationale to target RECQL4 or the downstream AKT-YB1-MDR1 axis to improve gastric cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3057-66. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Subjects/Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Results: Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Conclusions: Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations. PMID:25226819

  5. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel All-Trans-Retinoic Acid-Podophyllotoxin Conjugate towards Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Lai; Zheng, Chengyue; Wang, Yang

    2017-04-17

    With the purpose of creating a multifunctional drug for gastric cancer treatment, a novel all-trans -retinoic acid ( ATRA ) conjugate with podophyllotoxin ( PPT ) was designed and synthesized, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human gastric cancer cell lines using CCK-8 assay. The conjugate, P-A , exhibited significant anticancer activity against MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells with IC 50 values of 0.419 ± 0.032 and 0.202 ± 0.055 μM, respectively. Moreover, P-A efficiently triggered cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells due to modulation of cell cycle arrest- (CDK1, CDK2, CyclinA and CyclinB1) and apoptosis- (cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9) related proteins, respectively. Further mechanism studies revealed that P-A could increase the expression levels of RARα and RARβ, and decrease the level of RARγ in MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells. Finally, P-A inhibited the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling in the above two cancer cell lines. More importantly, the underlying mechanisms of P-A were similar to those of precursor PPT but different with the other precursor ATRA . Together, the conjugate P-A was a promising candidate for the potential treatment of human gastric cancer.

  6. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P < 0.05). There was no additional effect of the sweeter glucose + saccharin solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  7. Esculetin induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells through a cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore associated with ROS.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui; Wang, Bao-Hui; Lv, Wang; Jiang, Yan; He, Lei

    2015-12-05

    Esculetin is a coumarin derivative from natural plants that has been commonly used as a folk medicine and has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological and biochemical activities; however, the mechanism by which esculetin prevents human gastric cancer cell growth is still largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of esculetin on human gastric cancer cells and explored the cell death mechanism. Our data indicated that esculetin inhibited the growth of human gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and apoptosis was the main cause of decreased cell viability in esculetin-treated cells. Additionally, esculetin treatment increased the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and resulted in the appearance of the PARP cleavage product; and esculetin-induced cell death and apoptosis was decreased by pretreatment with CsA and NAC, but not BA; these results demonstrate that esculetin induced apoptosis via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in human gastric cancer cells in which cyclophilin D mediated the cytotoxic action by triggering the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore; and the generation of ROS not only was a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction, but also triggered esculetin-induced apoptosis. These results reveal a novel mechanism of esculetin on gastric cancer cells and suggest that esculetin could be a novel agent in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antitumor Efficacy of Combination Therapy Consisting of S-1, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin against Human Gastric Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hideki; Nakagawa, Fumio; Uchida, Junji

    2018-01-01

    A phase 3 trial of S-1, leucovorin (LV), and oxaliplatin for treating gastric cancer is now underway. However, the antitumor efficacy of the combination has not yet been examined in an in vivo preclinical study. This study examined the antitumor efficacy of combination therapy consisting of S-1, LV, and oxaliplatin against 4 human gastric cancer xenografts: NUGC-4, St-40, SC-2, and SC-4. The antitumor efficacy was evaluated using human gastric cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. S-1 and LV were administered orally once daily on days 1-7 at doses of 6.9 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Oxaliplatin was administered intravenously at a dose of 8.3 mg/kg on day 1. The tumor volume was measured on day 15, and the relative tumor volume (RTV) was calculated. In all 4 xenograft models, S-1 alone and oxaliplatin alone, but not LV alone, had significant antitumor activities (p < 0.001). Combination therapy consisting of S-1 and LV resulted in a significantly smaller RTV than S-1 alone (p < 0.001). Combination therapy consisting of S-1 and oxaliplatin also resulted in a significantly smaller RTV than either S-1 alone (p < 0.001) or oxaliplatin alone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, combination therapy consisting of S-1, LV, and oxaliplatin resulted in the highest antitumor activity in these models (p < 0.001 vs. S-1 + LV; p < 0.001 or p = 0.003 vs. S-1 + oxaliplatin). Combination therapy consisting of S-1, LV, and oxaliplatin administered according to a 1-week-on/1-week-off schedule may be useful for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  10. Clinicopathological correlation of keratinocyte growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Ping; Shao, Ming; Chen, Shi-Wen; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Bing-Ya; Gu, Qin-Long; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is reported to be implicated in the growth of some cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is thought to enhance the tumor invasion and metastasis ability. This study was aimed at analyzing the relationship between KGF and MMP-9 expression and patients' clinicopathological characteristics to clarify the clinical significance of the expression of KGF and MMP-9 in gastric cancer. Tissue samples from 161 patients with primary gastric cancer were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The relationship between KGF and/or MMP-9 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. KGF expression and MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer tissue were observed in 62 cases (38.5%) and 97 cases (60.2%), respectively. MMP-9 was significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. The prognosis of MMP-9-positive patients was significantly poorer than that of MMP-9-negative patients (p = 0.009). KGF expression was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer, and the prognosis of patients with both KGF- and MMP-9-positive tumors was significantly worse than that of patients with negative tumors for either factor (p = 0.045). Expression of MMP-9 was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.026). Coexpression of KGF and MMP-9 in gastric cancer could be a useful prognostic factor, and MMP-9 might also serve as a novel target for both prognostic prediction and therapeutics.

  11. Berberine modulates cisplatin sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells by upregulation of miR-203.

    PubMed

    You, He-Yi; Xie, Xue-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Zhu, Heng-Liang; Jiang, Fei-Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance is the main reason of the failure in clinical treatment of gastric cancer. Berberine (BER) is the active compound of traditional Chinese medicine Huang Lian. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effect of BER on cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells and to investigate its possible mechanism. Gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and BGC-823 and their respective cisplatin-resistant variants SGC-7901/DDP and BGC-823/DDP were used in this study. We found that BER treatment significantly reversed cisplatin sensitivity and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SGC-7901/DDP and BGC-823/DDP cells; BER treatment induced miR-203 expression, and overexpression of miR-203 mimicked the cisplatin-sensitizing effect of BER. Importantly, we showed that miR-203 was able to target the 3'UTR of Bcl-w. Therefore, we conclude that BER treatment reduces cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer cells by modulating the miR-203/Bcl-w apoptotic axis. BER may be a novel agent to enhance chemotherapeutic responses in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer patients.

  12. Integrated analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human gastric cancer: An in silico study.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhenyu; He, Bangshun; Xu, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the important role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a large number of biological processes. However, the knowledge of genome scale expression of lncRNAs and their potential biological function in gastric cancer is still lacking. Using RNA-seq data from 420 gastric cancer patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identified 1,294 lncRNAs differentially expressed in gastric cancer compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also found 247 lncRNAs differentially expressed between intestinal subtype and diffuse subtype. Survival analysis revealed 33 lncRNAs independently associated with patient overall survival, of which 6 lncRNAs were validated in the internal validation set. There were 181 differentially expressed lncRNAs located in the recurrent somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) regions and their correlations between copy number and RNA expression level were also analyzed. In addition, we inferred the function of lncRNAs by construction of a co-expression network for mRNAs and lncRNAs. Together, this study presented an integrative analysis of lncRNAs in gastric cancer and provided a valuable resource for further functional research of lncRNAs in gastric cancer.

  13. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1, Increased in Human Gastric Pre-Neoplasia, Promotes Inflammation and Metaplasia in Mice and Is Associated With Type II Hypersensitivity/Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Bass, Adam J; Bowlby, Reanne; Zhang, Min; Syu, Li-Jyun; Yang, Yitian; Grasberger, Helmut; Shreiner, Andrew; Tan, Bei; Bishu, Shrinivas; Leung, Wai K; Todisco, Andrea; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Cascalho, Marilia; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Kao, John Y

    2018-01-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation increases the risk of cancer by mechanisms that are not well understood. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a heme-binding enzyme that regulates the immune response via catabolization and regulation of tryptophan availability for immune cell uptake. IDO1 expression is increased during the transition from chronic inflammation to gastric metaplasia. We investigated whether IDO1 contributes to the inflammatory response that mediates loss of parietal cells leading to metaplasia. Chronic gastric inflammation was induced in Ido1 -/- and CB57BL/6 (control) mice by gavage with Helicobacter felis or overexpression of interferon gamma in gastric parietal cells. We also performed studies in Jh -/- mice, which are devoid of B cells. Gastric tissues were collected and analyzed by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric tissues were obtained from 20 patients with gastric metaplasia and 20 patients without gastric metaplasia (controls) and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; gastric tissue arrays were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We collected genetic information on gastric cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. H felis gavage induced significantly lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia in Ido1 -/- mice, which had lower frequencies of gastric B cells, than in control mice. Blood plasma from H felis-infected control mice had increased levels of autoantibodies against parietal cells, compared to uninfected control mice, but this increase was lower in Ido1 -/- mice. Chronically inflamed stomachs of Ido1 -/- mice had significantly lower frequencies of natural killer cells in contact with parietal cells, compared with stomachs of control mice. Jh -/- mice had lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia than control mice in response to H felis infection. Human gastric pre-neoplasia and

  14. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Bruce K; Krause, William J; Ivey, Kevin J

    1977-01-01

    Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens were taken from 15 healthy subjects before, during, and after intragastric instillation of one of the following isotonic solutions: saline; sodium bicarbonate; 600 mg aspirin suspended in sodium bicarbonate; and aspirin suspended in saline. On a separate day the same solutions were instilled, but gastric transmucosal potential differences were monitored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the biopsy specimens showed occasional mucous degranulation of mucosal surface cells, but no cell damage during instillation of sodium bicarbonate. Light microscopy studies 10 minutes after aspirin in saline showed damage in 20% of surface cells, with focal areas of cellular disruption and microscopic erosions, but only 3·4% of cells were damaged after aspirin in bicarbonate and there were no erosions. Electron microscopy showed a damaged honeycombed appearance of surface epithelium after aspirin in saline and a normal cobblestone appearance after aspirin in bicarbonate. Aspirin dissolved in bicarbonate failed to induce the usual fall in potential difference. These findings indicate that sodium bicarbonate in amounts equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda protects the gastric mucosa against aspirin-induced damage and prevents the usual fall in potential difference after aspirin. ImagesFIG 2FIG 3FIG 4 PMID:922417

  15. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  16. EGF-induced urokinase plasminogen activator receptor promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingping; Ma, Maoyuan; Zhang, Shanhui

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has been shown to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many types of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of EGF-induced EMT in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and BGC-823 underwent EMT phenotypic changes upon exposure to EGF. The induction of EMT was consistent with aggressive characteristics such as increased cell migration, invasion and clonogenic growth. Additionally, EGF stimulation also led to the upregulation of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) both at mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of uPAR by siRNA significantly attenuated EMT induction by EGF in SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, EGF increased ERK1/2 activity and blocking ERK1/2 signaling with its inhibitor, U0126, markedly inhibited EGF-induced uPAR expression and consequently EMT. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that EGF induced aggressiveness of gastric cancer cells by activating EMT, which involved the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway and, subsequently, uPAR expression.

  17. Low antroduodenal pressure gradients are responsible for gastric emptying of a low-caloric liquid meal in humans.

    PubMed

    Hausken, T; Mundt, M; Samsom, M

    2002-02-01

    The motor mechanisms responsible for transpyloric flow of gastric contents are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between luminal pressures and gastric wall motion and between gastroduodenal pressure gradients and pressure waves, and ante- and retro-grade transpyloric flow. In eight healthy volunteers, intraluminal pressures were recorded from the antrum and proximal duodenum. Transpyloric flow was monitored simultaneously using duplex ultrasonography, before, during and after ingestion of 300 mL meat soup. Transpyloric emptying occurred as sequences of alternating periods of emptying-reflux-emptying. Approximately one-third of the sequences were not associated with peristalsis. The antroduodenal pressure gradients were significantly lower during nonperistaltic-related emptying than during peristaltic-related emptying (0.15 (0-0.3) kPa, and 1.7 (0.2-2.0) kPa, respectively [mean plus minus (range)], P < 0.005). The duration of emptying episodes not associated with peristalsis were significantly longer than those associated with peristalsis at (6.5 (3-8.7) s and 4.4 (2-6) s, respectively, P=0.059). Manometry detected only 56% of the antral contractions seen on ultrasound. We concluded that gastric emptying of a low-calorie liquid meal occurs both during peristaltic and nonperistaltic antral activity. In spite of lower antroduodenal pressure gradients, the emptying episodes were longer for nonperistaltic emptying, which is likely to be caused by low pyloric resistance. Considerable flow seems to occur without peristalsis during gastric emptying of a low-calorie, liquid meal in humans.

  18. Inhibitory effect of vitamin K1 on growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human gastric and colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella; Tutino, Valeria; Notarnicola, Maria; D'Attoma, Benedetta; Russo, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Gastric and colon cancers remain the leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Since the gastrointestinal tract works in a constant link with the external environment, chemoprevention by dietary constituents could represent a possible approach to reduce cancer risk. Dietary vitamin K1 (VK1) has been shown to prevent the growth of many types of cancer cells. However, no data are available on possible different susceptibility to VK1 by gastric or colon neoplastic cell lines. Moreover, the exact mechanism of action of VK1 is still object of investigation, even if it has been reported that VK1 may induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, molecules affecting cell growth such as the natural polyamines could be of interest in VK1 action. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of VK1 (from 10 to 200 µM) administered up to 72 h, on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of a gastric (HGC-27) and a colon (SW480) cancer cell line. Additionally, the polyamine biosynthesis and the MAPK pathway were also examined. VK1 treatments caused an inhibition of cell proliferation and an induction of apoptosis in both cell lines, with a concomitant significant decrease of the polyamine biosynthesis, increased phospho-ERK 1/2 expression was also observed. A different proliferative behavior and a different response to VK1 by gastric and colon cancer cells was evident, with colon cells showing a more pronounced susceptibility to VK1 action. VK1 is safe and without known toxicities in adult humans, consequently it could be effective in prevention and treatment of selected gastrointestinal neoplasms. Protocols based on the use of VK1, along with polyamine inhibitors and/or analogues, could represent a suitable alternative option for improving the efficacy of chemoprevention and treatment in future strategies for gastrointestinal cancer management.

  19. Soy protein isolate does not affect ellagitannin bioavailability and urolithin formation when mixed with pomegranate juice in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieping; Lee, Rupo; Henning, Susanne M; Thames, Gail; Hsu, Mark; ManLam, Hei; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effect of mixing soy protein isolate and pomegranate juice (PJ) on the bioavailability and metabolism of ellagitannins (ETs) in healthy volunteers. Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed PJ alone or PJ premixed with soy protein isolate (PJSP). The concentration of plasma ellagic acid (EA) and urine urolithins was measured. There was no significant difference in plasma EA over a 6-h period between the two interventions. While the maximum concentration of plasma EA after PJSP consumption was slightly but significantly lower than after PJ consumption, EA remained in the plasma longer with an elimination half-life t1/2E at 1.36±0.59 versus 1.06±0.47h for PJSP and PJ consumption, respectively. Urinary urolithin A, B and C was not significantly different between the two interventions. In conclusion, premixing soy protein isolate and PJ did not affect the bioavailability or the metabolism of pomegranate ETs in healthy volunteers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Nantz, Meri P; Rowe, Cheryl A; Nieves, Carmelo; Percival, Susan S

    2006-10-01

    The daily consumption of fruits and vegetables is a common dietary recommendation to support good health. We hypothesized that a commercially available encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (FVJC) could support functional indices of health due to increased intake of various phytonutrients. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled investigation of 59 healthy law students who consumed either FVJC or placebo capsules for 77 d. Blood was collected on d 1, 35, and 77 to examine the number of circulating alphabeta- and gammadelta-T cells, cytokine production, lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant status, and levels of carotenoids and vitamin C. A log of illnesses and symptoms was also kept. The FVJC group tended to have fewer total symptoms than the placebo group (P < 0.076). By d 77 there was a 30% increase in circulating gammadelta-T cells and a 40% reduction in DNA damage in lymphocytes in the FVJC group relative to the placebo group. Plasma levels of vitamin C and of beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein increased significantly from baseline in the FVJC group as did plasma oxygen radical absorptive capacity (50%). Interferon-gamma produced by phorbol-stimulated lymphocytes was reduced 70% in the FVJC group, whereas other cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, transforming growth factor beta) were unchanged relative to treatment or time. FVJC consumption during this study period resulted in increased plasma nutrients and antioxidant capacity, reduction in DNA strand breaks, and an increase in circulating gammadelta-T cells.

  1. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Hall, Nicholas; Pritchard, Susan E; Cox, Eleanor F; Totman, John J; Lad, Mita; Hoad, Caroline L; Foster, Tim J; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2012-07-01

    Separation of solids and liquids within the stomach allows faster gastric emptying of liquids compared with solids, a phenomenon known as sieving. We tested the hypothesis that blending a solid and water meal would abolish sieving, preventing the early rapid decrease in gastric volume and thereby enhancing satiety. We carried out 2 separate studies. Study 1 was a 2-way, crossover, satiety study of 22 healthy volunteers who consumed roasted chicken and vegetables with a glass of water (1008 kJ) or the same blended to a soup. They completed satiety visual analogue scales at intervals for 3 h. Study 2 was a 2-way, crossover, mechanistic study of 18 volunteers who consumed the same meals and underwent an MRI to assess gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction, and small bowel water content (SBWC) at intervals for 3 h. In Study 1, the soup meal was associated with reduced hunger (P = 0.02). In Study 2, the volume of the gastric contents after the soup meal decreased more slowly than after the solid/liquid meal (P = 0.0003). The soup meal caused greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.04). SBWC showed a biphasic response with an initial "gastric" phase during which SBWC was greater when the solid/liquid meal was consumed (P < 0.001) and a later "small bowel" phase when SBWC was greater when the soup meal was consumed (P < 0.01). Blending the solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety.

  2. Effects of Wei Chang An on expression of multiple genes in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ai-Guang; Li, Ting; You, Sheng-Fu; Zhao, Hai-Lei; Gu, Ying; Tang, Lai-Di; Yang, Jin-Kun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of multiple genes in Chinese jianpi herbal recipe Wei Chang An (WCA) in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. METHODS: A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 grafted onto nude mice was used as the animal model. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, one control and the two representing experimental conditions. Animals in the two experimental groups received either WCA over a 34-d period or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) over 6-d period starting at 8th d after grafting. Control animals received saline on an identical schedule. Animals were killed 41 d after being grafted. The expression profiles in paired WCA treated gastric cancer samples and the N.S. control samples were studied by using a cDNA array representing 14 181 cDNA clusters. The alterations in gene expression levels were confirmed by Real-time Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). RESULTS: When compared with controls, the average tumor inhibitory rate in WCA group was 44.32% ± 5.67% and 5-FU 47.04% ± 11.33% (P < 0.01, respectively). The average labeling index (LI) for PCNA in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly decreased compared with the control group. Apoptotic index (AI) was significantly increased to 9.72% ± 4.51% using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in WCA group compared with the controls 2.45% ± 1.37%. 5-FU group was also found to have a significantly increased AI compared with the controls. The expression of cleaved Caspase-3 in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly increased compared with the control group respectively. There were 45 different expressed sequence tags (ESTs) among the control sample pool and WCA sample pool. There were 24 ESTs up-regulated in WCA samples and 21 ESTs down-regulated. By using qPCR, the expression level of Stat3, rap2 interacting protein x (RIPX), regulator of differentiation 1 (ROD1) and Bcl-2 was lower

  3. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  4. Anticancer activity of resveratrol on implanted human primary gastric carcinoma cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bo; Chen, Juan-Juan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Cai, Jian-Ting; Du, Qin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptosis of implanted primary gastric cancer cells in nude mice induced by resveratrol and the relation between this apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 and bax. METHODS: A transplanted tumor model was established by injecting human primary gastric cancer cells into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. Resveratrol (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg) was directly injected beside tumor body 6 times at an interval of 2 d. Then changes of tumor volume were measured continuously and tumor inhibition rate of each group was calculated. We observed the morphologic alterations by electron microscope, measured the apoptotic rate by TUNEL staining method, detected the expression of apoptosis-regulated genes bcl-2 and bax by immunohistoch-emical staining and PT-PCR. RESULTS: Resveratrol could significantly inhibit carcinoma growth when it was injected near the carcinoma. An inhibitory effect was observed in all therapeutic groups and the inhibition rate of resveratrol at the dose of 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg was 10.58%, 29.68% and 39.14%, respectively. Resveratrol induced implanted tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation. The inhibition rate of 0.2 mL of normal saline solution, 1 500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and 1500 mg/kg resveratrol was 13.68±0.37%, 13.8±0.43%, 48.7±1.07%, 56.44±1.39% and 67±0.96%, respectively. The positive rate of bcl-2 protein of each group was 29.48±0.51%, 27.56±1.40%, 11.86±0.97%, 5.7±0.84% and 3.92±0.85%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The positive rate of bax protein of each group was 19.34±0.35%, 20.88±0.91%, 40.02±1.20%, 45.72±0.88% and 52.3±1.54%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The density of bcl-2 mRNA in 0.2 mL normal saline solution, 1500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and

  5. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  6. Adrenalectomy abolishes hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adrenalectomy on gastric acid secretion and plasma gastrin level in hypergravity-exposed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were adrenalectomized and exposed to +10Gz three times for 3 min. Gastric juice and blood samples were collected, and the volume and total acidity of gastric juice and plasma level of gastrin were measured. Consistent with our previous data, acute exposure to +10Gz significantly altered the gastric juice parameters in the sham-operated rats. The volume (P < 0.001) and acidity (P < 0.001) of gastric juice in the hypergravity-exposed rats were significantly lower than those in the nonexposed rats. In contrast, in adrenalectomized rats, the differences in the gastric juice volume (P = 0.712) and acidity (P = 0.279) were not statistically significant between the hypergravity-exposed and nonexposed rats. We demonstrated that adrenalectomy abolished hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion, but did not influence gastrin release. These findings suggest that the adrenal glands are required for hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion. PMID:28430608

  7. Adrenalectomy abolishes hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion.

    PubMed

    Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-05-09

    Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adrenalectomy on gastric acid secretion and plasma gastrin level in hypergravity-exposed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were adrenalectomized and exposed to +10Gz three times for 3 min. Gastric juice and blood samples were collected, and the volume and total acidity of gastric juice and plasma level of gastrin were measured. Consistent with our previous data, acute exposure to +10Gz significantly altered the gastric juice parameters in the sham-operated rats. The volume (P < 0.001) and acidity (P < 0.001) of gastric juice in the hypergravity-exposed rats were significantly lower than those in the nonexposed rats. In contrast, in adrenalectomized rats, the differences in the gastric juice volume (P = 0.712) and acidity (P = 0.279) were not statistically significant between the hypergravity-exposed and nonexposed rats. We demonstrated that adrenalectomy abolished hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion, but did not influence gastrin release. These findings suggest that the adrenal glands are required for hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion.

  8. Silencing of EphA2 inhibits invasion of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Chen, Z; Chen, Z; Wu, S; Guo, J; Ge, J; Yang, P; Huang, J

    2012-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the common products of transforming oncogenes, have been widely used as indicators in the genesis and progression of human tumors. Until now, the erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular (Eph) receptors have been recognized as the largest family of RTKs. EphA2, one member of Eph receptors, locates on human chromosome 1p36.1 which is a hot region for cancer research. It has been reported that high EphA2 expression levels were correlated with the tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. Increased expression of EphA2 can promote tumor growth and enhance the metastatic potential. To further define the function of EphA2 in malignant invasion, we employed the small interference RNA (siRNA) technique to knockdown gene expression of EphA2 in the gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell. Our results showed that the expression of double stranded RNA led to the efficient and specific inhibition of endogenous EphA2 expression in SGC-7901 cells. Silencing of EphA2 expression inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest, and decreased cell invasion in vitro. In addition, intratumoral injection EphA2 siRNA plasmid suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 cells xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, knockdown of EphA2 expression reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that silencing of EphA2 inhibits gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 expression, which indicate that the specific inhibition of EphA2 may be a potential approach for gastric cancer therapy.

  9. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned...

  10. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned...

  11. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned...

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned...

  13. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned...

  14. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    PubMed

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  15. In vitro protein synthesis by human salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Hurlimann, J.; Zuber, Cecile

    1968-01-01

    Nine proteins not found in serum were synthesized by human salivary glands. Six were specific to saliva. These six proteins were synthesized in tissue cultures by submandibular glands, but only three of them were synthesized by parotid glands. One was identified as amylase. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein common to various excretions was synthesized in large amounts by submandibular and parotid glands. Two proteins common to gastric juice and saliva, were synthesized in vitro by human salivary glands as well as by gastric mucosa. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5661978

  16. An assessment of human gastric fluid composition as a function of PPI usage.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Emily; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Sanders, Nathan L; Thompson, J Will; Dubois, Laura G; Parker, William; Keshavjee, Shaf; Palmer, Scott M; Davis, R Duane; Lin, Shu S

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care for chronic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which affects up to 40% of the population, is the use of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that block the production of stomach acid. Despite widespread use, the effects of PPIs on gastric fluid remain poorly characterized. In this study, gastric fluid was collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not (n = 40) or were (n = 25) actively taking PPIs. Various enzymatic and immunoassays as well as mass spectrometry were utilized to analyze the concentrations of bile, gastricsin, trypsin, and pepsin in the gastric fluid. Proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry suggested that degradation of trypsin at low pH might account, at least in part, for the observation that patients taking PPIs have a greater likelihood of having high concentrations of trypsin in their gastric fluid. In general, the concentrations of all analytes evaluated varied over several orders of magnitude, covering a minimum of a 2000-fold range (gastricsin) and a maximum of a 1 × 10(6) -fold range (trypsin). Furthermore, the concentrations of various analytes were poorly correlated with one another in the samples. For example, trypsin and bile concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.0001) but not strong correlation (r = 0.54). Finally, direct assessment of bacterial concentrations by flow cytometry revealed that PPIs did not cause a profound increase in microbial load in the gastric fluid. These results further delineate the profound effects that PPI usage has on the physiology of the stomach. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Nobiletin Induces Protective Autophagy Accompanied by ER-Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SNU-16 Cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Yong; Cho, Somi Kim

    2016-07-14

    Nobiletin, a major component of citrus fruits, is a polymethoxyflavone derivative that exhibits anticancer activity against several forms of cancer, including SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells. To explore the nobiletin-induced cell death mechanism, we examined the changes in protein expression caused by nobiletin in human gastric cancer SNU-16 cells by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), followed by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis. Seventeen of 20 selected protein spots were successfully identified, including nine upregulated and eight downregulated proteins. In nobiletin-treated SNU-16 cells the glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) mRNA level was induced most significantly among six proteins related to cell survival and death. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of GRP78 protein. We detected increases in the levels of the ER-stress related proteins inositol requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1-α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), as well as GRP78, in response to nobiletin in SNU-16 cells. Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated apoptotic protein caspase-4 was proteolytically activated by nobiletin. Pretreatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, strongly augmented apoptosis in SNU-16 cells, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, an increased number of sub-G1 phase cells and increased levels of cleaved PARP. Our results suggest that nobiletin-induced apoptosis in SNU-16 cells is mediated by pathways involving intracellular ER stress-mediated protective autophagy. Thus, the combination of nobiletin and an autophagy inhibitor could be a promising treatment for gastric cancer patients.

  18. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of anticancer activity of water and juice extracts of young Hordeum vulgare in human cancer cell lines HT-29 and A549.

    PubMed

    Czerwonka, Arkadiusz; Kawka, Katarzyna; Cykier, Klaudia; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-06-12

    Introduction and objective. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is known as a rich source of different bioactive compounds. At present, considerable attention of researchers is focused on young barley grass. It can be a good source of dietary minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, phenolic compounds and proteins. It is possible that the composition of chemical ingredients beneficial for health may induce an anticancer potential of young barley in human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines. Materials and method. Hordeum vulgare water extract (HWE) and Hordeum vulgare juice extract (HJE) were prepared. Cell proliferation and viability were examined with the use of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and NR (neutral red) methods. Induction of necrosis was assessed by propidium iodide/Hoechst staining. Progress of the cell cycle involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and regulation of transcription was estimated using flow cytometry analysis. Additionally, the capability of free radical scavenging was evaluated with the DPPH assay. Results. The study revealed that extracts inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. The NR study confirmed the low cytotoxic activity of the tested extracts to normal human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) and human skin fibroblasts (HSF). Furthermore, a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells, but not A549 cells, has been reported. The free radical scavenging activity was observed in the case of the HWE but not the HJE. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate a cancer chemopreventive potential of young barley as a safe dietary agent in colon carcinoma.

  20. N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-mediated ING4 downregulation contributed to the angiogenesis of transformed human gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yansu; Fu, Rui; Xu, Mengdie; Huang, Yefei; Sun, Guixiang; Xu, Lichun

    2018-04-15

    Angiogenesis is associated with the progression and mortality of gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidences indicate that long-term N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) exposure predominantly contributes to the mortality of gastric cancer. Therefore, further reduced mortality of gastric cancer demands to explore the exact mechanisms of NOCs induced angiogenesis. As a tumor suppressor gene, inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING4) plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis. In this study, we will investigate ING4 expression level in human gastric epithelial cells after the long-term low dose exposure of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and the pathological impact of MNNG-reduced ING4 on angiogenesis of transformed cells. The soft agar colony formation assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and wound healing assay were used to evaluate the characteristics of transformed cells. HUVEC growth and tube formation assays were performed to test the angiogenic abilities. EMSA, luciferase reporter gene assay, real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to explore the exact mechanism. By establishing transformed human gastric epithelial cells via chronic low dose treatment, a gradually ING4 downregulation was observed in the later-stage of MNNG-induced cell transformation. Moreover, we demonstrated that MNNG exposure-reduced ING4 expression significantly resulted into aggravating angiogenesis through increasing the phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65 and subsequently DAN binding activity and regulating the expressions of NF-κB p65 downstream pro-angiogenic genes, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our findings provided a significant mechanistic insight into angiogenesis of MNNG-transformed human gastric epithelial cell and supported the concept that ING4 may be a relevant therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro and in vivo studies on antitumor effects of gossypol on human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line and MNNG induced experimental gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gunassekaran, G.R., E-mail: gunassekaran@yahoo.co.in; Kalpana Deepa Priya, D.; Gayathri, R.

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Gossypol is a well known polyphenolic compound used for anticancer studies but we are the first to report that gossypol has antitumor effect on MNNG induced gastric cancer in experimental animal models. {yields} Our study shows that gossypol inhibits the proliferation of AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma) cell line. {yields} In animal models, gossypol extends the survival of cancer bearing animals and also protects the cells from carcinogenic effect. {yields} So we suggest that gossypol would be a potential chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent for gastric cancer. -- Abstract: The present study has evaluated the chemopreventive effects of gossypol onmore » N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis and on human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. Gossypol, C{sub 30}H{sub 30}O{sub 8}, is a polyphenolic compound that has anti proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. The aim of this work was to delineate in vivo and in vitro anti-initiating mechanisms of orally administered gossypol in target (stomach) tissues and in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. In vitro results prove that gossypol has potent cytotoxic effect and inhibit the proliferation of adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. In vivo results prove gossypol to be successful in prolonging the survival of MNNG induced cancer bearing animals and in delaying the onset of tumor in animals administrated with gossypol and MNNG simultaneously. Examination of the target (stomach) tissues in sacrificed experimental animals shows that administration of gossypol significantly reduces the level of tumor marker enzyme (carcino embryonic antigen) and pepsin. The level of Nucleic acid contents (DNA and RNA) significantly reduces, and the membrane damage of glycoprotein subsides, in the target tissues of cancer bearing animals, with the administration of gossypol. These data suggest that gossypol may create a beneficial effect in

  2. Substitution of water or fresh juice for bottled juice and type 2 diabetes incidence: The SUN cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fresan, U; Gea, A; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Basterra-Gortari, F J; Carlos, S; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between juice consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been widely evidenced. Our aims were to prospectively evaluate the associations with T2D incidence of: 1) isovolumetric substitution of a water serving/day for one of fruit juice (different types), and of fresh fruit juice for its bottled version; 2) consumption of total, fresh or bottled juice; 3) energy intake from juices. We followed 17,518 adults without T2D at baseline. Beverage consumption was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcome was T2D incidence, according to American Diabetes Association's criteria. During a median follow-up of 10.2 years, 142 incident cases of T2D were identified. In substitution models, the substitution of water for bottled juice was associated with a lower T2D incidence, and also if the replacement was done by fresh juice, or especially fresh orange juice [HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.57-0.99), 0.65 (95% CI 0.43-0.98) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.92); respectively]. Each additional serving/day of bottled juice was directly associated with T2D incidence [HR 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75)]. No significant association was observed for energy coming for bottled juice [HR 1.74 (95% CI 0.94-3.20)]. Our results suggest that isovolumetric substitution of water or fresh juice for bottled juice was inversely associated with T2D incidence in a long-term prospective study. Thus, these substitutions could be useful to tackle the diabetes epidemic. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Helicobacter pylori sensitizes TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric epithelial cells through regulation of FLIP.

    PubMed

    Lin, W-C; Tsai, H-F; Liao, H-J; Tang, C-H; Wu, Y-Y; Hsu, P-I; Cheng, A-L; Hsu, P-N

    2014-03-06

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Apoptosis induced by microbial infections is implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here we show that human gastric epithelial cells sensitized to H. pylori confer susceptibility to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via modulation of death receptor signaling. Human gastric epithelial cells are intrinsically resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. The induction of TRAIL sensitivity by H. pylori is dependent on the activation of caspase-8 and its downstream pathway. H. pylori induces caspase-8 activation via enhanced assembly of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) through downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP). Overexpression of FLIP abolished the H. pylori-induced TRAIL sensitivity in human gastric epithelial cells. Our study thus demonstrates that H. pylori induces sensitivity to TRAIL apoptosis by regulation of FLIP and assembly of DISC, which initiates caspase activation, resulting in the breakdown of resistance to apoptosis, and provides insight into the pathogenesis of gastric damage in Helicobacter infection. Modulation of host apoptosis signaling by bacterial interaction adds a new dimension to the pathogenesis of Helicobacter.

  4. GASTRIC MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC RAPID GASTRIC EMPTYING

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S.; Fidler, Jeff; Edwards, Phillip; Grimm, Roger C.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms of “idiopathic” rapid gastric emptying, which is associated with functional dyspepsia and functional diarrhea, are not understood. Our hypotheses were that increased gastric motility and reduced postprandial gastric accommodation contribute to rapid gastric emptying. Methods Fasting and postprandial (300kCal nutrient meal) gastric volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 20 healthy people and 17 with functional dyspepsia; 7 had normal and 10 had rapid gastric emptying. In 17 healthy people and patients, contractility was analyzed by spectral analysis of a time-series of gastric cross-sectional areas. Logistic regression models analyzed whether contractile parameters, fasting volume, and postprandial volume change could discriminate between health and patients with normal or rapid gastric emptying. Results While upper gastrointestinal symptoms were comparable, patients with rapid emptying had a higher (p = 0.002) body mass index (BMI) than normal gastric emptying. MRI visualized propagating contractions at ~ 3 cpm in healthy people and patients. Compared to controls (0.16 ± 0.02, Mean ± SEM), the amplitude of gastric contractions in the entire stomach was higher (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.0) in patients with rapid (0.24 ± 0.03) but not normal gastric emptying (0.10 ± 0.03). Similar differences were observed in the distal stomach. However, the propagation velocity, fasting gastric volume, and the postprandial volume change were not significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusions MRI provides a noninvasive and refined assessment of gastric volumes and contractility in humans. Increased gastric contractility may contribute to rapid gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia. PMID:21470342

  5. Inhibition of growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice by d-limonene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Guang; Zhan, Li-Bin; Feng, Bing-An; Qu, Ming-Yang; Yu, Li-Hua; Xie, Ji-Hong

    2004-07-15

    To investigate the effects and mechanism of d-limonene on the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer in vivo. Metastatic model simulating human gastric cancer was established by orthotopic implantation of histologically intact human tumor tissue into gastric wall of nude mice. One percent d-limonene was orally administered at dose of 15 ml/kg every other day for seven weeks. Eight weeks after implantation, tumor weight, inhibition rate, apoptotic index (AI), microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), variation of ultrastructure, and the presence of metastasis were evaluated, respectively, after the mice were sacrificed. The tumor weight was significantly reduced in 5-FU group (2.55+/-0.28 g), d-limonene group (1.49+/-0.09 g) and combined treatment group (1.48+/-0.21 g) compared with the control group(2.73+/-0.23 g, P<0.05). In 5-FU group, d-limonene group, combined treatment group, the inhibition rates were 2.60%,47.58% and 46.84% and 0, respectively; AI was (3.31+/-0.33)%, (8.26+/-1.21)%, (20.99+/-1.84)% and (19.34+/-2.19)%, respectively; MVD was (8.64+/-2.81), (16.77+/-1.39), (5.32+/-4.26) and (5.86+/-2.27), respectively; VEGF expression was (45.77+/-4.79), (41.34+/-5.41), (29.71+/-8.92) and (28.24+/-8.55), respectively. The incidences of peritoneal metastasis also decreased significantly in 5-FU group(77.8%), d-limonene group (20.0%) and combined group (22.2%) compared with control group (100%) versus 62.5%,30% and 22.2%) (P<0.05). Liver metastasis was also inhibited and the incidences decreased significantly in 5-FU group, d-limonene group and combined group than that in control group (87.5% vs 55.5%, 20.0% and 22.2% respectively)(P<0.05). The incidence of ascites in control group, 5-FU group, d-limonene group and combined group was 25.0%, 22.2%, 0, 0, respectively and 12.5%, 11.1% 0, 0, with respect to the metastasis rate to other organs. d-limonene has antiangiogenic and proapoptotic effects on gastric cancer, thereby inhibits

  6. Inhibition of growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice by d-limonene

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Guang; Zhan, Li-Bin; Feng, Bing-An; Qu, Ming-Yang; Yu, Li-Hua; Xie, Ji-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanism of d-limonene on the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer in vivo. METHODS: Metastatic model simulating human gastric cancer was established by orthotopic implantation of histologically intact human tumor tissue into gastric wall of nude mice. One percent d-limonene was orally administered at dose of 15 ml/kg every other day for seven weeks. Eight weeks after implantation, tumor weight, inhibition rate, apoptotic index (AI), microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), variation of ultrastructure, and the presence of metastasis were evaluated, respectively, after the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: The tumor weight was significantly reduced in 5-FU group (2.55 ± 0.28 g), d-limonene group (1.49 ± 0.09 g) and combined treatment group (1.48 ± 0.21 g) compared with the control group(2.73 ± 0.23 g, P < 0.05). In 5-FU group, d-limonene group, combined treatment group, the inhibition rates were 2.60%, 47.58% and 46.84% and 0, respectively; AI was (3.31 ± 0.33)%, (8.26 ± 1.21)%, (20.99 ± 1.84)% and (19.34 ± 2.19)%, respectively; MVD was (8.64 ± 2.81), (16.77 ± 1.39), (5.32 ± 4.26) and (5.86 ± 2.27), respectively; VEGF expression was (45.77 ± 4.79), (41.34 ± 5.41), (29.71 ± 8.92) and (28.24 ± 8.55), respectively. The incidences of peritoneal metastasis also decreased significantly in 5-FU group(77.8%), d-limonene group (20.0%) and combined group (22.2%) compared with control group (100%) versus 62.5%, 30% and 22.2%) (P < 0.05). Liver metastasis was also inhibited and the incidences decreased significantly in 5-FU group, d-limonene group and combined group than that in control group (87.5% vs 55.5%, 20.0% and 22.2% respectively) (P < 0.05). The incidence of ascites in control group, 5-FU group, d-limonene group and combined group was 25.0%, 22.2%, 0, 0, respectively and 12.5%, 11.1% 0, 0, with respect to the metastasis rate to other organs. CONCLUSION: d-limonene has antiangiogenic and

  7. A knockin mouse model for human ATP4aR703C mutation identified in familial gastric neuroendocrine tumors recapitulates the premalignant condition of the human disease and suggests new therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D. Mark; Barroso, Alicia; Oteo, Marta; Morcillo, Miguel Ángel; Vargiu, Pierfrancesco; Dodd, Steven; Garcia, Miriam; Reyes, José; Ortega, Sagrario; Benitez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By whole exome sequencing, we recently identified a missense mutation (p.R703C) in the human ATP4a gene, which encodes the proton pump responsible for gastric acidification. This mutation causes an aggressive familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumor in homozygous individuals. Affected individuals show an early onset of the disease, characterized by gastric hypoacidity, hypergastrinemia, iron-deficiency anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia and, in one case, an associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed as the definitive treatment in all affected individuals. We now describe the generation and characterization of a knockin mouse model for the ATP4aR703C mutation to better understand the tumorigenesis process. Homozygous mice recapitulated most of the phenotypical alterations that were observed in human individuals, strongly suggesting that this mutation is the primary alteration responsible for disease development. Homozygous mice developed premalignant condition with severe hyperplasia, dysplasia and glandular metaplasia in the stomach. Interestingly, gastric acidification in homozygous mice, induced by treatment with 3% HCl acid in the drinking water, prevented (if treated from birth) or partially reverted (if treated during adulthood) the development of glandular metaplasia and dysplasia in the stomach and partially rescued the abnormal biochemical parameters. We therefore suggest that, in this model, achlorhydria contributes to tumorigenesis to a greater extent than hypergastrinemia. Furthermore, our mouse model represents a unique and novel tool for studying the pathologies associated with disturbances in gastric acid secretion. PMID:27491072

  8. A knockin mouse model for human ATP4aR703C mutation identified in familial gastric neuroendocrine tumors recapitulates the premalignant condition of the human disease and suggests new therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Oriol; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark; Barroso, Alicia; Oteo, Marta; Morcillo, Miguel Ángel; Vargiu, Pierfrancesco; Dodd, Steven; Garcia, Miriam; Reyes, José; Ortega, Sagrario; Benitez, Javier

    2016-09-01

    By whole exome sequencing, we recently identified a missense mutation (p.R703C) in the human ATP4a gene, which encodes the proton pump responsible for gastric acidification. This mutation causes an aggressive familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumor in homozygous individuals. Affected individuals show an early onset of the disease, characterized by gastric hypoacidity, hypergastrinemia, iron-deficiency anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia and, in one case, an associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed as the definitive treatment in all affected individuals. We now describe the generation and characterization of a knockin mouse model for the ATP4a(R703C) mutation to better understand the tumorigenesis process. Homozygous mice recapitulated most of the phenotypical alterations that were observed in human individuals, strongly suggesting that this mutation is the primary alteration responsible for disease development. Homozygous mice developed premalignant condition with severe hyperplasia, dysplasia and glandular metaplasia in the stomach. Interestingly, gastric acidification in homozygous mice, induced by treatment with 3% HCl acid in the drinking water, prevented (if treated from birth) or partially reverted (if treated during adulthood) the development of glandular metaplasia and dysplasia in the stomach and partially rescued the abnormal biochemical parameters. We therefore suggest that, in this model, achlorhydria contributes to tumorigenesis to a greater extent than hypergastrinemia. Furthermore, our mouse model represents a unique and novel tool for studying the pathologies associated with disturbances in gastric acid secretion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Use of cryomicrotomy to study gastric diffusion of amoxicillin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lozniewski, A; Weber, M; De Korwin, J D; Conroy, M C; Franck, P; Floquet, J; Le Faou, A; Burdin, J C

    1995-01-01

    Cryomicrotomy has been used as a new technique for removing gastric mucosae from adult guinea pigs for the study of amoxicillin secretion across gastric mucosae. This method allowed a very regular thickness of the removed surface layer of mucosa to be obtained with good reproducibility. Gastric superficial mucosa concentrations and gastric juice concentrations of amoxicillin were determined 1, 2, and 4 h after intramuscular administration (50 mg/kg) in 21 guinea pigs by a microbiological method. No antibiotic was detected in gastric samples at 4 h, except for a low-level mucosal concentration in one animal, thus indicating the short time that amoxicillin is present in gastric samples. PMID:7793890

  10. Human fused NKG2D–IL-15 protein controls xenografted human gastric cancer through the recruitment and activation of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Chen, Bei; Yang, Ti; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Ge, Xiaoqun; Gong, Weijuan

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and function and is more effective than IL-2 for tumor immunotherapy. The trans-presentation of IL-15 by neighboring cells is more effective for NK cell activation than its soluble IL-15. In this study, the fusion protein dsNKG2D–IL-15, which consisted of two identical extracellular domains of human NKG2D coupled to human IL-15 via a linker, was engineered in Escherichia coli. DsNKG2D–IL-15 could efficiently bind to major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA) of human tumor cells with the two NKG2D domains and trans-present IL-15 to NK or CD8+ T cells. We transplanted human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cells into nude mice and mouse melanoma cells with ectopic expression of MICA (B16BL6–MICA) into C57BL/6 mice. Then, we studied the anti-tumor effects mediated by dsNKG2D–IL-15 in the two xenografted tumor models. Human dsNKG2D–IL-15 exhibited higher efficiency than IL-15 in suppressing gastric cancer growth. Exogenous human dsNKG2D–IL-15 was centrally distributed in the mouse tumor tissues based on in vivo live imaging. The frequencies of human CD56+ cells infiltrated into the tumor tissues following the injection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into nude mice bearing human gastric cancer were significantly increased by human dsNKG2D–IL-15 treatment. Human dsNKG2D–IL-15 also delayed the growth of transplanted melanoma (B16BL6–MICA) by activating and recruiting mouse NK and CD8+ T cells. The anti-melanoma effect of human dsNKG2D–IL-15 in C57BL/6 mice was mostly decreased by the in vivo depletion of mouse NK cells. These data highlight the potential use of human dsNKG2D–IL-15 for tumor therapy. PMID:26364916

  11. Melittin induces human gastric cancer cell apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Gui-Mei; Tao, Wen-Hua; Diao, Ya-Li; Fang, Peng-Hua; Wang, Ji-Jun; Bo, Ping; Qian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    8695.7 ± 449.1 U/g). The expression of the Cyt C, Endo G, and AIF proteins in SGC-7901 cells was significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), while the expression of the Smac/Diablo protein was significantly lower than the control group after melittin exposure (P < 0.01). Ac-DEVD-CHO did not, however, have any effect on the expression of caspase-8 and FAS in the SGC-7901 cells. CONCLUSION: Melittin can induce apoptosis of human gastric cancer (GC) cells through the mitochondria pathways, and it may be a potent agent in the treatment of human GC. PMID:27003995

  12. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice reduces emphysematous changes and injury secondary to cigarette smoke in an animal model and human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Husari, Ahmad; Hashem, Yasmine; Bitar, Hala; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Zaatari, Ghazi; El Sabban, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) increases oxidative stress (OS) in the lungs. Pomegranate juice (PJ) possesses potent antioxidant activities, attributed to its polyphenols. This study investigates the effects of PJ on the damaging effects of CS in an animal model and on cultured human alveolar cells (A549). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following groups: Control, CS, CS + PJ, and PJ. Acute CS exposure was for 3 days, while chronic exposure was for 1 and 3 months (5 days of exposure/week). PJ groups received daily 80 μmol/kg via bottle, while other groups received distilled water. At the end of the experiments, different parameters were studied: 1) expression levels of inflammatory markers, 2) apoptosis, 3) OS, and 4) histopathological changes. In vitro, A549 cells were pretreated for 48 hours with either PJ (0.5 μM) or vehicle. Cells were then exposed to increasing concentrations of CS extracted from collected filters. Cell viability was assessed by counting of live and dead cells with trypan blue staining. Acutely, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, apoptosis, and OS was noted in CS when compared to Control. PJ significantly attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, and OS. Chronically (at 1 and 3 months), increased expression of TNF-α was observed, and lung sections demonstrated emphysematous changes when compared to Control. PJ supplementation to CS animals attenuated the increased expression of TNF-α and normalized lung cytoarchitecture. At the cellular level, CS extract reduced cellular proliferation and triggered cellular death. Pretreatment with PJ attenuated the damaging effects of CS extract on cultured human alveolar cells. The expression of inflammatory mediators associated with CS exposure and the emphysematous changes noted with chronic CS exposure were reduced with PJ supplementation. In vitro, PJ attenuated the damaging effects of CS extract on cultured human

  13. Effects of salinomycin and 17-AAG on proliferation of human gastric cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zuwen; Zhao, Jumei; Mi, Zhikuan; Pang, Qiuxia; Wang, Aihong; Chen, Meini; Liu, Xiaobin; Wei, Xiaoli; Liu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of 17-AAG combined with salinomycin treatment on proliferation and apoptosis of the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell line. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells. Morphological alterations of cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry analysis. The protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and Fas-ligand (L) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Salinomycin with a concentration range of 1–32 µmol/l was demonstrated to inhibit growth of SGC-7901 cells effectively, affect the morphology and apoptosis rate of cells, and arrest SGC-7901 cells in S phase. Furthermore, salinomycin significantly increased the protein expression of Fas-L and decreased the protein expression of NF-κB p65. The alterations in SGC-7901 cells co-treated with salinomycin and 17-AAG were more significant compared with cells treated with one drug only. In conclusion, the individual use of salinomycin and combined use with 17-AAG may significantly inhibit SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The potential mechanisms may be associated with upregulation of Fas-L and downregulation of NF-κB. These results provide a basis for the potential use of salinomycin in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28627587

  14. Helicobacter pylori Activates IL-6-STAT3 Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Potential Roles for Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Piao, Juan-Yu; Lee, Hee Geum; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Han, Hyeong-Jun; Ngo, Hoang-Kieu-Chi; Park, Sin-Aye; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Na, Hye-Kyung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated STAT3 activation is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated H. pylori-induced activation of STAT3 signaling in AGS human gastric cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori, and STAT3 activation was assessed by Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunocytochemistry. To demonstrate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-activated STAT3 signaling, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was utilized. The expression and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The interaction between IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) was determined by the immunoprecipitation assay. H. pylori activates STAT3 as evidenced by increases in phosphorylation on Tyr(705) , nuclear localization, DNA binding and transcriptional activity of this transcription factor. The nuclear translocation of STAT3 was also observed in H. pylori-inoculated mouse stomach. In the subsequent study, we found that H. pylori-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was dependent on IL-6. Notably, the increased IL-6 expression and the IL-6 and IL-6R binding were mediated by ROS produced as a consequence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori-induced STAT3 activation is mediated, at least in part, through ROS-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism responsible for H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  16. Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  18. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella , in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  19. S-allylmercaptocysteine suppresses the growth of human gastric cancer xenografts through induction of apoptosis and regulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosong; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Li, Ang; Sun, Yueyue; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xiao; Feng, Xiuli; Li, Siying; Zhao, Zhongxi

    2017-09-23

    Gastric cancer remains as a common lethal malignancy worldwide. Developing novel anti-gastric cancer drugs with minimal side effects is necessary to address this public health issue. S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has been demonstrated as a suppressive agent against tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of SAMC on human gastric carcinoma growth in vivo and explored the underlying mechanism. Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were inoculated subcutaneously in BALB/c nude mice. When xenograft tumors reached about 100 mm 3 , mice were treated with SAMC for 30 days. We observed that SAMC administration in mice effectively delayed the growth of SGC-7901 xenografts without signs of toxicity. TUNEL staining confirmed that the tumors from SAMC-treated mice exhibited a markedly higher apoptotic index. Mechanistic studies suggested that this activity may arise from its effects on the caspase activation and modulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, these data support development of SAMC as a potential agent for gastric cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  1. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  2. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  3. [Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 and ω-6 on angiogenesis formation in human gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiachi; Ma, Yuntao; Guo, Tiankang; Chen, Quan; Li, Yiping; Su, He; Chen, Xiaochang; Zhao, Xiaodan; Guo, Qinjin; Qi, Jianbo

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ω-3 and ω-6, and their middle metabolites PGE2 and PGE3 on angiogenesis formation of gastric cancer, and to explore associated mechanism. The effects of ω-3, ω-6, PGE2, PGE3 on the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) were measured by proliferation and migration assay respectively. The angiogenesis assay in vivo was used to measure the effects of ω-3, ω-6, PGE2 and PGE3 on neovascularization. In all the assays, groups without ω-3, ω-6, PGE2 and PGE3 were designed as the control. With the increased concentration of ω-6 from 1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, the proliferation ability of HUVECs enhanced, and the number of migration cells also increased from 28.2±3.0 to 32.8±2.1, which was higher than control group (21.2±3.2) respectively (both P<0.05). With the increased concentration of ω-3 from 1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, the proliferation ability of HUVECs was inhibited, and the number of migration cells decreased from 15.8±2.0 to 11.0±2.1, which was lower than control group (22.1±3.0) respectively (both P<0.05). In the angiogenesis assay, compared with control group (standard number: 43 721±4 654), the angiogenesis ability of HUVECs was significantly enhanced by ω-6 in concentration-dependent manner (1 μmol/L group: 63 238±4 795, 10 μmol/L group: 78 166±6 123, all P<0.01). Meanwhile, with the increased concentration of ω-3 from 1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, the angiogenesis ability was significantly decreased from 30 129±3 102 to 20 012±1 541(all P<0.01). The proliferation and migration ability of HUVECs were significantly promoted by ω-6 metabolites PGE2 (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, ω-3 metabolites PGE3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner (all P<0.05). After rofecoxib (a COX-2 specific inhibitor) inhibited the expression of COX-2, the expression

  4. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 digests fats in human milk and formula in concert with gastric lipase and carboxyl ester lipase

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karin; Ross, Leah; Miller, Rita; Xiao, Xunjun; Lowe, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role for PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is unclear. To clarify the potential of human PLRP2 to influence dietary fat digestion in newborns, we determined PLRP2 activity against human milk and infant formula. METHODS The activity of purified recombinant PLRP2, gastric lipase and CEL against fats in human milk and formula was measured with each lipase alone and in combination with a standard pH-stat assay. RESULTS Colipase added to human milk stimulated fat digestion. PLRP2 and CEL had activity against human milk and formula. Pre-digestion with gastric lipase increased PLRP2 activity against both substrates. Together, CEL and PLRP2 activity was additive with formula and synergistic with human milk. CONCLUSIONS PLRP2 can digest fats in human milk and formula. PLRP2 acts in concert with CEL and gastric lipase to digest fats in human milk in vitro. PMID:23732775

  5. Carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through both of the mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy.

  6. Inhibitory effects of CP on the growth of human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 tumours in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Zhan-Xue; Li, Ai-Ying; An, Ran; Yue, Bin; Fan, Li-Qiao; Li, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential antitumour effects of [2-(6-amino-purine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP) against gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Human BGC-823 xenotransplants were established in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control and CP groups, which were administered NaHCO 3 vehicle alone or CP dissolved in NaHCO 3 (200 µg/kg body weight) daily, respectively. Tumour volume was measured weekly for 6 weeks. Resected tumours were assayed for proliferative activity with anti-Ki-67 or anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies. Cell apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and with caspase-3 immunostaining. Proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results There was a significant reduction in tumour volume and a reduced percentage of Ki-67-positive or PCNA-positive cells in the CP group compared with the control group. The percentage of TUNEL-positive or caspase 3-positive cells significantly increased following CP treatment compared with the control group. Tumours from the CP group had higher levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) compared with control tumours. Conclusion CP treatment inhibited tumour growth and induced tumour cell apoptosis in a nude mouse model of BGC-823 gastric adenocarcinoma. Activation of the AKT and ERK signalling pathways may mediate this antitumour activity.

  7. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase and metalloprotease-9 of human adenocarcinoma gastric cells by chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion.

    PubMed

    Bulgari, Michela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Colombo, Elisa; Maschi, Omar; Caruso, Donatella; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether the antiinflammatory effect of chamomile infusion at gastric level could be ascribed to the inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 and elastase. The infusions from capitula and sifted flowers (250-1500 µg/mL) and individual flavonoids (10 µM) were tested on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated AGS cells and human neutrophil elastase. The results indicate that the antiinflammatory activity associated with chamomile infusions from both the capitula and sifted flowers is most likely due to the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and gastric metalloproteinase-9 activity and secretion; the inhibition occurring in a concentration dependent manner. The promoter activity was inhibited as well and the decrease of metalloproteinase-9 expression was found to be associated with the inhibition of NF-kB driven transcription. The results further indicate that the flavonoid-7-glycosides, major constituents of chamomile flowers, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory action of the chamomile infusion observed here. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Use of technetium-99m(V)thiocyanate to measure gastric emptying of fat.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, K M; Baker, R J; Horowitz, M; Maddox, A F; Edelbroek, M A; Chatterton, B E

    1991-05-01

    Technetium-99m(V)thiocyanate was evaluated as a radio-pharmaceutical for measuring gastric emptying of fat. Olive oil was labeled with 99mTc(V)thiocyanate by direct extraction from acidic thiocyanate solution. After incubation with dilute HCl (pH 1.4) at 37 degrees C for 3 hr, approximately 5% of the total radioactivity eluted into the aqueous phase. When incubated with human gastric juice (pH 1.8 and 2.2), approximately 8% of the activity was detected in the aqueous phase at 3 hr. Scintigraphic studies performed in two rabbits showed that olive oil labeled with 99mTc(V)thiocyanate emptied slowly from the stomach, with a gastric half-emptying time (T50) of more than 3 hr. A low-nutrient soup labeled with 113mIn-DTPA and mixed with 99mTc(V)thiocyanate labeled oil was consumed by six human volunteers. The oil emptied much more slowly (p less than 0.02) (median T50 = 198 min) than the aqueous component (median T50 = 30 min). These observations indicate that 99mTc(V)thiocyanate is a suitable pharmaceutical to measure gastric emptying of extracellular fat.

  9. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  10. Expression of collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Elnemr, Ayman; Yonemura, Yutaka; Bandou, Etsurou; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Kawamura, Taiichi; Takahashi, Shigeru; Tochiori, Shizuka; Endou, Yoshio; Sasaki, Takuma

    2003-01-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13; MMP-13) is a recently identified member of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with broad substrate specificity, and a potential role in tumor metastasis and invasion has been proposed for this enzyme. To date, in gastrointestinal tract tumors, collagenase-3 expression has been reported only in esophageal carcinoma; the presence and possible implications of this enzyme in the progression of gastric cancer are unknown. In this study, MMP-13 mRNA expression was analyzed in a series of 110 matched gastric adenocarcinomas and the corresponding adjacent normal mucosae as well as in nine gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, the mRNA expression of gelatinase a (MMP-2) and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), two MMPs which have the ability to activate MMP-13 in vitro, was also examined in the same cases and cell lines. the production and localization of MMP-13, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP were investigated by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and zymography. MMP-13 mrna was expressed in 23 of the 110 carcinomas (21%), and MT1-MMP mRNA was expressed in 45 (40%), but no MMP-13 or MT1-MMP mRNA was detected in any of the normal mucosae. Also, eight of the nine gastric cancer cell lines expressed mRNA of MMP-13, and in each cell line there was coordinate expression with either MT1-MMP or MMP-2 mRNA. MMP-13 and MT1-MMP were detected at the bases of invadopodia of the cultured cancer cells as well as in the invasive front of the tumors, as shown by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of MMP-13 protein in those cell lines and carcinomas that expressed its mrna. on zymography, almost all cell lines that expressed MMP-13 showed gelatinolytic bands corresponding to the active form of MMP-13 or one of its intermediate forms. Also, zymographic analysis of the tumor specimens revealed strong gelatinolytic bands of MMP-13 and MMP-2

  11. Drug marker absorption in relation to pellet size, gastric motility and viscous meals in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhie, J. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Welage, L. S.; Frens, J.; Wald, R. J.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. E.; Putcha, L.; Amidon, G. L.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate drug marker absorption in relation to the gastric emptying (GE) of 0.7 mm and 3.6 mm enteric coated pellets as a function of viscosity and the underlying gastric motility. METHODS: Twelve subjects were evaluated in a 3-way crossover study. 0.7 mm caffeine and 3.6 mm acetaminophen enteric coated pellets were concurrently administered with a viscous caloric meal at the levels of 4000, 6000 and 8000 cP. Gastric motility was simultaneously measured with antral manometry and compared to time events in the plasma profiles of the drug markers. RESULTS: Caffeine, from the 0.7 mm pellets, was observed significantly earlier in the plasma than acetaminophen, from the 3.6 mm pellets, at all levels of viscosity. Motility related size differentiated GE was consistently observed at all viscosity levels, however, less variability was observed with the 4000 cP meal. Specifically, the onset of absorption from the of 3.6 mm pellets correlated with the onset of Phase II fasted state contractions (r = 0.929, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The timeframe of drug marker absorption and the onset of motility events were not altered within the range of viscosities evaluated. Rather, the differences in drug marker profiles from the non-digestible solids were most likely the result of the interaction between viscosity and motility influencing antral flow dynamics. The administration of the two sizes of pellets and a viscous caloric meal with subsequent monitoring of drug marker profiles is useful as a reference to assess the influence of motility patterns on the absorption profile of orally administered agents.

  12. Fat digestion modulates gastrointestinal sensations induced by gastric distention and duodenal lipid in humans.

    PubMed

    Feinle, C; Rades, T; Otto, B; Fried, M

    2001-04-01

    It is unclear whether fat digestion is required for the induction of gastrointestinal sensations and whether different fats have different effects. We investigated the effect of fat digestion and of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs; C < 12) and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs; C > 16) on gastrointestinal sensations. In a double-blind study, 15 healthy subjects were studied on 5 occasions during which LCT or MCT emulsions (2 kcal/min), with or without 120 mg tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, lipase inhibitor), or sucrose polyester (SPE, nondigestible fat) were infused intraduodenally in randomized order. After 30 minutes, the proximal stomach was distended in 1 mm Hg steps/min. Intensity of gastrointestinal sensations (on a 0-10 visual analog scale), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) levels, and gastric volumes were assessed throughout. LCT and MCT increased gastric volume at baseline pressure compared with SPE, and LCT more than MCT. THL entirely abolished this effect (volumes [mL]: LCT, 213 +/- 19; LCT-THL, 39 +/- 3; MCT, 155 +/- 12; MCT-THL, 43 +/- 5; SPE, 44 +/- 5). Only LCT increased plasma CCK levels (pmol/L per 30 minutes: LCT, 21 +/- 2; LCT-THL, 9 +/- 1; MCT, 9 +/- 1; MCT-THL, 11 +/- 1; SPE, 9 +/- 1). During distentions, intragastric volumes were greater during infusion of LCT and MCT than during the respective THL conditions or SPE, but plasma CCK levels did not change. The intensity of sensations increased (hunger decreased) more with LCT than with MCT. During infusion of THL or SPE, the effects were smaller than during LCT or MCT. Fat digestion is required for the modulation of gastrointestinal sensations during gastric distention. The effects of fat depend on the fatty acid chain length and are not entirely explained by release of CCK.

  13. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  14. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, E; López-Vidal, Y; Luqueño, V; Ruiz-Palacios, G M

    1991-01-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for detection of Helicobacter pylori, we studied 151 patients. Biopsies of gastric mucosae were obtained for culture, histological testing, and IFA. H. pylori serum antibodies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFA was done on Formalin-preserved, paraffin-embedded biopsies by using rabbit anti-H. pylori and goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate. The sensitivity and specificity of IFA compared with culture and Warthin-Starry stain were 93 and 95%, respectively. IFA is an accurate method for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Images PMID:1761700

  15. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  16. Epigenetic modulation associated with carcinogenesis and prognosis of human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sonohara, Fuminori; Inokawa, Yoshikuni; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Nomoto, Shuji

    2017-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, particularly in Asia. Epidemiological and other clinical studies have identified an association between a number of risk factors, including Helicobacter pylori , and GC. A number of studies have also examined genetic changes associated with the development and progression of GC. When considering the clinical significance of the expression of a specific gene, its epigenetic modulation should be considered. Epigenetic modulation appears to be a primary driver of changes in gastric tissue that promotes carcinogenesis and progression of GC and other neoplasms. The role of epigenetic modulation in GC carcinogenesis and progression has been widely studied in recent years. In the present review, recent results of epigenetic modulation associated with GC and their effects on clinical outcome are examined, with particular respect to DNA methylation, histone modulation and non-coding RNA. A number of studies indicate that epigenetic changes in the expression of specific genes critically affect their clinical significance and further study may reveal epigenetic changes as the basis for targeted molecular therapy or novel biomarkers that predict GC prognosis or extension of this often fatal disease.

  17. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in human gastric cancer and superficial gastritis.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; de la Peña, Sol; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-03-28

    To assess expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in gastric cancer, superficial gastritis and normal mucosa, and to measure metalloproteinase activity. MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalization was carried out using three different factors. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative gelatin zymography (qGZ). 18S ribosomal RNA (18SRNA) was very highly expressed, while hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase-1 (HPRT-1) was moderately expressed. MMP2 was highly expressed, while MMP9 was not detected or lowly expressed in normal tissues, moderately or highly expressed in gastritis and highly expressed in cancer. Relative expression of 18SRNA and HPRT-1 showed no significant differences. Significant differences in MMP2 and MMP9 were found between cancer and normal tissue, but not between gastritis and normal tissue. Absolute quantification of MMP9 echoed this pattern, but differential expression of MMP2 proved conflictive. Analysis by qGZ indicated significant differences between cancer and normal tissue in MMP-2, total MMP-9, 250 and 110 kDa bands. MMP9 expression is enhanced in gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa; interpretation of differential expression of MMP2 is difficult to establish.

  18. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN-γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections. PMID:28812026

  19. Antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF) derived i.a. from Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice against different human-pathogenic cold viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fal, Andrzej M; Conrad, Frank; Schönknecht, Karina; Sievers, Hartwig; Pawińska, Anna

    The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses. Ribavirin Virazol and - in case of Adenovirus an internal laboratory standard - were used as positive controls. Cytotoxic effects of VBF and VBF Control onto the virus permissive MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells were examined. Non-toxic concentrations of VBF were determined by the Methylthiazoletetrazolium test (MTT-Test). In all antiviral studies VBF showed (2.1%) a dose-dependent antiviral activity against FluA H1N1 and HRV14 at non-toxic concentrations. A very strong effect was demonstrated in concentrations of 2.5% and 1.25% where replication of H1N1 and HRV14 was nearly completely blocked. Dose-dependent antiviral activity was detectable against RSV in a concentration range of 1.25% to 0.63% of the test item. Due to toxic side effects of a 2.5% concentration at least a "minor effect" of about 30% (1.25% solution) against Para 3 infected HEp-2 cells could be determined. Concerning Adeno 5 not any antiviral activity could be demonstrated in all studies with all tested substance concentrations of VBF. VBF Control did not show any cytotoxicity and antiviral effects. Further research is needed to elucidate clinical effect of VBF.

  20. Antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF) derived i.a. from Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice against different human-pathogenic cold viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fal, Andrzej M; Conrad, Frank; Schönknecht, Karina; Sievers, Hartwig; Pawińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses. Ribavirin Virazol and - in case of Adenovirus an internal laboratory standard - were used as positive controls. Cytotoxic effects of VBF and VBF Control onto the virus permissive MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells were examined. Non-toxic concentrations of VBF were determined by the Methylthiazoletetrazolium test (MTT-Test). In all antiviral studies VBF showed (2.1%) a dose-dependent antiviral activity against FluA H1N1 and HRV14 at non-toxic concentrations. A very strong effect was demonstrated in concentrations of 2.5% and 1.25% where replication of H1N1 and HRV14 was nearly completely blocked. Dose-dependent antiviral activity was detectable against RSV in a concentration range of 1.25% to 0.63% of the test item. Due to toxic side effects of a 2.5% concentration at least a "minor effect" of about 30% (1.25% solution) against Para 3 infected HEp-2 cells could be determined. Concerning Adeno 5 not any antiviral activity could be demonstrated in all studies with all tested substance concentrations of VBF. VBF Control did not show any cytotoxicity and antiviral effects. Further research is needed to elucidate clinical effect of VBF.

  1. Photoprotective effects of cranberry juice and its various fractions against blue light-induced impairment in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Han, Yi-Chun; Chen, I-Hsien; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2017-12-01

    Cranberry has numerous biological activities, including antioxidation, anticancer, cardioprotection, as well as treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), attributed to abundant phenolic contents. The current study focused on the effect of cranberry juice (CJ) on blue light exposed human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells which mimic age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis, as well as total antioxidant capacity and scavenging activity of cranberry ethyl acetate extract and different CJ fractions (condensed tannins containing fraction), were evaluated. In cell line model, ARPE-19 were irradiated with blue light at 450 nm wavelength for 10 h (mimic AMD) and treated with different fractions of CJ extract at different doses (5-50 μg/mL) by assessing the cell viability or proliferation rate using MTT assay (repairing efficacy). Phytochemical and HPLC analysis reveals the presence of several phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, quercetin) in ethyl acetate extract and different fractions of CJ. However, the condensed tannin containing fraction of ethyl acetate extract of CJ displayed the greater (p < 0.05) scavenging activity especially at the dose of 1 mg/mL. Similarly, the condensed tannin containing fraction at 50 μg/mL presented better (p < 0.05) repairing ability (increased cell viability). Furthermore, the oligomeric condensed tannin containing fraction display the best (p < 0.05) repairing efficiency at 50 μg/mL. In conclusion, this study distinctly proved that condensed tannin containing fraction of CJ probably exhibits better free radicals scavenging activity and thereby effectively protected the ARPE-19 cells and thus, hampers the progress of AMD.

  2. Tart cherry juice induces differential dose-dependent effects on apoptosis, but not cellular proliferation, in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R; Wooden, Alissa

    2012-11-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits, for example, tart cherries, is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This is due, in large part, to the diverse myriad bioactive agents, that is, polyphenol anthocyanins, present in fruits. Anthocyanin-rich tart cherries purportedly modulate numerous cellular processes associated with oncogenesis such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation (CP), and cell cycle progression, although the effective concentrations eliciting these effects are unclear. We hypothesized that several dose-dependent effects over a large concentration range of 100% tart cherry juice (TCJ) would exist and affect these processes differentially with the potential for cellular protection and cellular death either by apoptosis or by necrosis. In this in vitro study, we tested the dose response of TCJ on CP and cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TCJ was added at 0.03-30% (v/v) to cells and incubated overnight with the medium alone or with increasing TCJ. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly reduced by 20% at ≥10% (v/v) TCJ and associated with necrosis, but was not different between the control and treatment groups at <10% TCJ. MTT reduction was also significantly reduced by 27% and 80% at 10% and 30% TCJ, respectively, and associated with necrosis. Apoptosis, but not necrosis, was increased ∼63% at 3% TCJ (∼307 nM monomeric anthocyanins), yet significantly decreased (P<.05) by 20% at 1% TCJ (920 nM) both of which were physiologically relevant concentrations of anthocyanins. The data support a biphasic effect on apoptosis and no effect on proliferation.

  3. Inhibitory effect of known antioxidants and of press juice from herring (Clupea harengus) light muscle on the generation of free radicals in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Gujón; Undeland, Ingrid; Sannaveerappa, Thippeswamy; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Lindgård, Ann; Mattsson-Hultén, Lillemor; Soussi, Bassam

    2006-10-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative stress, which has been linked to various diseases. It has been suggested that antioxidant-rich foods can reduce such oxidative stress. However, the lack of suitable model systems to screen for in vivo effects of food-derived antioxidants has prevented a clear consensus in this area. In this study, the aim was to use a single-cell model system (human monocyte) to evaluate whether certain pure antioxidants and complex muscle extracts (herring light muscle press juice, PJ) could prevent ROS formation under in vivo like conditions. ROS were excreted from the monocytes upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and were then detected as isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL). Adding 2000 units of catalase and 50 units of superoxide dismutase to the monocytes model lowered the CL response by 35 and 86%, respectively. Ascorbate (14.1 mM) lowered the response by 99%, alpha-tocoperhol (188 microM) by 37%, and Trolox (50 microM) by almost 100%. Crude herring PJ gave a dose-dependent reduction in the CL response. At 10, 100, and 1000 times dilution, the PJ reduced the CL signal by 93, 60.5, and 10.6%. PJ fractionated into low molecular weight (LMW) (<1000 Da) and high molecular weight (>3500 Da) fractions decreased the CL response by 52.9 and 71.4%, respectively, at a 100-fold dilution. Evaluation of the PJ samples in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test indicated that proteins may be the primary radical scavenging compounds of PJ, whereas the ROS-preventing effect obtained from the LMW fraction may also be attributed to other mechanisms. Thus, this study proved that the monocyte assay can be a useful tool for studying whether food-derived antioxidants can limit ROS production under physiologically relevant conditions. It also showed that herring contains numerous aqueous compounds demonstrating antioxidative effects in the monocyte model system.

  4. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  5. Ethyl nitrite is produced in the human stomach from dietary nitrate and ethanol, releasing nitric oxide at physiological pH: potential impact on gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Laranjinha, João

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide ((∙)NO), a ubiquitous molecule involved in a plethora of signaling pathways, is produced from dietary nitrate in the gut through the so-called nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. In the stomach, nitrite derived from dietary nitrate triggers a network of chemical reactions targeting endogenous and exogenous biomolecules, thereby producing new compounds with physiological activity. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether compounds with physiological relevance are produced in the stomach upon consumption of nitrate- and ethanol-rich foods. Human volunteers consumed a serving of lettuce (source of nitrate) and alcoholic beverages (source of ethanol). After 15 min, samples of the gastric headspace were collected and ethyl nitrite was identified by GC-MS. Wistar rats were used to study the impact of ethyl nitrite on gastric smooth muscle relaxation at physiological pH. Nitrogen oxides, produced from nitrite in the stomach, induce nitrosation of ethanol from alcoholic beverages in the human stomach yielding ethyl nitrite. Ethyl nitrite, a potent vasodilator, is produced in vivo upon the consumption of lettuce with either red wine or whisky. Moreover, at physiological pH, ethyl nitrite induces gastric smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-dependent pathway. Overall, these results suggest that ethyl nitrite is produced in the gastric lumen and releases (∙)NO at physiological pH, which ultimately may have an impact on gastric motility. Systemic effects may also be expected if ethyl nitrite diffuses through the gastric mucosa reaching blood vessels, therefore operating as a (∙)NO carrier throughout the body. These data pinpoint posttranslational modifications as an underappreciated mechanism for the production of novel molecules with physiological impact locally in the gut and highlight the notion that diet may fuel compounds with the potential to modulate gastrointestinal welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MiR-99a and MiR-491 Regulate Cisplatin Resistance in Human Gastric Cancer Cells by Targeting CAPNS1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajie; Xu, Wenxia; Ni, Pan; Li, Aiping; Zhou, Jianwei; Xu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is the first-line agent utilized for the clinical treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors including gastric cancer. However, the intrinsic or acquired cisplatin resistance is often occurred in patients with gastric cancer and resulted in failure of cisplatin therapy. In order to investigate if miRNA involves in cisplatin resistance of human gastric cancer, we first screened and compared the expression of miRNAs between cisplatin resistant gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901/DDP and BGC-823/DDP and their sensitive parental cells by miRNAs microarray and followed by analysis of 2D-GE/MS to identify their target proteins. We found both miR-99a and miR-491 were upregulated while their target gene calpain small subunit 1 (CAPNS1) was downregulated in resistant gastric cancer cells. Dual-luciferase- reporter assays with wild-type and mutated CAPNS1 3'-UTR confirmed their specificity of targeting. Inhibition of miR-99a and miR-491, or overexpress CAPNS1 can enhance cisplatin sensitivity of the resistant cells while transfection of two miRNAs' mimics or si-CAPNS1 in the sensitive cells can induce their resistance. Moreover, our results demonstrated CAPNS1 positively regulated calpain1 and calpain2, the catalytic subunits of CAPNS1, and cleaved caspase3 which further cleaved PARP1 and directly induced apoptosis. Therefore, miR-99a and miR-491 might be work as novel molecules regulate cisplatin resistance by directly targeting CAPNS1 associated pathway in human gastric cancer cells.

  7. Global gene expression analysis of knockdown Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Lin, Bode; Du, Jinlin; Pan, Haiyan; Yu, Haibing; He, Rongwei; Huang, Zhigang

    2018-03-20

    Our preview studies showed TPI gene which encodes the Triosephosphate isomerase was overexpressed in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues. However, the potential molecular mechanisms how TPI influences the GC development is not clear. Here, we performed global gene expression profiling for TPI knockdown using microarrays in human GC cell line MGC-803 cells. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then the DEGs were analyzed by an online software WebGestalt to perform the functional analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were visualized by Cytoscape and the module analysis was performed by ClusterONE. As a result, a total of 920 DEGs including 197 up- and 723 down-regulated genes were screened out. The DEGs were found to be significantly associated with the metabolic process, biological regulation, protein binding and ion binding. There were 11 significant pathways were enriched, and one of the most significant pathway was transcriptional misregulation in cancer (P<0.01), which contained common cancer-related genes, such as DUSP6, ETV5, IL6, PLAU, PPARG and HMGA2. Two PPI networks were constructed from BioGRID and TCGA_RNASeq_STAD, respectively. One network presented 25 genes with degree >10, and EGFR was the most "hub gene" with degree of 74. Four significant modules were identified and mainly enriched in protein domain of Histone and G-protein beta WD-40 repeat. Another network had 4 significant modules and they were associated with protein domain of MHC class I-like antigen recognition and Epidermal growth factor receptor ligand. In conclusion, DEGs and hub genes identified in the present study help us understand the molecular mechanisms of TPI in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 ameliorates IL-1β-induced IL-8 in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Sen; Xia, Yong; Ung, Trong Thuan; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

    2016-06-15

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme oxygenase (HO), presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Accumulating evidence supports that interleukin (IL)-8 contribute to the vascularity of human gastric cancer. However, the inhibition of IL-8 expression by CO is yet to be elucidated. Here, we utilized CO releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) to investigate the effect of CO on IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression and the underlying molecular mechanisms in human gastric cancer AGS cells. CORM-2 dose-dependently suppressed IL-1β-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein expression as well as IL-8 promoter activity. IL-1β induced the translocation of p47(phox) to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX). Moreover, IL-1β activated MAPKs (Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK) and promoted nuclear factor (NF)-кB and activator protein (AP)-1 binding activities. Pharmacological inhibition and mutagenesis studies indicated that NOX, ROS, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK are involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression. Transient transfection of deletion mutant constructs of the IL-8 promoter in cells suggested that NF-кB and AP-1 are critical for IL-1β-induced IL-8 transcription. NOX-derived ROS and MAPKs (Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK) functioned as upstream activators of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. CORM-2 pretreatment significantly mitigated IL-1β-induced activation of ROS/NF-кB and Erk1/2/AP-1 cascades, blocking IL-8 expression and thus significantly reducing endothelial cell proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  10. [Inhibitory effects of luteolin on human gastric carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue-ying; Li, Yan-hong; Xiao, Xiang-wen; Li, Xiao-bo

    2013-01-08

    To explore the in vivo anticancer effects of luteolin with BGC-823 gastric carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and elucidate its mechanism. After modeling of gastric carcinoma xenografts in nude mice, 40 BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8 each). And an intraperitoneal injection of luteolin was administered at 10 mg/kg (low-dose), 20 mg/kg (middle-dose) and 40 mg/kg (high-dose) groups. And 5-fluorouracil (30 mg/kg) and control groups were also established. The growth curves of xenografts in nude mice were drawn and weight inhibition rates measured. The morphological features were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. And the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were measured by immunohistochemistry. In vivo tumor formation test showed that tumor volume in nude mice treated with luteolin was smaller than that of control group. Tumor weights of high-dose luteolin group were lighter than those of the control ((0.29 ± 0.01) vs (0.38 ± 0.03) g). And the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The rate of tumor inhibition in high-dose luteolin group was up to 24.87%. Lymphocytic invasion of tumor tissue was observed under light microscope in the treatment groups. Results of immunohistochemistry showed the positive cell integral of VEGF in middle and high-dose luteolin groups were 1.25 ± 0.17 and 1.00 ± 0.07 respectively. Both were significantly lower than that of control group (1.50 ± 0.15, both P < 0.05). The positive cell integral of MMP-9 in high-dose luteolin group was markedly lower than that of control group (3.75 ± 1.43 vs 9.00 ± 1.08, P < 0.01). Luteolin can effectively inhibit the in vivo growth of gastric tumor. The mechanism may be correlated with the stimulation of immune response and the down-regulated expressions of VEGF-A and MMP-9.

  11. Chemical and physical properties of the human urinary glycoprotein with gastric antisecretory activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lugaro, G; Pasta, P; Casellato, M M; Mazzola, G; Carrea, G

    1976-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of the high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (SO20, w = 8S; Ve=Vo on Sephadex G-200) with gastric antisecretory activity extracted from the urine of pregnant women were studied. Gel filtration in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis indicated subunit mol.wts. of 16 000 +/- 1500 and 13 000 +/- 1000 respectively. Reaggregation of the subunits and partial recovery of the biological activity were observed on removal of the detergent. The partial C-terminal sequence was found to be Phe-Tyr-Leu-Val-OH, whereas glycine appears to be the N-terminal amino acid. The carbohydrate composition was examined; all galactosamine was found to be O-glycosidically linked to the polypeptide chain. PMID:942377

  12. Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Lima, Raquel T; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2015-09-29

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy). Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement.

  13. Pomegranate juice adulteration by addition of grape or peach juices.

    PubMed

    Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Hernández, Francisca; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2014-03-15

    Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, owing to the limited production and high price of fresh pomegranates, adulteration of pomegranate juice seems to be happening. Hence it is imperative to establish criteria for detecting adulteration. Addition of grape juice significantly increased the contents of Ca, Mg and Fe and especially tartaric acid and proline and simultaneously decreased the content of K. Addition of peach juice up to 10% (v/v) only resulted in a significant increase in sucrose content. Regarding the volatile composition, adulteration of pomegranate juice with grape juice resulted in significant increases in acetic acid, isoamyl butyrate and especially 1-hexanol and linalool, while adulteration with peach juice resulted in significant increases in butyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, benzyl acetate and especially isoamyl butyrate. The control protocols used in this study can serve as a basis for identification of pomegranate juice adulteration. It is important to highlight that it is necessary to simultaneously analyze and have results from several parameters to conclude that a particular pomegranate juice has been adulterated by mixing with another fruit juice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

    2012-11-07

    Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) γ-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of γ-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and γ-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice.

  15. The effect of simulated gastric environments on the anti-Helicobacter activity of garlic oil.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, E A; Maslin, D J; Nevill, A M; Hill, D J

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effects of simulated gastric conditions upon the anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of garlic oil (GO). Time course viability experiments assessed the anti-H. pylori activity of GO (16 and 32 microg ml(-1)) in simulated gastric environments. Rapid anti-H. pylori action of GO was observed in artificial gastric juice. Mucus (1-5%) was strongly protective of H. pylori both alone and in the presence of GO, but its protective effect was antagonized by GO. Peptone (5-15 g l(-1)) caused a dose-dependent reduction in the anti-H. pylori activity of GO. Rapeseed oil (5.7-17 g l(-1)) greatly diminished the anti-H. pylori activity of GO. Dextrin (44 and 133 g l(-1)) exhibited direct anti-H. pylori effects and added to those of GO. Simulated meal mixtures decreased but did not eliminate the anti-H. pylori activity of 32 mug ml(-1) GO. The anti-H. pylori activity of GO was noticeably affected by food materials and mucin. However, substantial activity remained under simulated gastric conditions. Further investigation of the therapeutic potential of GO against H. pylori is therefore warranted. Garlic oil may be useful as an alternative treatment against H. pylori, a major cause of gastrointestinal infections in humans.

  16. Cabbage Juices and Indoles Modulate the Expression Profile of AhR, ERα, and Nrf2 in Human Breast Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Licznerska, Barbara; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the diversified effect of cabbage juices and indoles on the estrogen metabolism key enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) in breast epithelial cells differing in ER status, i.e., in tumorigenic-MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and non-tumorigenic-MCF10A cells. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive action of cabbage juice and its active components by evaluating their effect on the expression of AhR, ERα, and Nrf2 using the same treatment regimen. The mRNA level of AhR and ERα was changed in a cell type-dependent manner and in general correlated with previously observed modulation of CYP expression. However, in most cases the alterations in mRNA were not accompanied by the changes in the level of relevant proteins. Marked differences were also found in the effect of cabbage juices and indoles; although both cabbage juices and indoles increased most of the NQO1 transcript levels in all tested lines, indoles also enhanced GSTP transcription in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Overall, the results of this study partly explain the mechanism behind the chemopreventive activity of white cabbage products and indicate that modulation of the expression of specific transcription factors may play an important role in this process.

  17. Effects of Chinese Jianpi herbs on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Hai-Lei; Jin, Xiao-Jie; Yang, Jin-Kun; Tang, Lai-Di

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the mechanism of the Sijunzi decoction and another Chinese herbal recipe (SRRS) based mainly on the Sijunzi decoction in treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 grafted onto nude mouse was used as the animal model. The mice were divided into 3 groups, one control and the two representative experimental conditions. Animals in the two experimental groups received either Sijunzi decoction or SRRS over a 40-day period starting at 1st day after grafting. Control animals received saline on an identical schedule. Animals were killed 41 d after being grafted. The effect of therapy was assessed by two ways: (1) tumor size was periodically measured during the life of the animals; (2) tumor weight was determined by a electron balance immediately after the animals killed. For detection of apoptotic cells, apoptotic indices (AI) were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Morphological alterations were observed with electron microscopy. S-P immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Ki-67 in xenografts. Expression of bcl-2 and p53 was semiquantitatively detected using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. RESULTS: When compared with controls, tumor growth (size and weight) was significantly inhibited by treatment with the Sijunzi decoction (P < 0.05) or SRRS (P < 0.01). The tumor inhibitory rate in the Sijunzi decoction group was 34.33% and SRRS group 46.53%. AI of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice was significantly increased to 16.24% ± 3.21% using TUNEL method and 11.38% ± 6.46% by FACScan in the Sijunzi decoction group compared with the controls (TUNEL: 2.63% ± 1.03%, P < 0.01; FACScan: 7.15% ± 1.32%, P < 0.05). SRRS group was also found a significantly increased AI by using TUNEL method and flow cytometry analysis compared with the controls (TUNEL

  18. A PVP-extract fungal protein of Omphalia lapideacens and its antitumor activity on human gastric tumors and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Tao; Lu, Qun-Ying; Lin, Mei-Ai; Cheng, Dong-Qing; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Shan, Le-Tian

    2011-12-01

    Omphalia lapidescens is an important medicinal fungus as well as traditional Chinese medicine used for disease treatment. It is mainly used as a vermifuge for anthelmintic therapy, but it has not been hitherto reported to possess antitumor activity. In this study, a purified bioactive protein in O. lapidescens (pPeOp) was obtained using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by gel filtration chromatography. To evaluate the in vitro antitumor activity of pPeOp in human gastric tumor cells (MC-4 and SGC-7901) and normal cells (MC-1), MTT assay and FCM assay were used and the morphological changes, cell viability, cell death rate and cell apoptosis rate of MC-4, SGC-7901 and MC-1 cells were estimated. The results showed that pPeOp could significantly reduce the cell viability of MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 236.05 and 156.28 µg/ml, respectively. The morphological observation also indicated a similar result. In FCM assays, a significant increase of cell death rate and cell apoptosis rate of the tumor cells were observed, indicating probable necrosis-inducing effects and/or apoptosis-inducing effects of pPeOp. Importantly, there was no significant effect of pPeOp on MC-1 cells in each assay, showing that pPeOp has no adverse effects on the normal cells. In conclusion, pPeOp is a newly discovered bioactive protein in O. lapidescens and this is the first report on antitumor activity of such a fungal protein. This may provide a meaningful basis for developing a new protein drug for treatment against cancer, especially gastric cancer.

  19. Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? Costs and Benefits of Multiple Human Annotators for Clinical Text De-identification.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Cronkite, David J; Malin, Bradley A; Aberdeen, John S; Hirschman, Lynette

    2016-08-05

    Clinical text contains valuable information but must be de-identified before it can be used for secondary purposes. Accurate annotation of personally identifiable information (PII) is essential to the development of automated de-identification systems and to manual redaction of PII. Yet the accuracy of annotations may vary considerably across individual annotators and annotation is costly. As such, the marginal benefit of incorporating additional annotators has not been well characterized. This study models the costs and benefits of incorporating increasing numbers of independent human annotators to identify the instances of PII in a corpus. We used a corpus with gold standard annotations to evaluate the performance of teams of annotators of increasing size. Four annotators independently identified PII in a 100-document corpus consisting of randomly selected clinical notes from Family Practice clinics in a large integrated health care system. These annotations were pooled and validated to generate a gold standard corpus for evaluation. Recall rates for all PII types ranged from 0.90 to 0.98 for individual annotators to 0.998 to 1.0 for teams of three, when meas-ured against the gold standard. Median cost per PII instance discovered during corpus annotation ranged from $ 0.71 for an individual annotator to $ 377 for annotations discovered only by a fourth annotator. Incorporating a second annotator into a PII annotation process reduces unredacted PII and improves the quality of annotations to 0.99 recall, yielding clear benefit at reasonable cost; the cost advantages of annotation teams larger than two diminish rapidly.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of C@CdS dots in aqueous solution and their application in labeling human gastric carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Zhou, Siqi; Dong, Yan; Wang, Jingwen; Liu, Shuang; Zhu, Pengxia

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal carbon spheres coated with cadmium sulfide nanoparticle quantum dots (C@CdS dots) with the particle size smaller than 50 nm were synthesized by an aqueous approach. The effects of different reaction times, temperatures, and pH values were carefully investigated to optimize the synthesis conditions. The as-prepared C@CdS dots were linked with mouse anti-human carcinoembryonic antigen antibody and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) to directly and indirectly label fixed human gastric carcinoma cells, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the C@CdS dots was also tested using the human gastric carcinoma cells. No apparent cytotoxicity was observed, which suggested the potential application of the as-prepared C@CdS dots in bioimaging.

  1. Interactions of tumour-derived micro(nano)vesicles with human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stec, Małgorzata; Szatanek, Rafał; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jarosław; Zembala, Maria; Barbasz, Jakub; Waligórska, Agnieszka; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Mytar, Bożenna; Szczepanik, Antoni; Siedlar, Maciej; Drabik, Grażyna; Urbanowicz, Barbara; Zembala, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Tumour cells release membrane micro(nano)fragments called tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV) that are believed to play an important role in cancer progression. TMV suppress/modify antitumour response of the host, but there is also some evidence for their direct interaction with cancer cells. In cancer patients TMV are present in body fluid and tumour microenvironment. The present study aimed at characterization of whole types/subpopulations, but not only exosomes, of TMV from newly established gastric cancer cell line (called GC1415) and to define their interactions with autologous cells. TMV were isolated from cell cultures supernatants by centrifugation at 50,000×g and their phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. The size of TMV was analysed by dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, while morphology by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Interactions of TMV with cancer cells were visualized using fluorescence-activated cell sorter, confocal and atomic force microscopy, biological effects by xenografts in NOD SCID mice. Isolated TMV showed expression of CD44H, CD44v6 (hyaluronian receptors), CCR6 (chemokine receptor) and HER-2/neu molecules, exhibited different shapes and sizes (range 60-900 nm, highest frequency of particles with size range of 80-120 nm). TMV attached to autologous cancer cells within 2 h and then were internalized by them at 24 h. CD44H, CD44v6 and CCR6 molecules may play a role in attachment of TMV to cancer cells, while HER-2 associated with CD24 be involved in promoting cancer cells growth. Pre-exposure of cancer cells to TMV resulted in enhancement of tumour growth and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in NOD SCID mice model. TMV interact directly with cancer cells serving as macro-messengers and molecular cargo transfer between gastric cancer cells resulting in enhancement of tumour growth. TMV should be considered in future as target of anticancer therapy.

  2. Characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines established from CEA424/SV40 T antigen-transgenic mice with or without a human CEA transgene

    PubMed Central

    Nöckel, Jessica; van den Engel, Natasja K; Winter, Hauke; Hatz, Rudolf A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. Patients with gastric cancer at an advanced disease stage have a poor prognosis, due to the limited efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, the development of new therapies, like immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer is of utmost importance. Since the usability of existing preclinical models for the evaluation of immunotherapies for gastric adenocarcinomas is limited, the goal of the present study was to establish murine in vivo models which allow the stepwise improvement of immunotherapies for gastric cancer. Methods Since no murine gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines are available we established four cell lines (424GC, mGC3, mGC5, mGC8) from spontaneously developing tumors of CEA424/SV40 T antigen (CEA424/Tag) mice and three cell lines derived from double-transgenic offsprings of CEA424/Tag mice mated with human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA424/Tag-CEA) mice (mGC2CEA, mGC4CEA, mGC11CEA). CEA424/Tag is a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strain harboring the Tag under the control of a -424/-8 bp CEA gene promoter which leads to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the glandular stomach. Tumor cell lines established from CEA424/Tag-CEA mice express the well defined tumor antigen CEA under the control of its natural regulatory elements. Results The epithelial origin of the tumor cells was proven by morphological criteria including the presence of mucin within the cells and the expression of the cell adhesion molecules EpCAM and CEACAM1. All cell lines consistently express the transgenes CEA and/or Tag and MHC class I molecules leading to their susceptibility to lysis by Tag-specific CTL in vitro. Despite the presentation of CTL-epitopes derived from the transgene products the tumor cell lines were tumorigenic when grafted into C57BL/6, CEA424/Tag or CEA424/Tag-CEA-transgenic hosts and no significant differences in tumor take and tumor growth were observed in

  3. Six-day randomized safety trial of intravaginal lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Ballagh, Susan A; Creinin, Mitchell D; Weiner, Debra H; Doncel, Gustavo F; Fichorova, Raina N; Schwartz, Jill L; Chandra, Neelima; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-11-01

    Nigerian women reportedly apply lime juice intravaginally to protect themselves against HIV. In vitro data suggest that lime juice is virucidal, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. This is the first controlled, randomized safety trial of lime juice applied to the human vagina. Forty-seven women were randomized to apply water or lime juice (25%, 50%, or undiluted) intravaginally twice daily for two 6-day intervals, separated by a 3-week washout period. Product application also was randomized: during 1 interval, product was applied using a saturated tampon and in the other by douche. Vaginal pH, symptoms, signs of irritation observed via naked eye examination and colposcopy, microflora, and markers of inflammation in cervicovaginal lavages were evaluated after 1 hour and on days 3 and 7. The largest reduction in pH was about one-half a pH unit, seen 1 hour after douching with 100% lime juice. We observed a dose-dependent pattern of symptoms and clinical and laboratory findings that were consistent with a compromised vaginal barrier function. The brief reduction in pH after vaginal lime juice application is unlikely to be virucidal in the presence of semen. Lime juice is unlikely to protect against HIV and may actually be harmful.

  4. Helicobacter pylori induces Snail expression through ROS-mediated activation of Erk and inactivation of GSK-3β in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang-Kieu-Chi; Lee, Hee Geum; Piao, Juan-Yu; Zhong, Xiancai; Lee, Ha-Na; Han, Hyeong-Jun; Kim, Wonki; Kim, Do-Hee; Cha, Young-Nam; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been known to be implicated in human gastric carcinogenesis. Snail, the zinc-finger transcription factor known as a key inducer of changes in the cell shape and morphogenetic movement, is aberrantly overexpressed and correlates with lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether H. pylori could induce Snail activation to provoke these changes. Using a cell scatter assay, we noticed that human gastric cancer AGS cells infected with H. pylori underwent morphological changes as well as disruption of cell-cell interaction, which was then reversed by silencing of Snail by use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, infection with H. pylori resulted in an increased intracellular level of Snail in gastric cancer cells, which was abrogated in the presence of U0126 and LY294002, inhibitors of MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, respectively. Cycloheximide pulse-chase experiments coupled with immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the induction of Snail by H. pylori was regulated at multiple levels, including increased transcription of Snail mRNA, inhibition of protein degradation, and enhancement of nuclear translocation of Snail. Pre-treatment of AGS cells with N-acetylcysteine, a well-known reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, attenuated the H. pylori-induced activation of Erk, its binding to Snail promoter, inactivation of GSK-3β, and accumulation of Snail. Collectively, these findings suggest that the upregulation of Snail expression induced by H. pylori and transformation to a spindle-like shape as a consequence in gastric cancer cells are attributable to ROS-mediated activation of Erk and the inhibition of GSK-3β signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Troxerutin (TXN) potentiated 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) treatment of human gastric cancer through suppressing STAT3/NF-κB and Bcl-2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Yun; Tang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Gastric cancer still presents a significant problem for public health worldwide. Troxerutin (TXN), a flavonoid present in tea, coffee, cereal grains, and a variety of fruits and vegetables, exhibits various pharmacological and biological activities in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the ability of TXN to reverse the in vitro and in vivo drug resistance of human gastric cancer cells, which were resistant to treatment of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-Fu is a pyrimidine analog, which is widely used in the treatment of cancers. Here, we found the growth inhibitory effects of TXN on human gastric cancer cell, resistant to 5-FU. TXN and 5-FU co-treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of the cell proliferation. Decreasing of phosphorylated signal transducers and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) was included in suppression of p65 by TXN with 5-FU in combination. Additionally, the presence of TXN sensitized gastric cancer cells resistant to 5-FU to 5-FU-induced apoptosis by suppressing Bcl-2. The pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and Bid were up-regulated, accompanied with Caspase cleavage, leading to apoptosis. Moreover, in mice xenograft models, the combined therapy inhibited tumor growth compared to the TXN or 5-FU treatment alone. Our data indicated a novel therapeutic strategy to potentiate 5-FU-induced anti-tumor effect in gastric cancer cells with resistance to 5-FU by TXN through suppression of p-STAT3/NF-κB (p65 and p50) and Bcl-2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Arctigenin induces cell cycle arrest by blocking the phosphorylation of Rb via the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Hong, Se Chul; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Koo, Jin Suk

    2011-10-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, worldwide being second only to lung cancer as a cause of death. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms of arctigenin for anti-tumor effect on gastric cancer have not been examined. This study examined the biological effects of arctigenin on the human gastric cancer cell line SNU-1 and AGS. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. In MTT assay, the proliferation of SNU-1 and AGS cells was significantly inhibited by arctigenin in a time and dose dependent manner, as compared with SNU-1 and AGS cells cultured in the absence of arctigenin. Inhibition of cell proliferation by arctigenin was in part associated with apoptotic cell death, as shown by changes in the expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax by arctigenin. Also, arctigenin blocked cell cycle arrest from G(1) to S phase by regulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Rb, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b. The antiproliferative effect of arctigenin on SNU-1 and AGS gastric cancer cells revealed in this study suggests that arctigenin has intriguing potential as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human blood group isoantigen expression on normal and malignant gastric epithelium studied with anti-A and anti-B monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Finan, P J; Wight, D G; Lennox, E S; Sacks, S H; Bleehen, N M

    1983-04-01

    Variation in human blood group isoantigen expression on normal and malignant gastric epithelium was demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies to blood groups A and B in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The expected isoantigen expression was demonstrated on endoscopic biopsy specimens of normal gastric mucosa from 11 patients. Of 17 patients with gastric carcinoma (blood group A, 15; blood group AB, 2), complete loss of isoantigen expression was noted in 6 (35%). In these 6 patients, blood group isoantigen remained both in the adjacent uninvolved mucosa and at the margin of resection. The loss of isoantigen did not appear to be related to the degree of differentiation within the tumor, to the secretor status of the patient, or to the blood subgroup. Lymph node metastases reflected the isoantigen status of the primary tumor, being positive in 5 of 6 expression in all 17 patients or in an additional 15 patients studied with blood group O. These findings were discussed in the light of previously reported work on the localization of blood group isoantigens on malignant and nonmalignant gastric epithelium with the use of conventional antisera and a variety of immunohistologic techniques.

  8. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44.Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor

  9. Serum metabolomic profiling of human gastric cancer and its relationship with the prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daguang; Li, Wei; Zou, Qi; Yin, Lei; Du, Yechao; Gu, Jingkai; Suo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to investigate serum metabolites in gastric cancer (GC) patients and their relationships with the prognosis of GC in order to find potential specific serum biomarkers for GC. Methods Blood samples of 125 GC patients of unifocal GC at initial stage and 38 healthy people recruited in our hospital from September 2008 to August 2009 were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLCESI/Q-TOFMS). Multiple statistical methods like principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), multivariate COX regression analysis, variance analysis and K-M survival curve were applied to analyze the raw obtained mass data in order to analyze the independent prognostic factors of GC. The structures of these metabolites were confirmed by comparing the m/z ratio and ion mode of with the data published from HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) databases. Results By PLS-DA test, 16 serum metabolites in ESI+ mode of VIP>1 in both test group and validation group could definitely distinguish GC patients from healthy peoples (p<0.05). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed TNM staging, 2,4-hexadienoic acid, 4-methylphenyl dodecanoate and glycerol tributanoate were independent prognostic factors of GC (p<0.05). In the K-M survival analysis, the survival rate in high level group of the 3 selected serum metabolites together or alone was significant lower than in those in low level group (p<0.05). Conclusion Low serum levels of 2,4-hexadienoic acid, 4-methylphenyl dodecanoate and glycerol tributanoate may be important independent prognostic factors of GC. PMID:29299125

  10. [Inhibitory effect of Xiaotan Sanjie Recipe on the microsatellite instability of orthotopic transplantation tumor in MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mice].

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Sun, Da-Zhi; Wei, Pin-kang

    2014-05-01

    To study the inhibitory effect of Xiaotan Sanjie Recipe (XSR) on the microsatellite instability of orthotopic transplantation tumor in MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mice. The 3rd passage subcutaneous transplantation tumor was taken as the origin of the model by using MKN-45 human gastric cancer cell lines. MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mouse model was established using OB glue adhesive method. Then 30 nude mice were divided into the model group, the XSR group, and the chemotherapy group. Mice in the XSR group were intragastrically given XSR at the daily dose of 0.4 mL. Mice in the chemotherapy group were intragastrically given Fluorouracil at the daily dose of 0.4 mL. No intervention was given to mice in the model group. After 6 weeks of medication, the tumor weight was measured, and the tumor inhibition rate calculated. The size, the peak height, and the peak area of 5 microsatellite instability sites were detected. The tumor inhibition rate was 40. 84% in the XSR group. The tumor weight was significantly lower in the XSR group than in the model group (P < 0.01), showing no statistical difference when compared with the chemotherapy group (P >0.05). The incidence of high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in the model group was 70%, and the incidence of low microsatellite instability (MSI-L) was 30%. Microsatellite stable site tended be stable after 6 weeks of XSR treatment. XSR showed inhibition on microsatellite instable orthotopic transplantation tumor in MKN-45 human gastric cancer nude mice.

  11. Coupling CDH17 and CLDN18 markers for comprehensive membrane-targeted detection of human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Keisuke; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Urabe, Masayuki; Fukuyo, Masaki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Seto, Yasuyuki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Hamakubo, Takao; Kaneda, Atsushi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-27

    Patients with gastric cancer typically face gastrectomies even when few or no nodal metastases are reported. Current procedures poorly predict lymphatic metastases; thus, evaluation of target molecules expressed on cancer cell membranes is necessary for in vivo detection. However, marker development is limited by the intratumoral heterogeneity of gastric cancer cells. In this study, multiple gene expression arrays of 42 systemic normal tissue samples and 56 gastric cancer samples were used to investigate two adhesion molecules, cadherin 17 (CDH17) and claudin 18 (CLDN18), which are intestinal and gastric markers, respectively. Expression of CDH17 and CLDN18 was partially redundant, but overlapped in 50 of 56 cases (89.3%). Tissue microarrays constructed using primary lesions and nodal metastases of 106 advanced gastric cancers revealed CDH17 and CLDN18 expression in 98 positive cases of 106 (92%). Hierarchical clustering classified gastric cancers into three subgroups, CDH17(++)/CLDN18(+/-), CDH17(++)/CLDN18(++) or CDH17(+)/CLDN18(+), and CDH17(-)/CLDN18(++/+/-). Whole tissue sections displayed strong, homogeneous staining for CDH17 and CLDN18. Together, these results indicate that CDH17 and CLDN18 are useful target molecules; moreover, their coupling can aid in the comprehensive detection and localization of gastric cancer metastases in vivo to overcome challenges associated with intratumoral heterogeneity.

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  13. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  16. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  17. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruhui; Li, Zuanfang; Lin, Jiumao; Ye, Jinxia; Cai, Qiaoyan; Chen, Lidian; Peng, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

  18. In vitro analysis of the role of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in CSBE therapy against human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Yu, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The caper plant ( Capparis spinosa L.) was a common Uyghur folk medicine, and is a member of the Capparidaceae family. In a previous study, the n-butanol extract of C. spinosa L. (CSBE) was demonstrated to exert anti-tumor activity; however, the underlying mechanism is currently not understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the CSBE-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, in order to investigate the anti-tumor effects of this plant extract. CSBE-induced apoptosis of the SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cell line was observed, and alterations in the expression levels and localization of initiators, markers, and executors of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were analyzed. Following treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CBSE, proliferation was inhibited and apoptosis was induced; and these effects were associated with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. CSBE may have induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis by upregulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2)-associated X protein, and downregulating the expression of BCL-2. The results of the present study suggested that CSBE may induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  19. In vitro analysis of the role of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in CSBE therapy against human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    JI, YU-BIN; YU, LEI

    2015-01-01

    The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L.) was a common Uyghur folk medicine, and is a member of the Capparidaceae family. In a previous study, the n-butanol extract of C. spinosa L. (CSBE) was demonstrated to exert anti-tumor activity; however, the underlying mechanism is currently not understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the CSBE-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, in order to investigate the anti-tumor effects of this plant extract. CSBE-induced apoptosis of the SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cell line was observed, and alterations in the expression levels and localization of initiators, markers, and executors of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were analyzed. Following treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CBSE, proliferation was inhibited and apoptosis was induced; and these effects were associated with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. CSBE may have induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis by upregulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2)-associated X protein, and downregulating the expression of BCL-2. The results of the present study suggested that CSBE may induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:26668648

  20. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, RUHUI; LI, ZUANFANG; LIN, JIUMAO; YE, JINXIA; CAI, QIAOYAN; CHEN, LIDIAN; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26622854

  1. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... had laparoscopic gastric banding surgery to help with weight loss. Your surgeon placed a band around the upper ...

  2. Amorphous Silica Particles Relevant in Food Industry Influence Cellular Growth and Associated Signaling Pathways in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Anja; Gehrke, Helge; Del Favero, Giorgia; Fritz, Eva-Maria; Al-Rawi, Marco; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred; Marko, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs) were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the concentration

  3. Evaluation of the expression and clinical value of lncRNA AC010761.9 in human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Kai; Dang, Yuan; Ouyang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wenyuan; Wang, Lie; Huang, Qiaojia

    2018-03-02

    The current study determined the expression and clinical value of lncRNA AC010761.9 in human gastric adenocarcinoma (GA). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR was used to detect the level of lncRNA expression in 145 GA tissues and three GA cell lines, and the correlation between its level and clinicopathologic characteristics and potential corresponding mRNA of TNF receptor-associated factor 4 gene (TRAF4) was then evaluated. Elevated lncRNA AC010761.9 was detected in all 6 GA tissues by previous lncRNA expression profile microarray assay. LncRNA AC010761.9 was over-expressed in 99 of 145 GA tissues (68.3%) with an elevated fold change of up to 35.14 compared to matched paracancerous tissues (p < 0.05), and was also over-expressed in the 3 GA cell lines (MGC803, BGC823, and SGC7901) compared to the normal gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (GES-1 cells; p < 0.05) by qRT-PCR. The elevated expression of this lncRNA was related to tumor size (p = 0.028), degree of differentiation (p = 0.047), and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentrations (p = 0.026 and p = 0.037, respectively). Multivariate analysis further confirmed that the expression of lncRNA AC010761.9 was related to the degree of tumor differentiation (p = 0.015). Additionally, the expression of lncRNA AC010761.9 had a positive correlation with the mRNA expression of the potentially associated gene (TRAF4) in GA tissues (r = 0.385, p < 0.01). LncRNA AC010761.9 may be linked to GA progression and is a potential new biomarker for GA.

  4. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  5. Fucosylated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in alpha-anomeric configuration in human gastric surface epithelia: an allogeneic carbohydrate antigen possibly controlled by the Se gene.

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Sotozono, M; Sakai, N; Yonei, T; Nakanishi, S; Tsuji, T

    1994-03-01

    Human gastric surface epithelial cells display the ABH blood group antigens with the core structure of N-acetyllactosamine (NAcLc). Their expression is under the control of the secretor gene Se. The Thomsen-Friedenreich (T)-antigen (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc) is another core structure of the ABH antigens. We examined the gastric surface epithelial expression of T- and alpha 1-2 fucosylated T (FucT) histochemically with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and monoclonal antibody (MAb) MBr1, respectively. Eight of 24 individuals exhibited the PNA-reactive antigen (i.e., T-expressers) and others the MBr1-reactive antigen (i.e., FucT-expressers). alpha-L-fucosidase digestion of the FucT-positive tissues and beta-galactosidase digestion of the T-positive tissues, respectively, made them reactive with PNA and the antibody specific for GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr. There was a remarkable correlation among reactivities with MBr1, Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA1), and anti-Leb MAb CO-431. ABH blood group status had no correlation with this expression. We conclude that human gastric surface epithelial cells constitutionally synthesize T in alpha configuration (i.e., Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) and that it was alpha 1-2 fucosylated only in the FucT-expressers. alpha 1-2 fucosylation of T is suggested to be regulated by the Se gene.

  6. Geldanamycin induces apoptosis in human gastric carcinomas by affecting multiple oncogenic kinases that have synergic effects with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Liang-Qing; Pan, Dun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of geldanamycin (GA) on the treatment of human gastric carcinomas and to investigate the molecular mechanism that provides the basis for the combination of GA with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induction strategy. The expression of target proteins at the mRNA level was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and apoptosis was evaluated with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining methods. Phosphorylation of targeted kinases was studied using immunocytochemistry methods, and malignant phenotypes were studied using in vitro assays. GA treatment inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, most likely by decreasing the expression of B-RAF and by phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and ERK. The inhibitory role of AKT in TRAIL regulation holds considerable potential for achieving a synergic effect in clinical therapy, using a combination of GA treatment and TRAIL induction. The present study provides a basis for the future application of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, such as GA, in the clinical treatment of gastric cancer, particularly in combination therapies with TRAIL inducers.

  7. Altered phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu-Sheng; Mao, Fang-Yuan; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Na; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Cheng, Ping; Li, Wen-Hua; Lv, Yi-Pin; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Gang; Luo, Ping; Chen, Weisan; Zou, Quan-Ming; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-08-23

    CD3+CD56+ natural killer T (NKT)-like cells are a group of CD3+ T cells sharing characteristics of NK and T cells and constitute a major component of host anti-tumor immune response in human cancer. However, the nature, function and clinical relevance of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in human gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. In this study, we showed that the frequencies of CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells in GC tumors were significantly decreased and low levels of tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were positively correlated with poor survival and disease progression. Most CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells in GC tumors were CD45RA-CD27+/- central/effector-memory cells with decreased activity and lower expression levels of CD69, NKG2D and DNAM-1 than those in non-tumor tissues. We further observed that tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells had impaired effector function as shown by decreased IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B and Ki-67 expression. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that soluble factors released from GC tumors could induce the functional impairment of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells. Collectively, our data indicate that decreased tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells with impaired effector function are associated with tumor progression and poor survival of GC patients, which may contribute to immune escape of GC.

  8. Metabolic responses to xenin-25 are altered in humans with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oestricker, Lauren; Wallendorf, Michael J; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Wice, Burton M

    2016-01-01

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of enteroendocrine cells located in the proximal small intestine. Many effects of Xen are mediated by neurotensin receptor-1 on neurons. In healthy humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), Xen administration causes diarrhea and inhibits postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release but not insulin secretion. This study determines i) if Xen has similar effects in humans with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and ii) whether neural pathways potentially mediate effects of Xen on glucose homeostasis. Eight females with RYGB and no history of type 2 diabetes received infusions with 0, 4 or 12 pmoles Xen/kg/min with liquid meals on separate occasions. Plasma glucose and gastrointestinal hormone levels were measured and insulin secretion rates calculated. Pancreatic polypeptide and neuropeptide Y levels were surrogate markers for parasympathetic input to islets and sympathetic tone, respectively. Responses were compared to those in well-matched non-surgical participants with NGT from our earlier study. Xen similarly increased pancreatic polypeptide and neuropeptide Y responses in patients with and without RYGB. In contrast, the ability of Xen to inhibit GLP-1 release and cause diarrhea was severely blunted in patients with RYGB. With RYGB, Xen had no statistically significant effect on glucose, insulin secretory, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, and glucagon responses. However, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide secretion preceded GLP-1 release suggesting circulating GLP-1 does not mediate exaggerated insulin release after RYGB. Thus, Xen has unmasked neural circuits to the distal gut that inhibit GLP-1 secretion, cause diarrhea, and are altered by RYGB. PMID:27288245

  9. Altered phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liu-sheng; Mao, Fang-yuan; Zhao, Yong-liang; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Zhang, Jin-yu; Cheng, Ping; Li, Wen-hua; Lv, Yi-pin; Teng, Yong-sheng; Guo, Gang; Luo, Ping; Chen, Weisan; Zou, Quan-ming; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    CD3+CD56+ natural killer T (NKT)-like cells are a group of CD3+ T cells sharing characteristics of NK and T cells and constitute a major component of host anti-tumor immune response in human cancer. However, the nature, function and clinical relevance of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in human gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. In this study, we showed that the frequencies of CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells in GC tumors were significantly decreased and low levels of tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were positively correlated with poor survival and disease progression. Most CD3+CD56+NKT-like cells in GC tumors were CD45RA−CD27+/− central/effector-memory cells with decreased activity and lower expression levels of CD69, NKG2D and DNAM-1 than those in non-tumor tissues. We further observed that tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells had impaired effector function as shown by decreased IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B and Ki-67 expression. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that soluble factors released from GC tumors could induce the functional impairment of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells. Collectively, our data indicate that decreased tumor-infiltrating CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells with impaired effector function are associated with tumor progression and poor survival of GC patients, which may contribute to immune escape of GC. PMID:27409423

  10. Digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro by human intestinal microbiota of polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guijie; Xie, Minhao; Wan, Peng; Chen, Dan; Ye, Hong; Chen, Ligen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Zhonghua

    2018-04-01

    The aim of present study was to examine whether the digestivesystem (saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions) could break down and large intestinal microbiota could utilize the polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBTPS). The results showed that there was no change in molecular weight, monosaccharide content and content of reducing sugars before and after saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion, indicating that FBTPS could pass through the digestive system without being broken down and reach the large intestine safely. The content of carbohydrate was significantly decreased by fermentation in vitro of gut microbiota, suggesting that FBTPS could be broken down and utilized by gut microbiota. FBTPS could significantly modulate the composition and abundance of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the contents of short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased. Therefore, FBTPS is expected to be a functional food to improve human health and prevent disease through promoting the gut health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knockdown of inhibitor of growth protein 2 inhibits cell invasion and enhances chemosensitivity to 5-FU in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Juan; Yang, Lei; Liu, Ning; Zheng, Jun; Lin, Cong-Yao

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitor of growth (ING) family is involved in multiple cellular functions, but the role of ING2 in gastric cancer progression is unclear. To investigate the effects of ING2 gene knockdown on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human gastric cancer cells and its possible mechanisms. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting ING2 (shING2) was transfected into MGC-803 cells using Lipofectamine 2000, and stable transfection cell lines were established using G418. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, and invasive ability were measured to determine the influence of ING2 knockdown on cell biologic characteristics. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of ING2, cyclin D1, NF-kappaB/p65, and several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Western blotting, respectively. Our results showed that ING2 knockdown induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell viability significantly (P < 0.05). Additionally, ING2 knockdown induced a specific G0/G1 arrest. Furthermore, the suppression of ING2 could enhance the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to 5-FU significantly. Moreover, knockdown of ING2 expression significantly reduced cellular metastatic ability and expression of MMPs in MGC-803 cells. The expression of cyclin D1 and NF-kappaB/p65 was also markedly inhibited in MGC-803/shING2 cells compared with control cells. ING2 not only plays an essential role in the growth and invasion of MGC-803 cells but also represents a potential approach to chemosensitization therapy in human gastric cancer.

  12. Allicin induces apoptosis of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/caspase-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Wei; Feng, Chen; He, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti‑gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 cells were initially examined using an 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC‑803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC‑803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin‑induced apoptosis of MGC‑803 cells. The rate of MGC‑803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC‑803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3.

  13. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine...

  14. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine...

  15. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine...

  16. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine...

  17. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine...

  18. Gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2014-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neural, paracrine, hormonal, and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High gastric acidity, in combination with pepsin and lipase, kills ingested microorganisms and may play a role in preventing bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Stimulants of acid secretion include histamine, gastrin, acetylcholine, and ghrelin. Inhibitors include somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and adrenomedullin. Helicobacter pylori stimulates or inhibits depending upon the time course of infection and the area of the stomach predominantly infected. Proteins implicated in H-K-ATPase membrane trafficking include myosin IIB, F-actin, ezrin, and Rab GTPases. Our understanding of the regulation of gastric acid secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for the management of acid-peptic disorders and the development of novel medications, such as cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

  19. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  20. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  1. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  2. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  3. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  4. Gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hohenberger, Peter; Gretschel, Stephan

    2003-07-26

    The past decade has seen many advances in knowledge about gastric cancer. Notably, tumour biology and lymphatic spread are now better understood, and treatment by surgical and medical oncologists has become more standardised. Since refrigerators have replaced other methods of food conservation, Helicobacter pylori has become a factor in the cause of gastric cancer. Cancers that arise at the oesophagogastric junction might be further examples of wealth-associated disease. To tailor treatment better, the western hemisphere needs to borrow from the East by establishing screening programmes for early diagnosis, through careful surgical resection, and through detailed analysis of tumour spread. In Europe and the USA, most patients reach treatment with cancers already at an advanced stage. For these patients, three important randomised trials are underway that evaluate combined therapy. Cytostatic drugs, especially angiogenesis inhibitors have proved disappointing; however, basic research efforts to detect familial gastric cancers and to assess minimally residual disease look more hopeful.

  5. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  6. Inhibitory effects of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid on invasion of human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing-Qing; Yang, Yan-Mei; Gao, Yan-Hui; Liu, Jia-Ren; Xue, Ying-Ben; Wang, Xuan-Lin; Zheng, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Jing-Shu; Liu, Rui-Hai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) on the invasion of human gastric carcinoma cell line and its possible mechanism of preventing metastasis. METHODS: Using reconstituted basement membrane invasion, chemotaxis, adhesion, PAGE substrate zymography and RT-PCR assays, we analyzed the abilities of invasion, direct migration, adhesion of intracellular matrix, as well as the activity of type IV collagenase and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA in SGC-7901 cells which were treated with gradually increased concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 μmol/L) of c9,t11-CLA for 24 h. RESULTS: At the concentrations of 200 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L, c9,t11-CLA suppressed the invasion of SGC-7901 cells into the reconstituted basement membrane by 53.7%, 40.9% and 29.3%, respectively, in comparison with the negative control. Only in the 200 μmol/L c9,t11-CLA group, the chemotaxis of SGC-7901 cells was inhibited by 16.0% in comparision with the negative control. C9,t11-CLA also could inhibit the adhesion of SGC-7901 cells to laminin, fibronectin and Matrigel, increase the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA, and reduce type IV collagenase activities in the serum-free medium supernatant of SGC-7901 cells. CONCLUSION: c9,t11-CLA can inhibit the invasion of SGC-7901 cells at multiple procedures in tumor metastasis cascade, which may be associated with the induction of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. PMID:12970874

  7. Lipid peroxidation and coupled vitamin oxidation in simulated and human gastric fluid inhibited by dietary polyphenols: health implications.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Shlomit; Lapidot, Tair; Shaham, Inbal; Granit, Rina; Ligumsky, Moshe; Kohen, Ron; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-04

    The Western diet contains large quantities of oxidized lipids, because a large proportion of the food in the diet is consumed in a fried, heated, processed, or stored form. We investigated the reaction that could occur in the acidic pH of the stomach and accelerate the generation of lipid hydroperoxides and cooxidation of dietary vitamins. To estimate the oxygen content in the stomach after food consumption, oxygen released from masticated bread (20 g) into deoxygenated water (100 mL) was measured. Under these conditions, the oxygen concentration rose by 250 microM and reached a full oxygen saturation. The present study demonstrated that heated red meat homogenized in human gastric fluid, at pH 3.0, generated hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde. The cross-reaction between free radicals produced during this reaction cooxidized vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C. Both lipid peroxidation and cooxidation of vitamin E and beta-carotene were inhibited at pH 3.0 by red wine polyphenols. Ascorbic acid (44 mg) at a concentration that represented the amount that could be ingested during a meal inhibited lipid peroxidation only slightly. Red wine polyphenols failed to prevent ascorbic acid oxidation significantly but, in conjunction with ascorbic acid, did inhibit lipid peroxidation. In the presence of catechin, a well-known polyphenol found in red wine, ascorbic acid at pH 3.0 works in a synergistic manner preventing lipid peroxidation and beta-carotene cooxidation. The present data may explain the major benefits to our health and the crucial role of consuming food products rich in dietary antioxidants such as fruits, vegetables, red wines, or green tea during the meal.

  8. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has a potential acetone carboxylase that enhances its ability to colonize mice

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachary, Priyanka; Wang, Ge; Benoit, Stéphane L; Weinberg, Michael V; Maier, Robert J; Hoover, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is the etiological agent of peptic ulcer disease. All three H. pylori strains that have been sequenced to date contain a potential operon whose products share homology with the subunits of acetone carboxylase (encoded by acxABC) from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 and Rhodobacter capsulatus strain B10. Acetone carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetone to acetoacetate. Genes upstream of the putative acxABC operon encode enzymes that convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, which is metabolized further to generate two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Results To determine if the H. pylori acxABC operon has a role in host colonization the acxB homolog in the mouse-adapted H. pylori SS1 strain was inactivated with a chloramphenicol-resistance (cat) cassette. In mouse colonization studies the numbers of H. pylori recovered from mice inoculated with the acxB:cat mutant were generally one to two orders of magnitude lower than those recovered from mice inoculated with the parental strain. A statistical analysis of the data using a Wilcoxin Rank test indicated the differences in the numbers of H. pylori isolated from mice inoculated with the two strains were significant at the 99% confidence level. Levels of acetone associated with gastric tissue removed from uninfected mice were measured and found to range from 10–110 μmols per gram wet weight tissue. Conclusion The colonization defect of the acxB:cat mutant suggests a role for the acxABC operon in survival of the bacterium in the stomach. Products of the H. pylori acxABC operon may function primarily in acetone utilization or may catalyze a related reaction that is important for survival or growth in the host. H. pylori encounters significant levels of acetone in the stomach which it could use as a potential electron donor for microaerobic respiration. PMID:18215283

  9. Identification of Bacillus cereus in a chungkukjang that showed high anticancer effects against AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hae-Ree; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Kun-Young

    2009-12-01

    Anticancer effects of chungkukjang (a Korean short-term fermented soy paste) were studied in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and Bacillus strains from chungkukjang were isolated and identified. Before the experiments, six different chungkukjang products (K-, M-, Mn-, O-, Os-, and H-chungkukjangs) were purchased from a folk village in the Sunchang region, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea. Based on sensory evaluation tests and general chemical and quality studies, K-, H-, and M-chungkukjangs were selected for the experiments. All chungkukjang samples exhibited in vitro anticancer activities; however, K-chungkukjang revealed the highest anticancer activity in the previous studies. In this experiment, K-chungkukjang again showed the highest anticancer effect in the AGS cells. At the concentration of 1 mg/mL, K-chungkukjang (87%) showed the highest growth inhibitory effect, followed by H-chungkukjang (85%) and MC-chungkukjang (69%) (P < .05). K-chungkukjang induced apoptosis as determined by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and exhibited increased bax and decreased bcl-2 mRNA expression. Three representative Bacillus strains from K-chungkukjang were isolated and identified by recA gene sequencing as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus subtilis. Identifying B. cereus in the chungkukjang means that when chungkukjang is prepared by the traditional method, B. cereus, which is a common cause of foodborne disease, can grow during the natural fermentation process. All B. cereus strains, of course, are not pathogens, but its presence causes food safety concerns. Therefore, using a starter culture is safer than the traditional natural fermentation for the industrialization of chungkukjang in Korea.

  10. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2014-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24-48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway.

  11. Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Berberine and d-Limonene on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line MGC803

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24–48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou–Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway. PMID:25045784

  12. Tangeretin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid, induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer AGS cells through extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Cao, Aili; Shi, Jianrong; Yin, Peihao; Wang, Li; Ji, Guang; Xie, Jianqun; Wu, Dazheng

    2014-04-01

    Tangeretin, a natural polymethoxyflavone present in citrus peel oil, is known to have anticancer activities in breast cancer, colorectal carcinoma and lung carcinoma, yet, the underlying mechanisms of tangeretin in human gastric cancer AGS cells have not been investigated to date. In the present study, the apoptotic mechanisms of tangeretin in AGS cells were explored. It was observed that tangeretin increased the apoptotic rates of AGS cells following treatment with tangeretin for 48 h in a dose-dependent manner by Annexin V-FITC and PI double staining. In addition, characteristic apoptotic morphology such as nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic bodies was observed after Hoechst 33258 staining. Flow cytometric assay showed that treatment of AGS cells with tangeretin decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction was involved in the tangeretin-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were increased by tangeretin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that the protein levels of pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, Bax, Bid, tBid, p53, p21/cip1, Fas and FasL were significantly upregulated by tangeretin. In addition, PFT-α (a p53 inhibitor) reduced the apoptotic rates and the expression of p53, p21, caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by tangeretin, indicating that tangeretin-induced apoptosis was p53-dependent. In conclusion, these results suggest that tangeretin induces the apoptosis of AGS cells mainly through p53-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and the Fas/FasL-mediated extrinsic pathway.

  13. Identification of Novel Changes in Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Latoya E; Langlais, Paul R; Day, Samantha E; Coletta, Richard L; Benjamin, Tonya R; De Filippis, Elena Anna; Madura, James A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Roust, Lori R; Coletta, Dawn K

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms of metabolic improvements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not entirely clear. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the role of obesity and RYGB on the human skeletal muscle proteome. Basal muscle biopsies were obtained from seven obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) female subjects (45.1 ± 3.6 years) pre- and 3 months post-RYGB, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Four age-matched (48.5 ± 4.7 years) lean (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) females served as control subjects. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry and microarray analyses on protein and RNA isolated from the muscle biopsies. Significant improvements in fasting plasma glucose (104.2 ± 7.8 vs. 86.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL) and BMI (42.1 ± 2.2 vs. 35.3 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) were demonstrated in the pre- versus post-RYGB, both P < 0.05. Proteomic analysis identified 2,877 quantifiable proteins. Of these, 395 proteins were significantly altered in obesity before surgery, and 280 proteins differed significantly post-RYGB. Post-RYGB, 49 proteins were returned to normal levels after surgery. KEGG pathway analysis revealed a decreased abundance in ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation proteins in obesity, and a normalization of ribosomal proteins post-RYGB. The transcriptomic data confirmed the normalization of the ribosomal proteins. Our results provide evidence that obesity and RYGB have a dynamic effect on the skeletal muscle proteome. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. β-casein nanovehicles for oral delivery of chemotherapeutic Drug combinations overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Maya; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Livney, Yoav D

    2016-04-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary obstacle to curative cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that β-casein (β-CN) micelles (β-CM) can serve as nanovehicles for oral delivery and target-activated release of hydrophobic drugs in the stomach. Herein we introduce a novel nanosystem based on β-CM, to orally deliver a synergistic combination of a chemotherapeutic drug (Paclitaxel) and a P-glycoprotein-specific transport inhibitor (Tariquidar) individually encapsulated within β-CM, for overcoming MDR in gastric cancer. Light microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analyses revealed solubilization of these drugs by β-CN, suppressing drug crystallization. Spectrophotometry demonstrated high loading capacity and good encapsulation efficiency, whereas spectrofluorometry revealed high affinity of these drugs to β-CN. In vitro cytotoxicity assays exhibited remarkable synergistic efficacy against human MDR gastric carcinoma cells with P-glycoprotein overexpression. Oral delivery of β-CN - based nanovehicles carrying synergistic drug combinations to the stomach constitutes a novel efficacious therapeutic system that may overcome MDR in gastric cancer.

  15. β-casein nanovehicles for oral delivery of chemotherapeutic drug combinations overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Maya; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; Livney, Yoav D.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary obstacle to curative cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that β-casein (β-CN) micelles (β-CM) can serve as nanovehicles for oral delivery and target-activated release of hydrophobic drugs in the stomach. Herein we introduce a novel nanosystem based on β-CM, to orally deliver a synergistic combination of a chemotherapeutic drug (Paclitaxel) and a P-glycoprotein-specific transport inhibitor (Tariquidar) individually encapsulated within β-CM, for overcoming MDR in gastric cancer. Light microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analyses revealed solubilization of these drugs by β-CN, suppressing drug crystallization. Spectrophotometry demonstrated high loading capacity and good encapsulation efficiency, whereas spectrofluorometry revealed high affinity of these drugs to β-CN. In vitro cytotoxicity assays exhibited remarkable synergistic efficacy against human MDR gastric carcinoma cells with P-glycoprotein overexpression. Oral delivery of β-CN - based nanovehicles carrying synergistic drug combinations to the stomach constitutes a novel efficacious therapeutic system that may overcome MDR in gastric cancer. PMID:26989076

  16. Orthotopic Implantation of Intact Tumor Tissue Leads to Metastasis of OCUM-2MD3 Human Gastric Cancer in Nude Mice Visualized in Real Time by Intravital Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiaoen; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Miwa, Atsushi; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Orthotopic (literally "correct place") implantation of cancer in nude mice has long been known to be superior to subcutaneous transplantation because the orthotopic tumor can metastasize. We reported previously on surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of gastric cancer tissue in nude mice resulting in the formation of metastases in 100% of the mice with extensive primary growth to the regional lymph nodes, liver, and lung. In contrast, when cell suspensions were used to inject gastric cancer cells orthotopically, metastases occurred in only 6.7% of the mice with local tumor formation, emphasizing the importance of orthotopically implanting intact tissue to allow full expression of metastatic potential. However, the different behavior of tumors implanted orthotopically by the two methods has not been visualized in real time. OCUM-2MD3 human gastric cancer cells labeled with the fluorescent protein Azami-Green were implanted orthotopically as cells or tissue in nude mice. Orthotopic implantation of cells resulted in local spread on the stomach. In contrast, SOI of tumor tissue of OCUM-2MD3 resulted in vessel spread of the Azami-Green-expressing cancer cells. Metastasis was also observed in the left lobe of the liver after SOI. These results demonstrate the physiological importance of intact cancer tissue for orthotopic implantation in order for tumors to properly grow and express their metastatic potential. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of aqueous green tea extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric and colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Ergüder, Imge B; Namuslu, Mehmet; Sözener, Ulaş; Devrím, Erdinç; Avci, Aslihan; Kocaoğlu, Hilmi; Durak, Ilker; Gocmen, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of green tea extract on the activities of DNA turn-over enzymes, namely adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) in gastric and colon tissues from patients with stomach and colon cancer. Six cancerous and 6 non-cancerous adjacent human gastric tissues, and 7 cancerous and 7 non-cancerous adjacent colon tissues obtained surgically were treated with aqueous green tea extract at 3 different concentrations for 1 hour, and then ADA and XO activities were measured. In all of the tissues, XO activities were found to elevate after treatment with green tea extract. Additionally, ADA activity was found to be inhibited in the cancerous gastric tissues by the green tea extract. Elevated XO and reduced ADA activities due to treatment with green tea extract may lower salvage pathway activity and lead to inhibition in carcinogenesis. Our data suggest that green tea may support the medical treatment of stomach and colon cancer.

  18. Significantly increased expression of OCT4 and ABCG2 in spheroid body-forming cells of the human gastric cancer MKN-45 cell line.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianming; Wang, Lei; Ma, Lilin; Xu, Junfei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jie; Chen, Ruixin

    2013-10-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory hypothesizes that CSCs are the cause of tumor formation, recurrence and metastasis. Key to the study of CSCs is their isolation and identification. The present study investigated whether spheroid body-forming cells in the human gastric cancer (GC) MKN-45 cell line are enriched for CSC properties, and also assessed the expression of the candidate CSC markers, octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) in the MKN-45 spheroid body cells. The MKN-45 cells were plated in a stem cell-conditioned culture system to allow for spheroid body formation. The expression levels of OCT4 and ABCG2 in the spheroid body cells were assessed by qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining, while the tumorigenicity of the spheroid body-forming cells was assessed by in vivo xenograft studies in nude mice. The MKN-45 cells were able to form spheroid bodies when cultured in stem cell-conditioned medium. The spheroid body-forming cells showed a significantly higher (P<0.01) expression of OCT4 and ABCG2 compared with the parental cells. These data suggest that the spheroid body cells from the MKN-45 GC cell line cultured in stem cell-conditioned medium possessed gastric CSC properties. The co-expression of OCT4 and ABCG2 by these cells may represent the presence of a subpopulation of gastric CSCs.

  19. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... juice (lemon juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or lemon juice to... “reconstituted lemon juice” (1) if the food is prepared from concentrated lemon juice and water and/or lemon... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and...

  20. [Gastric tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E; Oliveira, A; Costa, A; Sa, L; Vieira, A; Oliveira, A

    1994-12-01

    A 37 year old woman with duodenal ulcer not responsive to medical treatment was operated. Antrectomy, truncal vagotomy and Bilroth II gastrojejunostomy were performed. The histopathology revealed epithelioid cell granulomas with multinucleated cells and central ceseation, in the gastric side of the pylorus and in three isolated lymph nodes. With Ziehl-Neelsen staining there were multiple acid-fast bacilli. There was no evidence or previous history, personal or familial, or tuberculosis in an other localization. Epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric tuberculosis are discussed according to the literature.

  1. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    PubMed

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-02-28

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  2. Combination treatment of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) cause growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in the human gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Patrad, Elham; Niapour, Ali; Farassati, Faris; Amani, Mojtaba

    2018-04-01

    Current medication for gastric cancer patients has a low success rate with resistance and side effects. According to recent studies, γ-secretase inhibitors is used as therapeutic drugs in cancer. Moreover, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural compound proposed for the treatment/chemo-prevention of cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ATRA in combination with N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) as γ-secretase inhibitor on viability and apoptosis of the AGS and MKN-45 derived from human gastric cancer. AGS and MKN-45 gastric cancer cell lines were treated with different concentrations of ATRA or DAPT alone or ATRA plus DAPT. The viability, death detection and apoptosis of cells was examined by MTT assay and Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle was also evaluated through flow cytometry analyses. In addition, caspase 3/7 activity and the expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 were examined. DAPT and ATRA alone decreased gastric cancer cells viability in a concentration dependent manner. The combination of DAPT and ATRA exhibited significant synergistic inhibitory effects. The greater percentage of cells were accumulated in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle in combination treatment. The combination of DAPT and ATRA effectively increased the proportion of apoptotic cells and the level of caspase 3/7 activities compared to single treatment. Moreover, augmented caspase-3 up-regulation and bcl-2 down-regulation were found following combined application of DAPT and ATRA. The combination of DAPT and ATRA led to more reduction in viability and apoptosis in respect to DAPT or ATRA alone in the investigated cell lines.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of rosamultic acid is associated with induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell migration and caspase activation in human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cells.

    PubMed

    Sui, Cheng-Guang; Meng, Fan-Dong; Li, Yan; Jiang, You-Hong

    2015-08-15

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths after lung cancer globally. Among natural products, natural triterpenes represent a structurally diverse group of organic compounds with potent antitumor activity. The objective of the present research work demonstrated the antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of rosamultic acid, a natural triterpenoid, in human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cells. Its effect on cellular morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation and expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were also determined. Antiproliferative activity of rosamultic acid was evaluated by MTT assay. Phase contrast, fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry using Hoechst 33342, acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Annexin V-FITC as cellular probes were used to evaluate the induction of apoptosis by rosamultic acid. Protein level expressions were analyzed by western blot analysis. The results revealed that rosamultic acid induced dose-dependent as well as time dependent cytotoxic effects in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. It also led to a reduction in clonogenic activity along with inhibiting the cell migration. Characteristic features of apoptosis induced by rosamultic acid were observed and quantified. Cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 phase was induced by rosamultic acid along with downregulation of expression levels of CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1. Rosamultic acid also significantly led to the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 during the 48 h treatment along with cleaving PARP in a dose-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation following rosamultic acid treatment was also observed in these cells. The current study strongly reveals that rosamultic acid inhibits gastric cancer proliferation by inducing apoptosis mediated through cell cycle arrest, downregulation of cell cycle related protein expressions, inhibition of cell migration, DNA damage, and activation of caspases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential antiproliferative activity of polyphenol metabolites against human breast cancer cells and their urine excretion pattern in healthy subjects follo