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Sample records for human glomerular sage

  1. A human glomerular SAGE transcriptome database

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To facilitate in the identification of gene products important in regulating renal glomerular structure and function, we have produced an annotated transcriptome database for normal human glomeruli using the SAGE approach. Description The database contains 22,907 unique SAGE tag sequences, with a total tag count of 48,905. For each SAGE tag, the ratio of its frequency in glomeruli relative to that in 115 non-glomerular tissues or cells, a measure of transcript enrichment in glomeruli, was calculated. A total of 133 SAGE tags representing well-characterized transcripts were enriched 10-fold or more in glomeruli compared to other tissues. Comparison of data from this study with a previous human glomerular Sau3A-anchored SAGE library reveals that 47 of the highly enriched transcripts are common to both libraries. Among these are the SAGE tags representing many podocyte-predominant transcripts like WT-1, podocin and synaptopodin. Enrichment of podocyte transcript tags SAGE library indicates that other SAGE tags observed at much higher frequencies in this glomerular compared to non-glomerular SAGE libraries are likely to be glomerulus-predominant. A higher level of mRNA expression for 19 transcripts represented by glomerulus-enriched SAGE tags was verified by RT-PCR comparing glomeruli to lung, liver and spleen. Conclusion The database can be retrieved from, or interrogated online at http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/SAGE. The annotated database is also provided as an additional file with gene identification for 9,022, and matches to the human genome or transcript homologs in other species for 1,433 tags. It should be a useful tool for in silico mining of glomerular gene expression. PMID:19500374

  2. Definition of glomerular antigens by monoclonal antibodies produced against a human glomerular membrane fraction.

    PubMed

    Neale, T J; Callus, M S; Donovan, L C; Baird, H

    1990-10-01

    Experimental animal models of glomerulonephritis (GN) produced by direct antibody binding to non-basement membrane glomerular capillary wall antigens do not to date have human parallels. To examine the potential for this form of humoral glomerular injury in man, we sought to define discrete human non-GBM glomerular antigenic targets using hybridoma technology. Mice were immunised intraperitoneally with 20-100 micrograms of a human glomerular membrane fraction (HGMF). Six fusions have yielded 12 stable reagents defined by positive glomerular indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and microELISA using HGMF as the screening antigen. Subclass analysis of ascitic McAbs indicated several IgG1, one IgG2b, and three IgM reagents. Distinctive IF patterns of reactivity with epithelial, endothelial or mesangial structures have been observed, with or without peritubular capillary, tubular basement membrane and vessel wall reactivity. Seven normal non-renal human organs and the kidneys of rat, rabbit and sheep have shown patterns characteristic of each individual McAb, restricted to human or with species cross reactivity. To partially characterise McAb-reactive antigens, detergent-solubilised renal cortex and collagenase-solubilised GBM (CS-GBM) extracts have been probed by immunoblot. A unique McAb 7-5Q, reactive with glomerular and tubular epithelial structures, binds major bands of approximately 107 KD and 93 KD in detergent solubilised cortex and a single band of similar size by immunoprecipitation (110 KD). 5-3A (a human-restricted linear-reacting McAb) binds bands of 20-200 KD (major band 58 KD) in CS-GBM. In conclusion, distinct species-restricted and more broadly disposed glomerular epitopes are definable in man by McAbs and are potential targets for humoral injury. Purification of these antigens will allow assay for circulating putative nephritogenic auto-antibody and potentially, McAbs may be useful in screening urine for evidence of occult structural renal disease.

  3. Structural basis for reduced glomerular filtration capacity in nephrotic humans.

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, M C; Kristal, B; Myers, B D; Deen, W M

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have established that in a variety of human glomerulopathies the reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is due to a marked lowering of the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). To identify the factors which lower Kf, we measured the filtering surface area per glomerulus, filtration slit frequency, basement membrane thickness, and GFR and its determinants in patients with minimal change and membraneous nephropathies and in age-matched healthy controls. Overall values of Kf for the two kidneys were calculated from GFR, renal plasma flow rate, systemic colloid osmotic pressure, and three assumed values for the transcapillary pressure difference. "Experimental" values of the glomerular hydraulic permeability (kexp) were then calculated from Kf, glomerular filtering surface area, and estimates of the total number of nephrons of the two kidneys. Independent estimates of the glomerular hydraulic permeability (kmodel) were obtained using a recent mathematical model that is based on analyses of viscous flow through the various structural components of the glomerular capillary wall. Individual values of basement membrane thickness and filtration slit frequency were used as inputs in this model. The results indicate that the reductions of Kf in both nephropathies can be attributed entirely to reduced glomerular hydraulic permeability. The mean values of kexp and kmodel were very similar in both disorders and much smaller in the nephrotic groups than in healthy controls. There was good agreement between kexp and kmodel for any given group of subjects. It was shown that, in both groups of nephrotics, filtration slit frequency was a more important determinant of the water flow resistance than was basement membrane thickness. The decrease in filtration slit frequency observed in both disorders caused the average path length for the filtrate to increase, thereby explaining the decreased hydraulic permeability. Images PMID:8083359

  4. WEBSAGE: a web tool for visual analysis of differentially expressed human SAGE tags.

    PubMed

    Pylouster, Jean; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Saison-Behmoaras, Tula Ester

    2005-07-01

    The serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful method to compare gene expression of mRNA populations. To provide quantitative expression levels on a genome-wide scale, the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) uses SAGE. Over 7 million SAGE tags, from 171 human cell types have been assembled. The growing number of laboratories involved in SAGE research necessitates the use of software that provides statistical analysis of raw data, allowing the rapid visualization and interpretation of results. We have created the first simple tool that performs statistical analysis on SAGE data, identifies the tags differentially expressed and shows the results in a scatter plot. It is freely available and accessible at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/websage/index.php.

  5. Gene expression profiling of human breast tissue samples using SAGE-Seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Meyer, Clifford A; Choudhury, Sibgat; Shipitsin, Michail; Maruyama, Reo; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Sukumar, Saraswati; Schwartzman, Armin; Liu, Jun S; Polyak, Kornelia; Liu, X Shirley

    2010-12-01

    We present a powerful application of ultra high-throughput sequencing, SAGE-Seq, for the accurate quantification of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transcriptomes. We develop data analysis pipelines that allow the mapping of sense and antisense strands of mitochondrial and RefSeq genes, the normalization between libraries, and the identification of differentially expressed genes. We find that the diversity of cancer transcriptomes is significantly higher than that of normal cells. Our analysis indicates that transcript discovery plateaus at 10 million reads/sample, and suggests a minimum desired sequencing depth around five million reads. Comparison of SAGE-Seq and traditional SAGE on normal and cancerous breast tissues reveals higher sensitivity of SAGE-Seq to detect less-abundant genes, including those encoding for known breast cancer-related transcription factors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). SAGE-Seq is able to identify genes and pathways abnormally activated in breast cancer that traditional SAGE failed to call. SAGE-Seq is a powerful method for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human disease.

  6. The SAGE Cross-Culture Matrix Approach to the Study of Global Environments and Human Inhabitants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    The Humans and Environment Learning Program (HELP) and the Student Awareness of Global Environments (SAGE) approach are designed to directly and vicariously expose students to natural and social environments and develop their awareness of the character and nature of the different environments in which each individual functions throughout a…

  7. Effect of cyclosporin and the prostacyclin analogue iloprost on human glomerular vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, E; Morel, D; L'Azou, B; Cambar, J; Potaux, L

    1994-01-01

    Cyclosporin is known to cause a decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in both humans and animals. These acute modifications are reversible if the drug is withdrawn, and seem to be caused by a local hormonal imbalance between vasoconstricting and vasodilating substances. We studied human glomeruli incubated with either CsA alone, iloprost alone, or CsA + iloprost. Photomicrographs of glomeruli were taken at t0, t1, t2 and t5 min and glomerular areas were measured with a videoanalyser linked to a computer. Results show a significant vasoconstriction with CsA alone, and no significant modification of glomerular areas with iloprost or CsA + iloprost. We conclude that iloprost prevents CsA-induced vasoconstriction in human glomeruli in vitro.

  8. Reverse serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) characterization of orphan SAGE tags from human embryonic stem cells identifies the presence of novel transcripts and antisense transcription of key pluripotency genes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark; Tan, Siew-Peng; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Bongso, Ariff

    2006-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique for the analysis of gene expression. A significant portion of SAGE tags, designated as orphan tags, however, cannot be reliably assigned to known transcripts. We used an improved reverse SAGE (rSAGE) strategy to convert human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-specific orphan SAGE tags into longer 3' cDNAs. We show that the systematic analysis of these 3' cDNAs permitted the discovery of hESC-specific novel transcripts and cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and improved the assignment of SAGE tags that resulted from splice variants, insertion/deletion, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. More importantly, this is the first description of cis-NATs for several key pluripotency markers in hESCs and mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the formation of short interfering RNA could be an important regulatory mechanism. A systematic large-scale analysis of the remaining orphan SAGE tags in the hESC SAGE libraries by rSAGE or other 3' cDNA extension strategies should unravel additional novel transcripts and cis-NATs that are specifically expressed in hESCs. Besides contributing to the complete catalog of human transcripts, many of them should prove to be a valuable resource for the elucidation of the molecular pathways involved in the self-renewal and lineage commitment of hESCs.

  9. Comparison of microarray and sage techniques in gene expression analysis of human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kavsan, V M; Dmitrenko, V V; Shostak, K O; Bukreieva, T V; Vitak, N Y; Simirenko, O E; Malisheva, T A; Shamayev, M I; Rozumenko, V D; Zozulya, Y A

    2007-01-01

    To enhance glioblastoma (GB) marker discovery we compared gene expression in GB with human normal brain (NB) by accessing SAGE Genie web site and compared obtained results with published data. Nine GB and five NB SAGE-libraries were analyzed using the Digital Gene Expression Displayer (DGED), the results of DGED were tested by Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR of arbitrary selected genes. Review of available data from the articles on gene expression profiling by microarray-based hybridization showed as few as 35 overlapped genes with increased expression in GB. Some of them were identified in four articles, but most genes in three or even in two investigations. There was found also some differences between SAGE results of GB analysis. Digital Gene Expression Displayer approach revealed 676 genes differentially expressed in GB vs. NB with cut-off ratio: twofold change and P < or = 0.05. Differential expression of selectedgenes obtained by DGED was confirmed by Northern analysis and RT-PCR. Altogether, only 105 of 955 genes presented in published investigations were among the genes obtained by DGED. Comparison of the results obtained by microarrays and SAGE is very complicated because authors present only the most prominent differentially expressed genes. However, even available data give quite poor overlapping of genes revealed by microarrays. Some differences between results obtained by SAGE in different investigations can be explained by high dependence on the statistical methods used. As for now, the best solution to search for molecular tumor markers is to compare all available results and to select only those genes, which significant expression in tumor combined with very low expression in normal tissues was reproduced in several articles. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of GBs. Some genes, encoded cell surface or extra-cellular proteins may be useful for targeting

  10. MRI-based glomerular morphology and pathology in whole human kidneys.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Scott C; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Puelles, Victor G; Zhang, Min; Wu, Teresa; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Dowling, John; Charlton, Jennifer R; Forbes, Michael S; Ng, Amanda; Wu, Qi-zhu; Armitage, James A; Egan, Gary F; Bertram, John F; Bennett, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    Nephron number (N(glom)) and size (V(glom)) are correlated with risk for chronic cardiovascular and kidney disease and may be predictive of renal allograft viability. Unfortunately, there are no techniques to assess N(glom) and V(glom) in intact kidneys. This work demonstrates the use of cationized ferritin (CF) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent to measure N(glom) and V(glom) in viable human kidneys donated to science. The kidneys were obtained from patients with varying levels of cardiovascular and renal disease. CF was intravenously injected into three viable human kidneys. A fourth control kidney was perfused with saline. After fixation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed binding of CF to the glomerulus. The intact kidneys were imaged with three-dimensional MRI and CF-labeled glomeruli appeared as punctate spots. Custom software identified, counted, and measured the apparent volumes of CF-labeled glomeruli, with an ~6% false positive rate. These measurements were comparable to stereological estimates. The MRI-based technique yielded a novel whole kidney distribution of glomerular volumes. Histopathology demonstrated that the distribution of CF-labeled glomeruli may be predictive of glomerular and vascular disease. Variations in CF distribution were quantified using image texture analyses, which be a useful marker of glomerular sclerosis. This is the first report of direct measurement of glomerular number and volume in intact human kidneys.

  11. SAGE I

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-12

    SAGE I Data and Information Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) I gathered data concerning the spatial distribution of stratospheric aerosols, ozone and nitrogen dioxide on a global scale. SAGE I used a Sun Photometer. Guide Documents:  Project ...

  12. Scaling down SAGE: from miniSAGE to microSAGE.

    PubMed

    Datson, N A

    2008-10-01

    Since Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was introduced more than a decade ago, it has been widely applied to characterise gene expression profiles in various tissues, cell types and cell lines of diverse origin including human, mouse, rat, yeast, plant and parasites. Throughout the past years many modifications to the original SAGE protocol have been developed, which address several aspects of SAGE, including an increase in sequencing efficiency (deepSAGE), improved tag-to-transcript mapping of SAGE tags (LongSAGE) and a reduction of the amount of required input RNA (microSAGE). Furthermore, the applications of SAGE have expanded from exclusively transcriptome analysis to now also include genome analysis, identifying genome signature tags that pinpoint transcription factor binding sites throughout the genome (Serial Analysis of Chromatin Occupancy or SACO). The review gives an overview of the main modifications to the SAGE technology that have been developed in the last decade, with a particular focus on the large reduction in the amount of required input RNA that has been achieved in the many SAGE modifications for downscaling or miniaturisation of SAGE (including microSAGE, PCR-SAGE and small amplified RNA-SAGE). The available methods for downscaling or miniaturisation of SAGE and their specific features will be discussed, illustrated by some examples of their application. This reduction in required quantity of input RNA has greatly expanded the possible applications of SAGE, allowing characterisation of global gene expression in material obtained from needle biopsies, small anatomical structures and specific cell types isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting or laser microdissection.

  13. Caveolae may enable albumin to enter human renal glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takahito; Takei, Takashi; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Uchida, Keiko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-06-01

    Caveolae on human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) are increased in glomerular disease and correlate with the degree of albuminuria. To assess the mechanism by which caveolae contribute to albuminuria, we investigated whether albumin enters into HRGECs through caveolae. HRGECs were incubated with Alexa Fluor 488 labeled BSA or transferrin, followed by immunofluorescence localization with antibody to caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the main structural protein of caveolae, or clathrin, the major structural protein of clathrin coated pits, to assess whether BSA colocalized with Cav-1. HRGECs were also incubated with albumin and caveolae disrupting agents, including methyl beta cyclodextrin (MBCD) and nystatin, to determine whether disrupting caveolae interfered with albumin endocytosis into HRGECs. HRGECs were also incubated with albumin after transfection with Cav-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Labeled BSA colocalized with Cav-1, but not with clathrin. In contrast, labeled transferrin colocalized with clathrin, but not with Cav-1. Incubation of HRGECs with MBCD or nystatin, or transfection with Cav-1 siRNA, significantly reduced the intracellular amounts of albumin and Cav-1, relative to normal HRGECs, as shown by western blotting and immunofluorescence. These findings indicate that albumin enters HRGECs through the caveolae, suggesting that caveolae play an important role in the pathogenesis of albuminuria by providing a pathway through which albumin can enter glomerular endothelial cells.

  14. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo (2): Planted Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Galetti, Maricla; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Bonanni, Alice; Radice, Antonella; Tincani, Angela; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Murtas, Corrado; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Brunini, Francesca; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Barbano, Giancarlo; Piaggio, Giorgio; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Scolari, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni; Martini, Alberto; Allegri, Landino

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular planted antigens (histones, DNA, and C1q) are potential targets of autoimmunity in lupus nephritis (LN). However, the characterization of these antigens in human glomeruli in vivo remains inconsistent. We eluted glomerular autoantibodies recognizing planted antigens from laser-microdissected renal biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN. Prevalent antibody isotypes were defined, levels were determined, and glomerular colocalization was investigated. Renal and circulating antibodies were matched, and serum levels were compared in 104 patients with LN, 84 patients with SLE without LN, and 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Autoantibodies against podocyte antigens (anti–α-enolase/antiannexin AI) were also investigated. IgG2 autoantibodies against DNA, histones (H2A, H3, and H4), and C1q were detected in 50%, 55%, and 70% of biopsy samples, respectively. Anti-DNA IgG3 was the unique non-IgG2 anti-DNA deposit, and anti-C1q IgG4 was mainly detected in subepithelial membranous deposits. Anti-H3, anti-DNA, and anti-C1q IgG2 autoantibodies were also prevalent in LN serum, which also contained IgG3 against the antigen panel and anti-C1q IgG4. Serum and glomerular levels of autoantibodies were not strictly associated. High serum levels of all autoantibodies detected, including anti–α-enolase and antiannexin AI, identified LN versus SLE and RA. Anti-H3 and anti–α-enolase IgG2 levels had the most remarkable increase in LN serum and represented a discriminating feature of LN in principal component analysis. The highest levels of these two autoantibodies were also associated with proteinuria>3.5 g/24 hours and creatinine>1.2 mg/dl. Our findings suggest that timely autoantibody characterization might allow outcome prediction and targeted therapies for patients with nephritis. PMID:25398787

  15. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo (2): Planted Antigens.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Galetti, Maricla; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Bonanni, Alice; Radice, Antonella; Tincani, Angela; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Murtas, Corrado; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Brunini, Francesca; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Barbano, Giancarlo; Piaggio, Giorgio; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Scolari, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni; Martini, Alberto; Allegri, Landino; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-08-01

    Glomerular planted antigens (histones, DNA, and C1q) are potential targets of autoimmunity in lupus nephritis (LN). However, the characterization of these antigens in human glomeruli in vivo remains inconsistent. We eluted glomerular autoantibodies recognizing planted antigens from laser-microdissected renal biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN. Prevalent antibody isotypes were defined, levels were determined, and glomerular colocalization was investigated. Renal and circulating antibodies were matched, and serum levels were compared in 104 patients with LN, 84 patients with SLE without LN, and 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Autoantibodies against podocyte antigens (anti-α-enolase/antiannexin AI) were also investigated. IgG2 autoantibodies against DNA, histones (H2A, H3, and H4), and C1q were detected in 50%, 55%, and 70% of biopsy samples, respectively. Anti-DNA IgG3 was the unique non-IgG2 anti-DNA deposit, and anti-C1q IgG4 was mainly detected in subepithelial membranous deposits. Anti-H3, anti-DNA, and anti-C1q IgG2 autoantibodies were also prevalent in LN serum, which also contained IgG3 against the antigen panel and anti-C1q IgG4. Serum and glomerular levels of autoantibodies were not strictly associated. High serum levels of all autoantibodies detected, including anti-α-enolase and antiannexin AI, identified LN versus SLE and RA. Anti-H3 and anti-α-enolase IgG2 levels had the most remarkable increase in LN serum and represented a discriminating feature of LN in principal component analysis. The highest levels of these two autoantibodies were also associated with proteinuria>3.5 g/24 hours and creatinine>1.2 mg/dl. Our findings suggest that timely autoantibody characterization might allow outcome prediction and targeted therapies for patients with nephritis.

  16. Anemia lessens and its prevention with recombinant human erythropoietin worsens glomerular injury and hypertension in rats with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, D L; Anderson, S; Rennke, H G; Brenner, B M

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal disease is frequently characterized by anemia, which may modify systemic and renal hemodynamics. In adult Munich-Wistar rats, the mild anemia (hematocrit, approximately equal to 42 vol/dl) that accompanies five-sixths nephrectomy was either made more severe (approximately equal to 30 vol/dl) by feeding a low iron diet or prevented (approximately equal to 50 vol/dl) by administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEpo). In functional studies performed 4 weeks after renal ablation, untreated rats exhibited mild anemia with systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate due to glomerular capillary hyperperfusion and hypertension. Preventing anemia with r-HuEpo worsened systemic and glomerular hypertension, effects largely obviated by induction of more marked anemia with the low iron diet. Untreated rats followed for 6 weeks postablation exhibited progressive proteinuria and sclerosis involving 12% of glomeruli, contrasted with 33% in rats given r-HuEpo. Even after 12 weeks, sclerosis involved only 6% of glomeruli in rats with more severe anemia but progressed to 30% in untreated rats. Thus, anemia limits systemic and glomerular hypertension and glomerular injury, whereas its prevention by r-HuEpo severely accelerates hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in this model. These results suggest that anemia is a hemodynamically favorable adaptation to chronic renal disease and that its overly vigorous correction may have adverse renal hemodynamic and structural consequences. PMID:3413082

  17. Detection of Goodpasture antigen in fractions prepared from collagenase digests of human glomerular basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, A J; Lockwood, M C; Wong, M; Price, R G

    1984-01-01

    Preparations of human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were digested with collagenase, and a Goodpasture (GP) antigen rich pool from gel filtration column runs was identified by antibody inhibition radioimmunoassay. The components of the GP antigen pool were separated on polyacrylamide gels, and transferred to nitrocellulose sheets by the 'western' blotting technique. The blots were separately reacted with thirteen GP sera as primary antibody, followed by peroxidase labelled goat anti-human IgG and revealed 45-50K (two bands) and 25-28K (one-three bands) components. No corresponding reactivity was observed using convalescent GP sera or other control sera (normal human serum, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with or without pulmonary haemorrhage, and lupus erythematosus) as primary antibody. Images Fig. 3 PMID:6319059

  18. SAGE and LongSAGE.

    PubMed

    Høgh, Annabeth Laursen; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2008-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a high-throughput method for global gene expression analysis that allows the quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. SAGE is a digital method and its sensitivity depends only on the number of tags sequenced. Furthermore, SAGE is a powerful tool for finding novel genes that are expressed under certain conditions or in certain tissues. SAGE has been widely used in fields as diverse as cancer research and the development and study of microorganisms. The SAGE method is a series of routine molecular biology procedure and can, at least in principle, be carried out in any laboratory. However, the number of consecutive steps is quite large and in practice, SAGE has been difficult to carry out on a routine basis.

  19. Hyperosmolarity induced by high glucose promotes senescence in human glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    del Nogal, Maria; Troyano, Nuria; Calleros, Laura; Griera, Mercedes; Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2014-09-01

    Hyperglycemia is involved in the diabetic complication of different organs and can elevate serum osmolarity. Here, we tested whether hyperosmolarity promoted by high glucose levels induces cellular senescence in renal cells. We treated Wistar rats with streptozotocin to induce diabetes or with consecutive daily injections of mannitol to increase serum osmolarity and analyzed p53 and p16 genes in renal cortex by immunohistochemistry. Both diabetic and mannitol treated rats showed a significant increase in serum osmolarity, without significant signs of renal dysfunction, but associated with increased staining for p53 and p16 in the renal cortex. An increase in p53 and p16 expression was also found in renal cortex slices and glomeruli isolated from healthy rats, which were later treated with 30 mM glucose or mannitol. Intracellular mechanisms involved were analyzed in cultured human glomerular mesangial cells treated with 30 mM glucose or mannitol. After treatments, cells showed increased p53, p21 and p16 expression and elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Senescence was prevented when myo-inositol was added before treatment. High glucose or mannitol induced constitutive activation of Ras and ERK pathways which, in turn, were activated by oxidative stress. In summary, hyperosmolarity induced renal senescence, particularly in glomerular mesangial cells, increasing oxidative stress, which constitutively activated Ras-ERK 1/2 pathway. Cellular senescence could contribute to the organ dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  20. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  1. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo: α-Enolase and Annexin AI

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D’Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino

    2014-01-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti–α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti–α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti–α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti–α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum. PMID:24790181

  2. Glomerular autoimmune multicomponents of human lupus nephritis in vivo: α-enolase and annexin AI.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2014-11-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti-α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti-α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti-α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti-α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum.

  3. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by glomerular visceral epithelial cells in human membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, T. J.; Rüger, B. M.; Macaulay, H.; Dunbar, P. R.; Hasan, Q.; Bourke, A.; Murray-McIntosh, R. P.; Kitching, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was examined in biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunogold electron microscopy, immunoassay in serum and urine, and urinary immunoblot. Striking glomerular capillary wall and visceral glomerular epithelial cell TNF-alpha protein staining was observed in all cases of membranous nephropathy and membranous lupus nephropathy. Staining was less frequently observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and in isolated cases of other histological subtypes of glomerulonephritis, usually in association with glomerular macrophages. By immunogold electron microscopy TNF-alpha was localized in membranous nephropathy within the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, and also in the glomerular basement membrane, especially in relation to immune deposits. In situ hybridization localized TNF-alpha mRNA exclusively to glomerular epithelial cells in all biopsies with membranous morphology but not in other histological subtypes. Concentrations of TNF-alpha were significantly increased compared with normal controls in the urine of patients with membranous nephropathy and with crescentic glomerulonephritis. The expression of TNF-alpha by glomerular epithelial cells exclusively and universally in biopsies showing a membranous morphology strongly suggests this cytokine has a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7778683

  5. ADAM10 is expressed in human podocytes and found in urinary vesicles of patients with glomerular kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of the Notch signaling in the development of glomerular diseases has been recently described. Therefore we analyzed in podocytes the expression and activity of ADAM10, one important component of the Notch signaling complex. Methods By Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis we characterized the expression of ADAM10 in human podocytes, human urine and human renal tissue. Results We present evidence, that differentiated human podocytes possessed increased amounts of mature ADAM10 and released elevated levels of L1 adhesion molecule, one well known substrate of ADAM10. By using specific siRNA and metalloproteinase inhibitors we demonstrate that ADAM10 is involved in the cleavage of L1 in human podocytes. Injury of podocytes enhanced the ADAM10 mediated cleavage of L1. In addition, we detected ADAM10 in urinary podocytes from patients with kidney diseases and in tissue sections of normal human kidney. Finally, we found elevated levels of ADAM10 in urinary vesicles of patients with glomerular kidney diseases. Conclusions The activity of ADAM10 in human podocytes may play an important role in the development of glomerular kidney diseases. PMID:20070888

  6. Comparison of blastocyst and Sage media for in vitro maturation of human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsuthirak, Pallop; Songveeratham, Sorramon; Vutyavanich, Teraporn

    2015-03-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an attractive alternative to conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, as it involves no or minimal ovarian stimulation. Currently, commercialized media specifically designed for IVM are often used. These media are expensive, have limited shelf life, and must be ordered in advance. If standard culture media can be used in place of the specialized IVM media, it would simplify management and make IVM more feasible and more widely employed in ART centers around the world, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. This study was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that blastocyst medium was as good as commercial IVM medium to support maturation and developmental competence of human immature oocytes as previously shown in the mouse system. Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 89 pregnant women during cesarean deliveries between April 2012 and February 2013. Sibling oocytes were allocated to Sage IVM media (512 oocytes) or blastocyst medium (520 oocytes) and assessed for maturation 36 hours later. Mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured up to 144 hours. There was no difference in maturation rate (65.0% vs 68.7%; P = .218) or fertilization rate (66.9% vs 66.4%; P = .872) of oocytes matured in vitro in both media. There was also no difference in the formation of good-quality blastocysts (46.6% vs 45.9%; P = .889) in the 2 groups. Further study should be done to ascertain implantation and pregnancy potential of these embryos.

  7. HPLC estimation of iothalamate to measure glomerular filtration rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iltaf; Barker, James; Naughton, Declan P; Barton, Stephen J; Ashraf, Syed Salman

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually determined by estimation of iothalamate (IOT) clearance. We have developed and validated an accurate and robust method for the analysis of IOT in human plasma and urine. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 50 mM sodium phosphate (10:90; v/v). Flow rate was 1.2 mL/min on a C18 reverse phase column, Synergi-hydro (250 × 4.6 mm) 4 µm 80 Å, with an ultraviolet detector set to 254 nm. Acetonitrile was used for the deproteination and extraction of IOT from human plasma and urine. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for IOT in both plasma and urine. The recoveries of IOT in urine and plasma ranged between 93.14% and 114.74 and 96.04-118.38%, respectively. The linear range for urine and plasma assays were 25-1500 and 1-150 µg/mL respectively. The lower limits of detection were 0.5 µg/mL for both urine and plasma, with no interference from plasma and urine matices. This method has been fully validated according to FDA guidelines and the new HPLC assay has been applied to a new formulation of IOT (Conray™ 43), to calculate GFR in healthy volunteers. The new method is simple, less expensive and it would be instrumental in future clinical and pharmacokinetic studies of iothalamate in kidney patients.

  8. Gamma G globulin subgroup composition of the glomerular deposits in human renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Edmund J.; Busch, George J.; Schur, Peter H.

    1970-01-01

    36 renal biopsies from patients with nephritis were studied for glomerular localization of the heavy chain subgroups of immunoglobulin G (IgG or γG). The deposition pattern of these subgroups was selective and did not reflect the normal serum concentration of these proteins. γG2, which comprises 18% of normal serum γG, was the predominant or unique subgroup deposited in five cases of lupus nephritis and four biopsies with other forms of nephritis associated with granular γG deposits. γG3, which normally makes up only 8% of the serum γG, was the dominant subgroup seen in one biopsy of lobular glomerulonephritis. Patients with linear γG deposits generally had a selective absence of γG3 and often had large amounts of γG4 (normally 3% of the serum γG) deposited. The deposition of complement components C1q, C4, and C3 was variable. One biopsy had only γG2 and no complement components in the deposits and had no neutrophile leukocyte infiltration. This latter observation correlates well with the poor ability of γG2 to fix complement in vitro. Similarly, deposits containing large amounts of γG4, which does not fix complement, also tended to have less inflammatory infiltrate than deposits devoid of this subgroup. The selective deposition of monotypic or restricted γG subgroups on the glomerulus supports the likelihood that the γG represents antibody. The nature of the subgroup involved in the deposit may represent one variable in the determination of the inflammatory and morphological picture that evolves in human glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:4987169

  9. Determination of Single-Kidney Glomerular Filtration Rate in Human Subjects by Using CT

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M.; Textor, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that computed tomography (CT)–derived measurements of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) obtained in human subjects with 64-section CT agree with those obtained with iothalamate clearance, a rigorous reference standard. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study, and written informed consent was obtained. Ninety-six patients (age range, 51–73 years; 46 men, 50 women) with essential (n = 56) or renovascular (n = 40) hypertension were prospectively studied in controlled conditions (involving sodium intake and renin-angiotensin blockade). Single-kidney perfusion, volume, and GFR were measured by using multidetector CT time-attenuation curves and were compared with GFR measured by using iothalamate clearance, as assigned to the right and left kidney according to relative volumes. The reproducibility of CT GFR over a 3-month period (n = 21) was assessed in patients with renal artery stenosis who were undergoing stable medical treatment. Statistical analysis included the t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, linear regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results CT GFR values were similar to those of iothalamate clearance (mean ± standard deviation, 38.2 mL/min ± 18 vs 41.6 mL/min ± 17; P = .062). Stenotic kidney CT GFR in patients with renal artery stenosis was lower than contralateral kidney GFR or essential hypertension single-kidney GFR (mean, 23.1 mL/min ± 13 vs 36.9 mL/min ± 17 [P = .0008] and 45.2 mL/min ± 16 [P = .019], respectively), as was iothalamate clearance (mean, 26.9 mL/min ± 14 vs 38.5 mL/min ± 15 [P = .0004] and 49.0 mL/min ± 14 [P = .001], respectively). CT GFR correlated well with iothalamate GFR (linear regression, CT GFR = 0.88*iothalamate GFR, r2 = 0.89, P < .0001), and Bland-Altman analysis was used to confirm the agreement. CT GFR was also moderately reproducible in medically treated patients with renal artery stenosis (concordance coefficient

  10. Characterization of proteoglycans synthesized by human adult glomerular mesangial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G J; Mason, R M; Davies, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The newly synthesized proteoglycans from human adult glomerular mesangial cells labelled in vitro for 24 h with [35S]sulphate have been characterized using biochemical and immunological techniques. 2. The following proteoglycans were identified (% of total synthesized). (i) A large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, CSPG-I, Mr approximately 1 x 10(6) (10.6%). This proteoglycan consisted of a protein core of Mr approximately 4 x 10(5) and glycosaminoglycan chains of Mr 2.5 x 10(4), and was present in both the cell layer and the culture medium. (ii) A major small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan, DSPG-I, Mr 3.5 x 10(5) (46%), which was mainly located in the culture medium. (iii) A second minor small dermatan sulphate, DSPG-II, Mr approximately 2 x 10(5) (9.8%). This molecule was exclusively located in the culture medium. (iv) A large heparan sulphate proteoglycan, HSPG-I, Mr 8 x 10(5) (3.3%). (v) A second large heparan sulphate proteoglycan HSPG-II, Mr approximately 6 x 10(5) (23%). HSPG-I and HSPG-II were extracted from both the culture medium and the cell layer. 3. Western blot analysis of the core proteins released by chondroitin ABC lyase treatment of DSPG-I and DSPG-II identified these dermatan sulphate proteoglycans as biglycan and decorin respectively. Both DSPG-I and DSPG-II had core proteins of Mr 45,000. 4. The cell-layer-associated forms of CSPG-I, HSPG-I and HSPG-II were accessible to limited trypsin treatment, bound to octyl-Sepharose and could be inserted into liposomes, indicating a possible cell membrane location. 5. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the cell-layer-associated [35S]proteoglycans undergo limited metabolism to inorganic [35S]sulphate, the majority of which is accounted for by the degradation of HSPG-II and to a lesser extent DSPG-I. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1854350

  11. Identifying and Prioritizing Greater Sage-Grouse Nesting and Brood-Rearing Habitat for Conservation in Human-Modified Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Dzialak, Matthew R.; Olson, Chad V.; Harju, Seth M.; Webb, Stephen L.; Mudd, James P.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.; Hayden-Wing, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Balancing animal conservation and human use of the landscape is an ongoing scientific and practical challenge throughout the world. We investigated reproductive success in female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) relative to seasonal patterns of resource selection, with the larger goal of developing a spatially-explicit framework for managing human activity and sage-grouse conservation at the landscape level. Methodology/Principal Findings We integrated field-observation, Global Positioning Systems telemetry, and statistical modeling to quantify the spatial pattern of occurrence and risk during nesting and brood-rearing. We linked occurrence and risk models to provide spatially-explicit indices of habitat-performance relationships. As part of the analysis, we offer novel biological information on resource selection during egg-laying, incubation, and night. The spatial pattern of occurrence during all reproductive phases was driven largely by selection or avoidance of terrain features and vegetation, with little variation explained by anthropogenic features. Specifically, sage-grouse consistently avoided rough terrain, selected for moderate shrub cover at the patch level (within 90 m2), and selected for mesic habitat in mid and late brood-rearing phases. In contrast, risk of nest and brood failure was structured by proximity to anthropogenic features including natural gas wells and human-created mesic areas, as well as vegetation features such as shrub cover. Conclusions/Significance Risk in this and perhaps other human-modified landscapes is a top-down (i.e., human-mediated) process that would most effectively be minimized by developing a better understanding of specific mechanisms (e.g., predator subsidization) driving observed patterns, and using habitat-performance indices such as those developed herein for spatially-explicit guidance of conservation intervention. Working under the hypothesis that industrial activity structures risk by

  12. Understanding SAGE data.

    PubMed

    Wang, San Ming

    2007-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a method for identifying and quantifying transcripts from eukaryotic genomes. Since its invention, SAGE has been widely applied to analyzing gene expression in many biological and medical studies. Vast amounts of SAGE data have been collected and more than a thousand SAGE-related studies have been published since the mid-1990s. The principle of SAGE has been developed to address specific issues such as determination of normal gene structure and identification of abnormal genome structural changes. This review focuses on the general features of SAGE data, including the specificity of SAGE tags with respect to their original transcripts, the quantitative nature of SAGE data for differentially expressed genes, the reproducibility, the comparability of SAGE with microarray and the future potential of SAGE. Understanding these basic features should aid the proper interpretation of SAGE data to address biological and medical questions.

  13. Molecular configuration and glomerular size selectivity in healthy and nephrotic humans.

    PubMed

    Blouch, K; Deen, W M; Fauvel, J P; Bialek, J; Derby, G; Myers, B D

    1997-09-01

    We studied eight healthy volunteers and eight nephrotic subjects to compare the glomerular sieving coefficients (theta) of dextran, a linear polymer of glucopyranose, with those of Ficoll, a spherical polysucrose. Over a molecular radius (rs) interval of 20-70 A, theta for a given Ficoll was uniformly lower than corresponding theta for a dextran of equivalent rs. For each macromolecular species, the theta of molecules with rs > 50 A was selectively enhanced in nephrotic vs. healthy subjects. Analysis of either dextran or Ficoll sieving curves with pore theory revealed the glomerular barrier to have a bimodal pore size distribution: a lower mode of restrictive pores with a lognormal distribution of radii and an upper mode of large shuntlike pores. Nephrotics differed from controls in that the lower mode was broadened and shifted to pores of smaller mean size, but the prominence of shuntlike pores was enhanced by an order of magnitude. Both the mean radius of restrictive pores and the magnitude of the shunt pathway were substantially smaller when estimated from Ficoll than dextran sieving. We interpret the more realistic values for pore parameters derived from Ficoll than dextran sieving to indicate 1) that the normal glomerular barrier prevents albuminuria by virtue of a combination of both charge- and size-selective properties and 2) that a combined impairment of both barrier charge selectivity and size selectively are required to account for the observed level and composition of proteinuria in our nephrotic subjects.

  14. Human glomerular mesangial IP15 cell line as a suitable model for in vitro cadmium cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Dubus, I; Ohayon-Courtès, C; Cambar, J

    2007-07-01

    Cadmium represents a major environmental pollutant that may induce severe damage, especially in the kidney where cadmium accumulates. While cadmium is known to severely impair renal tubular functions, glomerular structures are also potential targets. Owing to their contractile properties, glomerular mesangial cells play a major role in the control of glomerular hemodynamics and influence the ultrafiltration coefficient. Cell cultures provide alternative and fruitful models for study of in vitro toxicology. However, the use of primary human mesangial cell cultures is hampered by their limited survival span and their rapid dedifferentiation during passages. This study presents a human stable immortalized mesangial cell line, designated IP15. Cell characteristics were investigated by the detection of known mesangial markers, as well as their ability to contract in response to angiotensin II. IP15 cells were used to investigate cadmium uptake and morphological changes such as cell contraction and cytoskeleton protein expression. The IC(50) cytotoxicity index was obtained with 3.55 micromol/L using neutral red assay for 24 h. After cadmium exposure (1 micromol/L, determined as nonlethal concentration), 0.38 microg Cd/mg protein was internalized by the cells as evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES). Cadmium induced a significant cell surface reduction that correlated with smooth-muscle alpha-actin disorganization. Thus, the IP15 cell line is a suitable model for study of in vitro cadmium cytotoxicity in mesangial cells and allows sufficient material to be obtained for future studies of the intracellular effects of cadmium exposure.

  15. Annotating nonspecific SAGE tags with microarray data.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xijin; Jung, Yong-Chul; Wu, Qingfa; Kibbe, Warren A; Wang, San Ming

    2006-01-01

    SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) detects transcripts by extracting short tags from the transcripts. Because of the limited length, many SAGE tags are shared by transcripts from different genes. Relying on sequence information in the general gene expression database has limited power to solve this problem due to the highly heterogeneous nature of the deposited sequences. Considering that the complexity of gene expression at a single tissue level should be much simpler than that in the general expression database, we reasoned that by restricting gene expression to tissue level, the accuracy of gene annotation for the nonspecific SAGE tags should be significantly improved. To test the idea, we developed a tissue-specific SAGE annotation database based on microarray data (). This database contains microarray expression information represented as UniGene clusters for 73 normal human tissues and 18 cancer tissues and cell lines. The nonspecific SAGE tag is first matched to the database by the same tissue type used by both SAGE and microarray analysis; then the multiple UniGene clusters assigned to the nonspecific SAGE tag are searched in the database under the matched tissue type. The UniGene cluster presented solely or at higher expression levels in the database is annotated to represent the specific gene for the nonspecific SAGE tags. The accuracy of gene annotation by this database was largely confirmed by experimental data. Our study shows that microarray data provide a useful source for annotating the nonspecific SAGE tags.

  16. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  17. Identifying nonspecific SAGE tags by context of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xijin; Wang, San Ming

    2008-01-01

    Many serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags can be matched to multiple genes, leading to difficulty in SAGE data interpretation and analysis. As only a subset of genes in the human genome are transcribed in a certain type of tissue/cell, we used microarray expression data from different tissue types to define contexts of gene expression and to annotate SAGE tags collected from the same or similar tissue sources. To predict the original transcript contributing a nonspecific SAGE tag collected from a particular tissue, we ranked the corresponding genes by their expression levels determined by microarray. We developed a tissue-specific SAGE tag annotation database based on microarray data collected from 73 normal human tissues and 18 cancer tissues and cell lines. The database can be queried online at: http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/SAGE/. The accuracy of this database was confirmed by experimental data.

  18. Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane–specific antibody–induced nephritis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kui; Li, Quan-Zhen; Delgado-Vega, Angelica M.; Abelson, Anna-Karin; Sánchez, Elena; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Li, Li; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jinchun; Yan, Mei; Ye, Qiu; Liu, Shenxi; Xie, Chun; Zhou, Xin J.; Chung, Sharon A.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Witte, Torsten; de Ramón, Enrique; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Barizzone, Nadia; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Merrill, Joan T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Gilkeson, Gary G.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Kim, Il; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Martin, Javier; Harley, John B.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Wakeland, Edward K.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Mohan, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that may be responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family, which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms, some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and lupus. PMID:19307730

  19. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  20. Anti-glomerular basement membrane blood test

    MedlinePlus

    GBM antibody test; Antibody to human glomerular basement membrane; Anti-GBM antibodies ... Normally, there are none of these antibodies in the blood. Normal ... labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk ...

  1. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  2. Results from SAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.

    1996-04-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. Beginning in September 1992, SAGE II data were taken with 55 tons of Ga and with significantly reduced backgrounds. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10 +5/{minus}7 SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU.

  3. Recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), but not rat HGF, elicits glomerular injury and albuminuria in normal rats via an immune complex-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Shinya; Ikebuchi, Fumie; Fukuta, Kazuhiro; Kato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kunio; Adachi, Kiichi; Abe, Tetsushi; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    1. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has the therapeutic potential to improve renal fibrosis and proteinuria in rodents with chronic kidney disease. In contrast, long-term administration of human HGF to normal rats reportedly elicits proteinuria. Thus, the role of HGF during proteinuria remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that human HGF is antigenic to rodents and that immune complex formation causes proteinuria. 2. We administered either human or rat HGF to normal rats for 28 days. Albuminuria was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The renal phenotypes of the two HGF treatments were examined using histological techniques. 3. Administration of human HGF (1 mg/kg per day, i.v.) to rats led to severe albuminuria and glomerular hypertrophy in association with increased blood levels of anti-human HGF IgG and IgG deposition in mesangial areas. Furthermore, an immune complex between human HGF and anti-human HGF IgG stimulated the production of proteinuric cytokines (including transforming growth factor-β) in rat cultured mesangial cells. In contrast, treatment of healthy rats with rat HGF for 4 weeks caused neither mesangial IgG deposition nor elevated anti-HGF IgG in the blood. Overall, rat HGF did not provoke albuminuria. 4. We conclude that human HGF produces pseudotoxic effects in normal rat kidneys via an immune complex-mediated pathway, whereas syngenic HGF is safe due to less deposition of glomerular IgG. Our results affirm the safety of the repeated use of syngenic HGF for the treatment of chronic organ diseases, such as renal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

  4. Structural determinants of glomerular permeability.

    PubMed

    Deen, W M; Lazzara, M J; Myers, B D

    2001-10-01

    Recent progress in relating the functional properties of the glomerular capillary wall to its unique structure is reviewed. The fenestrated endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and epithelial filtration slits form a series arrangement in which the flow diverges as it enters the GBM from the fenestrae and converges again at the filtration slits. A hydrodynamic model that combines morphometric findings with water flow data in isolated GBM has predicted overall hydraulic permeabilities that are consistent with measurements in vivo. The resistance of the GBM to water flow, which accounts for roughly half that of the capillary wall, is strongly dependent on the extent to which the GBM surfaces are blocked by cells. The spatial frequency of filtration slits is predicted to be a very important determinant of the overall hydraulic permeability, in keeping with observations in several glomerular diseases in humans. Whereas the hydraulic resistances of the cell layers and GBM are additive, the overall sieving coefficient for a macromolecule (its concentration in Bowman's space divided by that in plasma) is the product of the sieving coefficients for the individual layers. Models for macromolecule filtration reveal that the individual sieving coefficients are influenced by one another and by the filtrate velocity, requiring great care in extrapolating in vitro observations to the living animal. The size selectivity of the glomerular capillary has been shown to be determined largely by the cellular layers, rather than the GBM. Controversial findings concerning glomerular charge selectivity are reviewed, and it is concluded that there is good evidence for a role of charge in restricting the transmural movement of albumin. Also discussed is an effect of albumin that has received little attention, namely, its tendency to increase the sieving coefficients of test macromolecules via steric interactions. Among the unresolved issues are the specific contributions of the

  5. SAGE to examine Earth's stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The SAGE mission is discussed along with the role of the Nimbus 7 experiment. Other topics discussed include: ground truth measurements, data collection and processing, SAGE instrumentation, and launch sequence.

  6. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE): 13 years of application in research.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Sergey V

    2008-10-01

    A number of molecular methods of gene expression analysis can approach genomic level. Among those, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) stands out. Unlike many other techniques, SAGE allows both qualitative and quantitative analysis of previously unknown transcripts. Over the course of the last 13 years, SAGE has became a recognized tool of large-scale gene expression profiling, being used extensively in human, animal, yeast and plant studies of various nature. A number of important adaptations was introduced both to the protocol of SAGE library construction and to the analytical algorithm employed. Moreover, some variations of the original protocol (MAGE, SADE, microSAGE, miniSAGE, longSAGE, superSAGE, deepSAGE, etc.) were derived to improve the utility of SAGE in certain conditions. Current review aims comparing the benefits and drawbacks of the techniques for high-throughput gene expression analysis (including SAGE) in a realistic, balanced manner. Issues related to modifications to the original protocol and further development of the SAGE are discussed.

  7. Ultrastructural study of human glomerular capillary loops with IgA nephropathy using quick-freezing and deep-etching method.

    PubMed

    Sawanobori, E; Terada, N; Fujii, Y; Higashida, K; Nakazawa, S; Ohno, S

    2008-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy shows great variability regarding the histological features of the lesions of human renal glomeruli. In the present study, the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method was used to analyze the glomerular ultrastructure of biopsied kidney tissues from children with IgA nephropathy. Biopsied renal tissues were routinely prepared for light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, conventional electron microscopy, and replica electron microscopy. The three-dimensional ultrastructure of glomeruli of the kidney was clearly observed by using the QF-DE method. Three layers of glomerular basement membranes, i.e., middle, inner and outer layers, were clearly detected in the replica electron micrographs. The middle layer was 343.0+/-24.2 nm (n=20) in width and formed polygonal meshwork structures. We also observed slit diaphragms, electron-dense mesangial deposits, and increased amounts of mesangial matrix and foot process effacement. Many delicate filaments were found to be distributed from the apical to the bottom portions between neighboring foot processes. The ultrastructural difference between the replica electron micrographs and conventional electron micrographs was found to be especially marked in the appearance of foot processes and connecting filaments between the neighboring foot processes. The examination of extracellular matrix changes, as revealed at high resolution by the QF-DE method, gave us some morphofunctional information relevant to the mechanism of proteinuria with IgA nephropathy.

  8. Identification of membrane-bound CR1 (CD35) in human urine: evidence for its release by glomerular podocytes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is present on erythrocytes (E-CR1), various leucocytes, and renal glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). In addition, plasma contains a soluble form of CR1 (sCR1). By using a specific ELISA, CR1 was detected in the urine (uCR1) of normal individuals (excretion rate in 12 subjects, 3.12 +/- 1.15 micrograms/24 h). Contrary to sCR1, uCR1 was pelleted by centrifugation at 200,000 g for 60 min. Analysis by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that uCR1 was sedimenting in fractions larger than 19 S, whereas sCR1 was found as expected in fractions smaller than 19 S. The addition of detergents reduced the apparent size of uCR1 to that of sCR1. After gel filtration on Sephacryl-300 of normal urine, the fractions containing uCR1 were found to be enriched in cholesterol and phospholipids. The membrane-association of uCR1 was demonstrated by analyzing immunoaffinity purified uCR1 by electron microscopy which revealed membrane-bound vesicles. The apparent molecular mass of uCR1 was 15 kD larger than E-CR1 and sCR1 when assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. This difference in size could not be explained on the basis of glycosylation only, since pretreatment with N-glycosidase F reduced the size of all forms of CR1; however, the difference in regular molecular mass was not abrogated. The structural alleles described for E-CR1 were also found for uCR1. The urine of patients who had undergone renal transplantation contained alleles of uCR1 which were discordant with E-CR1 in 7 of 11 individuals, indicating that uCR1 originated from the kidney. uCR1 was shown to bind C3b-coated immune complexes, suggesting that the function of CR1 was not destroyed in urine. A decrease in uCR1 excretion was observed in 3 of 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, corresponding to the three who had severe proliferative nephritis, and in three of three patients with focal sclerosis, but not in six other patients with proteinuria. Taken together

  9. Glomerular nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J.; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2007-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are the most commonly used antibiotics worldwide in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, aminoglycosides induce nephrotoxicity in 10-20% of therapeutic courses. Aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity is characterized by slow rises in serum creatinine, tubular necrosis and marked decreases in glomerular filtration rate and in the ultrafiltration coefficient. Regulation of the ultrafiltration coefficient depends on the activity of intraglomerular mesangial cells. The mechanisms responsible for tubular nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides have been intensively reviewed previously, but glomerular toxicity has received less attention. The purpose of this review is to critically assess the published literature regarding the toxic mechanisms of action of aminoglycosides on renal glomeruli and mesangial cells. The main goal of this review is to provide an actualized and mechanistic vision of pathways involved in glomerular toxic effects of aminoglycosides.

  10. Technology evaluation: SAGE, Genzyme molecular oncology.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J

    2001-02-01

    collection of gene expression profiles utilizing all methods including high-density microarrays [315329]. Ontogeny (now Curis Inc) and GMO have entered into a collaboration to study genes for the potential discovery of therapeutic products. GMO will use its SAGE technology to produce libraries of RNA supplied by Ontogeny. The libraries will be put through Ontogeny's screening program [279417]. Under an agreement made in August 1998, Bayer will use SAGE technology to identify genes and thus potential therapeutics [317452]. GMO and Hexagen signed an agreement in March 1998 on the use of SAGE technology in Hexagen's disease gene discovery programs. The first phase of the collaboration will focus on the use of SAGE in studies within Hexagen's type II diabetes gene discovery program. Hexagen has designed these studies to discover susceptibility genes for diabetes and to provide gene expression information for genes associated with type II diabetes [280012]. GMO signed a five-year agreement with Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHU) in July 1997 for research leading to the identification of cancer-related genes. Under the terms of the agreement, JHU researchers will use the SAGE technology to identify and analyze gene expression in cancer. The power of SAGE in finding rare genes was confirmed in a study of gastrointestinal cancer by JHU researchers published in the May 27, 1997 issue of Science. The study showed that of almost 50,000 genes expressed in normal gastrointestinal cells and gastrointestinal tumor cells, 86% of the genes were present at five or fewer copies per cell. Only 51% of those low-abundancy genes were recorded in the GenBank database of known genes in the human genome [257128].

  11. SAGE Version 7.0 Algorithm: Application to SAGE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damadeo, R. P; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.; Iyer, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) version 7.0 algorithm and how it is applied to SAGE II. Changes made between the previous (v6.2) and current (v7.0) versions are described and their impacts on the data products explained for both coincident event comparisons and time-series analysis. Users of the data will notice a general improvement in all of the SAGE II data products, which are now in better agreement with more modern data sets (e.g. SAGE III) and more robust for use with trend studies.

  12. Sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center: A summary of studies conducted during 1989 and 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E. ); Hofmann, L.A. . Coe-Truman Technologies)

    1991-03-01

    A two-year study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was initiated in 1989 to study sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center (YTC). The specific objectives of this study were (1) to obtain detailed information on the distribution and relative density of sage grouse on the YTC, (2) to identify movement and habitat use patterns of sage grouse on the YTC, (3) to identify crucial habitat for sage grouse on the YTC, and (4) to provide management recommendations. Sage grouse were selected for study because they are a US Fish and Wildlife Service candidate species for the threatened and endangered list in Washington, and because the YTC probably contains the largest population of sage grouse left on federally owned lands in this state. The locations of 11 sage grouse leks, or breeding grounds, were determined on the YTC during extensive spring helicopter surveys. The maximum number of sage grouse observed during ground surveys of these leks varied from 2 to 55 birds. One lek, located near Range 19, was probably used by 40 to 50% of the YTC sage grouse population. Fifteen years of counts of males on leks indicate that the YTC sage grouse population was most numerous during the early to mid 1980s. Since the mid-1980s, sage grouse numbers appear to have declined on the YTC and in other locations in Washington. Forty-six sage grouse (17 females and 29 males) were captured and fitted with radio transmitters during 1989 and 1990. Movements by these sage grouse were both erratic and large when compared with other studies. We believe that many of the atypical movements were in response to military training activities. Sage grouse appeared to seek out areas on the YTC where human disturbance was low. Recommendations are made for improving the management of grouse habitat.

  13. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sub {minus}18}{sup +21} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  14. Results of the first-in-human clinical trial for MB-102, a novel fluorescent tracer agent for real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Debreczeny, Martin P.; Dowling, Thomas C.

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent tracer agent 2,5-bis[N-(1-carboxy-2-hydroxy)]carbamoyl-3,6-diaminopyrazine, designated MB-102, has been developed with properties and attributes necessary for use as a direct measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison to known standard exogenous GFR agents in animal models has demonstrated an excellent correlation. A clinical trial to demonstrate this same correlation in humans is in progress. This clinical trial is the first in a series of trials necessary to obtain regulatory clearance from the FDA. We report herein the comparison of plasma pharmacokinetics between MB-102 and the known standard exogenous GFR agent Iohexol in healthy subjects with normal renal function. Post simultaneous administration of both agents, blood samples over a period of 12 hours were collected from each subject to assess pharmacokinetic parameters including GFR. Urine samples were collected over this same period to assess percent injected dose recovered in the urine. Results indicate MB-102 is a GFR agent in humans from the comparison to the standard agent.

  15. Safety in glomerular numbers.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Michiel F

    2012-10-01

    A low nephron number is, according to Brenner's hyperfiltration hypothesis, associated with hypertension, glomerular damage and proteinuria, and starts a vicious cycle that ends in renal failure over the long term. Nephron endowment is set during foetal life, and there is no formation of nephrons after 34-36 weeks of gestation, indicating that many factors before that time-point may have an impact on kidney development and reduce nephron numbers. Such factors include maternal malnutrition, stress, diseases, such as diabetes, uteroplacental insufficiency, maternal and neonatal drugs and premature birth. However, other congenital anomalies, such as renal hypoplasia, unilateral renal agenesis or multicystic dysplastic kidney, may also lead to a reduced nephron endowment, with an increased risk for hypertension, renal dysfunction and the need for renal replacement therapy. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of a low nephron endowment and will illustrate why there is safety in glomerular numbers.

  16. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Multiphoton Imaging of the Glomerular Permeability of Angiotensinogen

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Daisuke; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Burford, James L.; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Seidel, Saskia; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Patients and animals with renal injury exhibit increased urinary excretion of angiotensinogen. Although increased tubular synthesis of angiotensinogen contributes to the increased excretion, we do not know to what degree glomerular filtration of systemic angiotensinogen, especially through an abnormal glomerular filtration barrier, contributes to the increase in urinary levels. Here, we used multiphoton microscopy to visualize and quantify the glomerular permeability of angiotensinogen in the intact mouse and rat kidney. In healthy mice and Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats at the early stage of glomerulosclerosis, the glomerular sieving coefficient of systemically infused Atto565-labeled human angiotensinogen (Atto565-hAGT), which rodent renin cannot cleave, was only 25% of the glomerular sieving coefficient of albumin, and its urinary excretion was undetectable. In a more advanced phase of kidney disease, the glomerular permeability of Atto565-hAGT was slightly higher but still very low. Furthermore, unlike urinary albumin, the significantly higher urinary excretion of endogenous rat angiotensinogen did not correlate with either the Atto565-hAGT or Atto565-albumin glomerular sieving coefficients. These results strongly suggest that the vast majority of urinary angiotensinogen originates from the tubules rather than glomerular filtration. PMID:22997258

  18. Multiphoton imaging of the glomerular permeability of angiotensinogen.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Daisuke; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Burford, James L; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Seidel, Saskia; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2012-11-01

    Patients and animals with renal injury exhibit increased urinary excretion of angiotensinogen. Although increased tubular synthesis of angiotensinogen contributes to the increased excretion, we do not know to what degree glomerular filtration of systemic angiotensinogen, especially through an abnormal glomerular filtration barrier, contributes to the increase in urinary levels. Here, we used multiphoton microscopy to visualize and quantify the glomerular permeability of angiotensinogen in the intact mouse and rat kidney. In healthy mice and Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats at the early stage of glomerulosclerosis, the glomerular sieving coefficient of systemically infused Atto565-labeled human angiotensinogen (Atto565-hAGT), which rodent renin cannot cleave, was only 25% of the glomerular sieving coefficient of albumin, and its urinary excretion was undetectable. In a more advanced phase of kidney disease, the glomerular permeability of Atto565-hAGT was slightly higher but still very low. Furthermore, unlike urinary albumin, the significantly higher urinary excretion of endogenous rat angiotensinogen did not correlate with either the Atto565-hAGT or Atto565-albumin glomerular sieving coefficients. These results strongly suggest that the vast majority of urinary angiotensinogen originates from the tubules rather than glomerular filtration.

  19. Antimutagenic effect of sage tea in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patenkovic, Aleksandra; Stamenkovic-Radak, Marina; Banjanac, Tijana; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The present study assayed the antimutagenic potential of Salvia officinalis (sage) in the form of tea infusion, by the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) on Drosophila melanogaster. The use of herbal infusions is much common in the human diet, so the aim of the present study was to estimate the antimutagenic effects of the S. officinalis tea rather than essential oils. Methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was used as the mutagen and positive control. Several types of treatment were performed: short acute treatment with sage infusion or MMS, longer (chronic) treatment with sage solution or MMS, and two combined treatments, i.e. short treatment with sage followed by a longer treatment with MMS and vice versa. Sage infusion used in our experiments showed a clear antimutagenic effect, reducing the frequency of mutations induced by MMS. The inhibition effect of sage tea is obtained and confirmed when pre- or post-treatments with mutagen were used. The results indicate that although sage in this regime decreases the number of mutation events, it is not efficient enough in case of the 2 h sage pre-treatment. Antioxidant activity, suppression of metabolic activation, could be mechanisms through which sage or some of its components act as desmutagen.

  20. Evaluation of the measurement of serum cystatin C by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for humans as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yuichi; Takemura, Naoyuki; Hirose, Hisashi

    2009-09-01

    The serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration is a better filtration marker than plasma creatinine (Cre) concentration in humans. In veterinary medicine, a few studies have shown that the serum Cys-C concentration in dogs is also a better marker than the plasma Cre concentration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of measuring the serum Cys-C concentration by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate in dogs with various renal dysfunctions. The serum Cys-C concentration in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was significantly higher (1.23 +/- 0.21 mg/L) than that in 76 control dogs (0.85 +/- 0.15) (P<0.001). The reference range of the serum Cys-C concentrations in samples from the 76 control dogs was 0.55-1.15 mg/l. Serum Cys-C concentration was more strongly correlated with plasma iohexol clearance (r=-0.704, P<0.001) than plasma Cre concentration in dogs (r=-0.598, P<0.001). In a receiver operating characteristics analysis, significant differences between the serum Cys-C and plasma Cre concentrations were found with regard to their AUC (0.949, [SE, 0.019] and 0.849 [SE, 0.029]) and diagnostic sensitivity (90.3% and 73.6%) for detecting decreased PCio (P<0.05). Therefore, the measurement of serum Cys-C concentration by ELISA is more useful for the detection of early CKD than measuring the plasma Cre concentration.

  1. Polymorphisms of the UCP2 Gene Are Associated with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and with Decreased UCP2 Gene Expression in Human Kidney

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Bianca Marmontel; Michels, Marcus; Sortica, Denise Alves; Bouças, Ana Paula; Rheinheimer, Jakeline; Buffon, Marjoriê Piuco; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Canani, Luís Henrique; Crispim, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) reduces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. ROS overproduction is one of the major contributors to the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Thus, deleterious polymorphisms in the UCP2 gene are candidate risk factors for DKD. In this study, we investigated whether UCP2 -866G/A, Ala55Val and Ins/Del polymorphisms were associated with DKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and whether they had an effect on UCP2 gene expression in human kidney tissue biopsies. Materials and Methods In a case-control study, frequencies of the UCP2 -866G/A, Ala55Val and Ins/Del polymorphisms as well as frequencies of the haplotypes constituted by them were analyzed in 287 T2DM patients with DKD and 281 T2DM patients without this complication. In a cross-sectional study, UCP2 gene expression was evaluated in 42 kidney biopsy samples stratified according to the presence of the UCP2 mutated -866A/55Val/Ins haplotype. Results In the T2DM group, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the -866A/55Val/Ins haplotype was an independent risk factor for DKD (OR = 2.136, 95% CI 1.036–4.404), although neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the individual polymorphisms differed between case and control groups. Interestingly, T2DM patients carrying the mutated haplotype showed decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) when compared to subjects with the reference haplotype (adjusted P= 0.035). In kidney biopsy samples, UCP2 expression was significantly decreased in UCP2 mutated haplotype carriers when compared to kidneys from patients with the reference haplotype (0.32 ± 1.20 vs. 1.85 ± 1.16 n fold change; adjusted P< 0.000001). Discussion Data reported here suggest that the UCP2 -866A/55Val/Ins haplotype is associated with an increased risk for DKD and with a lower eGFR in T2DM patients. Furthermore, this mutated haplotype was associated

  2. SAGE III capabilities and global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the satellite-borne SAGE III are presented as they pertain to detecting global change. SAGE III is the proposed follow on and improved version of SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II which have measured stratospheric and, in some cases, tropospheric species since late 1978. Specifically, SAGE III will measure profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide and trioxide, neutral density, temperature, clouds, and chlorine dioxide using the solar and lunar occultation techniques. These techniques are inherently self-calibrating, provide high vertical resolution, and use well-behaved data retrievals making them ideal for trend detection and global change studies. The potential capabilities of SAGE III are illustrated by using data and results from SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II.

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  5. SAGE II Version 7.00 Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... algorithms from SAGE III v4.00 Ceased removal of the water vapor extinction in the 600nm channel due to uncertainty in the H2O ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs   Details are in the SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes . The ...

  6. SAGE 1 data user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmaster, Leonard R.; Chu, William P.; Rowland, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    A guide for using the data products from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE 1) for scientific investigations of stratospheric chemistry related to aerosol, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, dynamics, and climate change is presented. A detailed description of the aerosol profile tape, the ozone profile tape, and the nitrogen dioxide profile tape is included. These tapes are the SAGE 1 data products containing aerosol extinction data and ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration data for use in the different scientific investigations. Brief descriptions of the instrument operation, data collection, processing, and validation, and some of the scientific analyses that were conducted are also included.

  7. Robust-LongSAGE (RL-SAGE): an improved LongSAGE method for high-throughput transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Malali; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique for large-scale transcriptome analysis in eukaryotes. However, technical difficulties in the SAGE library construction, such as low concatemer cloning efficiency, small concatemer size, and a high level of empty clones, has prohibited its widespread use as a routine technique for expression profiling in many laboratories. We recently improved the LongSAGE library construction method considerably and developed a modified version called Robust-LongSAGE, or RL-SAGE. In RL-SAGE, concatemer cloning efficiency and clone insert size were increased significantly. About 20 PCR reactions are sufficient to make a library with more than 150,000 clones. Using RL-SAGE, we have made 10 libraries of rice, maize, and the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.

  8. Greater sage-grouse nest predators in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse, populations have declined across their range due to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat. Habitat alterations can lead not only to vegetative changes but also to shifts in animal behavior and predator composition that may influence population vital rates, such as nest success. For example, common ravens Corvus corax are sage-grouse nest predators, and common raven abundance is positively associated with human-caused habitat alterations. Because nest success is a central component to sage-grouse population persistence, research that identifies factors influencing nest success will better inform conservation efforts. We used videography to unequivocally identify sage-grouse nest predators within the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, USA, from 2009 to 2011 and used maximum likelihood to calculate daily probability of nest survival. In the Virginia Mountains, fires, energy exploration, and other anthropogenic activities have altered historic sage-grouse habitat. We monitored 71 sage-grouse nests during the study, placing video cameras at 39 nests. Cumulative nest survival for all nests was 22.4% (95% CI, 13.0–33.4%), a survival rate that was significantly lower than other published results for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Depredation was the primary cause for nest failure in our study (82.5%), and common ravens were the most frequent sage-grouse nest predator, accounting for 46.7% of nest depredations. We also successfully documented a suite of mammalian and reptilian species depredating sage-grouse nests, including some predators never previously confirmed in the literature to be sage-grouse nest predators (i.e., bobcats Lynx rufus and long-tailed weasels Mephitis frenata). Within the high elevation, disturbed habitat of the Virginia Mountains, low sage-grouse nest success may be limiting sage-grouse population growth. These results suggest that management actions that

  9. SAGE application in hematological research.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Matsushima, Kouji

    2008-10-01

    Blood cells perform many important functions within the body, including homeostasis and host defense against various invading stimuli such as viral infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases. The subsets of leukocytes interact with each other through various surface molecules such as cytokine receptors, co-stimulation molecules and adhesion molecules. Over the last several years, accumulation of cDNA and genome databases has led to the accelerated identification of the molecules responsible for cell-cell interaction, cell activation and cell differentiation. In addition, technologies used in functional genomics, such as DNA microarray and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), have allowed us to analyze the expression of thousands of genes. The comprehensive analysis of gene expression is very useful to elucidate the function of cells, because characteristics of each cell type depend on the genes selectively expressed at various stages. The SAGE method, which is very quantitative, can cover the number of expressed genes that are unequaled by any other mammalian DNA microarray systems yet available. In order to molecularly define the subset and function of blood cells, we and other groups have performed SAGE in various types of hematipoietic cells. Here, we review the SAGE data obtained from the gene expression libraries made from various differentiation and activation stages of a broad range of blood cells, including phagocytes, T cells, B cells, platelets, reticulocytes and NK cells.

  10. The Sage for the Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses two approaches to teaching: "a guide on the side" and "a sage on the stage." He juxtaposes Alison King's heavy-handed characterization of the traditional college lecturer, and offers his own characterization of self-styled stage-hog professors to offset King's caricature. He also presents a composite picture…

  11. Neonatal Fc Receptor Promotes Immune Complex–Mediated Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St. John, Patricia L.; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex–mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex–mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  12. Use of Cationized Ferritin Nanoparticles to Measure Renal Glomerular Microstructure with MRI.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin M; Beeman, Scott C; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Zhang, Min; Wu, Teresa; Hann, Bradley D; Bertram, John F; Charlton, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming important for whole-kidney assessment of glomerular morphology, both in vivo and ex vivo. MRI-based renal morphological measurements can be made in intact organs and allow direct measurements of every perfused glomerulus. Cationic ferritin (CF) is used as a superparamagnetic contrast agent for MRI. CF binds to the glomerular basement membrane after intravenous injection, allowing direct, whole-kidney measurements of glomerular number, volume, and volume distribution. Here we describe the production, testing, and use of CF as an MRI contrast agent for quantitative glomerular morphology in intact mouse, rat, and human kidneys.

  13. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  14. Effectiveness of Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Influences on Energy Development and Male Lek Attendance.

    PubMed

    Gamo, R Scott; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations have declined across their range due to human-assisted factors driving large-scale habitat change. In response, the state of Wyoming implemented the Sage-grouse Executive Order protection policy in 2008 as a voluntary regulatory mechanism to minimize anthropogenic disturbance within defined sage-grouse core population areas. Our objectives were to evaluate areas designated as Sage-grouse Executive Order Core Areas on: (1) oil and gas well pad development, and (2) peak male lek attendance in core and non-core sage-grouse populations. We conducted our evaluations at statewide and Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies management zone (MZ I and MZ II) scales. We used Analysis of Covariance modeling to evaluate change in well pad development from 1986-2014 and peak male lek attendance from 958 leks with consistent lek counts within increasing (1996-2006) and decreasing (2006-2013) timeframes for Core and non-core sage-grouse populations. Oil and gas well pad development was restricted in Core Areas. Trends in peak male sage-grouse lek attendance were greater in Core Areas compared to non-core areas at the statewide scale and in MZ II, but not in MZ I, during population increase. Trends in peak male lek attendance did not differ statistically between Core and non-core population areas statewide, in MZ I, or MZ II during population decrease. Our results provide support for the effectiveness of Core Areas in maintaining sage-grouse populations in Wyoming, but also indicate the need for increased conservation actions to improve sage-grouse population response in MZ.

  15. Effectiveness of Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Influences on Energy Development and Male Lek Attendance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, R. Scott; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2017-02-01

    Greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) populations have declined across their range due to human-assisted factors driving large-scale habitat change. In response, the state of Wyoming implemented the Sage-grouse Executive Order protection policy in 2008 as a voluntary regulatory mechanism to minimize anthropogenic disturbance within defined sage-grouse core population areas. Our objectives were to evaluate areas designated as Sage-grouse Executive Order Core Areas on: (1) oil and gas well pad development, and (2) peak male lek attendance in core and non-core sage-grouse populations. We conducted our evaluations at statewide and Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies management zone (MZ I and MZ II) scales. We used Analysis of Covariance modeling to evaluate change in well pad development from 1986-2014 and peak male lek attendance from 958 leks with consistent lek counts within increasing (1996-2006) and decreasing (2006-2013) timeframes for Core and non-core sage-grouse populations. Oil and gas well pad development was restricted in Core Areas. Trends in peak male sage-grouse lek attendance were greater in Core Areas compared to non-core areas at the statewide scale and in MZ II, but not in MZ I, during population increase. Trends in peak male lek attendance did not differ statistically between Core and non-core population areas statewide, in MZ I, or MZ II during population decrease. Our results provide support for the effectiveness of Core Areas in maintaining sage-grouse populations in Wyoming, but also indicate the need for increased conservation actions to improve sage-grouse population response in MZ.

  16. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase aggravate mild anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-mediated glomerular injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Heeringa, P.; Brouwer, E.; Klok, P. A.; Huitema, M. G.; van den Born, J.; Weening, J. J.; Kallenberg, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) are present in sera from patients with various forms of vasculitis-associated glomerulonephritis. Evidence for a pathogenic role of anti-MPO antibodies has been provided mainly by in vitro studies. We studied the pathogenic role of autoantibodies to MPO in a rat model of mild immune-mediated glomerular injury. Brown Norway rats were immunized with human MPO in complete Freund's adjuvant or with complete Freund's adjuvant alone. At 2 weeks after immunization, rats had developed antibodies to human and rat MPO as detected by indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunoprecipitation. At this time point, rats were intravenously injected with a subnephritogenic dose of 150 micrograms of rabbit anti-rat GBM. Rats were sacrificed at 4 hours, 24 hours, 4 days, and 10 days after antibody administration. Control immunized rats developed mild glomerulonephritis characterized by slight proteinuria at day 10 (14.8 +/- 8.1 mg/24 hours) and moderate intraglomerular accumulation of ED1+ macrophages. Crescent formation, tuft necrosis, and tubular atrophy were not observed in those rats. In contrast, rats immunized with MPO developed severe glomerulonephritis characterized by the early occurrence of severe hematuria, marked proteinuria at day 10 (76.2 +/- 18.2 mg/24 hours), and massive glomerular deposition of fibrin. Complement and rat IgG were present in insudative lesions, but no linear pattern along the glomerular capillary wall was observed. By light microscopy, severe glomerular lesions were found at day 10 consisting of crescent formation and fibrinoid necrosis of capillary loops. In the interstitium, tubular necrosis and atrophy and marked interstitial mononuclear infiltration were found in conclusion, autoantibodies to MPO severely aggravate subclinical anti-GBM disease demonstrating their in vivo pathogenic potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:8909258

  17. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  18. Glomerular actions of endothelin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kon, V; Yoshioka, T; Fogo, A; Ichikawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In Munich-Wistar rats, a micropipette was inserted into a first-order branch of the left main renal artery and continuously infused with human/porcine endothelin (0.4 ng/min). Micropuncture measurements revealed substantial differences within the cortical microcirculation of the same left kidney: SNGFR was some 35% lower in glomeruli exposed to endothelin compared with non-endothelin-perfused glomeruli (P less than 0.005). Similarly, glomerular plasma flow rate was some 38% lower in the endothelin-exposed glomeruli (P less than 0.001). The hypoperfusion and hypofiltration in the endothelin-exposed glomeruli reflected an increase in resistances in the afferent and efferent arterioles. There was no difference in the value of the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient between the two populations of glomeruli. We also studied kidneys that underwent 25 min of renal artery clamping 48 h before study. Antiendothelin antibody infused into one of the branches of the main renal artery ameliorated the vasoconstriction characteristic of postischemic nephrons: within the cortical microcirculation, the SNGFR in glomeruli exposed to antiendothelin antibody was 27.0 +/- 3.1 nl/min as compared with 17.4 +/- 1.7 measured in glomeruli not perfused with the antibody (P less than 0.001). Similarly, glomerular plasma flow rate was higher in the glomeruli exposed to antiendothelin antibody (128.7 +/- 14.4 nl/min vs. 66.6 +/- 5.6, P less than 0.005). Resistances in both the afferent and efferent arterioles were substantially lower in the antibody-exposed glomeruli. It is, therefore, suggested that endothelin, presumably released from damaged endothelium, may play an important intermediary role in the hypoperfusion and hypofiltration observed in postischemic kidneys. Images PMID:2651481

  19. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  20. Glomerular haematuria, renal interstitial haemorrhage and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Martín Cleary, Catalina; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Beatriz; Ortiz, Alberto; Parra, Emilio G; Gracia, Carolina; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Barat, Antonio; Egido, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Macroscopic haematuria of glomerular origin has been associated with acute kidney injury. We report a patient with IgA nephropathy, macroscopic haematuria and acute kidney injury. Systemic anticoagulation may have aggravated haematuria. There was extensive interstitial and intratubular red blood cell extravasation, and interstitial haemosiderin deposits. The abundant presence of macrophages expressing the haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 and of cells stained for oxidative stress markers (NADPH-p22 phox and heme-oxigenase-1) in areas of interstitial haemorrhage and red blood cell cast-containing tubules provided evidence for a role for free haemoglobin in tubulointerstitial renal injury in human glomerular disease.

  1. Glomerular basement membrane composition and the filtration barrier.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-09-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an especially thick basement membrane that contributes importantly to the kidney's filtration barrier. The GBM derives from the fusion of separate podocyte and endothelial cell basement membranes during glomerulogenesis and consists primarily of laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogens-1 and -2, and agrin. Of these nine proteins, mutations in the genes encoding four of them (LAMB2, COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5) cause glomerular disease in humans as well as in mice. Furthermore, mutation of a fifth (Lama5) gene in podocytes in mice causes proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and progression to renal failure. These results highlight the importance of the GBM for establishing and maintaining a properly functioning glomerular filtration barrier.

  2. Unraveling the immunopathogenesis of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Bonny L

    2016-08-01

    Immune-mediated damage to glomerular structures is largely responsible for the pathology associated with the majority of glomerular diseases. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the basic immune mechanisms responsible for glomerular damage is needed to inform the design of novel intervention strategies. Glomerular injury of immune origin is complex and involves both inflammatory and non-inflammatory processes driven by elements of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review summarizes the basic immune mechanisms that cause glomerular injury leading to the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes. A major focus of the review is to highlight the mechanisms by which antibodies cause glomerular injury through their interactions with glomerular cells, complement proteins, phagocytes bearing complement and Fcγ receptors, and dendritic cells expressing the neonatal receptor for IgG, FcRn.

  3. Technology Tips: Building Interactive Demonstrations with Sage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Maura

    2013-01-01

    Sage is an open-source software package that can be used in many different areas of mathematics, ranging from algebra to calculus and beyond. One of the most exciting pedagogical features of Sage (http://www.sagemath.org) is its ability to create interacts--interactive examples that can be used in a classroom demonstration or by students in a…

  4. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  5. Pathology of glomerular deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Joh, Kensuke

    2007-09-01

    In routine diagnosis on renal biopsy, one of the confusing fields for pathological diagnoses is the glomerulopathies with fibrillary structure. The primary glomerulopathies with a deposit of ultrastructural fibrillary structure, which are negative for Congo-red stain but positive for immunoglobulins, include fibrillary glomerulonephritis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Several paraproteinemias including cryoglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy, and light chain deposition disease as well as hematopoietic disorders including plasmacytoma, plasma cell dyscrasia, and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders involve glomerulopathy with an ultrastructural fibrillary structure. A rare glomerulopathy with fibrillary structure that stains negative for Congo-red as well as for immunoglobulins has been also reported. The pathological diagnoses of these glomerulopathies can include either glomerular diseases, or paraproteinemic diseases, or hematopoietic diseases. The terminology is still confusing when glomerular diseases can be combined with paraproteinemic diseases and/or hematopoietic diseases. Therefore, the generic term, 'glomerular deposition disease' (GDD), has been proposed by pathologists with a requirement for clinicians to detect autoantibodies, paraproteins as well as to carry out a bone marrow check. An attempt has been made to rearrange the diseases with related disorders of fibrillary deposits, based on detailed clinical and pathological finding and to elucidate the correlation between GDD, paraproteinemia, and hematopoietic disorder.

  6. Leukotriene D4 is a mediator of proteinuria and glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities in passive Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, T; Lianos, E A; Fukunaga, M; Takahashi, K; Badr, K F

    1993-01-01

    We assessed the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in Munich-Wistar rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), an animal model of human membranous nephropathy. 10 d after injection of anti-Fx1A antibody, urinary protein excretion rate (Upr) in PHN was significantly higher than that of control. Micropuncture studies demonstrated reduced single nephron plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, increased transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference, pre- and postglomerular resistances, and decreased ultrafiltration coefficient in PHN rats. Glomerular LTB4 generation from PHN rats was increased. Administration of the 5-LO activating protein inhibitor MK886 for 10 d markedly blunted proteinuria and normalized glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities in PHN rats. An LTD4 receptor antagonist SK&F 104353 led to an immediate reduction in Upr and to reversal of glomerular hemodynamic impairment. Ia(+) cells/glomerulus were increased in PHN rats. In x-irradiated PHN rats, which developed glomerular macrophage depletion, augmented glomerular LT synthesis was abolished. Thus, in the autologous phase of PHN, LTD4 mediates glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities and a hemodynamic component of the accompanying proteinuria. The synthesis of LTD4 likely occurs directly from macrophages or from macrophage-derived LTA4, through LTC4 synthase in glomerular cells. Images PMID:8386188

  7. Glomerular diseases: genetic causes and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Kang; Inagi, Reiko

    2010-09-01

    The glomerulus consists of capillary tufts, a mesangial cell component and the Bowman capsule. The glomerular filtration barrier is composed of glomerular endothelial cells, a basement membrane, and podocytes. Particular components of the slit diaphragm and the glomerular basement membrane strictly orchestrate the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. The basement membrane is made of a highly crosslinked macromolecular meshwork of type IV collagen, proteoglycans, and laminin. Genetic forms of glomerular disease are predominantly caused by genetic defects in these molecular structures or in factors that regulate the glomerular filtration barrier. In addition, abnormal IgA1 glycosylation can increase susceptibility to IgA nephropathy. Dysregulation of the complement system or of platelet activation can lead to the development of endocapillary lesions, which manifest as thrombotic microangiopathy. Glomerular dysfunction is also encountered in several genetic metabolic and mitochondrial disorders. Discoveries of mutations in a range of genes have provided new insights into the mechanisms of glomerular disease. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the genetics and therapeutics of a number of glomerular diseases.

  8. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: Relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy; Gustafson, K. Ben; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) population abundance in the sagebrush steppe of the American West has increased threefold during the previous four decades, largely as a result of unintended resource subsidies from human land-use practices. This is concerning because ravens frequently depredate nests of species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse). Grazing by livestock in sagebrush ecosystems is common practice on most public lands, but associations between livestock and ravens are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify the effects of livestock on raven occurrence while accounting for landscape characteristics within human-altered sagebrush steppe habitat, particularly in areas occupied by breeding sage-grouse. Using data from southeastern Idaho collected during spring and summer across 3 yr, we modeled raven occurrence as a function of the presence of livestock while accounting for multiple landscape covariates, including land cover features, topographical features, and proximity to sage-grouse lek sites (breeding grounds), as well as site-level anthropogenic features. While accounting for landscape characteristics, we found that the odds of raven occurrence increased 45.8% in areas where livestock were present. In addition, ravens selected areas near sage-grouse leks, with the odds of occurrence decreasing 8.9% for every 1-km distance, increase away from the lek. We did not find an association between livestock use and distance to lek. We also found that ravens selected sites with relatively lower elevation containing increased amounts of cropland, wet meadow, and urbanization. Limiting raven access to key anthropogenic subsidies and spatially segregating livestock from sage-grouse breeding areas would likely reduce exposure of predatory ravens to sage-grouse nests and chicks.

  9. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  10. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  11. Multisectoral Approaches in Advancing Girls' Education: Lessons Learned in Five SAGE Countries. SAGE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea

    Strategies for Advancing Girls' Education (SAGE) is a project of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade/Office of Women in Development (EGAT/WID). Five countries participated in SAGE: Guinea, Mali, Ghana, El Salvador; and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The project started in…

  12. Schistosomal glomerular disease (a review).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Z A; Van Marck, E

    1984-01-01

    In this review paper schistosomal glomerulopathy is defined as an immune-complex disease. The disease appears in 12-15 per cent of the individuals with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Portal hypertension with collateral circulation helps the by pass of the hepatic clearance process and the parasite antigens can bind to antibodies in the circulation and be trapped in the renal glomerulus. Chronic membranous-proliferative glomerulonephritis is the most common lesion present and the nephrotic syndrome is the usual form of clinical presentation. The disease can be experimentally produced, and schistosomal antigens and antibodies, as well as complement, can be demonstrated in the glomerular lesions. Specific treatment of schistosomiasis does not seem to alter the clinical course of schistosomal nephropathy.

  13. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 coordinates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase/PPAR-γ/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathways that enhance nitric oxide generation in human glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that binds to antioxidant response elements and transcribes many antioxidant genes. Because the promoters of the human DDAH-1 and DDAH-2, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and PPAR-γ genes contain 2 to 3 putative antioxidant response elements, we hypothesized that they were regulated by Nrf2/antioxidant response element. Incubation of human renal glomerular endothelial cells with the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (20 μmol·L(-1)) significantly (P<0.05) increased NO and activities of NOS and DDAH and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. It upregulated genes for hemoxygenase-1, eNOS, DDAH-1, DDAH-2, and PPAR-γ and partitioned Nrf2 into the nucleus. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished these effects. Nrf2 bound to one antioxidant response element on DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 and PPAR-γ promoters but not to the eNOS promoter. An increased eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOSser-1177) expression with tert-butylhydroquinone was prevented by knockdown of PPAR-γ. Expression of Nrf2 was reduced by knockdown of PPAR-γ, whereas PPAR-γ was reduced by knockdown of Nrf2, thereby demonstrating 2-way positive interactions. Thus, Nrf2 transcribes HO-1 and other genes to reduce reactive oxygen species, and DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 to reduce asymmetric dimethylarginine and PPAR-γ to increase eNOS and its phosphorylation and activity thereby coordinating 3 pathways that enhance endothelial NO generation.

  14. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-03-22

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  15. Clustering-based approaches to SAGE data mining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is one of the most powerful tools for global gene expression profiling. It has led to several biological discoveries and biomedical applications, such as the prediction of new gene functions and the identification of biomarkers in human cancer research. Clustering techniques have become fundamental approaches in these applications. This paper reviews relevant clustering techniques specifically designed for this type of data. It places an emphasis on current limitations and opportunities in this area for supporting biologically-meaningful data mining and visualisation. PMID:18822151

  16. Mesospheric ozone measurements by SAGE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle = 90 deg) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 and 65 km. Because of the rapid conversion between atomic oxygen and ozone, the onion-peeling scheme used in SAGE II retrievals, which is based on an assumption of constant ozone, is invalid. A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of ozone particularly within the solar zenith angle of 80 deg - 100 deg. This model indicates that the retrieved SAGE II sunrise and sunset ozone values are both overestimated. The Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the ozone sunrise/sunset ratio only below 60 km, while above 60 km this ratio is highly affected by the odd oxygen loss due to odd hydrogen reactions, particularly OH. The SAGE II ozone measurements are in excellent agreement with model results to which an onion peeling procedure is applied. The SAGE II ozone observations provide information on the mesospheric chemistry not only through the ozone profile averages but also from the sunrise/sunset ratio.

  17. Mining SAGE data allows large-scale, sensitive screening of antisense transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Quéré, Ronan; Manchon, Laurent; Lejeune, Mireille; Clément, Oliver; Pierrat, Fabien; Bonafoux, Béatrice; Commes, Thérèse; Piquemal, David; Marti, Jacques

    2004-11-23

    As a growing number of complementary transcripts, susceptible to exert various regulatory functions, are being found in eukaryotes, high throughput analytical methods are needed to investigate their expression in multiple biological samples. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), based on the enumeration of directionally reliable short cDNA sequences (tags), is capable of revealing antisense transcripts. We initially detected them by observing tags that mapped on to the reverse complement of known mRNAs. The presence of such tags in individual SAGE libraries suggested that SAGE datasets contain latent information on antisense transcripts. We raised a collection of virtual tags for mining these data. Tag pairs were assembled by searching for complementarities between 24-nt long sequences centered on the potential SAGE-anchoring sites of well-annotated human expressed sequences. An analysis of their presence in a large collection of published SAGE libraries revealed transcripts expressed at high levels from both strands of two adjacent, oppositely oriented, transcription units. In other cases, the respective transcripts of such cis-oriented genes displayed a mutually exclusive expression pattern or were co-expressed in a small number of libraries. Other tag pairs revealed overlapping transcripts of trans-encoded unique genes. Finally, we isolated a group of tags shared by multiple transcripts. Most of them mapped on to retroelements, essentially represented in humans by Alu sequences inserted in opposite orientations in the 3'UTR of otherwise different mRNAs. Registering these tags in separate files makes possible computational searches focused on unique sense-antisense pairs. The method developed in the present work shows that SAGE datasets constitute a major resource of rapidly investigating with high sensitivity the expression of antisense transcripts, so that a single tag may be detected in one library when screening a large number of biological samples.

  18. Validation of SAM 2 and SAGE satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Wang, P.-H.; Farrukh, U. O.; Yue, G. K.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are the results of a validation study of data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment I (SAGE I) and Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II) satellite experiments. The study includes the entire SAGE I data set (February 1979 - November 1981) and the first four and one-half years of SAM II data (October 1978 - February 1983). These data sets have been validated by their use in the analysis of dynamical, physical and chemical processes in the stratosphere. They have been compared with other existing data sets and the SAGE I and SAM II data sets intercompared where possible. The study has shown the data to be of great value in the study of the climatological behavior of stratospheric aerosols and ozone. Several scientific publications and user-oriented data summaries have appeared as a result of the work carried out under this contract.

  19. SAGE II aerosol data validation - Comparative studies of SAGE II and SAM II data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P. H.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite are compared with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite. Both experiments produce aerosol extinction profiles by measuring the attenuation of solar radiation during each sunrise and sunset observed by the satelltie. The SAGE II obtains profiles at 1.02 microns and three smaller wavelengths, whereas the SAM II measures at only one radiometric channel at 1.0 microns. It is found that the differences between the two sets of data are generally within the error bars associated with each measurement. In addition, the sunrise and sunset data from SAGE II are analyzed.

  20. Course of preeclamptic glomerular injury after delivery.

    PubMed

    Hladunewich, M A; Myers, B D; Derby, G C; Blouch, K L; Druzin, M L; Deen, W M; Naimark, D M; Lafayette, R A

    2008-03-01

    We evaluated the early postpartum recovery of glomerular function over 4 wk in 57 women with preeclampsia. We used physiological techniques to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow, and oncotic pressure (pi(A)) and computed a value for the two-kidney ultrafiltration coefficient (K(f)). Compared with healthy, postpartum controls, GFR was depressed by 40% on postpartum day 1, but by only 19% and 8% in the second and fourth postpartum weeks, respectively. Hypofiltration was attributable solely to depression, at corresponding postpartum times, of K(f) by 55%, 30%, and 18%, respectively. Improvement in glomerular filtration capacity was accompanied by recovery of hypertension to near-normal levels and significant improvement in albuminuria. We conclude that the functional manifestations of the glomerular endothelial injury of preeclampsia largely resolve within the first postpartum month.

  1. Innate Immune Activity in Glomerular Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Bao, Wenduona; Shi, Shaolin

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular podocytes are specialized in structure and play an essential role in glomerular filtration. In addition, podocyte stress can initiate glomerular damage by inducing the injury of other glomerular cell types. Studies have shown that podocytes possess the property of immune cells and may be involved in adaptive immunity. Emerging studies have also shown that podocytes possess signaling pathways of innate immune responses and that innate immune responses often result in podocyte injury. More recently, mitochondrial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in a variety of pathological processes in cells. In the present mini-review, we summarize the recent advances in the studies of innate immunity and its pathogenic role in podocytes, particularly, from the perspective of mtDAMPs. PMID:28228761

  2. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  3. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.

    1998-01-01

    Three SAGE III instruments are being built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado (USA). SAGE III is a fourth generation instrument that incorporates robust elements of its predecessors [SAM II, SAGE, SAGE II] while incorporating new design elements. The first of these will be launched aboard a Russian Meteor/3M platform in May 1999. SAGE III will add measurements of O2-A band from which density and temperature profiles are retrieved. This feature should improve refraction and Rayleigh computations over earlier. Additionally, the linear array of detectors will permit on-orbit wavelength calibration from observations of the exo-atmospheric solar Fraunhofer spectrum.

  4. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  5. Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, H. E.; Sawyer, H.; Monteith, K. L.; Naugle, D.E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Graf, N.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving migratory ungulates in increasingly human-dominated landscapes presents a difficult challenge to land managers and conservation practitioners. Nevertheless, ungulates may receive ancillary benefits from conservation actions designed to protect species of greater conservation priority where their ranges are sympatric. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus), for example, have been proposed as an umbrella species for other sagebrush (Artemesia spp.)-dependent fauna. We examined a landscape where conservation efforts for sage-grouse overlap spatially with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to determine whether sage-grouse conservation measures also might protect important mule deer migration routes and seasonal ranges. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine what proportion of migration routes, stopover areas, and winter ranges used by mule deer were located in areas managed for sage-grouse conservation. Conservation measures overlapped with 66–70% of migration corridors, 74–75% of stopovers, and 52–91% of wintering areas for two mule deer populations in the upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. Of those proportions, conservation actions targeted towards sage-grouse accounted for approximately half of the overlap in corridors and stopover areas, and nearly all overlap on winter ranges, indicating that sage-grouse conservation efforts represent an important step in conserving migratory mule deer. Conservation of migratory species presents unique challenges because although overlap with conserved lands may be high, connectivity of the entire route must be maintained as barriers to movement anywhere within the migration corridor could render it unviable. Where mule deer habitats overlap with sage-grouse core areas, our results indicate that increased protection is afforded to winter ranges and migration routes within the umbrella of sage-grouse conservation, but this protection is contingent on concentrated developments within core areas not

  6. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  7. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Renal Pathology Initiative: Classification of Glomerular Diseases in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Mohr, F C; Aresu, L; Brown, C A; James, C; Jansen, J H; Spangler, W L; van der Lugt, J J; Kass, P H; Brovida, C; Cowgill, L D; Heiene, R; Polzin, D J; Syme, H; Vaden, S L; van Dongen, A M; Lees, G E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of canine renal biopsy tissue has generally relied on light microscopic (LM) evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 µm. Advanced modalities, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (IF), have been used sporadically or retrospectively. Diagnostic algorithms of glomerular diseases have been extrapolated from the World Health Organization classification scheme for human glomerular disease. With the recent establishment of 2 veterinary nephropathology services that evaluate 3-µm sections with a panel of histochemical stains and routinely perform TEM and IF, a standardized objective species-specific approach for the diagnosis of canine glomerular disease was needed. Eight veterinary pathologists evaluated 114 parameters (lesions) in renal biopsy specimens from 89 dogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed 2 large categories of glomerular disease based on the presence or absence of immune complex deposition: The immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) category included cases with histologic lesions of membranoproliferative or membranous patterns. The second category included control dogs and dogs with non-ICGN (glomerular amyloidosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Cluster analysis performed on only the LM parameters led to misdiagnosis of 22 of the 89 cases-that is, ICGN cases moved to the non-ICGN branch of the dendrogram or vice versa, thereby emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of canine glomerular disease. Salient LM, TEM, and IF features for each pattern of disease were identified, and a preliminary investigation of related clinicopathologic data was performed.

  8. The tetraspanin CD37 protects against glomerular IgA deposition and renal pathology.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L; Figdor, Carl G; van der Schaaf, Alie; Tamboer, Wim P; Bakker, Marinka A; Berden, Jo H; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Steenbergen, Eric J; van der Vlag, Johan; van Spriel, Annemiek B

    2010-05-01

    The tetraspanin protein CD37 is a leukocyte-specific transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on B cells. CD37-deficient (CD37(-/-)) mice exhibit a 15-fold increased level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum and elevated numbers of IgA+ plasma cells in lymphoid organs. Here, we report that CD37(-/-) mice spontaneously develop renal pathology with characteristics of human IgA nephropathy. In young naïve CD37(-/-) mice, mild IgA deposition in glomeruli was observed. However, CD37(-/-) mice developed high titers of IgA immune complexes in serum during aging, which was associated with increased glomerular IgA deposition. Severe mesangial proliferation, fibrosis, and hyalinosis were apparent in aged CD37(-/-) mice, whereas albuminuria was mild. To further evaluate the role of CD37 in glomerular disease, we induced anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in mice. CD37(-/-) mice developed higher IgA serum levels and glomerular deposits of anti-GBM IgA compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, glomerular macrophage and neutrophil influx was significantly higher in CD37(-/-) mice during both the heterologous and autologous phase of anti-GBM nephritis. Taken together, tetraspanin CD37 controls the formation of IgA-containing immune complexes and glomerular IgA deposition, which induces influx of inflammatory myeloid cells. Therefore, CD37 may protect against the development of IgA nephropathy.

  9. Leveraging melanocortin pathways to treat glomerular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Rujun

    2013-01-01

    The melanocortin system is a neuroimmunoendocrine hormone system that constitutes the fulcrum in the homeostatic control of a diverse array of physiological functions, including melanogenesis, inflammation, immunomodulation, adrenocortical steroidogenesis, hemodynamics, natriuresis, energy homeostasis, sexual function and exocrine secretion. The kidney is a quintessential effector organ of the melanocortin hormone system with melanocortin receptors abundantly expressed by multiple renal paranchymal cells, including podocytes, mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and renal tubular cells. Converging evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the melanocortin based therapy by using the melanocortin peptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is prominently effective in inducing remission of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by a variety of glomerular diseases, including membranous nephropathy and podocytopathies such as minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suggesting a steroidogenic independent melanocortin mechanism. Mechanistically, ACTH and other melanocortin peptides as well as synthetic melanocortin analogues possess potent proteinuria reducing and renoprotective effects that could be attributable to both direct protection of glomerular cells and systemic immunomodulation. Thus, leveraging melanocortin signaling pathways by using either the existing U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved melanocorin peptide ACTH or novel synthetic melanocortin analogues represents a promising and pragmatic therapeutic strategy for glomerular diseases. This review article introduces the biophysiology of melanocortin hormone system with emphasis on the kidney as the target organ, discusses the existing clinical and experimental data on melanocortin treatments for glomerular diseases, elucidates the potential mechanisms of action, and describes the potential side effects of melanocortin based therapy. PMID:24602463

  10. Measuring glomerular number from kidney MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.; Natesan Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan; Kanberoglu, Berkay; Frakes, David; Bennett, Kevin; Spanias, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Measuring the glomerular number in the entire, intact kidney using non-destructive techniques is of immense importance in studying several renal and systemic diseases. Commonly used approaches either require destruction of the entire kidney or perform extrapolation from measurements obtained from a few isolated sections. A recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, based on the injection of a contrast agent (cationic ferritin), has been used to effectively identify glomerular regions in the kidney. In this work, we propose a robust, accurate, and low-complexity method for estimating the number of glomeruli from such kidney MRI images. The proposed technique has a training phase and a low-complexity testing phase. In the training phase, organ segmentation is performed on a few expert-marked training images, and glomerular and non-glomerular image patches are extracted. Using non-local sparse coding to compute similarity and dissimilarity graphs between the patches, the subspace in which the glomerular regions can be discriminated from the rest are estimated. For novel test images, the image patches extracted after pre-processing are embedded using the discriminative subspace projections. The testing phase is of low computational complexity since it involves only matrix multiplications, clustering, and simple morphological operations. Preliminary results with MRI data obtained from five kidneys of rats show that the proposed non-invasive, low-complexity approach performs comparably to conventional approaches such as acid maceration and stereology.

  11. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  12. Age-dependent glomerular damage in the rat. Dissociation between glomerular injury and both glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy. Male gender as a primary risk factor.

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, C

    1994-01-01

    The glomerulus develops progressive injury with advancing age which is particularly pronounced in males and is not the result of any specific disease process. In the present studies conducted in rats, glomerular function and structure were examined in adult (8 mo), elderly (12 mo), and old (19 mo) Munich Wistar rats. Intact males and females and castrated rats of both sexes were studied to determine the role of the sex hormones in mediating age-dependent glomerular damage. Intact males developed glomerular injury and proteinuria whereas females, both intact and ovariectomized, and castrated males were protected from injury. Glomerular blood pressure did not increase with advancing age in any group and did not correlate with glomerular damage. Glomerular volume did increase with advancing age in all groups but did not correlate with glomerular damage. We found that the presence of the androgens rather than the absence of the estrogens provide the risk factor for development of age-dependent glomerular damage. Neither glomerular hypertension nor glomerular hypertrophy provide the primary mechanism by which age-dependent glomerular injury occurs in the intact male. PMID:7962527

  13. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  14. Lidar conversion parameters derived from SAGE II extinction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Osborn, M. T.

    1992-01-01

    SAGE II multiwavelength aerosol extinction measurements are used to estimate mass- and extinction-to-backscatter conversion parameters. The basis of the analysis is the principal component analysis of the SAGE II extinction kernels to estimate both total aerosol mass and aerosol backscatter at a variety of wavelengths. Comparisons of coincident SAGE II extinction profiles with 0.694-micron aerosol backscatter profiles demonstrate the validity of the method.

  15. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

    2013-06-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  16. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Preston, Kristine L.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km2 region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D2 model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species–habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D2 (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  17. Epidemiology of Glomerular Disease in Southern Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Murugapandian, Sangeetha; Mansour, Iyad; Hudeeb, Mohammad; Hamed, Khaled; Hammode, Emad; Bijin, Babitha; Daheshpour, Sepehr; Thajudeen, Bijin; Kadambi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glomerulonephritis stands third in terms of the etiologies for end-stage kidney disease in the USA. The aim of this study was to look at the patterns of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis based on data from a single center. Kidney biopsy specimens of all patients above the age of 18 years, over a 10-year period, who had diagnosis of nondiabetic glomerular disease, were selected for the study. The most common histopathological diagnosis was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (22.25%, 158/710) followed by membranous nephropathy (20.28%, 144/710) and immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (19.71%, 140/710). There was male preponderance in all histological variants except IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. The race distribution was uneven, and all histological variants, except minimal change disease and lupus nephritis, were more commonly seen in whites. In a separate analysis of the histological pattern in Hispanics, lupus nephritis was the most common pathology (28.70%, 62/216) followed by FSGS (18.05%, 39/216). In American Indian population, the most common pathology was IgA nephropathy (33.33%, 8/24) followed by FSGS (16.67%, 4/24). This study highlights the histopathological patterns of glomerular disease in southern Arizona. The data suggest regional and ethnic variations in glomerular disease that may point towards genetic or environmental influence in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. PMID:27149502

  18. Glomerular Latency Coding in Artificial Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Jaber Al; Boussaid, Farid; Bermak, Amine; Martinez, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Sensory perception results from the way sensory information is subsequently transformed in the brain. Olfaction is a typical example in which odor representations undergo considerable changes as they pass from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to second-order neurons. First, many ORNs expressing the same receptor protein yet presenting heterogeneous dose–response properties converge onto individually identifiable glomeruli. Second, onset latency of glomerular activation is believed to play a role in encoding odor quality and quantity in the context of fast information processing. Taking inspiration from the olfactory pathway, we designed a simple yet robust glomerular latency coding scheme for processing gas sensor data. The proposed bio-inspired approach was evaluated using an in-house SnO2 sensor array. Glomerular convergence was achieved by noting the possible analogy between receptor protein expressed in ORNs and metal catalyst used across the fabricated gas sensor array. Ion implantation was another technique used to account both for sensor heterogeneity and enhanced sensitivity. The response of the gas sensor array was mapped into glomerular latency patterns, whose rank order is concentration-invariant. Gas recognition was achieved by simply looking for a “match” within a library of spatio-temporal spike fingerprints. Because of its simplicity, this approach enables the integration of sensing and processing onto a single-chip. PMID:22319491

  19. SAGE observations of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the middle to upper stratosphere (25-45 km altitude) for the period February 1979 to November 1981 has been determined from observations of attenuated solar radiation in the visible region 0.385-0.45 micron by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite instrument. The SAGE-derived NO2 vertical profiles compare well with observations by balloon- and aircraft-borne sensors. The global SAGE NO2 distributions generally show a maximum in mixing ratio of 8 parts per billion by volume at about 35 km altitude near the equatorial latitudes at local sunset. The location of the mixing ratio peak moves synchronously with the overhead sun for the four different seasons. High-latitude NO2 column content shows strong seasonal variation, with a maximum in local summer and a minimum in local winter. Selected data at high-latitude winter seasons are presented, suggesting that the large variation shown could be explained by the coupling of both dynamics and photochemistry of the NO(x) species. Finally, profiles of the ratio of sunset to sunrise NO2 mixing ratios, peaking at about a factor of two at 30 km, are shown.

  20. TAGmapper: a web-based tool for mapping SAGE tags.

    PubMed

    Bala, P; Georgantas, Robert W; Sudhir, D; Suresh, M; Shanker, K; Vrushabendra, B M; Civin, Curt I; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2005-12-30

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is an important means of obtaining quantitative information about expression of genes in different samples. Short SAGE tags are 10 nucleotides long and often contain enough information to uniquely identify the gene(s) corresponding to the tag. We have observed, however, that the currently available resources are not adequate for accurate mapping of all SAGE tags to genes. Here, we describe development of a web-based tool called TAGmapper (http://tagmapper.ibioinformatics.org), which provides a comprehensive and accurate mapping of SAGE tags to genes. We were able to map SAGE tags accurately in several instances where two other popular resources, SAGEmap (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SAGE/) and SAGE Genie (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/SAGE), provided incorrect or no assignment of tags to genes. Finally, we experimentally determined the expression of a subset of genes assigned by TAGmapper using DNA microarrays and/or quantitative PCR to confirm the reliability of the gene mappings. We anticipate that TAGmapper will be a useful tool in functional genomic approaches by providing accurate identification of genes in SAGE experiments.

  1. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within

  2. Converting enzyme inhibition and the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Slomowitz, L A; Peterson, O W; Thomson, S C

    1999-07-01

    GFR normally increases during glycine infusion. This response is absent in humans and rats with established diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) restores the effect of glycine on GFR. To ascertain the glomerular hemodynamic basis for this effect of ACEI, micropuncture studies were performed in male Wistar-Froemter rats after 5 to 6 wk of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes. The determinants of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) were assessed in each rat before and during glycine infusion. Studies were performed in diabetics, diabetics after 5 d of ACEI (enalapril in the drinking water), and weight-matched controls. Diabetic rats manifest renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration but not glomerular capillary hypertension. ACEI reduced glomerular capillary pressure, increased glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, and did not mitigate hyperfiltration. In controls, glycine increased SNGFR by 30% due to increased nephron plasma flow. In diabetics, glycine had no effect on any determinant of SNGFR. In ACEI-treated diabetics, the SNGFR response to glycine was indistinguishable from nondiabetics, but the effect of glycine was mediated by greater ultrafiltration pressure rather than by greater plasma flow. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The absent response to glycine in established diabetes does not indicate that renal functional reserve is exhausted by hyperfiltration; and (2) ACEI restores the GFR response to glycine in established diabetes, but this response is mediated by increased ultrafiltration pressure rather than by increased nephron plasma flow.

  3. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE): application in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2004-06-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool that allows digital analysis of overall gene expression patterns. SAGE provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profiling in a given cell population. Because SAGE does not require a preexisting clone, it can be used to identify and quantitate new as well as known genes. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the genes expressed in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. SAGE is particularly well suited for organisms whose genome is not completely sequenced, because it does not require a hybridization probe for each transcript and allows new genes to be discovered. New modifications of SAGE now permit the analysis of gene expression in cell sub-populations or micro-anatomic structures, providing access to unexplored transcriptomes of normal and disease biology. Data derived using the SAGE technology have been used to identify tumor markers for a variety of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancer, lung and thyroid cancer, breast and ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma and glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. In this review we present an outline of the method and updated information on the applications of SAGE technology to various cancers.

  4. 28. VIEW OF WHITE SAGE PRIOR TO BEING PAINTED COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF WHITE SAGE PRIOR TO BEING PAINTED COAST GUARD COLORS OF BLACK AND WHITE. NOTE ALSO THE PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN PRIOR TO THE INSTALLATION OF A-FRAME MAST AND BOOM AND TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF TURTLE DECK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SAGE, U.S. Coast Guard 1st District Base, 1 Thames Street, Bristol, Bristol County, RI

  5. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  6. The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

  7. Nutrient disorders of 'Evolution' mealy-cup sage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To produce popular floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea (Benth.)), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize disorders. Diagnostic criteria of nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage are absent from the literature. Theref...

  8. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  9. Global distribution of SAGE II data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Russell, G.; Lerner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques employed to map the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data at four wavelengths (385, 453, 525 and 1020 microns) are described. The methods were devised to integrate the 900 data points scanned by the instrument with account taken of the different times the vertical profiles were obtained. The data have been used to calculate the O3, H2O, NO2 and aerosol optical thicknesses. Sample details of data gathered during April 1985 are discussed, with emphasis on difficulties being encountered in analyzing the differences being observed in the dawn and dusk data.

  10. Statistical evaluation of SAGE libraries: consequences for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank

    2002-10-29

    Since the introduction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) as a method to quantitatively analyze the differential expression of genes, several statistical tests have been published for the pairwise comparison of SAGE libraries. Testing the difference between the number of specific tags found in two SAGE libraries is hampered by the fact that each SAGE library is only one measurement: the necessary information on biological variation or experimental precision is not available. In the currently available tests, a measure of this variance is obtained from simulation or based on the properties of the tag distribution. To help the user of SAGE to decide between these tests, five different pairwise tests have been compared by determining the critical values, that is, the lowest number of tags that, given an observed number of tags in one library, needs to be found in the other library to result in a significant P value. The five tests included in this comparison are SAGE300, the tests described by Madden et al. (Oncogene 15: 1079-1085, 1997) and by Audic and Claverie (Genome Res 7: 986-995, 1997), Fisher's Exact test, and the Z test, which is equivalent to the chi-squared test. The comparison showed that, for SAGE libraries of equal as well as different size, SAGE300, Fisher's Exact test, Z test, and the Audic and Claverie test have critical values within 1.5% of each other. This indicates that these four tests will give essentially the same results when applied to SAGE libraries. The Madden test, which can only be used for libraries of similar size, is, with 25% higher critical values, more conservative, probably because the variance measure in its test statistic is not appropriate for hypothesis testing. The consequences for the choice of SAGE library sizes are discussed.

  11. Nanoscale protein architecture of the kidney glomerular basement membrane

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Hani; Zhang, Lei; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S; Dani, Adish

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play structural and functional roles in essentially all organs, so understanding ECM protein organization in health and disease remains an important goal. Here, we used sub-diffraction resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve the in situ molecular organization of proteins within the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM), an essential mediator of glomerular ultrafiltration. Using multichannel STORM and STORM-electron microscopy correlation, we constructed a molecular reference frame that revealed a laminar organization of ECM proteins within the GBM. Separate analyses of domains near the N- and C-termini of agrin, laminin, and collagen IV in mouse and human GBM revealed a highly oriented macromolecular organization. Our analysis also revealed disruptions in this GBM architecture in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. These results provide the first nanoscopic glimpse into the organization of a complex ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01149.001 PMID:24137544

  12. Creatinine clearance as a substitute for the glomerular filtration rate in the assessment of glomerular hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Okada, N; Imanishi, M; Yoshioka, K; Konishi, Y; Okumura, M; Tanaka, S; Fujii, S

    1999-11-01

    A method for the clinical assessment of glomerular hemodynamics has been published previously. We here examined whether, when using this method, renal creatinine clearance (Ccr) can be substituted for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study subjects comprised 57 inpatients from Osaka City General Hospital: 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 27 with chronic glomerulonephritis. During the 2-wk study, patients received a high-salt diet for 1 wk and a low-salt diet for 1 wk. Urinary sodium excretion and systemic blood pressure were measured daily. The renal plasma flow, Ccr, and plasma total protein concentration were also evaluated simultaneously on the last day of the high-salt diet. The GFR was also calculated from the fractional renal accumulation of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Glomerular hemodynamics, represented by the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and the resistance of afferent and efferent arterioles, were calculated using the renal clearance, the plasma total protein concentration, and the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Values for renal hemodynamics with the Ccr-derived GFR were compared with those from the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR. Ccr values of 53 to 169 ml/min correlated with the 99mTc-DTPA-derived clearance of 39 to 179 ml/min (n=57, r=.71, p<.001). Values for the glomerular pressure and the resistances of afferent and efferent arterioles calculated using the Ccr-derived GFR correlated significantly with those calculated using the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR (r=.99, p<.001 and r=.99, p<.001, respectively). These results indicate that the Ccr is an accurate representation of the GFR for use in glomerular hemodynamic analysis of the pressure-natriuresis relationship.

  13. Sage-Grouse Lek Guideline Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to support a Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) unofficial request to obtain Land Use Committee comments pertaining to the proposed Sage-Grouse Breeding Habitat Regulations. Two documents were provided from DOE-ID pertaining to the proposed regulations: “Guidelines for INL Site Activities within Sage-grouse Breeding Habitat” and “Guidelines for New Infrastructure Development and Future Activities on the INL Site.” The INL Land Use Committee agreed to conduct this unofficial review in the spirit of collaboration between DOE-ID and the INL Land Use Committee. However, through this cursory review, significant concerns were raised regarding the guidelines, INL financial obligations, and the draft Candidate Conservation Agreement, which was not part of the requested review but is referred to by the guideline. Therefore, it is the position of the INL Land Use Committee, based on the issues raised in its cursory review, that DOE-ID request INL (through contractual channels) to conduct a formal review of the draft Candidate Conservation Agreement and guidelines. A formal review would allow ample time to thoroughly review the extensive draft regulations, identify areas of concern, and establish impacts (e.g., cost and project delays).

  14. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    PubMed Central

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P < 0.001). In

  15. The Tetraspanin CD37 Protects Against Glomerular IgA Deposition and Renal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rops, Angelique L.; Figdor, Carl G.; van der Schaaf, Alie; Tamboer, Wim P.; Bakker, Marinka A.; Berden, Jo H.; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Steenbergen, Eric J.; van der Vlag, Johan; van Spriel, Annemiek B.

    2010-01-01

    The tetraspanin protein CD37 is a leukocyte-specific transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on B cells. CD37-deficient (CD37−/−) mice exhibit a 15-fold increased level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum and elevated numbers of IgA+ plasma cells in lymphoid organs. Here, we report that CD37−/− mice spontaneously develop renal pathology with characteristics of human IgA nephropathy. In young naïve CD37−/− mice, mild IgA deposition in glomeruli was observed. However, CD37−/− mice developed high titers of IgA immune complexes in serum during aging, which was associated with increased glomerular IgA deposition. Severe mesangial proliferation, fibrosis, and hyalinosis were apparent in aged CD37−/− mice, whereas albuminuria was mild. To further evaluate the role of CD37 in glomerular disease, we induced anti–glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in mice. CD37−/− mice developed higher IgA serum levels and glomerular deposits of anti-GBM IgA compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, glomerular macrophage and neutrophil influx was significantly higher in CD37−/− mice during both the heterologous and autologous phase of anti-GBM nephritis. Taken together, tetraspanin CD37 controls the formation of IgA-containing immune complexes and glomerular IgA deposition, which induces influx of inflammatory myeloid cells. Therefore, CD37 may protect against the development of IgA nephropathy. PMID:20348240

  16. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Jack C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  17. SAGE celebrates 25 years of learning geophysics by doing geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiracek, G.R.; Baldridge, W.S.; Sussman, A.J.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L.W.; Ferguson, J.F.; Gilpin, B.E.; McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing world demand and record-high costs for energy and mineral resources, along with the attendant environmental and climate concerns, have escalated the need for trained geophysicists to unprecedented levels. This is not only a national need; it's a critical global need. As Earth scientists and educators we must seriously ask if our geophysics pipeline can adequately address this crisis. One program that has helped to answer this question in the affirmative for 25 years is SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). SAGE continues to develop with new faculty, new collaborations, and additional ways to support student participation during and after SAGE. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. SAM 2 and SAGE data management and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Trepte, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    The data management and processing supplied by ST Systems Corporation (STX) for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement 2 (SAM 2) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) experiments for the years 1983 to 1986 are described. Included are discussions of data validation, documentation, and scientific analysis, as well as the archival schedule met by the operational reduction of SAM 2 and SAGE data. Work under this contract resulted in the archiving of the first seven years of SAM 2 data and all three years of SAGE data. A list of publications and presentations supported was also included.

  19. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jack C.; McCormick, M. P.; McMaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  20. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  1. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  2. Characterization of the global profile of genes expressed in cervical epithelium by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Riggins, Gregory; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Moreno, José; Arreola, Hugo; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Piña-Sanchez, Patricia; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    Background Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a new technique that allows a detailed and profound quantitative and qualitative knowledge of gene expression profile, without previous knowledge of sequence of analyzed genes. We carried out a modification of SAGE methodology (microSAGE), useful for the analysis of limited quantities of tissue samples, on normal human cervical tissue obtained from a donor without histopathological lesions. Cervical epithelium is constituted mainly by cervical keratinocytes which are the targets of human papilloma virus (HPV), where persistent HPV infection of cervical epithelium is associated with an increase risk for developing cervical carcinomas (CC). Results We report here a transcriptome analysis of cervical tissue by SAGE, derived from 30,418 sequenced tags that provide a wealth of information about the gene products involved in normal cervical epithelium physiology, as well as genes not previously found in uterine cervix tissue involved in the process of epidermal differentiation. Conclusion This first comprehensive and profound analysis of uterine cervix transcriptome, should be useful for the identification of genes involved in normal cervix uterine function, and candidate genes associated with cervical carcinoma. PMID:16171524

  3. SAGETTARIUS: a program to reduce the number of tags mapped to multiple transcripts and to plan SAGE sequencing stages

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Laurent; Wu, Yan; Guerin, Eric; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) experiments generate short nucleotide sequences called ‘tags’ which are assumed to map unambiguously to their original transcripts (1 tag to 1 transcript mapping). Nevertheless, many tags are generated that do not map to any transcript or map to multiple transcripts. Current bioinformatics resources, such as SAGEmap and TAGmapper, have focused on reducing the number of unmapped tags. Here, we describe SAGETTARIUS, a new high-throughput program that performs successive precise Nla3 and Sau3A tag to transcript mapping, based on specifically designed Virtual Tag (VT) libraries. First, SAGETTARIUS decreases the number of tags mapped to multiple transcripts. Among the various mapping resources compared, SAGETTARIUS performed the best in this respect by decreasing up to 11% the number of multiply mapped tags. Second, SAGETTARIUS allows the establishment of a guideline for SAGE experiment sequencing efforts through efficient mapping of the CRT (Cytoplasmic Ribosomal protein Transcripts)-specific tags. Using all publicly available human and mouse Nla3 SAGE experiments, we show that sequencing 100 000 tags is sufficient to map almost all CRT-specific tags and that four sequencing stages can be identified when carrying out a human or mouse SAGE project. SAGETTARIUS is web interfaced and freely accessible to academic users. PMID:17884916

  4. SAGETTARIUS: a program to reduce the number of tags mapped to multiple transcripts and to plan SAGE sequencing stages.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Laurent; Wu, Yan; Guerin, Eric; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) experiments generate short nucleotide sequences called 'tags' which are assumed to map unambiguously to their original transcripts (1 tag to 1 transcript mapping). Nevertheless, many tags are generated that do not map to any transcript or map to multiple transcripts. Current bioinformatics resources, such as SAGEmap and TAGmapper, have focused on reducing the number of unmapped tags. Here, we describe SAGETTARIUS, a new high-throughput program that performs successive precise Nla3 and Sau3A tag to transcript mapping, based on specifically designed Virtual Tag (VT) libraries. First, SAGETTARIUS decreases the number of tags mapped to multiple transcripts. Among the various mapping resources compared, SAGETTARIUS performed the best in this respect by decreasing up to 11% the number of multiply mapped tags. Second, SAGETTARIUS allows the establishment of a guideline for SAGE experiment sequencing efforts through efficient mapping of the CRT (Cytoplasmic Ribosomal protein Transcripts)-specific tags. Using all publicly available human and mouse Nla3 SAGE experiments, we show that sequencing 100,000 tags is sufficient to map almost all CRT-specific tags and that four sequencing stages can be identified when carrying out a human or mouse SAGE project. SAGETTARIUS is web interfaced and freely accessible to academic users.

  5. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  6. Angiotensin II stimulates expression of the chemokine RANTES in rat glomerular endothelial cells. Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, G; Ziyadeh, F N; Thaiss, F; Tomaszewski, J; Caron, R J; Wenzel, U; Zahner, G; Helmchen, U; Stahl, R A

    1997-01-01

    Glomerular influx of monocytes/macrophages (M/M) occurs in many immune- and non-immune-mediated renal diseases. The mechanisms targeting M/M into the glomerulus are incompletely understood, but may involve stimulated expression of chemokines. We investigated whether angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the chemokine RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells of the rat and in vivo. ANG II stimulated mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. The ANG II-induced RANTES protein was chemotactic for human monocytes. Surprisingly, the ANG II-stimulated RANTES expression was transduced by AT2 receptors because the AT2 receptor antagonists PD 123177 and CGP-42112A, but not an AT1 receptor blocker, abolished the induced RANTES synthesis. Intraperitoneal infusion of ANG II (500 ng/h) into naive rats for 4 d significantly stimulated glomerular RANTES mRNA and protein expression compared with solvent-infused controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed induction of RANTES protein mainly in glomerular endothelial cells and small capillaries. Moreover, ANG II- infused animals exhibited an increase in glomerular ED-1- positive cells compared with controls. Oral treatment with PD 123177 (50 mg/liter drinking water) attenuated the glomerular M/M influx without normalizing the slightly elevated systolic blood pressure caused by ANG II infusion, suggesting that the effects on blood pressure and RANTES induction can be separated. We conclude that the vasoactive peptide ANG II may play an important role in glomerular chemotaxis of M/M through local induction of the chemokine RANTES. The observation that the ANG II- mediated induction of RANTES is transduced by AT2 receptors may influence the decision as to which substances might be used for the therapeutic interference with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:9276721

  7. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  8. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: Habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Boyce, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed empirical models predicting both species occurrence and fitness across a landscape are necessary to understand processes related to population persistence. Failure to consider both occurrence and fitness may result in incorrect assessments of habitat importance leading to inappropriate management strategies. We took a two-stage approach to identifying critical nesting and brood-rearing habitat for the endangered Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta at a landscape scale. First, we used logistic regression to develop spatial models predicting the relative probability of use (occurrence) for Sage-Grouse nests and broods. Secondly, we used Cox proportional hazards survival models to identify the most risky habitats across the landscape. We combined these two approaches to identify Sage-Grouse habitats that pose minimal risk of failure (source habitats) and attractive sink habitats that pose increased risk (ecological traps). Our models showed that Sage-Grouse select for heterogeneous patches of moderate sagebrush cover (quadratic relationship) and avoid anthropogenic edge habitat for nesting. Nests were more successful in heterogeneous habitats, but nest success was independent of anthropogenic features. Similarly, broods selected heterogeneous high-productivity habitats with sagebrush while avoiding human developments, cultivated cropland, and high densities of oil wells. Chick mortalities tended to occur in proximity to oil and gas developments and along riparian habitats. For nests and broods, respectively, approximately 10% and 5% of the study area was considered source habitat, whereas 19% and 15% of habitat was attractive sink habitat. Limited source habitats appear to be the main reason for poor nest success (39%) and low chick survival (12%). Our habitat models identify areas of protection priority and areas that require immediate management attention to enhance recruitment to secure the viability of this population. This novel

  9. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Megan L.; Houghton, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopathology, laboratory studies, treatment and outcome of those cases was reviewed in detail. Results Five anti-GBM cases with atypical clinicopathologic features were identified (accounting for ∼8% of anti-GBM cases in our laboratory). Kidney biopsies showed minimal glomerular changes by light microscopy; one patient had monoclonal IgG deposits in an allograft (likely recurrent). Three patients did not have detectable serum anti-GBM by conventional assays. Three patients had indolent clinical courses after immunosuppressive treatment. One patient, untreated after presenting with brief mild hematuria, re-presented after a short interval with necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Thorough clinicopathologic characterization and close follow-up of patients with findings of atypical anti-GBM on renal biopsy are needed. Review of the literature reveals only rare well-documented atypical anti-GBM cases to date, only one of which progressed to end-stage kidney disease. PMID:26985371

  10. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  11. [Design and application of medical knowledge model on SAGE].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Bin-fei; Ye, Feng; Lv, Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    As an methodology for promoting the quality and efficiency of health care, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have gained much improvement. The knowledge base (KB) plays an important role in DSS. For CDSSs, the construction of KB means modeling the medical knowledge based on a suitable model. This study analyzes the SAGE model, then implements it on knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and improves the SAGE to enhance its expression ability. The model is constructed as the KB in CDSS, and be applied in hospital. The evaluation result of CDSS reveals that the SAGE model should be useful in clinical application. Finally, this study propounds some points yet to be improved in the SAGE.

  12. 5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, OWL CREEK IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW LOOKING EAST - Hole-in-the-Rock Trail, Running From Bluff Vicinity to Escalante, Garfield County, Bluff, San Juan County, UT

  13. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  14. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  15. Russell Sage: Private Research for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Carl S.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the Russell Sage Foundation, devoted to social science research, is reviewed with emphasis on its outlook under the new president, Aaron Wildavsky, and his expertise in policy analysis. (LBH)

  16. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is

  17. Role of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of immune-mediated glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Joaquín; Cravedi, Paolo

    2014-05-21

    Non-specific immunosuppressants have represented for decades the only therapies for patients with immune-mediated glomerular diseases. These treatments, however, are associated with high rates of no-response and are burdened by toxicities that frequently offset the benefits of proteinuria reduction. Monoclonal antibodies targeting selective cell populations or mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of glomerular diseases have recently become available. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen on B cells, safely reduced proteinuria in patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Its ability to reduce auto-antibody formation has been instrumental to treat also ANCA-associated vasculitis, lupus nephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Many reports have also documented the efficacy of the anti-C5 humanized monoclonal antibody Eculizumab to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 nephropathy, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Thanks to these encouraging findings, monoclonals are becoming very helpful tools to treat patients with glomerular diseases. Moreover, thanks to their specific mechanism of action, these and other monoclonal antibodies are important in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of glomerular diseases. Their still high costs, however, might represent a major hurdle for their widespread implementation for all patients in need.

  18. SAGE II stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Lenoble, J.; Nagatani, R. M.; Chanin, M. L.; Barnes, R. A.; Schmidlin, F.; Rowland, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment based on the solar occultation measurement of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II). The entire retrieval analysis involves two inversion steps: the vertical structure inversion, which derives the profile of local atmospheric extinction from SAGE II limb optical depth data, and the species inversion, which inverts the concentration of air molecules, aerosols, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the derived atmospheric extinction at five SAGE II short wavelengths (0.385, 0.448, 0.453, 0.525, and 0.600 microns). The derived density profile is then used to infer the temperature distribution, assuming that the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium and obeys the ideal gas law. The temperature profiles retrieved from the SAGE II observations are compared with near-coincident, in both time and space, French Rayleigh lidar and NASA Wallops Flight Facility rocket datasonde soundings as well as the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data analyses. The results indicate that the mean SAGE II temperature agrees with the mean lidar measurements to within 2 C at altitudes from 30.5 to 52.5 km. The SAGE II and datasonde observations agree to within about 4 C in approximately the same altitude region.

  19. SAGE ground truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) on the AEM-B satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B. (Editor); Cunnold, D. M.; Grams, G. W.; Laver, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Murcray, D. G.; Pepin, T. J.; Perry, T. W.; Planet, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The ground truth plan is outlined for correlative measurements to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) sensor data. SAGE will fly aboard the Applications Explorer Mission-B satellite scheduled for launch in early 1979 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and molecular extinction between 79 N and 79 S. latitude. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. In addition, an overview of the SAGE expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of stratospheric aerosols and ozone are used in the SAGE and correlative sensor analyses.

  20. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the rangewide conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manier, D.J.; Wood, David J.A.; Bowen, Z.H.; Donovan, R.M.; Holloran, M.J.; Juliusson, L.M.; Mayne, K.S.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quamen, F.R.; Saher, D.J.; Titolo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Sage-Grouse, has been observed, hunted, and counted for decades. The sagebrush biome, home to the Greater Sage-Grouse, includes sagebrush-steppe and Great Basin sagebrush communities, interspersed with grasslands, salt flats, badlands, mountain ranges, springs, intermittent creeks and washes, and major river systems, and is one of the most widespread and enigmatic components of Western U.S. landscapes. Over time, habitat conversion, degradation, and fragmentation have accumulated across the entire range such that local conditions as well as habitat distributions at local and regional scales are negatively affecting the long-term persistence of this species. Historic patterns of human use and settlement of the sagebrush ecosystem have contributed to the current condition and status of sage-grouse populations. The accumulation of habitat loss, persistent habitat degradation, and fragmentation by industry and urban infrastructure, as indicated by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) findings, presents a significant challenge for conservation of this species and sustainable management of the sagebrush ecosystem. Because of the wide variations in natural and human history across these landscapes, no single prescription for management of sagebrush ecosystems (including sage-grouse habitats) will suffice to guide the collective efforts of public and private entities to conserve the species and its habitat. This report documents and summarizes several decades of work on sage-grouse populations, sagebrush as habitat, and sagebrush community and ecosystem functions based on the recent assessment and findings of the USFWS under consideration of the Endangered Species Act. As reflected here, some of these topics receive a greater depth of discussion because of the perceived importance of the issue for sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse populations. Drawing connections between the direct effects on sagebrush ecosystems and the effect of ecosystem condition on

  1. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  2. B cell suppression in primary glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Rood, Ilse M; Hofstra, Julia M; Deegens, Jeroen K J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2014-03-01

    Membranous nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and minimal change disease (MCD) are the most common causes of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. For many years prednisone, alkylating agents, and calcineurin inhibitors have been the standard of therapy for these patients. More effective or better tolerated treatment modalities are needed. B cell targeted therapy was recently introduced in clinical practice. In this review, we briefly summarize the current standard therapy and discuss the efficacy of B cell targeted therapy in primary glomerular diseases. Observational, short-term studies suggest that rituximab is effective and comparable to standard therapy in maintaining remissions in patients with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent MCD or FSGS. In contrast, response is limited in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Rituximab also induces remissions in patients with membranous nephropathy. Controlled clinical trials on kidney endpoints are urgently needed to position B cell targeted therapy in clinical practice.

  3. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T

    2015-04-08

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings.

  4. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  5. A hierarchical integrated population model for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Halstead, Brian J.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Brussee, Brianne; Howe, Kristy B.; Wiechman, Lief; Tebbenkamp, Joel; Reese, Kerry P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) are endemic to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems throughout Western North America. Populations of sage-grouse have declined in distribution and abundance across the range of the species (Schroeder and others, 2004; Knick and Connelly, 2011), largely as a result of human disruption of sagebrush communities (Knick and Connelly, 2011). The Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS) represents sage-grouse populations that are geographically isolated and genetically distinct (Benedict and others, 2003; Oyler-McCance and others, 2005) and that are present at the extreme southwestern distribution of the sage-grouse range (Schroeder and others, 2004), straddling the border of California and Nevada. Subpopulations of sage-grouse in the DPS may be at increased risk of extirpation because of a substantial loss of sagebrush habitat and lack of connectivity (Oyler-McCance and others, 2005). Sage-grouse in the Bi-State DPS represent small, localized breeding populations distributed across 18,325 km2. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service currently (2014) is evaluating the Bi-State DPS as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, independent of other sage-grouse populations. This DPS was designated as a higher priority for listing than sage-grouse in other parts of the species’ range (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010). Range-wide population analyses for sage-grouse have included portions of the Bi-State DPS (Sage and Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse Technical Committee 2008; Garton and others, 2011). Although these analyses are informative, the underlying data only represent a portion of the DPS and are comprised of lek count observations only. A thorough examination of population dynamics and persistence that includes multiple subpopulations and represents the majority of the DPS is largely lacking. Furthermore, fundamental information on population growth

  6. Laminin α2-Mediated Focal Adhesion Kinase Activation Triggers Alport Glomerular Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M.; Meehan, Daniel T.; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages. PMID:24915008

  7. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M; Meehan, Daniel T; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  8. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming’s Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeffrey L.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Pratt, Aaron C.; Conover, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming’s Core Area Policy. Wyoming’s Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008–2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4–45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming’s Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between

  9. Assessing greater sage-grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic disturbances, wildfires, and weedy-plant invasions have destroyed and fragmented sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) habitats. Sagebrush-dependent species like greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) are vulnerable to these changes, emphasizing the importance ...

  10. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Grouse Conservation Subcommittee and Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... sage grouse conservation subcommittee and the full Resource Advisory Council will meet as follows... Resource Management Plans to incorporate regulatory mechanisms for conservation of sage grouse habitat....

  11. Flavonoid pattern of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) unifloral honey.

    PubMed

    Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys.

  12. Merging the SAGE II and OSIRIS Stratospheric Aerosol Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Landon; Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug

    2016-04-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite, launched in 2001 and currently operational, measures limb-scattered sunlight from which profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction at 750nm are retrieved. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) II instrument was operational from 1985 to 2005, and provided aerosol extinction at several visible and near infrared wavelengths. This work compares the SAGE II and OSIRIS aerosol extinction measurements during the four years of instrument overlap by interpolating the SAGE II data to 750nm using the 525 and 1020nm channels. Agreement is generally favourable in the tropics and mid-latitudes with differences less than 10% for the majority of the aerosol layer. However, near the UTLS and outside of the tropics agreement is poorer and reasons for this are investigated. Comparisons between the OSIRIS and SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements at 750nm are used to develop a merged aerosol climatology as a function of time, latitude and altitude at the native SAGE II wavelength of 525nm. Error due to assumptions in the OSIRIS retrieval and wavelength conversion are explored through simulation studies over a range of particle size distributions and is found to be approximately 20% for the majority of low-to-moderate volcanic loading conditions and OSIRIS geometries. Other sources of error such as cloud contamination in the UTLS are also explored.

  13. SAGE II aerosol data validation and initial data use - An introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    The process of validating data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the initial use of the validated data are reviewed. The instruments developed for the SAGE II, the influence of the eruption of El Chichon on the global stratospheric aerosol, and various data validation experiments are discussed. Consideration is given to methods for deriving aerosol physical and optical properties from SAGE II extinction data and for inferring particle size distribution moments from SAGE II spectral extinction values.

  14. Phenotyping by magnetic resonance imaging nondestructively measures glomerular number and volume distribution in mice with and without nephron reduction

    PubMed Central

    Baldelomar, Edwin J.; Charlton, Jennifer R.; Beeman, Scott C.; Hann, Bradley D.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Pearl, Valeria M.; Bertram, John F.; Wu, Teresa; Zhang, Min; Bennett, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced nephron mass is strongly linked to susceptibility to chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases. There are currently no tools to identify nephropenia in clinical or preclinical diagnostics. Such new methods could uncover novel mechanisms and therapies for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reveal how variation among traits can affect renal function and morphology. Here we used cationized ferritin (CF) enhanced-MRI (CFE-MRI) to investigate the relationship between glomerular number (Nglom) and volume (Vglom) in kidneys of healthy wild type mice and mice with oligosyndactylism (Os/+), a model of congenital nephron reduction. Mice were injected with cationic ferritin and perfused and the resected kidneys imaged with 7T MRI to detect CF-labeled glomeruli. CFE-MRI was used to measure the intrarenal distribution of individual glomerular volumes and revealed two major populations of glomeruli distinguished by size. Spatial mapping revealed that the largest glomeruli were located in the juxtamedullary region in both wild type and Os/+ mice and the smallest population located in the cortex. Os/+ mice had about a 50% reduction and 35% increase of Nglom and Vglom, respectively, in both glomerular populations compared to wild type, consistent with glomerular hypertrophy in the Os/+ mice. Thus, we provide a foundation for whole-kidney, MRI-based phenotyping of mouse renal glomerular morphology and provide new potential for quantitative human renal diagnostics. PMID:26535998

  15. Pathogenetic role of glomerular CXCL13 expression in lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Worthmann, K; Gueler, F; von Vietinghoff, S; Davalos-Mißlitz, A; Wiehler, F; Davidson, A; Witte, T; Haller, H; Schiffer, M; Falk, C S; Schiffer, L

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes maintain the structure and function of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, podocytes have recently been implicated in the innate immune response, and their function as non-haematopoietic antigen-presenting cells was highlighted. We have shown previously that excessive expression of the chemokine CXCL13 is a distinctive early event for nephritis in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Furthermore, we found that CXCL13 is elevated significantly in the serum of patients with SLE-nephritis. In this study, we were able to show for the first time that (i) CXCL13 is expressed locally in glomeruli in a model for SLE-nephritis in mice and that (ii) incubation of human podocytes with CXCL13 induces receptor stimulation of CXCR5 with activation of signalling pathways, resulting in (iii) secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatant. This cytokine/chemokine cocktail can lead to (iv) a neutrophil respiratory burst in isolated human granulocytes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that CXCL13 is involved in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and that podocytes can play an active role in local proinflammatory immune responses. Thus, CXCL13 could be a direct target for the therapy of glomerulonephritis in general and for SLE-nephritis in particular. PMID:24827905

  16. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed..., proposed rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to...

  17. Sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center: A summary of studies conducted during 1991 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.; Downs, J.L.; Sveum, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Yakima Training Center (YTC) sage grouse population is one of only two remnant populations of sage grouse remaining in the state of Washington. Sage grouse are considered candidates for listing as a state threatened species. The purpose of the work was to identify sage grouse population characteristics, habitat preferences, and land areas used by sage grouse to assist YTC environmental management staff and military training personnel in both managing sage grouse and planning training activities. The ultimate objective is to protect sage grouse and sage grouse habitat without compromising military training objectives. The sage grouse population on the YTC is small but appears to have remained stable during the past few years. Two distinct subpopulations of grouse appear to exist, each occupying a distinct geographical region and using separate lek areas. Nesting and brooding hens select for long angle slopes and moderate elevations, which places the birds in preferred troop-training areas. The greatest potential impact of training activities on sage grouse seems to be related to habitat loss, although disturbance at leks during the breeding season also could have major impacts on breeding success. The creation of habitat maps for the YTC showing vegetation features most valued by sage grouse is recommended because it would provide habitat managers and military training planner`s with a means to protect grouse habitat while making training assignments. An analysis of sage grouse habitat quality, as impacted by training activity, would also assist habitat managers in making decisions regarding habitat restoration and protection.

  18. A method for estimating vertical distibution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. Patrick; Minnis, Patrick; Kent, Geoffrey S.; Yue, Glenn K.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1995-01-01

    A method is developed to infer the vertical distribution of the occurrence frequency of clouds that are opaque to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II instrument. An application of the method to the 1986 SAGE II observations is included in this paper. The 1986 SAGE II results are compared with the 1952-1981 cloud climatology of Warren et al. (1986, 1988)

  19. Modified PCR methods for 3' end amplification from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Jie; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to study gene expression at the genome level. However, a disadvantage of the shortness of SAGE tags is that it prevents further study of SAGE library data, thus limiting extensive application of the SAGE method in gene expression studies. However, this problem can be solved by extension of the SAGE tags to 3' cDNAs. Therefore, several methods based on PCR have been developed to generate a 3' longer fragment cDNA corresponding to a SAGE tag. The list of modified methods is extensive, and includes rapid RT-PCR analysis of unknown SAGE tags (RAST-PCR), generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags for gene identification (GLGI), a high-throughput GLGI procedure, reverse SAGE (rSAGE), two-step analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR), etc. These procedures are constantly being updated because they have characteristics and advantages that can be shared. Development of these methods has promoted the widespread use of the SAGE technique, and has accelerated the speed of studies of large-scale gene expression.

  20. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. CorSage: A Critiquing System for Coronary Care

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Linda T.; Diamond, George A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Ferguson, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Although knowledge-based medical consultation systems perform their tasks well, few have been adopted for regular use by physicians. Several issues that appear to contribute to acceptance problems are addressed in the design of CorSage, a decision support system for ischemic heart disease. Features of the system include automatic generation of admission and transfer notes, management plan critiquing, statistical risk assessment, and detailed on-line help. CorSage has been in regular clinical use in the Cedars-Sinai Cardiac Intensive Care Unit since January 1988. Medical residents are required to use the system to enter data for all patients admitted to the unit. This paper describes CorSage's capabilities and presents the results of two pilot studies to evaluate its acceptance by physician-users.

  2. Serum laminin, hydrocarbon exposure, and glomerular damage.

    PubMed Central

    Hotz, P; Thielemans, N; Bernard, A; Gutzwiller, F; Lauwerys, R

    1993-01-01

    It has been postulated that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons may damage the kidney and lead to glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. As laminin is a ubiquitous basement membrane component that seems to play a central part in the structure and function of basement membranes and as the normal renal filtration process is highly dependent on an intact glomerular basement membrane, the serum laminin concentration was examined in a population of workers exposed to hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon exposure was assessed by exposure surrogates (exposure duration and exposure score). An interaction between occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and hypertension increased the laminin concentration whereas the laminin concentration decreased in workers exposed for a long time probably because of a selection effect. In a subgroup of printers exposed to toluene whose hippuric acid excretion had been recorded for several years this interaction was confirmed when the hippuric acid excretion was substituted for the other exposure indices. In the exposed group, the age-related decline in creatinine clearance was accelerated. These results seem to confirm that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons is a non-specific factor that may promote a deterioration of renal function. PMID:8280641

  3. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  4. Glomerular lesions in experimental infections of Schistosoma mansoni in Cebus apella monkeys.

    PubMed

    De Brito, T; Gunji, J; Camargo, M E; Ceravolo, A; Da Silva, L C

    1971-01-01

    Three monkeys (Cebus apella) experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni studied for periods of 19, 14, and 11 months showed deposits containing gamma-globulin in subendothelial and subepithelial basal membranes and in basement membranes proper. The glomeruli showed mild reactivity characterized by local hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Such findings were close to those observed by us in the kidney of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients without evidence of renal disease. The distribution of the deposits, both in human and experimental disease, are suggestive of preformed, non-glomerular antigen-antibody complexes that form in a zone of excess antigen and become trapped in the glomerular capillaries.The possibility exists, but has not yet been proved beyond doubt, that renal disease in schistosomiasis patients could be the end result of this pathogenetic mechanism.

  5. The multidimensional Self-Adaptive Grid code, SAGE, version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1995-01-01

    This new report on Version 2 of the SAGE code includes all the information in the original publication plus all upgrades and changes to the SAGE code since that time. The two most significant upgrades are the inclusion of a finite-volume option and the ability to adapt and manipulate zonal-matching multiple-grid files. In addition, the original SAGE code has been upgraded to Version 1.1 and includes all options mentioned in this report, with the exception of the multiple grid option and its associated features. Since Version 2 is a larger and more complex code, it is suggested (but not required) that Version 1.1 be used for single-grid applications. This document contains all the information required to run both versions of SAGE. The formulation of the adaption method is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code. The third section provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simple but extensive input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The SAGE code can accommodate two-dimensional and three-dimensional, finite-difference and finite-volume, single grid, and zonal-matching multiple grid flow problems.

  6. SAGE: A tool for time-series analysis of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R. E.; Gallaher, D. W.; Khalsa, S. S.; Lewis, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has developed an operational tool for analysis. This production tool is known as "Services for the Analysis of the Greenland Environment" (SAGE). Using an integrated workspace approach, a researcher has the ability to find relevant data and perform various analysis functions on the data, as well as retrieve the data and analysis results. While there continues to be compelling observational evidence for increased surface melting and rapid thinning along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet, there are still uncertainties with respect to estimates of mass balance of Greenland's ice sheet as a whole. To better understand the dynamics of these issues, it is important for scientists to have access to a variety of datasets from multiple sources, and to be able to integrate and analyze the data. SAGE provides data from various sources, such as AMSR-E and AVHRR datasets, which can be analyzed individually through various time-series plots and aggregation functions; or they can be analyzed together with scatterplots or overlaid time-series plots to provide quick and useful results to support various research products. The application is available at http://nsidc.org/data/sage/. SAGE was built on top of NSIDC's existing Searchlight engine. The SAGE interface gives users access to much of NSIDC's relevant Greenland raster data holdings, as well as data from outside sources. Additionally, various web services provide access for other clients to utilize the functionality that the SAGE interface provides. Combined, these methods of accessing the tool allow scientists the ability to devote more of their time to their research, and less on trying to find and retrieve the data they need.

  7. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  8. Quantifying restoration effectiveness using multi-scale habitat models: implications for sage-grouse in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Hanser, Steven E.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Grace, James B.; Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Welty, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    A recurrent challenge in the conservation of wide-ranging, imperiled species is understanding which habitats to protect and whether we are capable of restoring degraded landscapes. For Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species of conservation concern in the western United States, we approached this problem by developing multi-scale empirical models of occupancy in 211 randomly located plots within a 40 million ha portion of the species' range. We then used these models to predict sage-grouse habitat quality at 826 plots associated with 101 post-wildfire seeding projects implemented from 1990 to 2003. We also compared conditions at restoration sites to published habitat guidelines. Sage-grouse occupancy was positively related to plot- and landscape-level dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula, A. nova, A. tripartita) and big sagebrush steppe prevalence, and negatively associated with non-native plants and human development. The predicted probability of sage-grouse occupancy at treated plots was low on average (0.09) and not substantially different from burned areas that had not been treated. Restoration sites with quality habitat tended to occur at higher elevation locations with low annual temperatures, high spring precipitation, and high plant diversity. Of 313 plots seeded after fire, none met all sagebrush guidelines for breeding habitats, but approximately 50% met understory guidelines, particularly for perennial grasses. This pattern was similar for summer habitat. Less than 2% of treated plots met winter habitat guidelines. Restoration actions did not increase the probability of burned areas meeting most guideline criteria. The probability of meeting guidelines was influenced by a latitudinal gradient, climate, and topography. Our results suggest that sage-grouse are relatively unlikely to use many burned areas within 20 years of fire, regardless of treatment. Understory habitat conditions are more likely to be adequate than overstory

  9. Mechanism of reduced glomerular filtration rate in chronic malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, I; Purkerson, M L; Klahr, S; Troy, J L; Martinez-Maldonado, M; Brenner, B M

    1980-05-01

    To determine the physiological basis for the low glomerular filtration rate in chronic malnutrition, micropuncture studies were performed in Munich-Wistar rats chronically pair-fed isocaloric diets of either low (group 1, nine rats) or high protein content (group 2, nine rats). Despite the absence of hypoalbuminemia, average values for single nephron and total kidney glomerular filtration rate were nearly 35% lower in group 1 than in group 2. Mean values for glomerular capillary and Bowman's space hydraulic pressures were essentially identical in the two groups, thereby excluding glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference as the cause for the low filtration rates in group 1 animals. On the other hand, average glomerular capillary plasma flow rate and glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient were significantly lower (by approximately 25 and approximately 50%, respectively) in group 1 than in group 2. The fall in glomerular capillary plasma flow rate was the consequence of increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances. Plasma and erythrocyte volumes were found to be equal in five additional pairs of group 1 and group 2 rats. Thus, the substantial alterations in the ultrafiltration coefficient, glomerular capillary plasma flow rate, and renal arteriolar resistances responsible for the low filtration rate in group 1 animals were not merely a consequence of decreased circulating blood or plasma volumes. Mean values for glomerular cross sectional area were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 despite similar values for kidney weight in the two groups. This reduction in glomerular cross sectional area in group 1 rats is presumed to reflect a decrease in effective filtration surface area and therefore likely accounts, at least in part, for the decline in ultrafiltration coefficient observed in this group.Finally, since the daily caloric intake of group 2 animals was restricted because of pair feeding requirements tied to the group 1

  10. Assessment of SAGE Version 6.1 Ozone Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang J.; Cunnold, Derek M.; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Bodeker, Greg E.

    2002-01-01

    The SAGE-II V6.1 ozone retrievals are shown to be of better precision at all levels and to be much more accurate than previous retrievals in the lower stratosphere below 20 km altitude. A filtering procedure for removing anomalous ozone profiles associated with volcanic aerosol/cloud effects and other identified artifacts in V6.1 ozone is described. The agreement between SAGE and ozonesondes in the mean is shown to be approximately 10% down to the tropopause. Relative to the sondes SAGE tends to slightly overestimate ozone (less than 5%) between 15 and 20 km altitude, and systematically underestimates ozone in the troposphere by approximately 30% in the regions between 8 km altitude and 2 km below the tropopause. The precisions (random errors) of SAGE ozone retrievals above 25 km altitude are estimated to be 4% or better; they are a factor of ten worse below 16 km altitude. Linear trends in the differences between coincident SAGE and ozonesondes measurement are generally less than 0.3 %/year and not significantly different from zero in 95% confidence intervals. Compared to V5.96 retrievals, ozone trend differences between 20 and 50 km altitude are approximately 0. 1 %/year, below 20 km altitude the SAGE II trends are more positive by approximately 0.2 %/year. For the 1984-1999 period the SAGE-II shows a localized ozone loss of -0.4(+/- 0.25) %/year (2gigma) in the tropics at 20 km altitude. In the lower stratosphere between 16 and 22 km altitudes, the SAGE shows significant ozone losses in the mid-latitudes in both Hemispheres during the 1979-1999 periods. The ozone trends range from -0.24(+/- 0.18) to -0.77(+/- 0.46) (2sigma)%/year. However in the 1984-1999 period, the downward trends are smaller (-0.07 to - 0.25 %/year) in this altitude range, and the trends in the integrated column from 12 to 17 km altitude in mid-latitudes (35 deg - 60 deg) are not significantly different from zero (0.1 +?- 0.6 (2sigma)%/year). Averaged over the tropics (20 deg S to 20 deg N

  11. Decreased glomerular filtration rate in solderers exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Järup, L; Persson, B; Elinder, C G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--to evaluate the degree of cadmium induced glomerular impairment and to assess the dose-response relation between cadmium dose and the prevalence of glomerular dysfunction. METHODS--A comparison of glomerular filtration rates (GFR) assessed by Cr-EDTA clearance was made in 42 solderers previously exposed to cadmium for at least five years. Blood and urine data were collected at health examinations in 1984, 1989, and 1993. Individual doses of cadmium were estimated by analysing cadmium in blood. RESULTS--Glomerular lesions induced by cadmium are irreversible and the GFR decreases with the degree of tubular damage. The GFR also decreases with cadmium dose and there is a dose-response relation between blood cadmium and prevalence of glomerular damage with 3.4% prevalence at blood cadmium concentrations below 50 nmol/l, 33% at blood cadmium concentrations between 50 and 75 nmol/l and 100% prevalence of glomerular damage when cadmium in blood exceeds 75 nmol/l. CONCLUSIONS--The kidney lesions induced by cadmium are irreversible and the prevalence of those lesions are dose dependent. There is also evidence of a dose related decrease in GFR even a long time after the end of exposure. Exposure to cadmium should therefore be minimised and workers exposed to cadmium should be examined regularly for many years after the end of exposure. PMID:8563845

  12. USP40 gene knockdown disrupts glomerular permeability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisashi; Nishibori, Yukino; Katayama, Kan; Katada, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Shohei; Kiuchi, Zentaro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Kawakami, Hayato; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Takematsu, Hiromu; Yan, Kunimasa

    2017-02-01

    Unbiased transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches have identified ubiquitin specific protease 40 (USP40) as a highly specific glomerular transcript. This gene product remains uncharacterized, and its biological function is completely unknown. Here, we showed that mouse and rat glomeruli exhibit specific expression of the USP40 protein, which migrated at 150 kDa and was exclusively localized in the podocyte cytoplasm of the adult kidney. Double-labeling immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy analysis of fetal and neonate kidney samples revealed that USP40 was also expressed in the vasculature, including in glomerular endothelial cells at the premature stage. USP40 in cultured glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes was specifically localized to the intermediate filament protein: nestin. In glomerular endothelial cells, immunoprecipitation confirmed actual protein-protein binding of USP40 with nestin, and USP40-siRNA transfection revealed significant reduction of nestin. In rat model of minimal change nephrotic syndrome, apparent reduction of USP40 in the diseased podocytes at the proteinuric stage, which was also associated with the reduction of nestin. Morphants lacking USP40 in zebrafish exhibited disorganized glomeruli with the reduction of the cell junction in the endothelium and foot process effacement in the podocytes. Permeability studies in these zebrafish morphants demonstrated a disruption of the selective glomerular permeability filter. These data indicate that USP40 is a novel protein that might play a crucial role in glomerulogenesis and the glomerular integrity after birth through the modulation of intermediate filament protein homeostasis.

  13. 78 FR 67186 - Notice of Availability of the Lewistown Field Office Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Lewistown Field Office Greater Sage-Grouse Draft... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Lewistown Field Office (LFO) Greater Sage-Grouse (GRSG..._register.do Email: blm_mt_lfo_sage_grouse@blm.gov Fax: 406-538-1904 Mail: BLM--Greater Sage-Grouse EIS,...

  14. SAGE II/Umkehr ozone comparisons and aerosols effects: An empirical and theoretical study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Newchurch, M.

    1997-09-15

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) examine empirically the aerosol effect on Umkehr ozone profiles using SAGE II aerosol and ozone data; (2) examine theoretically the aerosol effect on Umkehr ozone profiles; (3) examine the differences between SAGE II ozone profiles and both old- and new-format Umkehr ozone profiles for ozone-trend information; (4) reexamine SAGE I-Umkehr ozone differences with the most recent version of SAGE I data; and (5) contribute to the SAGE II science team.

  15. Plasma Gelsolin Induced Glomerular Fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads Signal Transduction Pathway in IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Han, Changsong; Ye, Fei; He, Yan; Jin, Yinji; Wang, Tianzhen; Wu, Yiqi; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Fengmin; Jin, Xiaoming

    2017-02-12

    Glomerular fibrosis has been shown to be closely related to the progression and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, mechanism underlying IgAN glomerular fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, our study showed that plasma gelsolin (pGSN) was decreased in the serum of an IgAN mouse model and that pGSN deposition was found in the glomeruli. Another cytokine, TGF-β1, which is closely related to glomerular fibrosis, was also found to be highly expressed in the glomeruli. In the present study, we report that pGSN induces glomerular fibrosis through the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This is supported by the following findings: human mesangial cells (HMCs) show remarkable morphological changes and proliferation in response to co-stimulation with pGSN and polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) from IgAN patients compared to other controls. Moreover, ELISA assays showed that more TGF-β1 secretion was found in HMCs supernatants in the co-stimulation group. Further experiments showed increased TGF-β1, Smad3, p-Smad2/3, Smad4, and collagen 1 and decreased Smad7 expression in the co-stimulation group. Our present study implied that the synergistic effect of pGSN and pIgA induced glomerular fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This might be a potential mechanism for the glomerular fibrosis observed in IgAN patients.

  16. Plasma Gelsolin Induced Glomerular Fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads Signal Transduction Pathway in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Han, Changsong; Ye, Fei; He, Yan; Jin, Yinji; Wang, Tianzhen; Wu, Yiqi; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Fengmin; Jin, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular fibrosis has been shown to be closely related to the progression and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, mechanism underlying IgAN glomerular fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, our study showed that plasma gelsolin (pGSN) was decreased in the serum of an IgAN mouse model and that pGSN deposition was found in the glomeruli. Another cytokine, TGF-β1, which is closely related to glomerular fibrosis, was also found to be highly expressed in the glomeruli. In the present study, we report that pGSN induces glomerular fibrosis through the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This is supported by the following findings: human mesangial cells (HMCs) show remarkable morphological changes and proliferation in response to co-stimulation with pGSN and polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) from IgAN patients compared to other controls. Moreover, ELISA assays showed that more TGF-β1 secretion was found in HMCs supernatants in the co-stimulation group. Further experiments showed increased TGF-β1, Smad3, p-Smad2/3, Smad4, and collagen 1 and decreased Smad7 expression in the co-stimulation group. Our present study implied that the synergistic effect of pGSN and pIgA induced glomerular fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This might be a potential mechanism for the glomerular fibrosis observed in IgAN patients. PMID:28208683

  17. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis.

  18. SAGE 2.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

  19. Livestock grazing and sage-grouse habitat: impacts and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sage-grouse obtain resources from sagebrush communities for breeding, summer, and winter life stages. Grazing changes the productivity, composition, and structure of herbaceous plants in sagebrush communities, thus directly influencing the productivity of nesting and early brood-rearing habitats. In...

  20. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  1. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  2. Deep SAGE analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Ruzanov, Peter; Riddle, Donald L

    2010-06-01

    We employed the Tag-seq technique to generate global transcription profiles for different strains and life stages of the nematode C. elegans. Tag-seq generates cDNA tags as does Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), but the method yields a much larger number of tags, generating much larger data sets than SAGE. We examined differences in the performance of SAGE and Tag-seq by comparing gene expression data for 13 pairs of libraries. We identified genes for which expression was consistently changed in long-lived worms. Additional genes emerged in the deeper Tag-seq profiles, including several 'signature' genes found among those zup-regulated in long-lived dauer larvae (cki-1, aak-2 and daf-16). Fifty to sixty percent of the genes differentially expressed in daf-2(-) versus daf-2(+) adults had fragmentary or no functional annotation, suggesting the involvement of as yet unstudied pathways in aging. We were able to distinguish between changes in gene expression associated with altered genotype or altered growth conditions. We found 62 cases of possible mRNA isoform switching in the 13 Tag-seq libraries, whereas the 13 SAGE libraries allowed detection of only 15 such occurrences. We observed strong expression of anti-sense transcripts for several mitochondrial genes, but nuclear anti-sense transcripts were neither abundant nor consistently expressed among the libraries.

  3. From Sages to Guides: A Professional Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; And Others

    This study examined teachers' transformations from "sages on the stage to guides on the side" through a survey of preservice secondary school teachers (N=73) over time to identify their envisioned preferred teaching methods; a survey of inservice master teachers (N=24) in professional development schools to identify their choices of…

  4. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  5. Spatially explicit modeling of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat in Nevada and northeastern California: a decision-support tool for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Howe, Kristy; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations are declining throughout the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem, including millions of acres of potential habitat across the West. Habitat maps derived from empirical data are needed given impending listing decisions that will affect both sage-grouse population dynamics and human land-use restrictions. This report presents the process for developing spatially explicit maps describing relative habitat suitability for sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California. Maps depicting habitat suitability indices (HSI) values were generated based on model-averaged resource selection functions informed by more than 31,000 independent telemetry locations from more than 1,500 radio-marked sage-grouse across 12 project areas in Nevada and northeastern California collected during a 15-year period (1998–2013). Modeled habitat covariates included land cover composition, water resources, habitat configuration, elevation, and topography, each at multiple spatial scales that were relevant to empirically observed sage-grouse movement patterns. We then present an example of how the HSI can be delineated into categories. Specifically, we demonstrate that the deviation from the mean can be used to classify habitat suitability into three categories of habitat quality (high, moderate, and low) and one non-habitat category. The classification resulted in an agreement of 93–97 percent for habitat versus non-habitat across a suite of independent validation datasets. Lastly, we provide an example of how space use models can be integrated with habitat models to help inform conservation planning. In this example, we combined probabilistic breeding density with a non-linear probability of occurrence relative to distance to nearest lek (traditional breeding ground) using count data to calculate a composite space use index (SUI). The SUI was then classified into two categories of use

  6. [Glomerular IgA deposits in an autopsy study].

    PubMed

    Suganuma, T

    1994-07-01

    One hundred kidneys from 100 non-selected autopsy cases without any overt renal disease were examined by immunofluorescence to reveal the incidences and features of cases with clinically latent glomerular IgA deposits. Glomerular IgA deposits were found in 10 cases (10.0%), consisting of 4 with liver cirrhosis and 6 with other diseases. IgA deposition was observed in 4 of 13 cirrhotic patients (30.8%), 3 of 15 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma (20.0%), one of 11 patients with cardiovascular disease (9.1%), one of 3 patients with fulminant hepatitis (33.3%), and one of 21 patients with broncho-pulmonary disease (4.8%). Light microscopy showed minor glomerular abnormalities in all non-cirrhotic cases with IgA deposits except in one case. By contrast, variable significant glomerular lesions were found in the cirrhotic cases with IgA deposits, for example mesangial proliferation and circumferential mesangial inter-position. Excluding 13 cases with liver cirrhosis, the results of urinalysis at the time of admission were available for the study in 55 of 87 cases. Forty-four of 55 cases showed normal urinalysis. Glomerular IgA deposition was found in 4 cases (9.1%) of 44 with normal urinalysis. It may be said that IgA deposition without clinical evidence of nephropathy occurred even in a normal population with an incidence of about 10%.

  7. Outcome of the acute glomerular injury in proliferative lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Chagnac, A.; Kiberd, B.A.; Farinas, M.C.; Strober, S.; Sibley, R.K.; Hoppe, R.; Myers, B.D. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. Judged by a progressive reduction in the density of glomerular cells and immune deposits, glomerular inflammation subsided. A sustained reduction in the fractional clearance of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans of radius greater than 50 A, pointed to a parallel improvement in glomerular barrier size-selectivity. Corresponding changes in GFR were modest, however. A trend towards higher GFR at 12 mo was associated with a marked increase in the fraction of glomerular tuft area occupied by patent capillary loops as inflammatory changes receded. A late trend toward declining GFR beyond 12 mo was associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis, which affected 57% of all glomeruli globally by 36 mo post-TLI. Judged by a parallel increase in volume by 59%, remaining, patent glomeruli had undergone a process of adaptive enlargement. We propose that an increasing fraction of glomeruli continues to undergo progressive sclerosis after DPLN has become quiescent, and that the prevailing GFR depends on the extent to which hypertrophied remnant glomeruli can compensate for the ensuing loss of filtration surface area.

  8. Podometrics as a Potential Clinical Tool for Glomerular Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Wiggins, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease culminating in end-stage kidney disease is a major public health problem costing in excess of $40 billion per year with high morbidity and mortality. Current tools for glomerular disease monitoring lack precision and contribute to poor outcome. The podocyte depletion hypothesis describes the major mechanisms underlying the progression of glomerular diseases, which are responsible for more than 80% of cases of end-stage kidney disease. The question arises of whether this new knowledge can be used to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Podocytes have unique characteristics that make them an attractive monitoring tool. Methodologies for estimating podocyte number, size, density, glomerular volume and other parameters in routine kidney biopsies, and the rate of podocyte detachment from glomeruli into urine (podometrics) now have been developed and validated. They potentially fill important gaps in the glomerular disease monitoring toolbox. The application of these tools to glomerular disease groups shows good correlation with outcome, although data validating their use for individual decision making is not yet available. Given the urgency of the clinical problem, we argue that the time has come to focus on testing these tools for application to individualized clinical decision making toward more effective progression prevention.

  9. Experimental evidence for the effects of chronic anthropogenic noise on abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at leks.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Jessica L; Blackwood, Diane; Patricelli, Gail L

    2012-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that chronic noise from human activities negatively affects wild animals, but most studies have failed to separate the effects of chronic noise from confounding factors, such as habitat fragmentation. We played back recorded continuous and intermittent anthropogenic sounds associated with natural gas drilling and roads at leks of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). For 3 breeding seasons, we monitored sage grouse abundance at leks with and without noise. Peak male attendance (i.e., abundance) at leks experimentally treated with noise from natural gas drilling and roads decreased 29% and 73%, respectively, relative to paired controls. Decreases in abundance at leks treated with noise occurred in the first year of the study and continued throughout the experiment. Noise playback did not have a cumulative effect over time on peak male attendance. There was limited evidence for an effect of noise playback on peak female attendance at leks or male attendance the year after the experiment ended. Our results suggest that sage-grouse avoid leks with anthropogenic noise and that intermittent noise has a greater effect on attendance than continuous noise. Our results highlight the threat of anthropogenic noise to population viability for this and other sensitive species.

  10. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058.

  11. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  12. Development of 13 microsatellites for Gunnison Sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) using next-generation shotgun sequencing and their utility in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fike, Jennifer A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Zimmerman, Shawna J; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-grouse are an obligate sagebrush species that has experienced significant population declines and has been proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In order to examine levels of connectivity among Gunnison Sage-grouse leks, we identified 13 novel microsatellite loci though next-generation shotgun sequencing, and tested them on the closely related Greater Sage-grouse. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12. No loci were found to be linked, although 2 loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or evidence of null alleles. While these microsatellites were designed for Gunnison Sage-grouse, they also work well for Greater Sage-grouse and could be used for numerous genetic questions including landscape and population genetics.

  13. Early-Onset Diabetic E1-DN Mice Develop Albuminuria and Glomerular Injury Typical of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hyvönen, Mervi E.; Tienari, Jukka; Lehtonen, Eero; Ustinov, Jarkko; Jalanko, Hannu; Otonkoski, Timo; Miettinen, Päivi J.

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of β-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER) at the age of 10 weeks; the albuminuria increased over time and correlated with blood glucose. Morphometric analysis of PAS-stained histological sections and electron microscopy images revealed mesangial expansion in homozygous E1-DN mice, and glomerular sclerosis was observed in the most hyperglycaemic mice. The albuminuric homozygous mice developed also other structural changes in the glomeruli, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and widening of podocyte foot processes that are typical for diabetic nephropathy. Increased apoptosis of podocytes was identified as one mechanism contributing to glomerular injury. In addition, nephrin expression was reduced in the podocytes of albuminuric homozygous E1-DN mice. Tubular changes included altered epithelial cell morphology and increased proliferation. In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26000279

  14. Visualisation studies and glomerular filtration in early diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-04

    The purpose of this mini-review is to show that more modern multi-photon microscopy approaches allow quantitative glomerular filtration experiments. Modern science has now entered a transition period from light microscopy to multi-photon confocal microscopy. Since the late 20th century, multi-photon microscopy has been applied in the study of organ function. In keeping with observations made in renal physiology and other representative studies throughout this transition period, and in the context of advancing microscopy techniques, this review has been presented as a comment on the glomerular filtration barrier, with a focus on the early aetiopathogenesis of diabetes.

  15. A Poisson-based adaptive affinity propagation clustering for SAGE data.

    PubMed

    Tang, DongMing; Zhu, QingXin; Yang, Fan

    2010-02-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool to obtain gene expression profiles. Clustering analysis is a valuable technique for analyzing SAGE data. In this paper, we propose an adaptive clustering method for SAGE data analysis, namely, PoissonAPS. The method incorporates a novel clustering algorithm, Affinity Propagation (AP). While AP algorithm has demonstrated good performance on many different data sets, it also faces several limitations. PoissonAPS overcomes the limitations of AP using the clustering validation measure as a cost function of merging and splitting, and as a result, it can automatically cluster SAGE data without user-specified parameters. We evaluated PoissonAPS and compared its performance with other methods on several real life SAGE datasets. The experimental results show that PoissonAPS can produce meaningful and interpretable clusters for SAGE data.

  16. Incidence of "quasi-ditags" in catalogs generated by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Sergey V; Sharov, Alexei A

    2004-01-01

    Background Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a functional genomic technique that quantitatively analyzes the cellular transcriptome. The analysis of SAGE libraries relies on the identification of ditags from sequencing files; however, the software used to examine SAGE libraries cannot distinguish between authentic versus false ditags ("quasi-ditags"). Results We provide examples of quasi-ditags that originate from cloning and sequencing artifacts (i.e. genomic contamination or random combinations of nucleotides) that are included in SAGE libraries. We have employed a mathematical model to predict the frequency of quasi-ditags in random nucleotide sequences, and our data show that clones containing less than or equal to 2 ditags (which include chromosomal cloning artifacts) should be excluded from the analysis of SAGE catalogs. Conclusions Cloning and sequencing artifacts contaminating SAGE libraries could be eliminated using simple pre-screening procedure to increase the reliability of the data. PMID:15491492

  17. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  18. A simplified self-adaptive grid method, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    1989-01-01

    The formulation of the Self-Adaptive Grid Evolution (SAGE) code, based on the work of Nakahashi and Deiwert, is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide which explains the input and execution of the code, and provides many examples. Application of the SAGE code, by Ames Research Center and by others, in the solution of various flow problems has been an indication of the code's general utility and success. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for single, zonal, and multiple grids. Modifications to the methodology and the simplified input options make this current version a flexible and user-friendly code.

  19. SAGE Aerosol Measurements. Volume 2: 1 January - 31 December 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite system, launched on February 18, 1979, provides profiles of aerosol extinction at wavelengths of 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ozone concentration, and nitrogen dioxide concentration. Data taken during sunset events in the form of zonal averages and seasonal averages of the aerosol extinction at 1.00 and 0.45 micron, ratios of the aerosol extinction to the molecular extinction at 1.00 micron, and ratios of the aerosol extinction at 0.45 micron to the aerosol extinction at 1.00 micron are presented. The averages for l980 are shown in tables and in profile and contour plots (as a function of altitude and latitude). In addition, temperature data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the time and location of each SAGE measurement are averaged and shown in a similar format.

  20. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cimica, Velasco . E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-08-31

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

  1. SAGE: The Self-Adaptive Grid Code. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1999-01-01

    The multi-dimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, is an important tool in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It provides an efficient method to improve the accuracy of flow solutions while simultaneously reducing computer processing time. Briefly, SAGE enhances an initial computational grid by redistributing the mesh points into more appropriate locations. The movement of these points is driven by an equal-error-distribution algorithm that utilizes the relationship between high flow gradients and excessive solution errors. The method also provides a balance between clustering points in the high gradient regions and maintaining the smoothness and continuity of the adapted grid, The latest version, Version 3, includes the ability to change the boundaries of a given grid to more efficiently enclose flow structures and provides alternative redistribution algorithms.

  2. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  3. Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-07-15

    Proposed development of domestic energy resources, including wind energy, is expected to impact the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western United States. The greater sage-grouse relies on habitats within this ecosystem for survival, yet very little is known about how wind energy development may affect sage-grouse. The purpose of this report is to inform organizations of the impacts wind energy development could have on greater sage-grouse populations and identify information needed to fill gaps in knowledge.

  4. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  5. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  6. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  7. Neo-clerodane diterpenes from the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Osamu; Nagamatsu, Kumi; Sekita, Setsuko

    2006-12-01

    Seven new neo-clerodane diterpenes, salvidivins A (2), B, (3), C (4), and D (5), salvinorins H (6) and I (7), and divinatorin [corrected] F (8), along with eight known neo-clerodane diterpenes, salvinorins A (1)-F, divinatorins A and B, and seven other constituents, were isolated from the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR spectroscopic studies.

  8. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  9. SAGE II aerosol validation: selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Livingston, J M; Russell, P B; Pueschel, R F; Rosen, J N; Osborn, M T; Kritz, M A; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V

    1989-06-20

    Correlative aerosol measurements taken at a limited number of altitudes during coordinated field experiments are used to test the validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements taken by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II Sun photometer. In particular, results are presented from correlative measurement missions that were conducted during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986. Correlative sensors included impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers aboard an U-2-airplane, an upward pointing lidar aboard a P-3 airplane, and balloon-borne optical particle counters (dustsondes). The main body of this paper focuses on the July 29, 1986, validation experiment, which minimized the many difficulties (e.g., spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, imperfect coincidences) that can complicate the validation process. On this day, correlative aerosol measurements taken at an altitude of 20.5 km agreed with each other within their respective uncertainties, and particulate extinction values calculated at SAGE II wavelengths from these measurements validated corresponding SAGE II values. Additional validation efforts on days when measurement and logistical conditions were much less favorable for validation are discussed in an appendix.

  10. The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the multidimensional self-adaptive grid code SAGE. A two-dimensional version of this code was described in an earlier report by the authors. The formulation of the multidimensional version is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code and provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simplified input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The new SAGE code can accommodate both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow problems.

  11. Community Cognitive Screening Using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu Ing; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Yager-Schweller, Jennifer; Murden, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functionality of the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) for cognitive screening in community settings and examined its characteristics as a cognitive screening assessment tool. From 45 community events, 1,047 individuals over age 50 were screened with SAGE. Cognitive impairment was identified in 28%. Principal-component and correlation analysis indicate that SAGE is an internally-consistent test that is very well balanced, with language, cognition, visuospatial, executive, and memory domains. Community cognitive screening using SAGE was found to be feasible and efficient in diverse settings with both small and large groups.

  12. Renin lineage cells repopulate the glomerular mesangium after injury.

    PubMed

    Starke, Charlotte; Betz, Hannah; Hickmann, Linda; Lachmann, Peter; Neubauer, Björn; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel; Hohenstein, Bernd; Todorov, Vladimir T; Hugo, Christian P M

    2015-01-01

    Mesangial cell injury has a major role in many CKDs. Because renin-positive precursor cells give rise to mesangial cells during nephrogenesis, this study tested the hypothesis that the same phenomenon contributes to glomerular regeneration after murine experimental mesangial injury. Mesangiolysis was induced by administration of an anti-mesangial cell serum in combination with LPS. In enhanced green fluorescent protein-reporter mice with constitutively labeled renin lineage cells, the size of the enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive area in the glomerular tufts increased after mesangial injury. Furthermore, we generated a novel Tet-on inducible triple-transgenic LacZ reporter line that allowed selective labeling of renin cells along renal afferent arterioles of adult mice. Although no intraglomerular LacZ expression was detected in healthy mice, about two-thirds of the glomerular tufts became LacZ positive during the regenerative phase after severe mesangial injury. Intraglomerular renin descendant LacZ-expressing cells colocalized with mesangial cell markers α8-integrin and PDGF receptor-β but not with endothelial, podocyte, or parietal epithelial cell markers. In contrast with LacZ-positive cells in the afferent arterioles, LacZ-positive cells in the glomerular tuft did not express renin. These data demonstrate that extraglomerular renin lineage cells represent a major source of repopulating cells for reconstitution of the intraglomerular mesangium after injury.

  13. Novel routes of albumin passage across the glomerular filtration barrier.

    PubMed

    Castrop, H; Schießl, I M

    2017-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney diseases of various aetiologies and an unambiguous symptom of the compromised integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that albuminuria per se aggravates the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. This review covers new aspects of the movement of large plasma proteins across the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin by podocytes, which constitutes a new pathway of plasma proteins across the filtration barrier. Thus, we summarize what is known about the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis by podocytes and address the fate of the endocytosed albumin, which is directed to lysosomal degradation or transcellular movement with subsequent vesicular release into the urinary space. We also address the functional consequences of overt albumin endocytosis by podocytes, such as the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might eventually result in a deterioration of podocyte function. Finally, we consider the diagnostic potential of podocyte-derived albumin-containing vesicles in the urine as an early marker of a compromised glomerular barrier function. In terms of new technical approaches, the review covers how our knowledge of the movement of albumin across the glomerular filtration barrier has expanded by the use of new intravital imaging techniques.

  14. Biochemical and Cellular Determinants of Renal Glomerular Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Embry, Addie E.; Mohammadi, Hamid; Niu, Xinying; Liu, Liping; Moe, Borren; Miller-Little, William A.; Lu, Christopher Y.; Bruggeman, Leslie A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.; Janmey, Paul A.; Miller, R. Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The elastic properties of renal glomeruli and their capillaries permit them to maintain structural integrity in the presence of variable hemodynamic forces. Measured by micro-indentation, glomeruli have an elastic modulus (E, Young’s modulus) of 2.1 kPa, and estimates from glomerular perfusion studies suggest that the E of glomeruli is between 2 and 4 kPa. F-actin depolymerization by latrunculin, inhibition of acto-myosin contractility by blebbistatin, reduction in ATP synthesis, and reduction of the affinity of adhesion proteins by EDTA reduced the glomerular E to 1.26, 1.7, 1.5, and 1.43 kPa, respectively. Actin filament stabilization with jasplakinolide and increasing integrin affinity with Mg2+ increased E to 2.65 and 2.87 kPa, respectively. Alterations in glomerular E are reflected in commensurate changes in F/G actin ratios. Disruption of vimentin intermediate filaments by withaferin A reduced E to 0.92 kPa. The E of decellularized glomeruli was 0.74 kPa, indicating that cellular components of glomeruli have dominant effects on their elasticity. The E of glomerular basement membranes measured by magnetic bead displacement was 2.4 kPa. Podocytes and mesangial cells grown on substrates with E values between 3 and 5 kPa had actin fibers and focal adhesions resembling those of podocytes in vivo. Renal ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion reduced the E of glomeruli to 1.58 kPa. These results show that the E of glomeruli is between 2 and 4 kPa. E of the GBM, 2.4 kPa, is consistent with this value, and is supported by the behavior of podocytes and mesangial cells grown on variable stiffness matrices. The podocyte cytoskeleton contributes the major component to the overall E of glomeruli, and a normal E requires ATP synthesis. The reduction in glomerular E following ischemia and in other diseases indicates that reduced glomerular E is a common feature of many forms of glomerular injury and indicative of an abnormal podocyte cytoskeleton. PMID:27942003

  15. Changes in glomerular heparan sulfate in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Groggel, G. C.; Hovingh, P.; Border, W. A.; Linker, A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in glomerular anionic sites in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) in the rat are controversial. The authors examined glomerular anionic sites in PAN by in vivo staining with polyethyleneimine (PEI). They also quantitated and characterized glomerular heparan sulfate (HS), which is known to be a major glomerular polyanion in PAN, using in vivo incorporation of 35S-sulfate. PAN rats had a mean protein excretion of 96 +/- 23 mg per 24 hours. Staining of anionic sites with PEI showed 15.3 +/- 2.8 sites per 1000-nm length of glomerular basement membrane in controls, 13.7 +/- 1.9 sites in PAN rats (P greater than 0.05), and 50% of rats with early PAN had absent staining. Total 35S-sulfate incorporation was similar in both the controls and established PAN rats (2900 +/- 150 dpm/mg dry wt of glomeruli versus 3005 +/- 260, P greater than 0.05) but decreased in early PAN rats (2025 +/- 148). The percentage of 35S-sulfate incorporated into chondroitin sulfate was similar in all three groups of animals. HS uronic acid was also similar (1.8 +/- 0.2 g/mg dry wt of glomeruli versus 1.7 +/- 0.3, P greater than 0.05) but decreased in early PAN (1.1 +/- 0.2). The distribution of 35S-sulfate activity within the HS subfractions was examined by ion-exchange chromatography and showed a shift in percent present from 1.0 M to 1.25 M fraction in established and early PAN animals (control 1.0 M 37% +/- 3.2% versus PAN 19% +/- 3.4%, P less than 0.01, and 1.25 M 36% +/- 2.9% versus 53% +/- 2.9%, P less than 0.01). These results demonstrate that glomerular heparan sulfate is unchanged in established PAN but decreased in early PAN. SO4 incorporation is unchanged in established PAN and diminished in early PAN. Thus, early in PAN HS synthesis is impaired, but in established PAN the HS is normal, and changes in glomerular HS cannot explain the increased permeability. Images Figure 1 PMID:2443012

  16. Podocytes and glomerular function with aging.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jocelyn

    2009-11-01

    Kidney function declines with age in association with the development of age-associated glomerulosclerosis. The well-established structural and functional changes with age are reviewed briefly. The modification of aging pathology by calorie restriction is discussed. The role of the podocyte as a critical cell in the aging process is considered, using animal models and human biopsy material. Newer data on changes in gene expression and possible changes in biology in the glomerulus are discussed. There is speculation on the implications of this change in biology for human disease and progression.

  17. Glomerular Aging and Focal Global Glomerulosclerosis: A Podometric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Bitzer, Markus; Wickman, Larysa; Afshinnia, Farsad; Wang, Su Q; O'Connor, Christopher; Yang, Yan; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Kikuchi, Masao; Wiggins, Jocelyn E; Wiggins, Roger C

    2015-12-01

    Kidney aging is associated with an increasing proportion of globally scarred glomeruli, decreasing renal function, and exponentially increasing ESRD prevalence. In model systems, podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, suggesting age-associated glomerulosclerosis could be caused by a similar mechanism. We measured podocyte number, size, density, and glomerular volume in 89 normal kidney samples from living and deceased kidney donors and normal poles of nephrectomies. Podocyte nuclear density decreased with age due to a combination of decreased podocyte number per glomerulus and increased glomerular volume. Compensatory podocyte cell hypertrophy prevented a change in the proportion of tuft volume occupied by podocytes. Young kidneys had high podocyte reserve (podocyte density >300 per 10(6) µm(3)), but by 70-80 years of age, average podocyte nuclear density decreased to, <100 per 10(6) µm(3), with corresponding podocyte hypertrophy. In older age podocyte detachment rate (urine podocin mRNA-to-creatinine ratio) was higher than at younger ages and podocytes were stressed (increased urine podocin-to-nephrin mRNA ratio). Moreover, in older kidneys, proteinaceous material accumulated in the Bowman space of glomeruli with low podocyte density. In a subset of these glomeruli, mass podocyte detachment events occurred in association with podocytes becoming binucleate (mitotic podocyte catastrophe) and subsequent wrinkling of glomerular capillaries, tuft collapse, and periglomerular fibrosis. In kidneys of young patients with underlying glomerular diseases similar pathologic events were identified in association with focal global glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte density reduction with age may therefore directly lead to focal global glomerulosclerosis, and all progressive glomerular diseases can be considered superimposed accelerators of this underlying process.

  18. The effect of sage, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate on the quality of turkey meatballs stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2010-12-01

    1. The combined effect of sage (S), sodium erythorbate (SE), a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate (MIX) and vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4°C was investigated. The physicochemical properties (colour, MDA, AV, pH, water activity), microbiological quality characteristics (counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, fungi, coliforms and Clostridium sp.) and flavour attributes of meatballs were determined. 2. The values of the colour parameters L*, a* and b* were affected by the additives and packaging method. The colour of meatballs was better protected by sodium erythorbate than by sage or a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate. The additives effectively stabilised lipids against oxidation and slowed down hydrolytic changes in turkey meatballs. Sage and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate showed stronger antioxidant properties than sodium erythorbate added alone. Products with additives were characterised by better sensory quality than control samples. Sage and MIX prevented the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. All additives inhibited the growth of coliforms. 3. MAP was more effective than VP in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality stability of cooked turkey meatballs. However, VP appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in turkey meatballs.

  19. Compound effects of aging and experimental FSGS on glomerular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kutz, J. Nathan; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced age portends a poorer prognosis in FSGS. To understand the impact of age on glomerular podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs), experimental FSGS was induced in 3m-old mice (20-year old human age) and 27m-old mice (78-year old human age) by abruptly depleting podocytes with a cytopathic anti-podocyte antibody. Despite similar binding of the disease-inducing antibody, podocyte density was lower in aged FSGS mice compared to young FSGS mice. Activated PEC density was higher in aged versus young FSGS mice, as was the percentage of total activated PECs. Additionally, the percentage of glomeruli containing PECs with evidence of phosphorylated ERK and EMT was higher in aged FSGS mice. Extracellular matrix, measured by collagen IV and silver staining, was higher in aged FSGS mice along Bowman's capsule. However, collagen IV accumulation in the glomerular tufts alone and in glomeruli with both tuft and Bowman's capsule accumulation were similar in young FSGS and aged FSGS mice. Thus, the major difference in collagen IV staining in FSGS was along Bowman's capsule in aged mice. The significant differences in podocytes, PECs and extracellular matrixaccumulation between young mice and old mice with FSGS might explain the differences in outcomes in FSGS based on age. PMID:28222042

  20. Insulin directly stimulates VEGF-A production in the glomerular podocyte.

    PubMed

    Hale, L J; Hurcombe, J; Lay, A; Santamaría, B; Valverde, A M; Saleem, M A; Mathieson, P W; Welsh, G I; Coward, R J

    2013-07-15

    Podocytes are critically important for maintaining the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and preventing albuminuria. Recently, it has become clear that to achieve this, they need to be insulin sensitive and produce an optimal amount of VEGF-A. In other tissues, insulin has been shown to regulate VEGF-A release, but this has not been previously examined in the podocyte. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, in the present study, we now show that insulin regulates VEGF-A in the podocyte in both mice and humans via the insulin receptor (IR). Insulin directly increased VEGF-A mRNA levels and protein production in conditionally immortalized wild-type human and murine podocytes. Furthermore, when podocytes were rendered insulin resistant in vitro (using stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of the IR) or in vivo (using transgenic podocyte-specific IR knockout mice), podocyte VEGF-A production was impaired. Importantly, in vivo, this occurs before the development of any podocyte damage due to podocyte insulin resistance. Modulation of VEGF-A by insulin in the podocyte may be another important factor in the development of glomerular disease associated with conditions in which insulin signaling to the podocyte is deranged.

  1. Podocyte Number in Children and Adults: Associations with Glomerular Size and Numbers of Other Glomerular Resident Cells.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2015-09-01

    Increases in glomerular size occur with normal body growth and in many pathologic conditions. In this study, we determined associations between glomerular size and numbers of glomerular resident cells, with a particular focus on podocytes. Kidneys from 16 male Caucasian-Americans without overt renal disease, including 4 children (≤3 years old) to define baseline values of early life and 12 adults (≥18 years old), were collected at autopsy in Jackson, Mississippi. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and design-based stereology to estimate individual glomerular volume (IGV) and numbers of podocytes, nonepithelial cells (NECs; tuft cells other than podocytes), and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Podocyte density was calculated. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Glomeruli from children were small and contained 452 podocytes (IQR=335-502), 389 NECs (IQR=265-498), and 146 PECs (IQR=111-206). Adult glomeruli contained significantly more cells than glomeruli from children, including 558 podocytes (IQR=431-746; P<0.01), 1383 NECs (IQR=998-2042; P<0.001), and 367 PECs (IQR=309-673; P<0.001). However, large adult glomeruli showed markedly lower podocyte density (183 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3)) than small glomeruli from adults and children (932 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3); P<0.001). In conclusion, large adult glomeruli contained more podocytes than small glomeruli from children and adults, raising questions about the origin of these podocytes. The increased number of podocytes in large glomeruli does not match the increase in glomerular size observed in adults, resulting in relative podocyte depletion. This may render hypertrophic glomeruli susceptible to pathology.

  2. J D Bernal: the sage of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.

    2007-02-01

    John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971) was one of the most influential and original scientists of the twentieth century. No less an authority than James Watson has stated that Bernal's genius inspired the birth of molecular biology. By examining Bernal's interactions with others, I attempt to illustrate his personality, brilliance, breadth, foibles and essential humanity.

  3. Glomerular common gamma chain confers B- and T-cell-independent protection against glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Luque, Yosu; Cathelin, Dominique; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Xu, Xiaoli; Sohier, Julie; Placier, Sandrine; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Louis, Kevin; Hertig, Alexandre; Bories, Jean-Christophe; Vasseur, Florence; Campagne, Fabien; Di Santo, James P; Vosshenrich, Christian; Rondeau, Eric; Mesnard, Laurent

    2017-01-19

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a life-threatening renal disease that has been extensively studied by the experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) model. Although T cells have a significant role in this model, athymic/nude mice and rats still develop severe renal disease. Here we further explored the contribution of intrinsic renal cells in the development of T-cell-independent GN lesions. Anti-GBM-GN was induced in three strains of immune-deficient mice (Rag2(-/-), Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-), and Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-)) that are devoid of either T/B cells or T/B/NK cells. The Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) or Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-) mice harbor an additional deletion of either the common gamma chain (γC) or the interleukin-2 receptor β subunit (IL-2Rβ), respectively, impairing IL-15 signaling in particular. As expected, all these strains developed severe anti-GBM-GN. Additionally, bone marrow replenishment experiments allowed us to deduce a protective role for the glomerular-expressed γC during anti-GBM-GN. Given that IL-15 has been found highly expressed in nephritic kidneys despite the absence of lymphocytes, we then studied this cytokine in vitro on primary cultured podocytes from immune-deficient mice (Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) and Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-)) compared to controls. IL-15 induced downstream activation of JAK1/3 and SYK in primary cultured podocytes. IL-15-dependent JAK/SYK induction was impaired in the absence of γC or IL-2Rβ. We found γC largely induced on podocytes during human glomerulonephritis. Thus, renal lesions are indeed modulated by intrinsic glomerular cells through the γC/IL-2Rβ receptor response, to date classically described only in immune cells.

  4. Role of the glomerular-tubular imbalance with tubular predominance in the arterial hypertension pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fox, María Ofelia Barber; Gutiérrez, Ernesto Barber

    2013-09-01

    In previous investigations we caused renal tubular reabsorption preponderance relating to the glomerular filtration (Glomerular-tubular imbalance) and we observed that this fact conducted to volume expansion and development of arterial hypertension, in rats that previously were normotens. We based on this evidence and other which are reflected in the literature arrived at the following hypothesis: a greater proportion of tubular reabsorption relating to the filtered volume is the base of the establishment of the glomerular-tubular imbalance with tubular predominance (GTI-T), which favors to the Na(+)-fluid retention and volume expansion. All of which conduced to arterial hypertension. These facts explain a primary hypertensive role of the kidney, consistent with the results of renal transplants performed in different lines of hypertensive rats and their respective controls and in humans: hypertension can be transferred with the kidney. GTI-T aims to be, a common phenomenon involved in the hypertension development in the multiple ways which is manifested the hypertensive syndrome. In secondary hypertension, GTI-T is caused by significant disruptions of hormone secretions that control renal function, or obvious vascular or parenchymal damage of these organs. In primary hypertension the GTI-T has less obvious causes inherently developed in the kidney, including humoral, cellular and subcellular mechanisms, which may insidiously manifest under environmental factors influence, resulting in insidious development of hypertension. This would explain the state of prehypertension that these individuals suffer. So it has great importance to study GTI-T before the hypertension is established, because when hypertensive state is established, other mechanisms are installed and they contribute to maintain the hypertension. Our hypothesis may explaining the inability of the kidneys to excrete salt and water in hypertension, as Guyton and colleagues have expressed and constitutes a

  5. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft... Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment and Draft Environmental Impact... related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft RMP Amendment/Draft EIS by any of...

  6. 78 FR 59713 - Notice of Availability of the North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse (GRSG) Draft Resource....html . Email: blm_mt_nd_sage_grouse@blm.gov . Fax: 406-896-5293. Mail: BLM--North Dakota Greater...

  7. 78 FR 65701 - Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Northeastern California Sub-region Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the...

  8. 78 FR 70571 - Notice of Availability of the Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan Amendments and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ....DF0000.13XL1109AF.LXSISGST0000-HAG13-0282] Notice of Availability of the Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft... of Land Management (BLM) has prepared Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments...: You may submit comments related to the Oregon Greater Sage- Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS...

  9. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  10. Greater sage-grouse of Grand Teton National Park: where do they roam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Wetzel, W.C.; Holloran, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines may be caused by range-wide degradation of sagebrush (woody Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystems. Understanding how greater sage-grouse use the landscape is essential for successful management. We assessed greater sage-grouse habitat selection on a landscape level in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and radio-collared sage-grouse to compare habitat used and the total available landscape. Greater sage-grouse selected mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) communities or mixed mountain big sagebrush–antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities and avoided low-sagebrush (A. arbuscula) dwarf shrubland. In spring and summer, sage-grouse primarily used sagebrush-dominated habitats on the valley floor and did not concentrate in mesic areas later in the summer as is typical of the species. The diversity of habitats used in winter exceeds that reported in the literature. In winter, Jackson Hole greater sage-grouse moved to hills, where they used various communities in proportion to their availability, including tall deciduous shrublands, cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) stands, exposed hillsides, and aspen (P. tremuloides) stands. Because seasonal habitat selection is not necessarily consistent across populations residing in different landscapes, habitat management should be specific to each population and landscape. This sage-grouse population provides an example that may offer insight into other species with seasonal habitat needs.

  11. Using gas chromatography to determine winter diets of sage-grouse in Utah.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal and state agencies have recently intensified efforts to conserve existing sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat. Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) constitutes the majority (> 99%) of sage-grouse winter diets. The objective of our research was to determine if chemical analysis of fecal p...

  12. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  13. Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Smith, Philip; Zahorik, John

    The Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) is a statewide effort in Wisconsin to increase the academic achievement of children living in poverty by reducing the student-teacher ratio in kindergarten through third grade to 15:1. Schools participating in SAGE are also required to implement a rigorous curriculum, provide before- and…

  14. A comparison of two vegetation height measurement methods for applications to sage grouse habitat evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat has become a serious management issue for U.S. federal land agencies given competing land uses and ecological change across the American West. This drives a need for data collection in Sage-Grouse habitat to assess habitat c...

  15. SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a
    Macintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

  16. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  17. Nephrin Preserves Podocyte Viability and Glomerular Structure and Function in Adult Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuezhu; Chuang, Peter Y; D'Agati, Vivette D; Dai, Yan; Yacoub, Rabi; Fu, Jia; Xu, Jin; Taku, Oltjon; Premsrirut, Prem K; Holzman, Lawrence B; He, John Cijiang

    2015-10-01

    Nephrin is required during kidney development for the maturation of podocytes and formation of the slit diaphragm junctional complex. Because nephrin expression is downregulated in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin deficiency is considered a pathologic feature of glomerular injury. However, whether nephrin deficiency exacerbates glomerular injury in glomerular diseases has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we generated mice with inducible RNA interference-mediated nephrin knockdown. Short-term nephrin knockdown (6 weeks), starting after the completion of kidney development at 5 weeks of age, did not affect glomerular structure or function. In contrast, mice with long-term nephrin knockdown (20 weeks) developed mild proteinuria, foot process effacement, filtration slit narrowing, mesangial hypercellularity and sclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, subendothelial zone widening, and podocyte apoptosis. When subjected to an acquired glomerular insult induced by unilateral nephrectomy or doxorubicin, mice with short-term nephrin knockdown developed more severe glomerular injury compared with mice without nephrin knockdown. Additionally, nephrin-knockdown mice developed more exaggerated glomerular enlargement when subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and more podocyte apoptosis and depletion after doxorubicin challenge. AKT phosphorylation, which is a slit diaphragm-mediated and nephrin-dependent pathway in the podocyte, was markedly reduced in mice with long-term or short-term nephrin knockdown challenged with uninephrectomy or doxorubicin. Taken together, our data establish that under the basal condition and in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin is required to maintain slit diaphragm integrity and slit diaphragm-mediated signaling to preserve glomerular function and podocyte viability in adult mice.

  18. Glomerular Glucocorticoid Receptors Expression and Clinicopathological Types of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Yasser; Badawy, Ahlam; Swelam, Salwa; Tawfeek, Mostafa S K; Gad, Eman Fathalla

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are primary therapy of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, not all children respond to steroid therapy. We assessed glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in fifty-one children with INS and its relation to response to steroid therapy and to histopathological type. Clinical, laboratory and glomerular expression of glucocorticoid receptors were compared between groups with different steroid response. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was slightly higher in controls than in minimal change early responders, which in turn was significantly higher than in minimal change late responders. There was significantly lower glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in steroid-resistance compared to early responders, late responders and controls. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was significantly higher in all minimal change disease (MCD) compared to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In INS, response to glucocorticoid is dependent on glomerular expression of receptors and peripheral expression. Evaluation of glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression at time of diagnosis of NS can predict response to steroid therapy.

  19. Cell biology of mesangial cells: the third cell that maintains the glomerular capillary.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hidetake; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2017-03-01

    The renal glomerulus consists of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells, which cooperate with each other for glomerular filtration. We have produced monoclonal antibodies against glomerular cells in order to identify different types of glomerular cells. Among these antibodies, the E30 clone specifically recognizes the Thy1.1 molecule expressed on mesangial cells. An injection of this antibody into rats resulted in mesangial cell-specific injury within 15 min, and induced mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a reproducible manner. We examined the role of mesangial cells in glomerular function using several experimental tools, including an E30-induced nephritis model, mesangial cell culture, and the deletion of specific genes. Herein, we describe the characterization of E30-induced nephritis, formation of the glomerular capillary network, mesangial matrix turnover, and intercellular signaling between glomerular cells. New molecules that are involved in a wide variety of mesangial cell functions are also introduced.

  20. Comparison of SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles: Implications for ozone trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Miles, T.; Flynn, L. E.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone profiles have been compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II profiles over the period October 1984 through June 1990, when data are available from both instruments. SBUV measurements were selected to closely match the SAGE II latitude/longitude measurement pattern. There are significant differences between the SAGE II sunrise and the sunset zonal mean ozone profiles in the equatorial zone, particularly in the upper stratosphere, that may be connected with extreme SAGE II solar azimuth angles for tropical sunrise measurements. Calculation of the average sunset bias between SBUV and SAGE II ozone profiles shows that allowing for diurnal variation in Umkehr layer 10, SBUV and SAGE II agree to within +/- 5% for the entire stratosphere in the northern midlatitude zone. The worst agreement is seen at southern midlatitudes near the ozone peak (disagreements of +/- 10%), apparently the result of the SBUV ozone profile peaking at a lower altitude than SAGE. The integrated ozone columns (cumulative above 15 km) agree very well, to within +/- 2.3% in all zones for both sunset and sunrise measurements. A comparison of the time dependence of SBUV and SAGE II shows that there was less than +/- 5% relative drift over the 5.5 years for all altitudes except below 25 km, where the SBUV vertical resolution is poor. The best agreement with SAGE is seen in the integrated column ozone (cumulative above 15 km), where SAGE II has a 1% negative trend relative to SBUV over the comparison period. There is a persistent disagreement of the two instruments in Umkehr layers 9 and 10 of +/- 4% over the 5.5-year comparison period. In the equatorial zone this disagreement may be caused in part by a large positive trend (0.8 K per year) in the National Meteorologica Center temperatures used to convert the SAGE II measurement of ozone density versus altitude to a pressure scale for comparison with SBUV. In the middle stratosphere (30

  1. Estimating glomerular number: why we do it and how.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F

    2013-11-01

    There is currently much interest in determining the number of glomeruli, and thereby nephrons, in the kidney. Researchers have been trying to count glomeruli since the 19th century and currently four general approaches are available: (i) acid maceration; (ii) counting glomerular profiles in histological sections; (iii) model-based stereology; and (iv) design-based stereology. Although design-based stereological methods are generally considered the gold-standard method, all current methods have limitations. A new approach using magnetic resonance imaging has recently been described and may ultimately enable glomerular imaging and quantification in vivo. This report considers the advantages and disadvantages of current methods for counting glomeruli and describes the new magnetic resonance approach. In addition, a method for counting glomeruli in developing kidneys is described.

  2. Developing criteria for reclamation of sage grouse habitat on a surface coal mine in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Colenso, B.E.; Boyce, M.S.; Tate, J. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a Western game bird, known to depend heavily on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, hereafter called sagebrush) for both food and cover. It is generally acknowledged that sagebrush eradication programs have taken a toll on sage grouse populations throughout much of their range. It is conceivable that further population declines may result from surface mining and other land use changes, unless essential habitat components for this species are determined. A program can then be developed to restore habitat suitable to the sage grouse following mining. This study is designed to define seasonal changes in sage grouse habitat selection, and to identify the characteristics of crucial habitat. Special attention has been given to habitat use during critical periods, such as wintering and nesting times. This will allow one to suggest which habitat features should be emphasized during reclamation in order to benefit sage grouse.

  3. Headspace screening: A novel approach for fast quality assessment of the essential oil from culinary sage.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs.

  4. Services for the Analysis of the Greenland Environment (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S.; Gallaher, D. W.; Khalsa, S. S.; Duerr, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    While there continues to be compelling observational evidence for increased surface melting and rapid thinning along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet, there are still uncertainties with respect to estimates of mass balance of Greenland's ice sheet as a whole. To better understand the dynamics of these issues, it is important for scientists to have access to a variety of datasets from multiple sources, and to be able to integrate and analyze the data. To address this need, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has the Services for the Analysis of the Greenland Environment (SAGE). Using an integrated workspace approach, a researcher has the ability to find relevant data and perform various analysis functions on the data, as well as retrieve the data and analysis results. Data from various sources, such as AMSR-E and AVHRR datasets, can be analyzed individually through various time-series plots and aggregation functions; or they can be analyzed together with scatterplots or overlaid time-series plots to provide quick and useful results to support various research products. Built on top of NSIDC's Searchlight engine, the SAGE interface gives users access to much of NSIDC's relevant Greenland raster data holdings, as well as data from several outside sources. Additionally, various web services provide access for other clients to utilize the functionality that the SAGE interface provides. Combined, these methods of accessing the tool allow scientists the ability to devote more of their time to their research, and less on trying to find and retrieve the data they need.

  5. Pottels Equation for Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate.

    PubMed

    Barman, Himesh; Bisai, Samiran; Das, Bipul Kumar; Nath, Chandan Kumar; Duwarah, Sourabh Gohain

    2017-01-15

    The retrospective study was carried out to examine performance of Pottels height- independent equation compared to Schwartzs height-dependent equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate in 115 children in Indian setting. The Pottels equation performed well compared to updated Schwartz equation (R2=0.94, mean bias 0.25, 95% LOA=20.4, -19.9). The precision was better at lower range of estimated GFR.

  6. The Kinetics of Glomerular Deposition of Nephritogenic IgA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Kenji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Satake, Kenji; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Whether IgA nephropathy is attributable to mesangial IgA is unclear as there is no correlation between intensity of deposits and extent of glomerular injury and no clear mechanism explaining how these mesangial deposits induce hematuria and subsequent proteinuria. This hinders the development of a specific therapy. Thus, precise events during deposition still remain clinical challenge to clarify. Since no study assessed induction of IgA nephropathy by nephritogenic IgA, we analyzed sequential events involving nephritogenic IgA from IgA nephropathy-prone mice by real-time imaging systems. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that serum IgA from susceptible mice had strong affinity to mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial lesions, with effacement/actin aggregation in podocytes and arcade formation in endothelial cells. The deposits disappeared 24-h after single IgA injection. The data were supported by a fluorescence molecular tomography system and real-time and 3D in vivo imaging. In vivo imaging showed that IgA from the susceptible mice began depositing along the glomerular capillary from 1 min and accumulated until 2-h on the first stick in a focal and segmental manner. The findings indicate that glomerular IgA depositions in IgAN may be expressed under the balance between deposition and clearance. Since nephritogenic IgA showed mesangial as well as focal and segmental deposition along the capillary with acute cellular activation, all glomerular cellular elements are a plausible target for injury such as hematuria. PMID:25409466

  7. Diabetes modulates the expression of glomerular kinin receptors.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Julie; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2002-12-01

    The localization of kinin receptors within the kidney implicates this system in the regulation of glomerular hemodynamics. We reported that diabetes alters the activity of the renal kallikrein-kinin system, and that these alterations contribute to the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. The present study examined the influence of diabetes on the expression of glomerular B1 and B2-kinin receptors, and assessed the cellular signaling of kinin receptor activation. Rats made diabetic with streptozocin (85 mg/kg), displayed plasma glucose levels in the range of 350-500 mg/dl. At 3, 7, and 21 days, B1 and B2-kinin receptor mRNA levels were measured in isolated glomeruli from control and diabetic rats by RT-PCR. Glomeruli revealed a differential pattern of expression between the two kinin receptors. The constitutively expressed B2-receptor was increased three-fold at day 3, but returned to normal levels at day 7; whereas, the inducible B1-receptor was maximally expressed (20-fold) at day 7 and remained elevated (10-fold) at day 21. To test whether the induction of kinin receptors by diabetes translates into increased responsiveness, we measured mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation (p42, p44) in glomeruli isolated from control and diabetic rats stimulated with B1-receptor agonist (des-Arg9-bradykinin, 10(-8) M). A three-fold increase in phosphorylation of MAPK was observed in response to B1-receptor agonist challenge in glomeruli isolated form diabetic rats compared to controls. These findings demonstrate for the first time that glomerular kinin receptors are induced by diabetes, and provide a rationale to study the contribution of these receptors to the development of glomerular injury in diabetes.

  8. Controversies on glomerular filtration from Ludwig to the present.

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, M; Endlich, K

    1996-01-01

    Since Ludwig's theory of filtration in the glomerulus is generally accepted, current research interest has focussed on the regulation of this process. The main determinants of glomerular filtration rate are glomerular capillary pressure and glomerular blood flow, which are adjusted via resistance changes in the pre- and postglomerular vasculature. Overall pre- and postglomerular resistances were first determined by micropuncture in superficial glomeruli. While the predominant source of postglomerular resistance is the efferent arteriole, several results indicate that preglomerular resistance might be rather uniformly distributed among all preglomerular vessels (interlobar, arcuate and interlobular arteries and afferent arterioles). Over the last decade, several techniques have been used to visualize renal vessels and to study the action of various vasoactive hormones thereon. Results obtained with the split hydronephrotic kidney model, which permits in vivo microscopy of all renal vessels, provide evidence for a differential regulation of the various preglomerular vessels by vasoactive hormones. In particular, mediators of inflammation almost selectively constrict interlobar and arcuate arteries. We conclude that, given the renal vascular architecture, differential regulation of preglomerular vessels can alter haemodynamic parameters specifically for different nephron populations.

  9. Shh-proteoglycan interactions regulate maturation of olfactory glomerular circuitry.

    PubMed

    Persson, Laura; Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan; Greer, Paul L; Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Datta, Sandeep R; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-12-01

    The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (Shh(Ala/Ala)), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature Shh(Ala/Ala) mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry.

  10. Shh-Proteoglycan Interactions Regulate Maturation of Olfactory Glomerular Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Laura; Witt, Rochelle M.; Galligan, Meghan; Greer, Paul L.; Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Datta, Sandeep R.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (ShhAla/Ala), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature ShhAla/Ala mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry. PMID:24913191

  11. A single-injection method for measuring glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Guyton, A C; Farr, B M

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been developed that is based on an analysis of the total area under the plasma radioactivity-time curve after a single intravenous injection of [125I]iothalamate. Glomerular filtration rates obtained by this method (method A) and those obtained with two widely used single-injection techniques, the slope-intercept method (method B), and the two-compartment method (method C), were compared with GFRs obtained by standard inulin clearance techniques in 14 dogs. Method B consistently over. estimated inulin clearances more than 30%. Method C also overestimated inulin clearance considerably in dogs with an increased extracellular fluid volume, but was fairly reliable in normal dogs. Glomerular filtration rates obtained by the new method (method A) were in excellent agreement with inulin clearances in all dogs, regardless of the state of body hydration. The mean inulin clearance for all 14 experiments was 72.7+/-6.0 SE ml/min, while GFRs obtained by method A averaged 75.1+/-6.0 ml/min. The data from this study suggest that method A is a reliable means for estimating GFR that is especially useful in chronic experiments.

  12. Intravital imaging of podocyte calcium in glomerular injury and disease

    PubMed Central

    Burford, James L.; Villanueva, Karie; Lam, Lisa; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Hackl, Matthias J.; Pippin, Jeffrey; Shankland, Stuart J.; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling mediates physiological and pathological processes in multiple organs, including the renal podocyte; however, in vivo podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics are not fully understood. Here we developed an imaging approach that uses multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to directly visualize podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics within the intact kidneys of live mice expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator only in these cells. [Ca2+]i was at a low steady-state level in control podocytes, while Ang II infusion caused a minor elevation. Experimental focal podocyte injury triggered a robust and sustained elevation of podocyte [Ca2+]i around the injury site and promoted cell-to-cell propagating podocyte [Ca2+]i waves along capillary loops. [Ca2+]i wave propagation was ameliorated by inhibitors of purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling as well as in animals lacking the P2Y2 purinergic receptor. Increased podocyte [Ca2+]i resulted in contraction of the glomerular tuft and increased capillary albumin permeability. In preclinical models of renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, high podocyte [Ca2+]i correlated with increased cell motility. Our findings provide a visual demonstration of the in vivo importance of podocyte [Ca2+]i in glomerular pathology and suggest that purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling is a robust and key pathogenic mechanism in podocyte injury. This in vivo imaging approach will allow future detailed investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of glomerular disease in the intact living kidney. PMID:24713653

  13. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  14. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew J; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  16. Glomerular nitrite synthesis in in situ immune complex glomerulonephritis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, H. T.; Sullivan, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrite (NO2-) is the major end product of nitric oxide (NO) production in cell culture. The authors have examined nitrite production by glomeruli in in situ immune complex glomerulonephritis in the rat. Glomerulonephritis was induced by unilateral renal perfusion of cationized human gamma G immunoglobulin (IgG) in preimmunized rats. NO2- was measured in culture supernatants of isolated glomeruli after 48 hours. NO2- was produced by nephritic glomeruli with a maximum 4 days after induction of glomerulonephritis (24.4 +/- 11.4 pmol/glomerulus/48 hours). Production was increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 micrograms/ml) (54 +/- 4.9 pmol/glomerulus; P less than 0.001). NO2- production was inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine demonstrating synthesis through NO. Dexamethasone (10(-7) mol/l [molar]) reduced LPS-stimulated production by peritoneal macrophages and nephritic glomeruli (P less than 0.01). Macrophages isolated from nephritic glomeruli produced NO2- (4.9 +/- 0.6 nmols/10(5) cells). The production of NO by nephritic glomeruli has implications for mechanisms of glomerular injury and glomerular hemodynamics. The effect of dexamethasone may explain in part the ameliorative effect of steroids in glomerulonephritis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1951626

  17. A reassessment of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Spinale, Joann M; Mariani, Laura H; Kapoor, Shiv; Zhang, Jidong; Weyant, Robert; Song, Peter X; Wong, Hetty N; Troost, Jonathan P; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Gipson, Debbie S; Kretzler, Matthias; Nihalani, Deepak; Holzman, Lawrence B

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is a causative circulating factor for and a biomarker of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we undertook validation of these assumptions in both mouse and human models. Injection of recombinant suPAR in wild-type mice did not induce proteinuria within 24 h. Moreover, a disease phenotype was not seen in an inducible transgenic mouse model that maintained elevated suPAR concentrations for 6 weeks. Plasma and urine suPAR concentrations were evaluated as clinical biomarkers in 241 patients with glomerular disease from the prospective, longitudinal multicenter observational NEPTUNE cohort. The serum suPAR concentration at baseline inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine suPAR/creatinine ratio positively correlated with the urine protein/creatinine ratio. After adjusting for eGFR and urine protein, neither the serum nor urine suPAR level was an independent predictor of FSGS histopathology. A multivariable mixed-effects model of longitudinal data evaluated the association between the change in serum suPAR concentration from baseline with eGFR. After adjusting for baseline suPAR concentration, age, gender, proteinuria, and time, the change in suPAR from baseline was associated with eGFR, but this association was not different for patients with FSGS as compared with other diagnoses. Thus these results do not support a pathological role for suPAR in FSGS.

  18. Correlation of disease activity in proliferative glomerulonephritis with glomerular spleen tyrosine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Stephen P; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Page, Theresa; Cook, H Terence; Pusey, Charles D; Tam, Frederick W K

    2015-07-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is an important component of the intracellular signaling pathway for various immunoreceptors. Inhibition of SYK has shown promise in preclinical models of autoimmune and glomerular disease. However, the description of SYK expression in human renal tissue, which would be desirable ahead of clinical studies, is lacking. Here we conducted immunohistochemical analysis for total and phosphorylated SYK in biopsy specimens from >120 patients with a spectrum of renal pathologies, including thin basement membrane lesion, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and acute tubular necrosis. We found significant SYK expression in proliferative glomerulonephritis and that glomerular expression levels correlated with presenting serum creatinine and histological features of disease activity that predict outcome in IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, and antiglomerular basement membrane disease. SYK was phosphorylated within pathological lesions, such as areas of extracapillary and endocapillary proliferation, and appeared to localize to both infiltrating leucocytes and to resident renal cells within diseased glomeruli. Thus SYK is associated with the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritides, suggesting that these conditions may respond to SYK inhibitor treatment.

  19. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity.

  20. Glomerular membranopathy in children with IgA nephropathy and Henoch Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Vogler, C; Eliason, S C; Wood, E G

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated renal biopsies from 34 children with IgA nephropathy or Henoch Schönlein purpura to further characterize the ultrastructural features of the glomerular membranopathy that occurs in these disorders. Focal glomerular basement membrane damage was identified in 29 children and was severe in 4 of the children. Alterations included focal and segmental attenuation, splitting, duplications, and spike-like subepithelial protrusions of the lamina densa, along with saccular glomerular microaneurysms arising at the paramesangium. Those cases with extensive glomerular basement membrane lesions had either moderate or severe glomerular alterations apparent by light microscopy. Over half of the cases with glomerular membranopathy had immunohistological or ultrastructural evidence of focal peripheral glomerular capillary wall immune deposits and electron-dense deposits occurred at sites of glomerular basement membrane splitting. Despite the focal attenuation of the glomerular basement membrane, we did not identify any biopsy with findings of thin basement membrane disease. The glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural findings we describe are characteristic of IgA nephropathy and Henoch Schönlein purpura, are common in children with these disorders, and are similar to the ultrastructural alterations of the basement membrane that occur in other glomerulonephritides. These basement membrane injuries may be inflammatory cell or immune mediated but their pathogenesis requires further study.

  1. SAGE III on ISS Lessons Learned on Thermal Interface Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument - the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere - is currently scheduled for delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2016. The Instrument Adapter Module (IAM), one of many SAGE III subsystems, continuously dissipates a considerable amount of thermal energy during mission operations. Although a portion of this energy is transferred via its large radiator surface area, the majority must be conductively transferred to the ExPRESS Payload Adapter (ExPA) to satisfy thermal mitigation requirements. The baseline IAM-ExPA mechanical interface did not afford the thermal conductance necessary to prevent the IAM from overheating in hot on-orbit cases, and high interfacial conductance was difficult to achieve given the large span between mechanical fasteners, less than stringent flatness specifications, and material usage constraints due to strict contamination requirements. This paper will examine the evolution of the IAM-ExPA thermal interface over the course of three design iterations and will include discussion on design challenges, material selection, testing successes and failures, and lessons learned.

  2. Nest Success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado, USA

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Amy J.; Phillips, Michael L.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of concern for which little demographic information exists. To help fill this information gap, we investigated factors affecting nest success in two populations of Gunnison Sage-Grouse. We assessed the relative effects of (1) vegetation characteristics (e.g., shrub height, shrub cover, grass cover, and grass height), (2) temporal factors (e.g., year, timing of incubation initiation, and nest age), (3) precipitation, and (4) age of the nesting female (yearling or adult) on nest success rates. We found 177 nests in the Gunnison Basin population (that contains 85–90% of the species) from 2005–2010 and 20 nests in the San Miguel population (that contains < 10% of the species) from 2007–2010. Temporal factors had the greatest impact on nest success compared to vegetation characteristics, precipitation, and female age. Nest success varied considerably among years ranging from 4.0%-60.2% in Gunnison Basin and from 12.9%- 51.9% in San Miguel. Nests that were initiated earlier in the breeding season had higher nest success (at least one egg hatches). Daily nest survival rates decreased during the course of incubation. None of the vegetation characteristics we examined were strongly related to nest success. PMID:26287996

  3. Nest Success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy J; Phillips, Michael L; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of concern for which little demographic information exists. To help fill this information gap, we investigated factors affecting nest success in two populations of Gunnison Sage-Grouse. We assessed the relative effects of (1) vegetation characteristics (e.g., shrub height, shrub cover, grass cover, and grass height), (2) temporal factors (e.g., year, timing of incubation initiation, and nest age), (3) precipitation, and (4) age of the nesting female (yearling or adult) on nest success rates. We found 177 nests in the Gunnison Basin population (that contains 85-90% of the species) from 2005-2010 and 20 nests in the San Miguel population (that contains < 10% of the species) from 2007-2010. Temporal factors had the greatest impact on nest success compared to vegetation characteristics, precipitation, and female age. Nest success varied considerably among years ranging from 4.0%-60.2% in Gunnison Basin and from 12.9%- 51.9% in San Miguel. Nests that were initiated earlier in the breeding season had higher nest success (at least one egg hatches). Daily nest survival rates decreased during the course of incubation. None of the vegetation characteristics we examined were strongly related to nest success.

  4. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  5. X-Linked Alport Dogs Demonstrate Mesangial Filopodial Invasion of the Capillary Tuft as an Early Event in Glomerular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sabrina D.; Nabity, Mary B.; Cianciolo, Rachel E.; Dufek, Brianna; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Background X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS), caused by mutations in the type IV collagen COL4A5 gene, accounts for approximately 80% of human Alport syndrome. Dogs with XLAS have a similar clinical progression. Prior studies in autosomal recessive Alport mice demonstrated early mesangial cell invasion as the source of laminin 211 in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), leading to proinflammatory signaling. The objective of this study was to verify this process in XLAS dogs. Methods XLAS dogs and WT littermates were monitored with serial clinicopathologic data and kidney biopsies. Biopsies were obtained at set milestones defined by the onset of microalbuminuria (MA), overt proteinuria, onset of azotemia, moderate azotemia, and euthanasia. Kidney biopsies were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results XLAS dogs showed progressive decrease in renal function and progressive increase in interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis (based on light microscopy and immunostaining for fibronectin). The only identifiable structural abnormality at the time of microalbuminuria was ultrastructural evidence of mild segmental GBM multilamination, which was more extensive when overt proteinuria developed. Co-localization studies showed that mesangial laminin 211 and integrin α8β1 accumulated in the GBM at the onset of overt proteinuria and coincided with ultrastructural evidence of mild cellular interpositioning, consistent with invasion of the capillary loops by mesangial cell processes. Conclusion In a large animal model, the induction of mesangial filopodial invasion of the glomerular capillary loop leading to the irregular deposition of laminin 211 is an early initiating event in Alport glomerular pathology. PMID:27959966

  6. Comparative modeling of combined transport of water and graded-size molecules across the glomerular capillary wall.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mageed, Samir M; Mohamed, Ehab I

    2016-04-07

    Chronic kidney disease is a common and growing problem worldwide that necessitates recognition of individual risk and appropriate laboratory testing before its progression to end-stage renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation for survival. Clearance studies using various graded-size probe molecules established that the passage of molecules/proteins across the glomerular capillary barrier of mammalian kidneys is increasingly restricted as their size increase. Few mathematical models were developed to describe the dynamics of the size-selective functions of macromolecules across membranes and gelatins. In the present study, we compare the behavior of three mathematical descriptions for the Fiber Matrix theory, an Extended Fiber Matrix theory, and an Alternative Statistical Physics analysis to describe the size-selective function of the glomerular capillary barrier; using mainly its hemodynamic, morphometric and hydrodynamic variables; in two experimental rat models. The glomerular basement membrane was represented as a homogeneous three-dimensional network of fibers of uniform length (Lf), radius (Rf), total fractional solid volume of fibers (Vf) and characteristic Darcy permeability. The models were appropriate for simulating in vivo fractional clearance data of neutral Dextran and Ficoll macromolecules from two experimental rat models. We believe that the Lf, Rf and Vf best-fit numerical values may signify new insights for the diagnosis of human nephropathies.

  7. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 deletion ameliorates glomerular injury in mice with ACTN4-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Read, Naomi C; Gutsol, Alex; Holterman, Chet E; Carter, Anthony; Coulombe, Josée; Gray, Douglas A; Kennedy, Chris R J

    2014-07-01

    Renal ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is upregulated in a subset of human glomerulopathies, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), where it may serve to promote ubiquitin pools for degradation of cytotoxic proteins. In the present study, we tested whether UCHL1 is expressed in podocytes of a mouse model of ACTN4-associated FSGS. Podocyte UCHL1 protein was detected in glomeruli of K256E-ACTN4(pod+)/UCHL1+/+ mice. UCHL1+/- mice were intercrossed with K256E-ACTN4(pod+) mice and monitored for features of glomerular disease. 10-week-old K256E-ACTN4(pod+)/UCHL1-/- mice exhibited significantly ameliorated albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, tubular pathology and blood pressure. Interestingly, while UCHL1 deletion diminished both tubular and glomerular apoptosis, WT1-positive nuclei were unchanged. Finally, UCHL1 levels correlated positively with poly-ubiquitinated proteins but negatively with K256E-α-actinin-4 levels, implying reduced K256E-α-actinin-4 proteolysis in the absence of UCHL1. Our data suggest that UCHL1 upregulation in ACTN4-associated FSGS fuels the proteasome and that UCHL1 deletion may impair proteolysis and thereby preserve K256E/wt-α-actinin-4 heterodimers, maintaining podocyte cytoskeletal integrity and protecting the glomerular filtration barrier.

  8. Preliminary analysis of Greater Sage-grouse reproduction in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Lockyer, Zachary B.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Sweeney, Joelle M.; Johnson, Valerie M.; Meshriy, Matthew G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Delehanty, David J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between habitat selection and population vital rates of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse), recently designated as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act, within the Great Basin are not well-understood. The growing development of renewable energy infrastructure within areas inhabited by sage-grouse is thought to influence predator and vegetation communities. For example, common ravens (Corvus corax), a synanthropic sage-grouse nest predator, are increasing range-wide and select transmission lines and other tall structures for nesting and perching. In the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, we collected preliminary information of space-use, habitat selection, and population vital rates during the nesting and brood-rearing period over two years on 56 sage-grouse. Additionally, videography at nest sites (n = 22) was used to identify sage-grouse nest predators. The study area is a potential site for renewable energy developments (i.e., wind and solar), and we plan to continue monitoring this population using a before-after-control-impact study design. The results reported here are preliminary and further data are required before conclusions can be drawn from this population of sage-grouse.

  9. Metformin-like effect of Salvia officinalis (common sage): is it useful in diabetes prevention?

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Azevedo, Marisa F; Araujo, Rita; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2006-08-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is among the plants that are claimed to be beneficial to diabetic patients, and previous studies have suggested that some of its extracts have hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic animals. In the present study, we aimed to verify the antidiabetic effects of an infusion (tea) of common sage, which is the most common form of this plant consumed. Replacing water with sage tea for 14 d lowered the fasting plasma glucose level in normal mice but had no effect on glucose clearance in response to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. This indicated effects on gluconeogenesis at the level of the liver. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from healthy, sage-tea-drinking rats showed, after stimulation, a high glucose uptake capacity and decreased gluconeogenesis in response to glucagon. Essential oil from sage further increased hepatocyte sensitivity to insulin and inhibited gluconeogenesis. Overall, these effects resemble those of the pharmaceutical drug metformin, a known inhibitor of gluconeogenesis used in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes isolated from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, none of these activities was observed. The present results seem to indicate that sage tea does not possess antidiabetic effects at this level. However, its effects on fasting glucose levels in normal animals and its metformin-like effects on rat hepatocytes suggest that sage may be useful as a food supplement in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by lowering the plasma glucose of individuals at risk.

  10. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  11. Comparison of different normalization strategies for the analysis of glomerular microRNAs in IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bockmeyer, Clemens L.; Säuberlich, Karen; Wittig, Juliane; Eßer, Marc; Roeder, Sebastian S.; Vester, Udo; Hoyer, Peter F.; Agustian, Putri A.; Zeuschner, Philip; Amann, Kerstin; Daniel, Christoph; Becker, Jan U.

    2016-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have been used for normalization in glomerular microRNA (miRNA) quantification without confirmation of validity. Our aim was to identify glomerular reference miRNAs in IgA nephropathy. We compared miRNAs in human paraffin-embedded renal biopsies from patients with cellular-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; crescentic IgA-GN) and non-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; IgA-GN) to mild interstitial nephritis without glomerular abnormalities (controls, n = 5). Laser-microdissected glomeruli were used for expression profiling of 762 miRNAs by low-density TaqMan arrays (cards A and B). The comparison of different normalization methods (GeNormPlus, NormFinder, global mean and snoRNAs) in crescentic IgA-GN, IgA-GN and controls yielded similar results. However, levels of significance and the range of relative expression differed. In median, two normalization methods demonstrated similar results. GeNormPlus and NormFinder gave different top ranked reference miRNAs. Stability ranking for snoRNAs varied between cards A and B. In conclusion, we suggest the geometric mean of the most stable reference miRNAs found in GeNormPlus (miR-26b-5p), NormFinder (miR-28-5p) and snoRNAs (RNU44) as reference. It should be considered that significant differences could be missed using one particular normalization method. As a starting point for glomerular miRNA studies in IgA nephropathy we provide a library of miRNAs. PMID:27553688

  12. Image analyser as a tool for the study of in vitro glomerular vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, B; Potier, M; L'Azou, B; Cambar, J

    1994-12-01

    Many drugs used in clinics can dramatically reduce renal hemodynamics. For some years there have been developed in our laboratory two in vitro glomerular models, isolated glomeruli and mesangial cell cultures, to quantitate, by video image analyzer, the direct glomerular effect of vasoreactive agents. The present study shows the vasoconstrictive effects of angiotensin II and cyclosporin in both models and compares their glomerular vasoconstriction with or without vasodilating agents such as verapamil. This drug-induced glomerular vasoreactivity is time- and dose-dependent; moreover, it can be reversible after perfusion in control conditions. The interest of these in vitro glomerular models is validated by fair correlations between in vivo and in vitro data and between the responses of both. These models can be considered as tools for assessing glomerular vasoreactivity of nephrotoxic agents.

  13. Development of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for the Sage Sparrow on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Mitigation threshold guidelines for the Hanford Site are based on habitat requirements of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli) and only apply to areas with a mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) overstory and a native understory. The sage sparrow habitat requirements are based on literature values and are not specific to the Hanford Site. To refine these guidelines for the Site, a multi-year study was undertaken to quantify habitat characteristics of sage sparrow territories. These characteristics were then used to develop a habitat suitability index (HSI) model which can be used to estimate the habitat value of specific locations on the Site.

  14. A comparative study of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAM II and SAGE are two satellite experiments designed to measure stratospheric aerosol extinction using the technique of solar occultation or limb extinction. Although each sensor is mounted aboard a different satellite, there are occasions when their measurement locations are nearly coincident, thereby providing opportunities for a measurement comparison. In this paper, the aerosol extinction profiles and daily contour plots for some of these events in 1979 are reported. The comparisons shown in this paper demonstrate that SAM II and SAGE are producing similar aerosol extinction profiles within their measurement errors and that since SAM II has been previously validated, these results show the validity of the SAGE aerosol measurements.

  15. SuperSAGE evidence for CD14++CD16+ monocytes as a third monocyte subset.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Adam M; Rogacev, Kyrill S; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Marell, Rolf-R; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H

    2011-09-22

    Monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population with subset-specific functions and phenotypes. The differential expression of CD14 and CD16 distinguishes classical CD14(++)CD16(-), intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+), and nonclassical CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes. Current knowledge on human monocyte heterogeneity is still incomplete: while it is increasingly acknowledged that CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes are of outstanding significance in 2 global health issues, namely HIV-1 infection and atherosclerosis, CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes remain the most poorly characterized subset so far. We therefore developed a method to purify the 3 monocyte subsets from human blood and analyzed their transcriptomes using SuperSAGE in combination with high-throughput sequencing. Analysis of 5 487 603 tags revealed unique identifiers of CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes, delineating these cells from the 2 other monocyte subsets. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggests diverse immunologic functions, linking CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes to Ag processing and presentation (eg, CD74, HLA-DR, IFI30, CTSB), to inflammation and monocyte activation (eg, TGFB1, AIF1, PTPN6), and to angiogenesis (eg, TIE2, CD105). In conclusion, we provide genetic evidence for a distinct role of CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes in human immunity. After CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes have earlier been discussed as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases, we are hopeful that our data will spur further research in the field of monocyte heterogeneity.

  16. Minor compensatory changes in SAGE Mdr1a (P-gp), Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats do not detract from their utility in the study of transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Goldstein, Keith M; Paulman, April; Baker, Thomas K; Ryan, Timothy P

    2013-06-01

    Mdr1a-, Bcrp-, and Mrp2-knockout rats are a more practical species for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies than murine models and previously demonstrated expected alterations in the pharmacokinetics of various probe substrates. At present, gene expression and pathology changes were systematically studied in the small intestine, liver, kidney, and brain tissue from male SAGE Mdr1a, Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats versus wild-type Sprague-Dawley controls. Gene expression data supported the relevant knockout genotype. As expected, Mrp2 knockout rats were hyperbilirubinemic and exhibited upregulation of hepatic Mrp3. Overall, few alterations were observed within 112 ADME-relevant genes. The two potentially most consequential changes were upregulation of intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockouts and catechol-O-methyltransferase in all tissues of Bcrp knockout rats. Previously reported upregulation of hepatic Mdr1b P-glycoprotein in proprietary Wistar Mdr1a knockout rats was not observed in the SAGE counterpart investigated herein. Relative liver and kidney weights were 22-53% higher in all three knockouts, with microscopic increases in hepatocyte size in Mdr1a and Mrp2 knockout rats and glomerular size in Bcrp and Mrp2 knockouts. Increased relative weight of clearing organs is quantitatively consistent with reported increases in the clearance of drugs that are not substrates of the knocked-out transporter. Overall, SAGE knockout rats demonstrated modest compensatory changes, which do not preclude their general application to study transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics. However, until future studies elucidate the magnitude of functional change, caution is warranted in rare instances of extensive metabolism by catechol-O-methyltransferase in Bcrp knockouts and intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockout rats, specifically for molecules with free catechol groups and esters subject to gut-wall hydrolysis.

  17. Ultrastructural model for size selectivity in glomerular filtration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A; Daniels, B S; Deen, W M

    1999-06-01

    A theoretical model was developed to relate the size selectivity of the glomerular barrier to the structural characteristics of the individual layers of the capillary wall. Thicknesses and other linear dimensions were evaluated, where possible, from previous electron microscopic studies. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was represented as a homogeneous material characterized by a Darcy permeability and by size-dependent hindrance coefficients for diffusion and convection, respectively; those coefficients were estimated from recent data obtained with isolated rat GBM. The filtration slit diaphragm was modeled as a single row of cylindrical fibers of equal radius but nonuniform spacing. The resistances of the remainder of the slit channel, and of the endothelial fenestrae, to macromolecule movement were calculated to be negligible. The slit diaphragm was found to be the most restrictive part of the barrier. Because of that, macromolecule concentrations in the GBM increased, rather than decreased, in the direction of flow. Thus the overall sieving coefficient (ratio of Bowman's space concentration to that in plasma) was predicted to be larger for the intact capillary wall than for a hypothetical structure with no GBM. In other words, because the slit diaphragm and GBM do not act independently, the overall sieving coefficient is not simply the product of those for GBM alone and the slit diaphragm alone. Whereas the calculated sieving coefficients were sensitive to the structural features of the slit diaphragm and to the GBM hindrance coefficients, variations in GBM thickness or filtration slit frequency were predicted to have little effect. The ability of the ultrastructural model to represent fractional clearance data in vivo was at least equal to that of conventional pore models with the same number of adjustable parameters. The main strength of the present approach, however, is that it provides a framework for relating structural findings to the size

  18. Intravital imaging of podocyte calcium in glomerular injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Burford, James L; Villanueva, Karie; Lam, Lisa; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Hackl, Matthias J; Pippin, Jeffrey; Shankland, Stuart J; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2014-05-01

    Intracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺]i) signaling mediates physiological and pathological processes in multiple organs, including the renal podocyte; however, in vivo podocyte [Ca²⁺]i dynamics are not fully understood. Here we developed an imaging approach that uses multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to directly visualize podocyte [Ca²⁺]i dynamics within the intact kidneys of live mice expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator only in these cells. [Ca²⁺]i was at a low steady-state level in control podocytes, while Ang II infusion caused a minor elevation. Experimental focal podocyte injury triggered a robust and sustained elevation of podocyte [Ca²⁺]i around the injury site and promoted cell-to-cell propagating podocyte [Ca²⁺]i waves along capillary loops. [Ca²⁺]i wave propagation was ameliorated by inhibitors of purinergic [Ca²⁺]i signaling as well as in animals lacking the P2Y2 purinergic receptor. Increased podocyte [Ca²⁺]i resulted in contraction of the glomerular tuft and increased capillary albumin permeability. In preclinical models of renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, high podocyte [Ca²⁺]i correlated with increased cell motility. Our findings provide a visual demonstration of the in vivo importance of podocyte [Ca²⁺]i in glomerular pathology and suggest that purinergic [Ca²⁺]i signaling is a robust and key pathogenic mechanism in podocyte injury. This in vivo imaging approach will allow future detailed investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of glomerular disease in the intact living kidney.

  19. Renal function and glomerular hemodynamics in male endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Lugon, J R; Boim, M A; Ramos, O L; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1989-10-01

    The renal effects of a single intravenous dose of two different E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS 0111:B4 and LPS 0127:B8), at the same dose of 100 micrograms/kg, were evaluated in euvolemic Munich-Wistar (MW) rats by whole kidney clearance techniques and micropuncture studies. Following LPS infusion, a significant decrease (8%) in mean BP was observed only in the LPS 0127:B8 treated group. Inulin clearance fell 57% (LPS 0111:B4), P less than 0.01, and 38% (LPS 0127:B8), P less than 0.01. Para-aminohippuric (PAH) clearance decreased 31% (P less than 0.01) and total effective renal vascular resistance rose 70% (P less than 0.03) in response to LPS 0111:B4. No significant change in PAH clearance was noted in the LPS 0127:B8 group. Superficial single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) was reduced 69% (LPS 0111:B4), P less than 0.03, and 33% (LPS 0127:B8), P less than 0.02. Superficial glomerular plasma flow fell 48% (LPS 0111:B4), P less than 0.03, and 24% (LPS 0127:B8), P less than 0.03. Both lipopolysaccharides were associated with an increase in afferent arteriolar resistance (RA) which accounted for a reduction in the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure (PGC). There was no change in the proximal tubular pressure in either group and, therefore, the net transcapillary hydraulic pressures were reduced. No measurable change in the ultrafiltration coefficient. Kf, was observed in either group. In a second set of protocols, the effect of prior administration of indomethacin or captopril on LPS 0111:B4 action was investigated. A significant decrease in BP occurred when animals were pretreated with captopril. Both indomethacin and captopril prevented the renal effects of LPS 0111:B4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Mechanisms responsible for decreased glomerular filtration in hibernation and hypothermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tempel, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.; Jones, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, red blood cell and plasma volumes, and relative distribution of cardiac output were made on hibernating and hypothermic adult male and female golden hamsters weighing 120-140 g to study the mechanisms underlying the elimination or marked depression of renal function in hibernation and hypothermia. The results suggest that the elimination or marked depression in renal function reported in hibernation and hypothermia may partly be explained by alterations in cardiovascular system function. Renal perfusion pressure which decreases nearly 60% in both hibernation and hypothermia and a decrease in plasma volume of roughly 35% in the hypothermic animal might both be expected to markedly alter glomerular function.

  1. New Insights into Podocyte Biology in Glomerular Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Assady, Suheir; Wanner, Nicola; Skorecki, Karl L; Huber, Tobias B

    2017-04-12

    Podocyte and glomerular research is center stage for the development of improved preventive and therapeutic strategies for chronic progressive kidney diseases. Held April 3-6, 2016, the 11th International Podocyte Conference took place in Haifa and Jerusalem, Israel, where participants from all over the world presented their work on new developments in podocyte research. In this review, we briefly highlight the advances made in characterizing the mechanisms involved in podocyte development, metabolism, acquired injury, and repair, including progress in determining the roles of genetic variants and microRNA in particular, as well as the advances made in diagnostic techniques and therapeutics.

  2. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Glassock, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease usually pursues a self-limited course, at least from the immunological perspective. In addition, circulating antibodies to cryptic, conformational epitopes within the NC1 domain of the alpha 3 chain of Type IV Collagen are commonly found at the zenith of the clinical disease. However, exceptions to these general rules do occur, as exemplified by two remarkable cases reported in this issue of the Clinical Kidney Journal. The possible explanations for and the lessons learned from these uncommon occurrences are discussed in this short commentary. PMID:27679709

  3. Glomerular Dynamic Studies of the Pathogenesis of Acute Renal Failure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-30

    IAD-A174 113 GLOMERULAR DYNAMIC STUDIES OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANOTE 1/1 RENAL FAILURE(U) VIRGINIA COMNWEALTH UNIV RICHMOND I D E OKEN 3e JUN 84...8217i1 . d /or 1 Special June 30, 1984 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract...values might be underestimated by tubular inulin leakage if measured in the customary fashion.) Nephron filtration fraction was estimated from the

  4. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  5. Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Dodd, Fiona L; Robertson, Bernadette C; Okello, Edward J; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Haskell, Crystal F

    2011-08-01

    Extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis/lavandulaefolia) with terpenoid constituents have previously been shown to inhibit cholinesterase and improve cognitive function. The current study combined an in vitro investigation of the cholinesterase inhibitory properties and phytochemical constituents of a S. lavandulaefolia essential oil, with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study assessing the effects of a single dose on cognitive performance and mood. In this latter investigation 36 healthy participants received capsules containing either 50 µL of the essential oil or placebo on separate occasions, 7 days apart. Cognitive function was assessed using a selection of computerized memory and attention tasks and the Cognitive Demand Battery before the treatment and 1-h and 4-h post-dose. The essential oil was a potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and consisted almost exclusively of monoterpenoids. Oral consumption lead to improved performance of secondary memory and attention tasks, most notably at the 1-h post-dose testing session, and reduced mental fatigue and increased alertness which were more pronounced 4-h post-dose. These results extend previous observations of improved cognitive performance and mood following AChE inhibitory sage extracts and suggest that the ability of well-tolerated terpenoid-containing extracts to beneficially modulate cholinergic function and cognitive performance deserves further attention.

  6. Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    PubMed Central

    Blickley, Jessica L.; Word, Karen R.; Krakauer, Alan H.; Phillips, Jennifer L.; Sells, Sarah N.; Taff, Conor C.; Wingfield, John C.; Patricelli, Gail L.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals in many species avoid areas exposed to chronic anthropogenic noise, but the impact of noise on those who remain in these habitats is unclear. One potential impact is chronic physiological stress, which can affect disease resistance, survival and reproductive success. Previous studies have found evidence of elevated stress-related hormones (glucocorticoids) in wildlife exposed to human activities, but the impacts of noise alone are difficult to separate from confounding factors. Here we used an experimental playback study to isolate the impacts of noise from industrial activity (natural gas drilling and road noise) on glucocorticoid levels in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species of conservation concern. We non-invasively measured immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites from fecal samples (FCMs) of males on both noise-treated and control leks (display grounds) in two breeding seasons. We found strong support for an impact of noise playback on stress levels, with 16.7% higher mean FCM levels in samples from noise leks compared with samples from paired control leks. Taken together with results from a previous study finding declines in male lek attendance in response to noise playbacks, these results suggest that chronic noise pollution can cause greater sage-grouse to avoid otherwise suitable habitat, and can cause elevated stress levels in the birds who remain in noisy areas. PMID:23185627

  7. Precise DOA Estimation Using SAGE Algorithm with a Cylindrical Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Masaki; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Ohgane, Takeo

    A uniform circular array (UCA) is a well-known array configuration which can accomplish estimation of 360° field of view with identical accuracy. However, a UCA cannot estimate coherent signals because we cannot apply the SSP owing to the structure of UCA. Although a variety of studies on UCA in coherent multipath environments have been done, it is impossible to estimate the DOA of coherent signals with different incident polar angles. Then, we have proposed Root-MUSIC algorithm with a cylindrical array. However, the estimation performance is degraded when incident signals arrive with close polar angles. To solve this problem, in the letter, we propose to use SAGE algorithm with a cylindrical array. Here, we adopt a CLA Root-MUSIC for the initial estimation and decompose two-dimensional search to double one-dimensional search to reduce the calculation load. The results show that the proposal achieves high resolution with low complexity.

  8. The SOLAS air-sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Mike J.; Law, Cliff S.; Smith, Murray J.; Hall, Julie A.; Abraham, Edward R.; Stevens, Craig L.; Hadfield, Mark G.; Ho, David T.; Ward, Brian; Archer, Stephen D.; Cainey, Jill M.; Currie, Kim I.; Devries, Dawn; Ellwood, Michael J.; Hill, Peter; Jones, Graham B.; Katz, Dave; Kuparinen, Jorma; Macaskill, Burns; Main, William; Marriner, Andrew; McGregor, John; McNeil, Craig; Minnett, Peter J.; Nodder, Scott D.; Peloquin, Jill; Pickmere, Stuart; Pinkerton, Matthew H.; Safi, Karl A.; Thompson, Rona; Walkington, Matthew; Wright, Simon W.; Ziolkowski, Lori A.

    2011-03-01

    The SOLAS air-sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) was a multiple-objective study investigating gas-transfer processes and the influence of iron fertilisation on biologically driven gas exchange in high-nitrate low-silicic acid low-chlorophyll (HNLSiLC) Sub-Antarctic waters characteristic of the expansive subpolar zone of the southern oceans. This paper provides a general introduction and summary of the main experimental findings. The release site was selected from a pre-voyage desktop study of environmental parameters to be in the south-west Bounty Trough (46.5°S 172.5°E) to the south-east of New Zealand and the experiment was conducted between mid-March and mid-April 2004. In common with other mesoscale iron addition experiments (FeAX's), SAGE was designed as a Lagrangian study, quantifying key biological and physical drivers influencing the air-sea gas exchange processes of CO 2, DMS and other biogenic gases associated with an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom. A dual tracer SF 6/ 3He release enabled quantification of both the lateral evolution of a labelled volume (patch) of ocean and the air-sea tracer exchange at tenths of kilometer scale, in conjunction with the iron fertilisation. Estimates from the dual-tracer experiment found a quadratic dependency of the gas exchange coefficient on windspeed that is widely applicable and describe air-sea gas exchange in strong wind regimes. Within the patch, local and micrometeorological gas exchange process studies (100 m scale) and physical variables such as near-surface turbulence, temperature microstructure at the interface, wave properties and windspeed were quantified to further assist the development of gas exchange models for high-wind environments. There was a significant increase in the photosynthetic competence ( Fv/ Fm) of resident phytoplankton within the first day following iron addition, but in contrast to other FeAX's, rates of net primary production and column-integrated chlorophyll a concentrations had

  9. Application of SAGE III inversion algorithm to SALOMON measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazureau, A.; Brogniez, Colette; Renard, J.-B.

    2001-01-01

    The SAGE II, whose first flight is planned to be launched in Winter 2000-2001 on the polar orbit spacecraft METEOR 3M, is a part of NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS). A preliminary outcome for the LOA inversion has been obtained for resolved channel for the retrieval of daytime and nighttime constituents such as O3, NO2, NO3, OCIO and aerosols, with good quality, from simulated transmission profiles. An opportunity for testing the inversion algorithm on real measurements is offered by the SALOMON team of the LPCE to validate the method. The purpose of this paper is to present the LOA inversion of SALOMON real measurements, performed in February 2000 from Kiruna, Sweden. The retrieved gas densities and aerosol extinction profiles are compared to the corresponding retrieved values by the SALOMON team.

  10. Glomerular interactions in olfactory processing channels of the antennal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Heinbockel, Thomas; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Reisenman, Carolina E.

    2014-01-01

    An open question in olfactory coding is the extent of interglomerular connectivity: do olfactory glomeruli and their neurons regulate the odorant responses of neurons innervating other glomeruli? In the olfactory system of the moth Manduca sexta, the response properties of different types of antennal olfactory receptor cells are known. Likewise, a subset of antennal lobe glomeruli has been functionally characterized and the olfactory tuning of their innervating neurons identified. This provides a unique opportunity to determine functional interactions between glomeruli of known input, specifically, (1) glomeruli processing plant odors and (2) glomeruli activated by antennal stimulation with pheromone components of conspecific females. Several studies describe reciprocal inhibitory effects between different types of pheromone-responsive projection neurons suggesting lateral inhibitory interactions between pheromone component-selective glomerular neural circuits. Furthermore, antennal lobe projection neurons that respond to host plant volatiles and innervate single, ordinary glomeruli are inhibited during antennal stimulation with the female’s sex pheromone. The studies demonstrate the existence of lateral inhibitory effects in response to behaviorally significant odorant stimuli and irrespective of glomerular location in the antennal lobe. Inhibitory interactions are present within and between olfactory subsystems (pheromonal and non-pheromonal subsystems), potentially to enhance contrast and strengthen odorant discrimination. PMID:23893248

  11. Regression of glomerular injury by losartan in experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Teles, Flávio; Machado, Flávia G; Ventura, Bianca H; Malheiros, Denise M A C; Fujihara, Clarice K; Silva, Luís F F; Zatz, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Many features of chronic kidney disease may be reversed, but it is unclear whether advanced lesions, such as adhesions of sclerotic glomerular tufts to Bowman's capsule (synechiae), can resolve during treatment. We previously showed, using a renal ablation model, that the renoprotective effect of the AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, is dose-dependent. Here we determined if moderate and advanced glomerular lesions, associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, regress with conventional or high-dose losartan treatment. Using daily insulin injection for 10 months, we maintained diabetic adult male Munich-Wistar rats in a state of moderate hyperglycemia. Following this period, some rats continued to receive insulin with or without conventional or high-dose losartan for an additional 2 months. Diabetic rats pretreated with insulin for 10 months and age-matched non-diabetic rats served as controls. Mesangial expansion was found in the control diabetic rats and was exacerbated in those rats maintained on only insulin for an additional 2 months. Conventional and high-dose losartan treatments reduced this mesangial expansion and the severity of synechiae lesions below that found prior to treatment; however, the frequency of the latter was unchanged. There was no dose-response effect of losartan. Our results show that regression of mesangial expansion and contraction of sclerotic lesions is feasible in the treatment of diabetes, but complete resolution of advanced glomerulosclerosis may be hard to achieve.

  12. Ultrastructural organization of contractile proteins in rat glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Drenckhahn, D.; Schnittler, H.; Nobiling, R.; Kriz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells of the rat kidney contain actin, nonmuscle myosin, tropomyosin, and the muscular Z-line protein, alpha-actinin. This was shown for actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin by immunoblotting as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Tropomyosin was localized in mesangial cells by immunofluorescence. In cultured mesangial cells, actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin constitute a considerable amount of the total cellular protein contents. In mesangial cells in situ actin, myosin and alpha-actinin were found to be colocalized within conspicuous microfilament bundles that traverse the cell body or major processes in various directions and project into either the tonguelike pericapillary processes, which run toward mesangial angles, or into the microvilluslike lateral extensions that abut on the perimesangial portion of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Thereby, the GBM of opposing mesangial angles as well as of opposing portions of the perimesangial GBM are regularly interconnected by filament bundles within mesangial cells that contain actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin. The authors suggest that the major function of actin-, myosin-, and alpha-actinin-containing filament bundles in mesangial cells is to create an isometric tension (or minute isotonic contractions) to counteract the distending forces of the rather high intracapillary hydraulic pressure and its resulting pressure gradients across the capillary wall and across the perimesangial GBM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2260624

  13. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  14. Etiopathology of chronic tubular, glomerular and renovascular nephropathies: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    López-Novoa, José M; Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Ortiz, Alberto; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; López Hernández, Francisco J

    2011-01-20

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) comprises a group of pathologies in which the renal excretory function is chronically compromised. Most, but not all, forms of CKD are progressive and irreversible, pathological syndromes that start silently (i.e. no functional alterations are evident), continue through renal dysfunction and ends up in renal failure. At this point, kidney transplant or dialysis (renal replacement therapy, RRT) becomes necessary to prevent death derived from the inability of the kidneys to cleanse the blood and achieve hydroelectrolytic balance. Worldwide, nearly 1.5 million people need RRT, and the incidence of CKD has increased significantly over the last decades. Diabetes and hypertension are among the leading causes of end stage renal disease, although autoimmunity, renal atherosclerosis, certain infections, drugs and toxins, obstruction of the urinary tract, genetic alterations, and other insults may initiate the disease by damaging the glomerular, tubular, vascular or interstitial compartments of the kidneys. In all cases, CKD eventually compromises all these structures and gives rise to a similar phenotype regardless of etiology. This review describes with an integrative approach the pathophysiological process of tubulointerstitial, glomerular and renovascular diseases, and makes emphasis on the key cellular and molecular events involved. It further analyses the key mechanisms leading to a merging phenotype and pathophysiological scenario as etiologically distinct diseases progress. Finally clinical implications and future experimental and therapeutic perspectives are discussed.

  15. Primary cilia disappear in rat podocytes during glomerular development.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Koichiro; Kurihara, Hidetake; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    Most tubular epithelial cell types express primary cilia, and mutations of primary-cilium-associated proteins are well known to cause several kinds of cystic renal disease. However, until now, it has been unclear whether mammalian podocytes express primary cilia in vivo. In this study, we determined whether primary cilia are present in the podocytes of rat immature and mature glomeruli by means of transmission electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. In immature glomeruli of fetal rats, podocytes express the primary cilia with high percentages at the S-shaped body (88 +/- 5%, n = 3), capillary loop (95 +/- 4%, n = 4), and maturing glomerulus (76 +/- 13%, n = 5) stages. The percentage of ciliated podocytes was significantly lower at the maturing glomerulus stage than at the former two stages. In mature glomeruli of adult rats, ciliated podocytes were not found at all (0 +/- 0%, n = 11). These findings indicate that the primary cilia gradually disappear in rat podocytes during glomerular development. Since glomerular filtration rate increases during development, the primary cilia on the podocytes are subjected to a stronger bending force. Thus, the disappearance of the primary cilia presumably prevents the entry of excessive calcium-ions via the cilium-associated polycystin complexes and the disturbance of intracellular signaling cascades in mature podocytes.

  16. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow-injection fingerprints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The...

  17. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Sage-grouse habitat assessment framework: multi-scale habitat assessment tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides policymakers, resource managers, and specialists with a comprehensive framework for assessing sage-grouse habitat in the sagebrush ecosystem. Four pillars form the foundation for the success of this approach: science, effective conservation policy, implementation, and adapti...

  19. Fire Effects on Cover and Dietary Resources of Sage-grouse Habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescribed fire in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) steppe to enhance habitat characteristics for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus Bonaparte), a sagebrush obligate species, has been a subject of increased research emphasis and management concern. We evaluated early successio...

  20. Validation of Ozone Profiles Retrieved from SAGE III Limb Scatter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F.; Taha, Ghassan

    2007-01-01

    Ozone profiles retrieved from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) limb scatter measurements are compared with correlative measurements made by occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III and HALOE [Halogen Occultation Experiment]), a limb scatter instrument (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System [OSIRIS]) and a series of ozonesondes and lidars, in order to ascertain the accuracy and precision of the SAGE III instrument in limb scatter mode. The measurement relative accuracy is found to be 5-10% from the tropopause to about 45km whereas the relative precision is found to be less than 10% from 20 to 38km. The main source of error is height registration uncertainty, which is found to be Gaussian with a standard deviation of about 350m.

  1. Sage in vitro cultures: a promising tool for the production of bioactive terpenes and phenolic substances.

    PubMed

    Marchev, Andrey; Haas, Christiane; Schulz, Sibylle; Georgiev, Vasil; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas; Pavlov, Atanas

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Salvia species are used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. The economic importance of this genus has increased in recent years due to evidence that some of its secondary metabolites have valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties.The bioactivity of sage extracts is mainly due to their content of terpenes and polyphenols. The increasing demand for sage products combined with environmental, ecological and climatic limitations on the production of sage metabolites from field-grown plants have led to extensive investigations into biotechnological approaches for the production of Salvia phytochemicals. The purpose of this review is to evaluate recent progress in investigations of sage in vitro systems as tools for producing important terpenoids and polyphenols and in development of methods for manipulating regulatory processes to enhance secondary metabolite production in such systems.

  2. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  3. An analysis of preliminary SAGE II data on ozone and NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, D. A.

    Zonal mean mixing ratios of ozone and NO2 measured by SAGE II on several days in March and April, 1985 are compared against zonal means for this time of year previously measured by SAGE I, SBUV, and LIMS. After allowing for calculated diurnal variations of these gases, agreement within 15 percent is found for ozone and 20 percent for NO2. It is noted that the profile error bars given on the SAGE II data tapes need to be carefully interpreted and that the measured tropical variances suggest that these error bars are being somewhat overestimated. Planetary waves in both ozone and NO2 in the middle stratosphere should be derivable from the SAGE II measurements.

  4. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  5. Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakane, Hideaki; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Hayashida-Amano, Sachiko; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Minato, Atsushi; Mccormick, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Ozone profiles obtained with the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (Tsukuba, Japan) were compared with data provided by the satellite sensor SAGE II. The SAGE II data were selected based on criteria of spatial and temporal differences between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements: five degrees in latitude and 15 degrees in longitude, within a latitudinal band from 31 deg to 41 deg N, and within one, three and five days after or before the DIAL measurements. Results show very good agreement for the individual and the zonal-mean profiles. The average mean difference between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements over the altitudes 15-50 km was about 10 percent.

  6. A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Winker, D. M.; Osborn, M. T.; Skeens, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II satellite experiment measures the extinction due to aerosols and thin cloud, at wavelengths of 0.525 and 1.02 micrometers, down to an altitude of 6 km. The wavelength dependence of the extinction due to aerosols differs from that of the extinction due to cloud and is used as the basis of a model for separating these two components. The model is presented and its validation using airborne lidar data, obtained coincident with SAGE II observations, is described. This comparison shows that smaller SAGE II cloud extinction values correspond to the presence of subvisible cirrus cloud in the lidar record. Examples of aerosol and cloud data products obtained using this model to interpret SAGE II upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric data are also shown.

  7. The Use of Sage Water Vapor Data for Investigating Climate Change Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    2003-01-01

    SAGE water vapor data has proven valuable for addressing several of the important issues in climate change research. It has been used to investigate how the upper troposphere water vapor responds to warming and convection, a key question in understanding the water vapor feedback to anthropogenic global warming. In the case of summer versus winter differences, SAGE results showed that the upper tropospheric relative humidity remained approximately constant; this result was in general agreement with how a GCM handled the seasonal difference, and gave credence to the argument that the GCM was not overestimating the water vapor feedback associated with convection. In addition, the convection-water vapor relationship was investigated further using SAGE water vapor and ISCCP cloud data. The results showed that upper tropospheric drying did appear to occur simultaneously with deep convective events in the tropics, only to be replaced by moistening a few hours later, associated (most likely) with the reevaporation of moisture from anvil clouds. The total effect was, again, a moistening of the upper troposphere associated with convection. Calculation of the actual trends in upper tropospheric moisture is a potential goal for SAGE data usage; trends calculated with radiosonde data, or instruments calibrated with radiosonde data have the problem of the effect of changing radiosonde instruments. SAGE data have in effect been used to compare different radiosondes through comparisons, and could continue to do so. SAGE 3 should also help clarify the absolute accuracy of SAGE retrievals in the troposphere. and its consequences. Model results show that water vapor increases can help explain the observations of stratospheric cooling, along with increasing C02 and ozone reduction. SAGE has been shown to provide trends similar to those of some other satellite and in situ retrievals, with increasing water vapor over time. However, SAGE is impacted by aerosol contamination which must be

  8. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal we evaluated measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosols from three platforms. Two were satellite platforms providing solar extinction measurements, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II using wavelengths from 0.386 - 1.02 microns, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) using wavelengths from 2.45 to 5.26 microns. The third set of measurements was from in situ sampling by balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs). The goal was to determine the consistency among these data sets. This was accomplished through analysis of the existing measurement records, and through additional balloonborne OPC flights coinciding with new SAGE II observations over Laramie, Wyoming. All analyses used the SAGE II v 6.0 data. This project supported two balloon flights per year over Laramie dedicated to SAGE II coincidence. Because logistical factors, such as poor surface weather or unfavorable payload impact location, can make it difficult to routinely obtain close coincidences with SAGE II, we attempt to conduct nearly every Laramie flight (roughly one per month) in conjunction with a SAGE II overpass. The Laramie flight frequency has varied over the years depending on field commitments and funding sources. Current support for the Laramie measurements is from the National Science Foundation in addition to support from this NASA grant. We have also completed a variety of comparisons using aerosol measurements from SAGE II, OPCs, and HALOE. The instruments were compared for their various estimates of aerosol extinction at the SAGE II wavelengths and for aerosol surface area. Additional results, such as illustrated here, can be found in a recently accepted manuscript describing comparisons between SAGE II, HALOE, and OPCs for the period 1982 - 2000. While overall, the impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement of the measurements changes with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense

  9. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  10. SAGE III Educational Outreach and Student's On-Line Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. C.; Moore, S. W.; Walters, S. C.

    2002-05-01

    Students On-Line Atmospheric Research (SOLAR) is a NASA-sponsored educational outreach program aimed at raising the level of interest in science among elementary, middle, and high school students. SOLAR is supported by, and closely linked to, NASA's Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). SAGE III, launched on a Russian METEOR 3M spacecraft in December 2001, is a key component of NASA's Earth Observing System. It will monitor the quantity and distribution of aerosols, ozone, clouds, and other important trace gases in the upper atmosphere. Early data from SAGE III indicate that the instrument is performing as expected. SAGE III measurements will extend the long-term data record established by its predecessors, SAGE I and SAGE II, which spans from 1979 to the present. In addition, SAGE III's added measurement capabilities will provide more detailed data on certain atmospheric species. SOLAR selects interesting topics related to the science issues addressed by the SAGE III experiments, and develops educational materials and projects to enhance science teaching, and to help students realize the relevance of these issues to our lives on Earth. For example, SOLAR highlights some of the major questions regarding the health of the atmosphere such as possible influences of aerosols on global climate, and atmospheric processes related to ozone depletion. The program features projects to give students hands-on experience with scientific equipment and help develop skills in collecting, analyzing, and reporting science results. SOLAR focuses on helping teachers become familiar with current research in the atmospheric sciences, helping teachers integrate SOLAR developed educational materials into their curriculum. SOLAR gives special presentations at national and regional science teacher conferences and conducts a summer teacher workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center. This poster will highlight some of the key features of the SOLAR program and will present

  11. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  12. 78 FR 2539 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species' critical habitat. The effect of this regulation is to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse......

  13. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Pratt, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  14. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  15. Public policy issues. A Southern California Gas Company project SAGE report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Hirsberg, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The use of solar energy to stretch our supplies of fossil fuels was investigated. Project SAGE (semi-automated ground environment) addresses itself to one application of this goal, solar assistance in central water heating systems for multifamily projects. Public policy issues that affect the rate of adoption of solar energy systems were investigated and policy actions were offered to accelerate the adoption of SAGE and other solar energy systems.

  16. Utilization requirements. A southern California Gas Company project SAGE report: Utilization requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Schoen, R.; Hirshberg, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Utilization requirements are given and comparisons made of two phase III SAGE (solar assisted gas energy) installations in California: (1) a retrofit installation in an existing apartment building in El Toro, and (2) an installation in a new apartment building in Upland. Such testing in the field revealed the requirements to be met if SAGE-type installations are to become commercially practical on a widespread basis in electric and gas energy usage.

  17. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, M.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Suring, L.H.; Meinke, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella species. This shortcut approach assumes that managing habitats to conserve sage-grouse will simultaneously benefit other species of conservation concern. The efficacy of using sage-grouse as an umbrella species for conservation management, however, has not been fully evaluated. We tested that concept by comparing: (1) commonality in land-cover associations, and (2) spatial overlap in habitats between sage-grouse and 39 other sagebrush-associated vertebrate species of conservation concern in the Great Basin ecoregion. Overlap in species' land-cover associations with those of sage-grouse, based on the ?? (phi) correlation coefficient, was substantially greater for sagebrush obligates (x??=0.40) than non-obligates (x??=0.21). Spatial overlap between habitats of target species and those associated with sage-grouse was low (mean ?? = 0.23), but somewhat greater for habitats at high risk of displacement by cheatgrass (mean ?? = 0.33). Based on our criteria, management of sage-grouse habitats likely would offer relatively high conservation coverage for sagebrush obligates such as pygmy rabbit (mean ?? = 0.84), but far less for other species we addressed, such as lark sparrow (mean ?? = 0.09), largely due to lack of commonality in land-cover affinity and geographic ranges of these species and sage-grouse.

  18. Selected US building industry processes and characteristics. A Project SAGE report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Schoen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Selected multifamily processes were examined using a primarily graphic approach to clarify some of the operational modes into which Project SAGE (solar-assisted gas energy) must fit, both as a product and a process in the U.S. building industry. What SAGE must have or do in order to fit the building industry in the short term, that is, the multifamily submarket as it is presently configured, is delineated.

  19. DeepSAGE: higher sensitivity and multiplexing of samples using a simpler experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2008-01-01

    Combining serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) with pyrophosphatase-based ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing provides increased sensitivity and cost-effective gene expression profiling. The combined techniques obviate the formation and cloning of concatemers and the tedious picking and preparation of sequence templates from bacterial clones that are necessary with SAGE alone. Furthermore, multiplexing of samples or replicates of analysis is included in the experimental design.

  20. Glomerular IgG deposition predicts renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Beom Jin; Han, In Mi; Han, Seung Gyu; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Glomerular IgG deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy. However, the association between glomerular IgG deposition and progression of IgA nephropathy is uncertain. Six hundred and twenty-seven patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy were recruited. Histological variables of the Oxford classification (Oxford-MEST) and the presence of glomerular IgG deposits were assessed. Renal progression defined as end-stage renal disease or 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis. Of the study population, 200 patients (31.9%) had glomerular IgG deposition on immunofluorescence staining. During a mean follow-up of 56.8±37.5 months, the rate of renal progression was significantly higher in the IgA nephropathy patients with glomerular IgG deposition compared with the IgA nephropathy patients without glomerular IgG deposition (39.8 vs 12.3 per 1000 patient-years; P<0.001). Of patients with IgG deposition, 178 (28.3%), 20 (3.2%), and 2 (0.3%) patients had mild, moderate, and marked glomerular IgG deposits, receptively. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that cumulative renal survival was significantly lower in IgA nephropathy patients with the higher intensity of glomerular IgG deposits (P<0.001). In addition, Cox regression analysis revealed that moderate and marked glomerular IgG deposits significantly predicted renal outcome independent of Oxford-MEST and clinical variables (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.01-8.77; P=0.04). This study showed that that glomerular IgG deposition was independently associated with poor renal outcome in patient with IgA nephropathy.

  1. Inter-Comparison of ILAS-II Version 1.4 Aerosol Extinction Coefficient at 780 nm with SAGE II, SAGE III, and POAM III Aerosol Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Hayashida, S.; Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Hayashi, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kanzawa, H.; Ejiri, M. K.; Irie, H.; Tanaka, T.; Terao, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Sasano, Y.; Bevilacqua, R.; Randall, C.; Thomason, L.; Taha, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) II on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) II observed stratospheric aerosol in visible/near-infrared/infrared spectra over high latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Observations were taken intermittently from January to March, and continuously from April through October, 2003. We assessed the data quality of ILAS-II version 1.4 aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm from comparisons with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, SAGE III, and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III aerosol data. At heights below 20 km in the Northern Hemisphere, aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II agreed with those from SAGE II and SAGE III within 10%, and with those from POAM III within 15%. From 20 to 26 km, ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients were smaller than extinction coefficients from the other sensors; differences between ILAS-II and SAGE II ranged from 10% at 20 km to 34% at 26 km. ILAS-II aerosol extinction coefficients from 20 to 25 km in February over the Southern Hemisphere had a negative bias (12-66%) relative to SAGE II aerosol data. The bias increased with increasing altitude. Comparisons between ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol extinction coefficients from January to May in the Southern Hemisphere (defined as the non-Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) season ) yielded qualitatively similar results. From June to October (defined as the PSC season ), aerosol extinction coefficients from ILAS-II were smaller than those from POAM III above 17 km, as in the case of the non-PSC season; however, ILAS-II and POAM III aerosol data were within 15% of each other from 12 to 17 km.

  2. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  3. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular...concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility...the scope of reportable conditions and are intended to help prevent and respond to global public health threats. SAGES, an electronic biosurveillance

  4. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure in a distinct population segment of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    north–south gradient. This genetic subdivision within the Bi-State is likely the result of habitat loss and fragmentation that has been exacerbated by recent human activities and the encroachment of singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees. While genetic concerns may be only one of many priorities for the conservation and management of the Bi-State greater sage-grouse, we believe that they warrant attention along with other issues (e.g., quality of sagebrush habitat, preventing future loss of habitat). Management actions that promote genetic connectivity, especially with respect to WM and PNa, may be critical to the long-term viability of the Bi-State DPS.

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity in Response of Male Greater Sage-Grouse Lek Attendance to Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Andrew J.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991–2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts. PMID:24918922

  6. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  7. Evaluating the performance of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lesley A; Zhang, Yaping; Schmid, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important indicator of kidney function, critical for detection, evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). GFR cannot be practically measured in most clinical or research settings; therefore, estimating equations are used as a primary measure of kidney function. A considerable body of literature now evaluates the performance of GFR estimating equations. The results of these studies are often not comparable, because of variation in GFR measurement methods, endogenous filtration marker assays and tools by which the equations were evaluated. In this article, methods for the evaluation of GFR estimating equations are discussed. Topics addressed include statistical methods used in development and validation of equations; explanation of measures of performance used for evaluation, with focus on distinction between bias, precision and accuracy, and with reference to examples of published evaluations of creatinine- and cystatin C-based equations; explanation of errors in GFR estimates; and challenges and questions in reporting performance of GFR estimating equations.

  8. Sexual differences in glomerular ultrafiltration: effect of androgen administration in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Blantz, R C; Peterson, O W; Blantz, E R; Wilson, C B

    1988-03-01

    The glomerular ultrafiltration rate varies as a function of age and sex. To further elucidate the basis for the sexual difference, an androgen [Deca-Durabolin (DECA)] was administered to female ovariectomized rats, and glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated by renal micropuncture after 6 and 16 weeks of therapy. Results were compared to those in control ovariectomized female rats injected with vehicle. Therapy did not produce significant differences in body weight, but kidney size was modestly increased in DECA-treated rats at 6 weeks (0.68 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.03 g wet weight; P less than 0.05); at 16 weeks major differences in renal size were documented (0.69 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.05 g wet weight; P less than 0.01). The increase in size was primarily due to tubular hypertrophy, with more modest increases in glomerular size. After 6 weeks of therapy, the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) was increased in DECA-treated ovariectomized rats (24.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 32.9 +/- 1.1 nl/min; P less than 0.01). Whole kidney glomerular filtration rate also rose in proportion to increases in kidney size. The greater SNGFR was attributed to higher rates of nephron plasma flow and a numerical increase in the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient. However, after 16 weeks of androgen therapy, in spite of marked renal hypertrophy, SNGFR did not further rise in proportion to renal size, and the rate of nephron plasma flow and the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient actually fell relative to those in control untreated rats. Light microscopic evaluation of renal tissue revealed no abnormalities in DECA-treated rats. Thus, 6-week androgen therapy to ovariectomized female rats increased both glomerular ultrafiltration rates and renal size. However, with prolonged administration a glomerular dysfunction may have ensued whereby glomerular ultrafiltration was dissociated from increases in renal size.

  9. Primary cilia disappear in rat podocytes during glomerular development

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Hidetake; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    Most tubular epithelial cell types express primary cilia, and mutations of primary-cilium-associated proteins are well known to cause several kinds of cystic renal disease. However, until now, it has been unclear whether mammalian podocytes express primary cilia in vivo. In this study, we determined whether primary cilia are present in the podocytes of rat immature and mature glomeruli by means of transmission electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. In immature glomeruli of fetal rats, podocytes express the primary cilia with high percentages at the S-shaped body (88 ± 5%, n = 3), capillary loop (95 ± 4%, n =  4), and maturing glomerulus (76 ± 13%, n = 5) stages. The percentage of ciliated podocytes was significantly lower at the maturing glomerulus stage than at the former two stages. In mature glomeruli of adult rats, ciliated podocytes were not found at all (0 ± 0%, n = 11). These findings indicate that the primary cilia gradually disappear in rat podocytes during glomerular development. Since glomerular filtration rate increases during development, the primary cilia on the podocytes are subjected to a stronger bending force. Thus, the disappearance of the primary cilia presumably prevents the entry of excessive calcium-ions via the cilium-associated polycystin complexes and the disturbance of intracellular signaling cascades in mature podocytes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00441-010-0983-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20495826

  10. Optimized robust plasma sampling for glomerular filtration rate studies.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anthony W; Gannon, Mark A; Barnfield, Mark C; Waller, Michael L

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of abnormal fluid collection (e.g. ascites), the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a small number (1-4) of plasma samples fails. This study investigated how a few samples will allow adequate characterization of plasma clearance to give a robust and accurate GFR measurement. A total of 68 nine-sample GFR tests (from 45 oncology patients) with abnormal clearance of a glomerular tracer were audited to develop a Monte Carlo model. This was used to generate 20 000 synthetic but clinically realistic clearance curves, which were sampled at the 10 time points suggested by the British Nuclear Medicine Society. All combinations comprising between four and 10 samples were then used to estimate the area under the clearance curve by nonlinear regression. The audited clinical plasma curves were all well represented pragmatically as biexponential curves. The area under the curve can be well estimated using as few as five judiciously timed samples (5, 10, 15, 90 and 180 min). Several seven-sample schedules (e.g. 5, 10, 15, 60, 90, 180 and 240 min) are tolerant to any one sample being discounted without significant loss of accuracy or precision. A research tool has been developed that can be used to estimate the accuracy and precision of any pattern of plasma sampling in the presence of 'third-space' kinetics. This could also be used clinically to estimate the accuracy and precision of GFR calculated from mistimed or incomplete sets of samples. It has been used to identify optimized plasma sampling schedules for GFR measurement.

  11. Polycation binding to glomerular basement membrane. Effect of biochemical modification.

    PubMed

    Bertolatus, J A; Hunsicker, L G

    1987-02-01

    The polycation hexadimethrine (HDM) binds to anionic sites in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and causes heavy proteinuria when infused in vivo. An in vitro assay of 3H-HDM binding to isolated dog GBM was developed, to permit further analysis of the GBM components binding HDM. 3H-HDM binding to isolated GBM was saturable, reversible in dose-dependent fashion by competing polycations, and inhibited by increasing salt concentration and low pH. The pH dependence of binding suggested that most of the HDM binds to carboxyl groups rather than to the sulfate groups of proteoglycans. Removal of heparan sulfate by heparinase or purified heparatinase had no detectable effect on HDM binding. Treatment of GBM with neuraminidase, hyaluronidase, or chondroitinase reduced binding of HDM by a maximum of 20 to 38%. However, substitution of carboxyl anions with nonionizable glycine methyl ester residues resulted in complete elimination of HDM binding. Parallel results were obtained in studies of glomerular localization of cationized ferritin (CatF), pI 8.5. After carboxyl substitution, GBM did not bind CatF; heparinase-treated GBM bound CatF in a distribution not demonstrably different from normal. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of glycosaminoglycan fractions prepared from treated GBM confirmed that carboxyl modification did not alter the content or charge of the heparan sulfate of GBM, but heparinase treatment removed at least 90% of heparan sulfate. The results indicate that carboxyl groups are quantitatively more important than heparan sulfate for binding of HDM in vitro. Since HDM causes proteinuria in vivo, carboxyl groups may be important for maintenance of normal permselectivity.

  12. Angiotensin II Enhances Connecting Tubule Glomerular Feedback (CTGF)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; D’Ambrosio, Martin A.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing Na delivery to epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the connecting tubule (CNT) causes dilation of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art), a process we call CNT glomerular feedback (CTGF). Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates ENaC in the collecting duct via AT1 receptors. We hypothesized that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF by activation of AT1 receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and ENaC. Rabbit Af-Arts and their adherent CNT were microperfused and preconstricted with norepinephrine. Each experiment involved generating two consecutive concentration-response curves by increasing NaCl in the CNT lumen. During the control period, the maximum dilation of the Af-Art was 7.9 ± 0.4 μm, and the concentration of NaCl in the CNT needed to achieve half maximal response (EC50) was 34.7 ± 5.2 mmol/L. After adding Ang II (10−9 mol/L) to the CNT lumen, the maximal response was 9.5 ± 0.7 μm and the EC50 was 11.6 ± 1.3 mmol/L (P=0.01 vs. control). Losartan, an AT1 antagonist (10−6 mol/L) blocked the stimulatory effect of Ang II, PD123319, an AT2 antagonist (10−6 mol/L) did not. The PKC inhibitor staurosporine (10−8 mol/L) added to the CNT inhibited the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The ENaC inhibitor benzamil (10−6 mol/L) prevented both CTGF and its stimulation by Ang II. We concluded that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF via activation of AT1, and that this effect requires activation of PKC and ENaC. Potentiation of CTGF by Ang II could help preserve glomerular filtration rate in the presence of renal vasoconstriction. PMID:20696981

  13. A feature selection approach for identification of signature genes from SAGE data

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Junior; Cesar, Roberto M; Humes, Carlos; Martins, David C; Patrão, Diogo FC; Silva, Paulo JS; Brentani, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Background One goal of gene expression profiling is to identify signature genes that robustly distinguish different types or grades of tumors. Several tumor classifiers based on expression profiling have been proposed using microarray technique. Due to important differences in the probabilistic models of microarray and SAGE technologies, it is important to develop suitable techniques to select specific genes from SAGE measurements. Results A new framework to select specific genes that distinguish different biological states based on the analysis of SAGE data is proposed. The new framework applies the bolstered error for the identification of strong genes that separate the biological states in a feature space defined by the gene expression of a training set. Credibility intervals defined from a probabilistic model of SAGE measurements are used to identify the genes that distinguish the different states with more reliability among all gene groups selected by the strong genes method. A score taking into account the credibility and the bolstered error values in order to rank the groups of considered genes is proposed. Results obtained using SAGE data from gliomas are presented, thus corroborating the introduced methodology. Conclusion The model representing counting data, such as SAGE, provides additional statistical information that allows a more robust analysis. The additional statistical information provided by the probabilistic model is incorporated in the methodology described in the paper. The introduced method is suitable to identify signature genes that lead to a good separation of the biological states using SAGE and may be adapted for other counting methods such as Massive Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) or the recent Sequencing-By-Synthesis (SBS) technique. Some of such genes identified by the proposed method may be useful to generate classifiers. PMID:17519038

  14. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    PubMed Central

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species—including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5 km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success. PMID:26366042

  15. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species — including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5-km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  16. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development.

    PubMed

    Kirol, Christopher P; Sutphin, Andrew L; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R; Maechtle, Thomas L

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species-including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5 km(2) area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  17. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  18. Low footwall accelerations and variable surface rupture behavior on the Fort Sage Mountains fault, northeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Richard W.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Brune, James N.; Purvance, Matthew D.; Mahan, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The Fort Sage Mountains fault zone is a normal fault in the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range that produced a small surface rupture (L 5.6 earthquake in 1950. We investigate the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault and find evidence for two paleoearthquakes with surface displacements much larger than those observed in 1950. Rupture of the Fort Sage fault ∼5.6  ka resulted in surface displacements of at least 0.8–1.5 m, implying earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.7–7.1. An older rupture at ∼20.5  ka displaced the ground at least 1.5 m, implying an earthquake of Mw 6.8–7.1. A field of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is located less than 1 km from the surface‐rupture trace of this Holocene‐active normal fault. Ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) predict peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2–0.3g for the 1950 rupture and 0.3–0.5g for the ∼5.6  ka paleoearthquake one kilometer from the fault‐surface trace, yet field tests indicate that the Fort Sage PBRs will be toppled by PGAs between 0.1–0.3g. We discuss the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault in the context of the nearby PBRs, GMPEs, and probabilistic seismic hazard maps for extensional regimes. If the Fort Sage PBRs are older than the mid‐Holocene rupture on the Fort Sage fault zone, this implies that current GMPEs may overestimate near‐fault footwall ground motions at this site.

  19. Visualization of Atmospheric Water Vapor Data for SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, Mou-Liang; Chu, W. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop visualization tools to study the water vapor dynamics using the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE 11) water vapor data. During the past years, we completed the development of a visualization tool called EZSAGE, and various Gridded Water Vapor plots, tools deployed on the web to provide users with new insight into the water vapor dynamics. Results and experiences from this project, including papers, tutorials and reviews were published on the main Web page. Additional publishing effort has been initiated to package EZSAGE software for CD production and distribution. There have been some major personnel changes since Fall, 1998. Dr. Mou-Liang Kung, a Professor of Computer Science assumed the PI position vacated by Dr. Waldo Rodriguez who was on leave. However, former PI, Dr. Rodriguez continued to serve as a research adviser to this project to assure smooth transition and project completion. Typically in each semester, five student research assistants were hired and trained. Weekly group meetings were held to discuss problems, progress, new research direction, and activity planning. Other small group meetings were also held regularly for different objectives of this project. All student research assistants were required to submit reports for conference submission.

  20. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  1. Podocyte-Specific Overexpression of Wild Type or Mutant Trpc6 in Mice Is Sufficient to Cause Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kairath, Pamela; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Molina, Jessica; Carpio, J. Daniel; Ruiz, Phillip; Mezzano, Sergio A.; Li, Jing; Wei, Changli; Reiser, Jochen; Young, Juan I.; Walz, Katherina

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the TRPC6 calcium channel (Transient receptor potential channel 6) gene have been associated with familiar forms of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) affecting children and adults. In addition, acquired glomerular diseases are associated with increased expression levels of TRPC6. However, the exact role of TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of FSGS remains to be elucidated. In this work we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of three different transgenic mouse lines with podocyte-specific overexpression of the wild type or any of two mutant forms of Trpc6 (P111Q and E896K) previously related to FSGS. Consistent with the human phenotype a non-nephrotic range of albuminuria was detectable in almost all transgenic lines. The histological analysis demonstrated that the transgenic mice developed a kidney disease similar to human FSGS. Differences of 2–3 folds in the presence of glomerular lesions were found between the non transgenic and transgenic mice expressing Trpc6 in its wild type or mutant forms specifically in podocytes. Electron microscopy of glomerulus from transgenic mice showed extensive podocyte foot process effacement. We conclude that overexpression of Trpc6 (wild type or mutated) in podocytes is sufficient to cause a kidney disease consistent with FSGS. Our results contribute to reinforce the central role of podocytes in the etiology of FSGS. These mice constitute an important new model in which to study future therapies and outcomes of this complex disease. PMID:20877463

  2. Effects of nifedipine and enalapril on glomerular injury in rats with deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, L D; Levin, R I; Benstein, J A; Parker, M; Ullian, M E; Kim, Y; Feiner, H D

    1990-10-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and were given weekly injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and 1% saline (salt) to drink. Two studies were performed. In the first, rats given enalapril (ENP) were compared with controls. In the second, rats ingested either standard chow or chow to which the calcium-entry blocker nifedipine (NIF) had been added. Six to eight weeks after nephrectomy, both control DOCA-salt rats and those given ENP had severe hypertension and significant proteinuria. Rats given NIF excreted less protein, and glomerular lesions were not observed in this group. The effects of NIF on several parameters that have been associated with glomerular injury were examined. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular capillary pressure was increased in DOCA-salt rats and was not reduced by NIF. Platelet aggregation was also similar in NIF-treated and control rats. Morphometric studies revealed a tendency toward lower glomerular volume of NIF-treated rats; however, kidney weight and glomerular capillary radius were unaffected by therapy. Thus NIF, but not ENP, prevents DOCA-salt rats from developing hypertension and glomerular injury. This effect does not depend on reduction in glomerular pressure or inhibition of platelet aggregation.

  3. Analysis of wheat SAGE tags reveals evidence for widespread antisense transcription

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Rebecca L; Barker, Gary LA; Werner, Kay; Biggi, Gaia F; Coghill, Jane; Gibbings, J George; Berry, Simon; Dunwell, Jim M; Edwards, Keith J

    2008-01-01

    Background Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool for genome-wide transcription studies. Unlike microarrays, it has the ability to detect novel forms of RNA such as alternatively spliced and antisense transcripts, without the need for prior knowledge of their existence. One limitation of using SAGE on an organism with a complex genome and lacking detailed sequence information, such as the hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum, is accurate annotation of the tags generated. Without accurate annotation it is impossible to fully understand the dynamic processes involved in such complex polyploid organisms. Hence we have developed and utilised novel procedures to characterise, in detail, SAGE tags generated from the whole grain transcriptome of hexaploid wheat. Results Examination of 71,930 Long SAGE tags generated from six libraries derived from two wheat genotypes grown under two different conditions suggested that SAGE is a reliable and reproducible technique for use in studying the hexaploid wheat transcriptome. However, our results also showed that in poorly annotated and/or poorly sequenced genomes, such as hexaploid wheat, considerably more information can be extracted from SAGE data by carrying out a systematic analysis of both perfect and "fuzzy" (partially matched) tags. This detailed analysis of the SAGE data shows first that while there is evidence of alternative polyadenylation this appears to occur exclusively within the 3' untranslated regions. Secondly, we found no strong evidence for widespread alternative splicing in the developing wheat grain transcriptome. However, analysis of our SAGE data shows that antisense transcripts are probably widespread within the transcriptome and appear to be derived from numerous locations within the genome. Examination of antisense transcripts showing sequence similarity to the Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b genes suggests that such antisense transcripts might have a role in the regulation of

  4. SAGE (version 5.96) Ozone Trends in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Thomason, L. W.; Zawodny, J. M.; Logan, J. A.; Megretkaia, I. A.

    2002-01-01

    Ozone retrievals from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II version 5.96 (v5.96) below approx. 25 km altitude are discussed. This version of the algorithm includes improved constraints on the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinctions based on the ensemble of aerosol size distribution measurements. This results in a reduction of SAGE ozone errors in the 2 years after the Mount Pinatubo eruption. However, SAGE ozone concentrations are still approx. 10% larger than ozonesonde and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements below 20 km altitude under nonvolcanic conditions (and by more than this in the tropics). The analysis by Steele and Turco suggests that the SAGE ozone overpredictions are in the wrong direction to be explained by aerosol extinction extrapolation errors. Moreover, preliminary SAGE 11 v6.0a retrievals suggest that they are partially accounted for by geometric difficulties at low altitudes in v5.96 and prior retrievals. SAGE ozone trends for the 1979-1996 and 1984-1996 periods are calculated and compared, and the sources of trend errors are discussed. These calculations are made after filtering out ozone data during periods of high, local aerosol extinctions. In the lower stratosphere, below approx. 28 km altitude, there is shown to be excellent agreement in the altitudinal structure of ozone decreases at 45 deg N between SAGE and ozonesondes with the largest decrease in both between 1979 and 1996 having occurred below 20 km altitude, amounting to 0.9 +/- 0.7% yr (2sigma) at 16 km altitude. However, in contrast to the fairly steady decreases at 45 deg N, both SAGE measurements and Lauder ozonesondes show ozone increases at 45 deg S over the period from the mid-1980s to 1996 of 0.2 +/- 0.5%/yr (2sigma) from 15 to 20 km altitude. The SAGE data suggest that this increase is a wintertime phenomenon which occurs in the 15-20 km height range. Changes in dynamics are suggested as the most likely cause of this increase. These

  5. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  6. RL-SAGE and microarray analysis of the rice transcriptome after Rhizoctonia solani infection.

    PubMed

    Venu, R C; Jia, Yulin; Gowda, Malali; Jia, Melissa H; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Stahlberg, Eric; Li, Huameng; Rhineheart, Andrew; Boddhireddy, Prashanth; Singh, Pratibha; Rutger, Neil; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod; Nelson, James C; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2007-10-01

    Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, RNA isolated from R. solani-infected leaves of Jasmine 85 was used for both RL-SAGE library construction and microarray hybridization. RL-SAGE sequence analysis identified 20,233 and 24,049 distinct tags from the control and inoculated libraries, respectively. Nearly half of the significant tags (> or =2 copies) from both libraries matched TIGR annotated genes and KOME full-length cDNAs. Among them, 42% represented sense and 7% antisense transcripts, respectively. Interestingly, 60% of the library-specific (> or =10 copies) and differentially expressed (>4.0-fold change) tags were novel transcripts matching genomic sequence but not annotated genes. About 70% of the genes identified in the SAGE libraries showed similar expression patterns (up or down-regulated) in the microarray data obtained from three biological replications. Some candidate RL-SAGE tags and microarray genes were located in known sheath blight QTL regions. The expression of ten differentially expressed RL-SAGE tags was confirmed with RT-PCR. The defense genes associated with resistance to R. solani identified in this study are useful genomic materials for further elucidation of the molecular basis of the defense response to R. solani and fine mapping of target sheath blight QTLs.

  7. A multilocus population genetic survey of greater sage-grouse across their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Taylor, S.E.; Quinn, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined dramatically, and as a result the species has become the focus of conservation efforts. We conducted a range-wide genetic survey of the species which included 46 populations and over 1000 individuals using both mitochondrial sequence data and data from seven nuclear microsatellites. Nested clade and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that, in general, the greater sage-grouse populations follow an isolation-by-distance model of restricted gene flow. This suggests that movements of the greater sage-grouse are typically among neighbouring populations and not across the species, range. This may have important implications if management is considering translocations as they should involve neighbouring rather than distant populations to preserve any effects of local adaptation. We identified two populations in Washington with low levels of genetic variation that reflect sever habitat loss and dramatic population decline. Managers of these populations may consider augmentation from geographically close populations. One population (Lyon/Mono) on the southwestern edge of the speciesa?? range appears to have been isolated from all other greater sage-grouse populations. This population is sufficiently genetically distinct that it warrants protection and management as a separate unit. The genetic data presented here, in conjunction with large-scale demographic and habitat data, will provide an integrated approach to conservation efforts for the greater sage-grouse.

  8. The effect of clary sage oil on staphylococci responsible for wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Głowacka, Anna; Poznańska-Kurowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Urbaniak, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The spreading of bacterial antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of pathogenic bacteria has made investigators to search for other active antibacterial agents which could provide a valuable complement to the existing therapies. Aim To determine the antibacterial activity of clary sage oil (Salvia sclarea L.) against Staphylococcus clinical strains which were isolated from patients with wound infections. Material and methods A comprehensive evaluation of Staphylococcus clinical strain resistance to antibiotics was performed. The constituents of clary sage oil were assayed by GC-FID-MS analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested essential oil against staphylococci by the micro-dilution broth method was determined. Results The clary sage oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. xylosus with MIC values ranging from 3.75 to 7.00 µl/ml. Conclusions The results of the in vitro tests encourage to use formulations containing sage oil as the active natural antimicrobial agent. Because of its antimicrobial properties clary sage oil may be applied to treat wounds and skin infections. PMID:25821423

  9. Design And Performance Of The Stratospheric Aerosol And Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaun, N. H.; Mauldin, L. E.; McCormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance data are presented for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experi-ment II (SAGE II) instrument, which has been developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). SAGE II is designed to monitor globally the vertical distribution of strato-spheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide by measuring the extinction of solar radiation through the earth's atmosphere during the ERBS observatory solar occultations. Solar radiation is reflected from a flat scanning mirror into a Cassegrain type telescope, which forms a solar image on the entrance slit of a grating spectrometer. The SAGE II instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) is scanned along the vertical solar diameter by the elevation scan mirror. The entire optical system is contained within an azimuth gimbal which tracks the solar radiometric centroid during the data event. This spectrometer, with help from three interference filters, isolates seven spectral wavelengths ranging from 0.385 micrometers to 1.02 micrometers. All seven channels use silicon photodiode detectors oper-ated in the photovoltaic mode. Detector outputs are multiplexed into a serial data stream for readout by the ERBS telemetry system. Each output is sampled 64 times per second and digitized to 12 bit resolution. SAGE II is a third generation instrument following the highly successful SAM II and SAGE programs.

  10. Better living through conifer removal: A demographic analysis of sage-grouse vital rates.

    PubMed

    Severson, John P; Hagen, Christian A; Tack, Jason D; Maestas, Jeremy D; Naugle, David E; Forbes, James T; Reese, Kerry P

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) obligate wildlife species such as the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) face numerous threats including altered ecosystem processes that have led to conifer expansion into shrub-steppe. Conifer removal is accelerating despite a lack of empirical evidence on grouse population response. Using a before-after-control-impact design at the landscape scale, we evaluated effects of conifer removal on two important demographic parameters, annual survival of females and nest survival, by monitoring 219 female sage-grouse and 225 nests in the northern Great Basin from 2010 to 2014. Estimates from the best treatment models showed positive trends in the treatment area relative to the control area resulting in an increase of 6.6% annual female survival and 18.8% nest survival relative to the control area by 2014. Using stochastic simulations of our estimates and published demographics, we estimated a 25% increase in the population growth rate in the treatment area relative to the control area. This is the first study to link sage-grouse demographics with conifer removal and supports recommendations to actively manage conifer expansion for sage-grouse conservation. Sage-grouse have become a primary catalyst for conservation funding to address conifer expansion in the West, and these findings have important implications for other ecosystem services being generated on the wings of species conservation.

  11. Better living through conifer removal: A demographic analysis of sage-grouse vital rates

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Christian A.; Tack, Jason D.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Naugle, David E.; Forbes, James T.; Reese, Kerry P.

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) obligate wildlife species such as the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) face numerous threats including altered ecosystem processes that have led to conifer expansion into shrub-steppe. Conifer removal is accelerating despite a lack of empirical evidence on grouse population response. Using a before-after-control-impact design at the landscape scale, we evaluated effects of conifer removal on two important demographic parameters, annual survival of females and nest survival, by monitoring 219 female sage-grouse and 225 nests in the northern Great Basin from 2010 to 2014. Estimates from the best treatment models showed positive trends in the treatment area relative to the control area resulting in an increase of 6.6% annual female survival and 18.8% nest survival relative to the control area by 2014. Using stochastic simulations of our estimates and published demographics, we estimated a 25% increase in the population growth rate in the treatment area relative to the control area. This is the first study to link sage-grouse demographics with conifer removal and supports recommendations to actively manage conifer expansion for sage-grouse conservation. Sage-grouse have become a primary catalyst for conservation funding to address conifer expansion in the West, and these findings have important implications for other ecosystem services being generated on the wings of species conservation. PMID:28333995

  12. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Sage Tea Drinking: Decreased DNA Damage and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption.

  13. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations.

  14. Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

  15. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  16. Glomerular effects of AVT on the in situ perfused trunk preparation of the dogfish.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alan; Anderson, W Gary; Hazon, Neil

    2005-04-01

    The effects of arginine vasotocin on the pattern of glomerular perfusion in an elasmobranch fish were examined using an in situ perfused renal trunk preparation. A significant antidiuresis was coupled with a marked reduction in the proportion of filtering glomeruli (86%-25%) and an increase in the proportion of perfused but not filtering (10%-53%) and non-perfused glomeruli (4%-22%). However, the reduction in filtering glomeruli was greater than predicted by measurements of urine flow rate and glomerular filtration rate alone, suggesting that alterations in single nephron glomerular filtration rate may occur.

  17. Lithium nephrotoxicity: a progressive combined glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, G S; Radhakrishnan, J; Kambham, N; Valeri, A M; Hines, W H; D'Agati, V D

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the clinical features, pathologic findings, and outcome of 24 patients with biopsy-proven lithium toxicity. The patient population was 50% male, 87.5% Caucasian, and had a mean age of 42.5 yr (range, 26 to 57). Mean duration of lithium therapy for bipolar disorder was 13.6 yr (range, 2 to 25). All patients were biopsied for renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 2.8 mg/dl; range, 1.3 to 8.0), with associated proteinuria >1.0 g/d in 41.7%. Nephrotic proteinuria (>3.0 g/d) was present in 25%. Other features included nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 87% and hypertension in 33.3%. Renal biopsy revealed a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 100%, with associated cortical and medullary tubular cysts (62.5%) or dilatation (33.3%). All of the renal cysts stained for epithelial membrane antigen, while 51.4% stained with lectin Arachis hypogaea, and only 3.8% stained with Tetragonolobus purpureas, indicating they originated from distal and collecting tubules. The degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis was graded as severe in 58.3%, moderate in 37.5%, and mild in 4.2% of cases. There was a surprisingly high prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (50%) and global glomerulosclerosis (100%), sometimes of equivalent severity to the chronic tubulointerstitial disease. The significant degree of foot process effacement (mean 34%, five of 14 cases with >50%) suggests a potential direct glomerular toxicity. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis correlated with proteinuria >1.0 g/d (P = 0.0014, Fisher exact test). Despite discontinuation of lithium, seven of nine patients with initial serum creatinine values >2.5 mg/dl progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Only three patients, all with initial serum creatinine <2.1 mg/dl, had subsequent improvement in renal function. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the only significant predictor of progression to ESRD was serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dl at biopsy (P = 0. 008). In conclusion

  18. A 4.1-Mb Congenic Region of Rf-4 Contributes to Glomerular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Caitlin C.; Lutz, Michelle M.; Sarkis, Allison B.; Xu, Haiyan; Kothinti, Rajendra K.; Hoffman, Matthew; Moreno, Carol; Tabatabai, Niloofar M.; Lazar, Jozef; Roman, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The combined transfer of two renal function quantitative trait loci (QTLs), Rf-1 (rat chromosome 1) and Rf-4 (rat chromosome 14), from the Fawn-hooded hypertensive rat onto the August Copenhagen Irish genetic background significantly increases proteinuria and demonstrates an interaction between these QTLs. Because the original Rf-4 congenic region is 61.9 Mbp, it is necessary to reduce this interval to feasibly search for variants responsible for renal susceptibility in this region. Here, we generated a minimal congenic line (Rf-1a+4_a) to identify a 4.1-Mb region of the Rf-4 QTL that significantly contributes to the severity of proteinuria in the Fawn-hooded hypertensive rat. Rf-1a+4_a animals have an increased glomerular permeability to albumin without significant changes in BP, indicating that at least one genetic element in this refined region directly affects renal function. Sequence analysis revealed no variants predicted to damage protein function, implying that regulatory elements are responsible for the Rf-4 phenotype. Multiple human studies, including recent genome-wide association studies, link the homologous human region with susceptibility to renal disease, suggesting that this congenic line is an important model for studying pathways that contribute to the progression of kidney disease. PMID:22343117

  19. 75 FR 59803 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination for the Gunnison Sage-grouse as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... of San Miguel, Colorado; Center for Biological Diversity; WildEarth Guardians; Public Employees for.... Gunnison sage-grouse and greater sage-grouse have similar life histories and habitat requirements (Young... species and a listable entity under the Act. Life History Characteristics Gunnison and greater...

  20. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Land... (LUP) Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG... submit comments related to the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP...

  1. Improving pattern discovery and visualization of SAGE data through poisson-based self-adaptive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Azuaje, Francisco

    2008-07-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) allows a detailed, simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes without the need for prior, complete gene sequence information. However, due to its inherent complexity and the lack of complete structural and function knowledge, mining vast collections of SAGE data to extract useful knowledge poses great challenges to traditional analytical techniques. Moreover, SAGE data are characterized by a specific statistical model that has not been incorporated into traditional data analysis techniques. The analysis of SAGE data requires advanced, intelligent computational techniques, which consider the underlying biology and the statistical nature of SAGE data. By addressing the statistical properties demonstrated by SAGE data, this paper presents a new self-adaptive neural network, Poisson-based growing self-organizing map (PGSOM), which implements novel weight adaptation and neuron growing strategies. An empirical study of key dynamic mechanisms of PGSOM is presented. It was tested on three datasets, including synthetic and experimental SAGE data. The results indicate that, in comparison to traditional techniques, the PGSOM offers significant advantages in the context of pattern discovery and visualization in SAGE data. The pattern discovery and visualization platform discussed in this paper can be applied to other problem domains where the data are better approximated by a Poisson distribution.

  2. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree (Lorna); Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014–2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. Ethics and dissemination SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals

  3. Free Radicals and Reactive Intermediates for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    This grant provided partial support for participation in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. The NASA-sponsored SOLVE mission was conducted Jointly with the European Commission-sponsored Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000). Researchers examined processes that control ozone amounts at mid to high latitudes during the arctic winter and acquired correlative data needed to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite measurements that are used to quantitatively assess high-latitude ozone loss. The campaign began in September 1999 with intercomparison flights out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards. CA. and continued through March 2000. with midwinter deployments out of Kiruna. Sweden. SOLVE was co-sponsored by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP). Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP). Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP). and Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) as part of the validation program for the SAGE III instrument.

  4. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  5. Reducing The Station-to Station Variability of Umkehr Ozone Trends Using SAGE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Mike; Allen, Mark; Cunnold, Derek; Herman, Ben; Mateer, Carl

    2000-01-01

    This proposed research sought to use SAGE I and II ozone and aerosol measurements to reduce the variability in ozone trends, principally, but not exclusively, in layer 8 (40 km) derived from multiple Umkehr stations. Building on our experience with both SAGE and Umkehr data, we proposed to commence at the very beginning of the Umkehr process (measured radiance ratios) and proceed through the fitting and inversion processes in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations to establish a consistent, reliable time series of Umkehr ozone profiles at a number of stations. We expected to be able to reconcile the present discrepancies between SAGE and Umkehr trends in the upper stratosphere and, in particular, to reduce the variability in trend estimates among mid-latitude Umkehr stations.

  6. Effect of sage (Salvia officinalis) on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Lin, Y H; Leng, X J; Huang, M; Zhou, G H

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage, at levels of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/w), on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage stored at 4°C for 21 days. The results showed that inclusion of sage in sausages resulted in lower L* values (P<0.05) and higher a* values (P<0.05) compared to the control. During refrigerated storage, sausages containing sage showed significantly retarded increases in TBARS values, and in the formation of protein carbonyls (P<0.05), but showed accelerated losses of thiol groups (P<0.05). Addition of sage to the sausages at levels of 0.1% and 0.15% reduced textural deterioration during refrigerated storage (P<0.05). Sage used in this study had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages.

  7. Value of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym Louzir; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Moussa, Fatma Ben; Zekri, Semy; Maiz, Hédi Ben

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the contribution of electron microscopy to the final diagnosis of glomerulopathies, the authors established a prospective study during the first semester of 2006. A total of 52 kidney biopsies were performed with 3 samples for light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Among these renal biopsies, only 20 were examined with electron microscopy because the diagnosis made on the basis of conventional methods had remained unclear or doubtful. In 18 cases, electron microscopy was undertaken for the investigation of primary kidney disease. The 2 remaining cases were transplant biopsies. In this series of 20 patients, there were 3 children with an average age of 9 years and 17 adults with an average age of 35.5 years. Fifteen patients (75%) were nephrotic. The study revealed that electron microscopy was essential for diagnosis in 8 cases (40%) and was helpful in 12 cases (60%). In conclusion, the results showed that the ultrastructural study provides essential or helpful information in many cases of glomerular diseases, and therefore electron microscopy should be considered an important tool of diagnostic renal pathology. As was recommended, it is important to reserve renal tissue for ultrastructural study unless electron microscopy can be routinely used in all biopsies. Thus, this technique could be performed wherever a renal biopsy has to be ultrastructurally evaluated.

  8. Physiology Lab Demonstration: Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rat.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Jespersen, Brian; Shade, Robert

    2015-07-26

    Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal function in health and disease. GFR is measured as the steady state renal clearance of inulin which is filtered at the glomerulus, but not secreted or reabsorbed along the nephron. The fractional excretion of Na and K can be determined from the concentration of Na and K in plasma and urine. The renal clearance of inulin can be demonstrated in an anesthetized animal which has catheters in the femoral artery, femoral vein and bladder. The equipment and supplies used for this procedure are those commonly available in a research core facility, and thus makes this procedure a practical means for measuring renal function. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the procedures required to perform a lab demonstration in which renal function is assessed before and after a diuretic drug. The presented technique can be utilized to assess renal function in rat models of renal disease.

  9. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Glomerular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-05-06

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories, along with single-best-answer questions, were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of United States nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special app with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions.

  10. American Society of Nephrology quiz and questionnaire 2014: glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2015-04-07

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions that were prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses, and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of CJASN. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions.

  11. Control of glomerular filtration rate by circulating angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Coleman, T G; Guyton, A C; Kastner, P R; Granger, J P

    1981-09-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have provided evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in controlling glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through an efferent arteriolar vasoconstrictor mechanism; however, the relative importance of circulating versus intrarenally formed angiotensin II (ANG II) in this control has not been determined. In the present study, the role of circulating ANG II in regulating GFR during reduced renal artery pressure (RAP) was examined in sodium-depleted dogs. After 90 min of infusion of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor SQ 14225, which presumably inhibited formation of both circulating and intrarenal ANG II, reduction of RAP to 81 +/- 2 mmHg resulted in marked decreases in GFR, filtration fraction (FF), and calculated efferent arteriolar resistance (RE), whereas renal blood flow (RBF) was maintained approximately 40% above initial control levels determined before SQ 14225 infusion. Replacement of circulating ANG II during SQ 14225 infusion, by intravenous infusion of ANG II at rates that decreased RBF to control levels, increased GFR, FF, and RE to levels not significantly different from control while RAP was maintained constant by aortic constriction. These observations suggest that circulating ANG II plays an important role in regulating RE and GFR during reductions in RAP. The importance of intrarenally formed ANG II in controlling GFR remains to be determined.

  12. Oxidative Stress Alleviation by Sage Essential Oil in Co-amoxiclav induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Hosseiny, L S; Alqurashy, N N; Sheweita, S A

    2016-06-01

    Clinical studies have shown that several classes of antibiotics are evidenced in drug induced liver injury. The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is commonly cited in such cases. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant efficacy of sage essential oil in Co-amoxiclav induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sage essential oil was hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L. and its compositional analysis was characterized by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy. Rats were treated singly or concomitantly with Co-amoxiclav and sage essential oil for a period of seven days. The major components of sage oil as identified by GC-MS were 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphor, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and α-caryophyllene comprising 26.3%, 14.4%, 10.9%, 7.8%, 6% and 2.5% respectively. The in vivo exposure of rats to Co-amoxiclav resulted in hepatotoxicity biochemically evidenced by the significant elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, total bilirubin and histologically conveyed by hydropic, inflammatory and cholestatic changes in rats' liver. Oxidative stress mediated the hepatic injury as indicated by the significant escalation in lipid peroxidation, as well as, the significant depletion of both glutathione level and glutathione dependent enzymes' activities. The concomitant administration of sage essential oil with Co-amoxiclav exerted a hepatoprotective effect via inducing an in vivo antioxidant defense response eventually regressing, to some extent, the hepatoarchitectural changes induced by Co-amoxiclav. Results suggest that sage essential oil is a potential candidate for counteracting hepatic injury associating Co-amoxiclav and this effect is in part related to the complexity of its chemical composition.

  13. Oxidative Stress Alleviation by Sage Essential Oil in Co-amoxiclav induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Hosseiny, L. S.; Alqurashy, N. N.; Sheweita, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that several classes of antibiotics are evidenced in drug induced liver injury. The combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is commonly cited in such cases. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant efficacy of sage essential oil in Co-amoxiclav induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sage essential oil was hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L. and its compositional analysis was characterized by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy. Rats were treated singly or concomitantly with Co-amoxiclav and sage essential oil for a period of seven days. The major components of sage oil as identified by GC-MS were 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphor, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and α-caryophyllene comprising 26.3%, 14.4%, 10.9%, 7.8%, 6% and 2.5% respectively. The in vivo exposure of rats to Co-amoxiclav resulted in hepatotoxicity biochemically evidenced by the significant elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, total bilirubin and histologically conveyed by hydropic, inflammatory and cholestatic changes in rats’ liver. Oxidative stress mediated the hepatic injury as indicated by the significant escalation in lipid peroxidation, as well as, the significant depletion of both glutathione level and glutathione dependent enzymes’ activities. The concomitant administration of sage essential oil with Co-amoxiclav exerted a hepatoprotective effect via inducing an in vivo antioxidant defense response eventually regressing, to some extent, the hepatoarchitectural changes induced by Co-amoxiclav. Results suggest that sage essential oil is a potential candidate for counteracting hepatic injury associating Co-amoxiclav and this effect is in part related to the complexity of its chemical composition. PMID:27493593

  14. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution.

  15. High and low affinity binding sites for endothelin on cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Badr, K F; Munger, K A; Sugiura, M; Snajdar, R M; Schwartzberg, M; Inagami, T

    1989-06-15

    Endothelin contracts glomerular mesangial cells, thereby influencing glomerular size and filtration rate. Here, we demonstrate the presence of two ET-specific binding sites on cultured rat mesangial cells with Kds of 0.76 and 44.70 nM, and maximal binding capacity (Bmax) values of 6.78 x 10(2) and 27.60 x 10(2) binding sites/cell, respectively. Binding of [125I]-ET was maximal at 120 min at 4 degrees C, stable for the subsequent 60 min, and selective. No competition for binding was observed with greater than 1000-fold concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide, angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin, nicardipine, or nifedipine. The presence of specific receptors for ET on glomerular mesangial cells suggests a major role for this peptide in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate.

  16. A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.

    1991-01-01

    An aerosol size distribution model for the stratosphere is inferred based on 5 years of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements of multispectral aerosol and water vapor extinction. The SAGE II aerosol and water vapor extinction data strongly suggest that there is a critical particle radius below which there is a relatively weak dependence of particle number density with size and above which there are few, if any, particles. A segmented power law model, as a simple representation of this dependence, is used in theoretical calculations and intercomparisons with a variety of aerosol measurements including dustsondes, longwave lidar, and wire impactors and shows a consistently good agreement.

  17. A comparison of SAGE I data during the stratospheric warming of February-March, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagatani, R. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fine scale vertical structure of SAGE I ozone and aerosol data during a stratospheric warming is investigated using meteorological and SBUV ozone data. By stratifying the ozone and aerosol data for a limited time period, a comparison of the structure of profiles becomes possible under different meteorological conditions. For example, the cold air region shows more laminated structures than the other regions. In addition, vertical motions calculated at the same locations as the SAGE profiles show that they are consistent with variances found in the ozone and aerosol data.

  18. Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Yue, G. K.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for inferring stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from the water vapor concentration and aerosol extinction measurements obtained in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the associated temperature from the NMC. The aerosols are assumed to be sulfuric acid-water droplets. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to determine model size distribution parameters based on the SAGE II multiwavelength aerosol extinctions. It is found that the best aerosol size information is contained in the aerosol radius range between about 0.25 and 0.80 micron.

  19. TRPC channel modulation in podocytes-inching toward novel treatments for glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    El Hindi, Shafic; Reiser, Jochen

    2011-07-01

    Glomerular kidney disease is a major healthcare burden and considered to represent a sum of disorders that evade a refined and effective treatment. Excellent biological and genetic studies have defined pathways that go awry in podocytes, which are the regulatory cells of the glomerular filter. The question now is how to define targets for novel improved therapies. In this review, we summarize critical points around targeting the TRPC6 channel in podocytes.

  20. Podocyte-Specific Deletion of Dicer Alters Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Causes Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Scott J.; Jarad, George; Cunningham, Jeanette; Goldberg, Seth; Schermer, Bernhard; Harfe, Brian D.; McManus, Michael T.; Benzing, Thomas; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding the 3′ untranslated region of mRNAs. To define their role in glomerular function, miRNA biogenesis was disrupted in mouse podocytes using a conditional Dicer allele. Mutant mice developed proteinuria by 3 wk after birth and progressed rapidly to end-stage kidney disease. Podocyte pathology included effacement, vacuolization, and hypertrophy with crescent formation. Despite normal expression of WT1, podocytes underwent dedifferentiation, exemplified by cytoskeletal disruption with early transcriptional downregulation of synaptopodin. These abnormalities differed from Cd2ap−/− mice, indicating they were not a general consequence of glomerular disease. Glomerular labeling of ezrin, moesin, and gelsolin was altered at 3 wk, but expression of nestin and α-actinin was unchanged. Abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis was not responsible for the glomerular injury. Mutant podocytes were incapable of synthesizing mature miRNA, as revealed by their loss of miR-30a. In contrast, expression of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cell miRNAs (miR-126 and miR-145, respectively) was unchanged. These findings demonstrate a critical role for miRNA in glomerular function and suggest a pathway that may participate in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases of podocyte origin. The unique architecture of podocytes may make them especially susceptible to cytoskeletal alterations initiated by aberrant miRNA dynamics. PMID:18776121

  1. Endothelin A receptor activation on mesangial cells initiates Alport glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Dufek, Brianna; Meehan, Daniel T; Delimont, Duane; Cheung, Linda; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Song, Wenping; Liu, Shiguang; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2016-08-01

    Recent work demonstrates that Alport glomerular disease is mediated through a biomechanical strain-sensitive activation of mesangial actin dynamics. This occurs through a Rac1/CDC42 cross-talk mechanism that results in the invasion of the subcapillary spaces by mesangial filopodia. The filopodia deposit mesangial matrix proteins in the glomerular basement membrane, including laminin 211, which activates focal adhesion kinase in podocytes culminating in the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases. These events drive the progression of glomerulonephritis. Here we test whether endothelial cell-derived endothelin-1 is up-regulated in Alport glomeruli and further elevated by hypertension. Treatment of cultured mesangial cells with endothelin-1 activates the formation of drebrin-positive actin microspikes. These microspikes do not form when cells are treated with the endothelin A receptor antagonist sitaxentan or under conditions of small, interfering RNA knockdown of endothelin A receptor mRNA. Treatment of Alport mice with sitaxentan results in delayed onset of proteinuria, normalized glomerular basement membrane morphology, inhibition of mesangial filopodial invasion of the glomerular capillaries, normalization of glomerular expression of metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines, increased life span, and prevention of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus endothelin A receptor activation on mesangial cells is a key event in initiation of Alport glomerular disease in this model.

  2. Increased olfactory bulb acetylcholine bi-directionally modulates glomerular odor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Bendahmane, Mounir; Ogg, M. Cameron; Ennis, Matthew; Fletcher, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    The glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) receives heavy cholinergic input from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) and expresses both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. However, the effects of ACh on OB glomerular odor responses remain unknown. Using calcium imaging in transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP2 in the mitral/tufted cells, we investigated the effect of ACh on the glomerular responses to increasing odor concentrations. Using HDB electrical stimulation and in vivo pharmacology, we find that increased OB ACh leads to dynamic, activity-dependent bi-directional modulation of glomerular odor response due to the combinatorial effects of both muscarinic and nicotinic activation. Using pharmacological manipulation to reveal the individual receptor type contributions, we find that m2 muscarinic receptor activation increases glomerular sensitivity to weak odor input whereas nicotinic receptor activation decreases sensitivity to strong input. Overall, we found that ACh in the OB increases glomerular sensitivity to odors and decreases activation thresholds. This effect, along with the decreased responses to strong odor input, reduces the response intensity range of individual glomeruli to increasing concentration making them more similar across the entire concentration range. As a result, odor representations are more similar as concentration increases. PMID:27165547

  3. Semaphorin3a regulates endothelial cell number and podocyte differentiation during glomerular development.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Kimberly J; Villegas, Guillermo; Teichman, Jason; Veron, Delma; Shen, Wa; Jimenez, Juan; Thomas, David; Tufro, Alda

    2009-12-01

    Semaphorin3a (Sema3a), a chemorepellant guidance protein, plays crucial roles in neural, cardiac and peripheral vascular patterning. Sema3a is expressed in the developing nephron, mature podocytes and collecting tubules. Sema3a acts as a negative regulator of ureteric bud branching, but its function in glomerular development has not been examined. Here we tested the hypothesis that Sema3a regulates glomerular vascular development using loss- and gain-of-function mouse models. Sema3a deletion resulted in defects in renal vascular patterning, excess endothelial cells within glomerular capillaries, effaced podocytes with extremely wide foot processes and albuminuria. Podocyte Sema3a overexpression during organogenesis resulted in glomerular hypoplasia, characterized by glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis, delayed and abnormal podocyte foot process development, a complete absence of slit diaphragms and congenital proteinuria. Nephrin, WT1 and VEGFR2 were downregulated in Sema3a-overexpressing kidneys. We conclude that Sema3a is an essential negative regulator of endothelial cell survival in developing glomeruli and plays a crucial role in podocyte differentiation in vivo. Hence, a tight regulation of Sema3a dosage is required for the establishment of a normal glomerular filtration barrier.

  4. Angiotensin II increases glomerular permeability by β-arrestin mediated nephrin endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Königshausen, Eva; Zierhut, Ulf M.; Ruetze, Martin; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Stegbauer, Johannes; Woznowski, Magdalena; Quack, Ivo; Rump, Lars C.; Sellin, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular permeability and subsequent albuminuria are early clinical markers for glomerular injury in hypertensive nephropathy. Albuminuria predicts mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. AT1 receptor blockers protect from albuminuria, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A blood pressure independent, molecular mechanism for angiotensin II (Ang II) dependent albuminuria has long been postulated. Albuminuria results from a defective glomerular filter. Nephrin is a major structural component of the glomerular slit diaphragm and its endocytosis is mediated by β-arrestin2. Ang II stimulation increases nephrin-β-arrestin2 binding, nephrin endocytosis and glomerular permeability in mice. This Ang II effect is mediated by AT1-receptors. AT1-receptor mutants identified G-protein signaling to be essential for this Ang II effect. Gαq knockdown and phospholipase C inhibition block Ang II mediated enhanced nephrin endocytosis. Nephrin Y1217 is the critical residue controlling nephrin binding to β-arrestin under Ang II stimulation. Nephrin Y1217 also mediates cytoskeletal anchoring to actin via nck2. Ang II stimulation decreases nephrin nck2 binding. We conclude that Ang II weakens the structural integrity of the slit diaphragm by increased nephrin endocytosis and decreased nephrin binding to nck2, which leads to increased glomerular permeability. This novel molecular mechanism of Ang II supports the use of AT1-receptor blockers to prevent albuminuria even in normotensives. PMID:28004760

  5. ((35)S)sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of ((35)S)-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. ((35)S) incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect ((35)S) incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences ((35)S) sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes.

  6. Effects of salt restriction on renal growth and glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lax, D S; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Dworkin, L D

    1992-06-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and infarction of two thirds of the left kidney. Rats were randomly assigned to ingest standard chow (REM) or a moderately salt restricted chow (LS). A third group of rats were fed the low salt diet and were injected with an androgen (LSA). Eight weeks after ablation, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were markedly increased in REM. This increase was prevented by the low salt diet, however, the antihypertrophic effect of the diet was overcome by androgen. Values for glomerular volume and capillary radius were similar in LSA and REM. Morphologic studies revealed that approximately 25% of glomeruli were abnormal in REM. Much less injury was observed in salt restricted rats, however, the protective effect of the low salt diet was significantly abrogated when renal growth was stimulated in salt restricted rats by androgen. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular pressure was elevated in all three groups and not affected by diet or androgen. Serum cholesterol was also similar in the three groups. These findings indicate that renal and glomerular hypertrophy are correlated with the development of glomerular injury after reduction in renal mass and suggest that dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth.

  7. Resolution of the three dimensional structure of components of the glomerular filtration barrier

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB). The GFB had been thought to comprise 3 layers – the endothelium, the basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. However, recent studies have suggested that at least two additional layers contribute to the function of the GFB, the endothelial glycocalyx on the vascular side, and the sub-podocyte space on the urinary side. To investigate the structure of these additional layers is difficult as it requires three-dimensional reconstruction of delicate sub-microscopic (<1 μm) cellular and extracellular elements. Methods Here we have combined three different advanced electron microscopic techniques that cover multiple orders of magnitude of volume sampled, with a novel staining methodology (Lanthanum Dysprosium Glycosaminoglycan adhesion, or LaDy GAGa), to determine the structural basis of these two additional layers. Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used to generate a 3-D image stack with a volume of a 5.3 x 105 μm3 volume of a whole kidney glomerulus (13% of glomerular volume). Secondly, Focused Ion Beam milling Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) was used to image a filtration region (48 μm3 volume). Lastly Transmission Electron Tomography (Tom-TEM) was performed on a 0.3 μm3 volume to identify the fine structure of the glycocalyx. Results Tom-TEM clearly showed 20 nm fibre spacing in the glycocalyx, within a limited field of view. FIB-SEM demonstrated, in a far greater field of view, how the glycocalyx structure related to fenestrations and the filtration slits, though without the resolution of TomTEM. SBF-SEM was able to determine the extent of the sub-podocyte space and glycocalyx coverage, without additional heavy metal staining. Neither SBF- nor FIB-SEM suffered the anisotropic shrinkage under the electron beam that is seen with Tom-TEM. Conclusions These images demonstrate that the

  8. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, G.M.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Genie M; Diffendorfer, James E; Zedler, Paul H

    2009-12-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole.

  10. The clinical utility of kinetic glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In acutely unwell patients with rapidly changing renal function, estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and predicting adverse renal outcomes are challenging and often inaccurate. Kinetic GFR (kGFR) is an estimate of immediate biomarker clearance derived from two discreet measurements that may better represent acute function. Our objective is to assess the clinical utility of kGFR as a predictive tool and examine the association of kGFR to adverse renal outcomes compared with measurements to traditional estimates. Methods: We compared the association of kGFR and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) with acute kidney injury (AKI), renal replacement therapy (RRT), cardiovascular morbidity, 30-day mortality and new chronic kidney disease development. A total of 107 acute admissions to a medical high dependency and intensive care unit were assessed retrospectively. Creatinine measurements and outcomes were recorded and kGFR was calculated at the earliest possible time point. This was then compared with simultaneous MDRD estimated GFR. Results: Mean age was 60 years old, AKI occurred in 25% of patients, acute cardiovascular events occurred in 13%, RRT was initiated in 15% and 30-day mortality was 30%. kGFR predicted the AKI more accurately than MDRD [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.86 versus AUC = 0.64]. kGFR predicted the need for RRT more accurately than MDRD (AUC = 0.901 versus AUC = 0.79). Neither kGFR nor admission MDRD was associated with 30-day mortality or cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusions: Measuring kGFR in the acute setting could help clinicians better predict adverse renal outcomes.

  11. /sup 125/I iothalamate an ideal marker for glomerular filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Odlind, B.; Haellgren, R.S.; Sohtell, M.; Lindstroem, B.

    1985-01-01

    The triiodinated angiographic contrast medium, iothalamate (usually labelled /sup 125/I), has been used extensively as a marker for glomerular filtration. The authors have studied the renal handling of /sup 125/I iothalamate (IOT) in vivo and in vitro in several species. In renal cortical slices from chicken, rabbit, rat, and monkey, the tissue-to-medium ratio of IOT was twice that of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA (EDTA) at 37 degrees C; a difference that was abolished at 0 degree C and markedly reduced by added o-iodohippurate or iodipamide. In five chickens the steady-state renal clearance of IOT (CIOT) was twice that of EDTA (CEDTA) or /sup 3/H inulin (C1); a difference that was abolished by administration of 100 mg/kg/hr of novobiocin, an organic anion transport inhibitor. CEDTA was similar to C1 before as well as after transport inhibition. Utilizing the Sperber technique the mean apparent tubular excretion fraction (ATEF) of IOT was 8%, while that of EDTA was 1%. After novobiocin coinfusion (new steady-state) ATEFIOT was significantly reduced and not different from that of EDTA (-1%). In the same animals the total urinary recovery of IOT was 84 and 57% before and after novobiocin, respectively, while corresponding values for EDTA was unchanged by the inhibitor. In seven rats the renal extraction of IOT was reduced from 29 to 17% by coinfusion of probenecid (5 mg/kg/hr). Corresponding extractions were 82 to 34% and 22% (unchanged) for PAH and EDTA, respectively.

  12. Glomerular mesangial cells in vitro synthesize an aggregating proteoglycan immunologically related to versican.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G J; Bayliss, M T; Harper, K; Mason, R M; Davies, M

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mesangial cells derived from human adult glomeruli synthesize a number of 35S-labelled proteoglycans including a large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), two dermatan sulphate proteoglycans (biglycan and decorin) and two heparan sulphate proteoglycans [Thomas, Mason and Davies (1991) Biochem. J. 277, 81-88]. In the present study we have examined the interaction of these proteoglycans with hyaluronan (HA) using associative gel chromatography. Only the large CSPG bound to HA, with 60% of those molecules in the medium and 80% of those in the cell layer being able to interact. Reduction and alkylation, or treatment of the monomer CSPG with proteinases, prevented the formation of aggregates, suggesting that the core protein was involved. The aggregates formed between purified CSPG and HA could be dissociated in the presence of HA-oligosaccharides of at least 10 monosaccharides in length. The inclusion of link protein with CSPG and HA promoted the formation of aggregates. Experiments with 3H-labelled mesangial-cell proteoglycans confirmed that only the large CSPG, with core protein molecular masses of 400 kDa and 500 kDa, interacted with HA. After chondroitin ABC lyase treatment of CSPG isolated from conditioned culture medium, several bands similar to those observed with 3H-labelled core proteins were identified using a polyclonal antiserum that recognizes versican. A monoclonal antibody recognizing the 1-C-6 epitope in the G1 and G2 globular regions of aggrecan did not recognize either mesangial-cell CSPG or bovine aortic versican. Northern-blot analysis confirmed that human mesangial cells express versican. Thus human mesangial large CSPG is a member of the versican family of proteoglycans. The interaction of CSPG and HA within the glomerulus may be important in glomerular cell migration and proliferation. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8068022

  13. Gunnison sage-grouse lek site suitability modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Siders, Melissa; Childers, Theresa; Tucker, Karen; Seward, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand and protect species with minimal or decreasing populations, it is imperative to determine their actual existing population size. The focal species for this project is the Gunnison sage-grouse (GUSG), which became a proposed endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, thus confirming the need for better population estimates. Lek site counting during mating season has historically been the primary method for estimating population size since the grouse are very difficult to count at other times of the year. The objective of this project was to use historical data and available technology to identify additional potential lekking sites. This was done by determining areas throughout the study area that have the same landscape characteristics as those where known lekking activities occur. More accurate population counts could be the outcome of locating more lek sites. One of the remaining seven GUSG populations, the Crawford population (estimated at 128 individuals) exists in an area that includes the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area and the northern portion of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park (our study area). While the Crawford population is small, it is still considered a self-sustaining population; the persistence and growth of this population directly contribute to genetic diversity conservation of this declining species. To date, only observational and anecdotal information about the Crawford population’s range, movements, and seasonal habitat use exist. From 1978 to the present, GUSG population monitoring has been accomplished through annual lek counts conducted each spring during GUSG mating season. Although this method has provided information on GUSG population trends, it is somewhat limited because counts are based only on known lekking sites and historically minimal efforts have been made to identify additional lek sites. To meet the objective of locating more potential lekking sites, we used a

  14. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea)

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Stephan G.; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F.; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose–benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects. PMID:22194722

  15. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. )

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

  17. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  19. A comparison of SAGE 1, SBUV, and Umkehr ozone profiles including a search for Umkehr aerosol effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Grams, G. W.; Cunnold, D. M.; Deluisi, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a spatially weighted average for the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment 1 (SAGE 1) events derived from an autocorrelation analysis, 337 colocated SAGE 1 and Umkehr ozone profiles are found. The total column ozone in layers two through nine measured by SAGE 1 is found to be 4.6 + or - 1.3 percent higher at the 95 percent confidence level than the approximate total column ozone measured by Umkehr. Average layer ozone differences indicate that most of this discrepancy resides in the lower layers. Intercomparison of SAGE 1, Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV), and Umkehr ozone at stations north of 30 deg indicates that, in layer six, Umkehr values are consistently higher than both SAGE 1 and SBUV by about 10 percent. In layer eight, SBUV ozone is higher than both SAGE 1 and SBUV by about 10 percent. In the upper stratosphere, the SAGE 1-Umkehr ozone differences are small for low stratospheric aerosol optical depth cases, but vary from -3 percent in layer six to -8 percent in layer nine for high optical depth cases.

  20. Predators of Greater Sage-Grouse nests identified by video monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, P.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Delehanty, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nest predation is the primary cause of nest failure for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), but the identity of their nest predators is often uncertain. Confirming the identity of these predators may be useful in enhancing management strategies designed to increase nest success. From 2002 to 2005, we monitored 87 Greater Sage-Grouse nests (camera, N = 55; no camera, N = 32) in northeastern Nevada and south-central Idaho and identified predators at 17 nests, with Common Ravens (Corvus corax) preying on eggs at 10 nests and American badgers (Taxidea taxis) at seven. Rodents were frequently observed at grouse nests, but did not prey on grouse eggs. Because sign left by ravens and badgers was often indistinguishable following nest predation, identifying nest predators based on egg removal, the presence of egg shells, or other sign was not possible. Most predation occurred when females were on nests. Active nest defense by grouse was rare and always unsuccessful. Continuous video monitoring of Sage-Grouse nests permitted unambiguous identification of nest predators. Additional monitoring studies could help improve our understanding of the causes of Sage-Grouse nest failure in the face of land-use changes in the Intermountain West. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  1. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  2. RL-SAGE and microarray analysis of the rice defense transcriptome after Rhizoctonia solani infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, RNA isolated from R. solani-infected leaves of Jasmine 85 was used for both RL-SAGE library construction and microarra...

  3. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  4. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  5. Impacts of fire on sage-grouse habitat and diet resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small (<40.5-ha) patch fires or mechanical manipulations to reduce big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) cover has been suggested as a management option to improve sage-grouse prenesting and brood rearing habitat and provide a diverse habitat mosaic. We evaluated the effects of prescribed fire and wi...

  6. Assessing greater sage-grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural expansion, housing and energy developments, wildfires, and weedy plant invasions have led to loss and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats within the Intermountain West. Sagebrush-dependent species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are vulnerable t...

  7. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J N; Dedrick, Allison G; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C; Coates, Peter S; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  8. The impacts of fire on sage-grouse habitat and diet resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated six years of vegetation response following prescribed fire in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingensis) steppe on vegetation cover, the productivity and nutritional quality of forbs preferred by greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), and the abundance of c...

  9. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  10. PRESCRIBED BURNING IMPACTS ON SAGE GROUSE DIETARY RESOURCES IN EASTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire in sagebrush steppe can enhance composition and/or productivity of forage species and invertebrates important to sage grouse. Response to fire is, however, highly variable and dependent on site potential, species composition, pre and post fire weather, fire severity, and time since fire. We eva...

  11. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J. N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  12. The sage-grouse habitat mortgage: effective conifer management in space and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of conservation-reliant species can be complicated by the need to manage ecosystem processes that operate at extended temporal horizons. One such process is the role of fire in regulating abundance of expanding conifers that disrupt sage-grouse habitat in the northern Great Basin of the ...

  13. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  14. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  15. 78 FR 57604 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... and why. (9) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the areas occupied by the... climate change on the Gunnison sage-grouse and proposed critical habitat. (11) With respect to the... Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), E.O. 13211 (Energy, Supply, Distribution, and Use), and...

  16. SuperSAGE: the drought stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Carlos; Rotter, Björn; Horres, Ralf; Udupa, Sripada M; Besser, Bert; Bellarmino, Luis; Baum, Michael; Matsumura, Hideo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Drought is the major constraint to increase yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Improving drought tolerance is therefore of outmost importance for breeding. However, the complexity of the trait allowed only marginal progress. A solution to the current stagnation is expected from innovative molecular tools such as transcriptome analyses providing insight into stress-related gene activity, which combined with molecular markers and expression (e)QTL mapping, may accelerate knowledge-based breeding. SuperSAGE, an improved version of the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique, generating genome-wide, high-quality transcription profiles from any eukaryote, has been employed in the present study. The method produces 26 bp long fragments (26 bp tags) from defined positions in cDNAs, providing sufficient sequence information to unambiguously characterize the mRNAs. Further, SuperSAGE tags may be immediately used to produce microarrays and probes for real-time-PCR, thereby overcoming the lack of genomic tools in non-model organisms. Results We applied SuperSAGE to the analysis of gene expression in chickpea roots in response to drought. To this end, we sequenced 80,238 26 bp tags representing 17,493 unique transcripts (UniTags) from drought-stressed and non-stressed control roots. A total of 7,532 (43%) UniTags were more than 2.7-fold differentially expressed, and 880 (5.0%) were regulated more than 8-fold upon stress. Their large size enabled the unambiguous annotation of 3,858 (22%) UniTags to genes or proteins in public data bases and thus to stress-response processes. We designed a microarray carrying 3,000 of these 26 bp tags. The chip data confirmed 79% of the tag-based results, whereas RT-PCR confirmed the SuperSAGE data in all cases. Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the drought-response transcriptome of chickpea available to date. It demonstrates that – inter alias – signal transduction, transcription

  17. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  18. Cigarette Smoking and the Association with Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Proteinuria in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Isseki; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2, which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick. Results During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner. Conclusions In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions. PMID:21885794

  19. Effects of benidipine on glomerular hemodynamics and proteinuria in patients with nondiabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Takashi; Okumura, Michiaki; Konishi, Yoshio; Okada, Noriyuki; Imanishi, Masahito

    2002-07-01

    Experimental studies suggest that some long-acting calcium antagonists decrease glomerular hypertension and suppress the progression of nephropathy, but clinical evidence is lacking. To investigate clinically whether a long-acting calcium antagonist, benidipine, lowers glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure via a decrease in efferent arteriolar resistance and decreases proteinuria, we examined hypertensive patients with nondiabetic nephropathy. The subjects were 7 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis or glomerulosclerosis. Before and during the administration of benidipine (4 mg/day), systemic pressure, glomerular hemodynamics, the sodium sensitivity index (reciprocal of the pressure-natriuresis curve), and urinary excretion of proteins (total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin G) were investigated. The glomerular hemodynamics in terms of glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and resistance of afferent and efferent arterioles were calculated from the renal clearance, plasma total protein concentration, and pressure-natriuresis relationship. Benidipine lowered the mean arterial pressure from 105 +/-5 to 99 +/- 4 mm Hg (p = 0.002; mean +/- SD) and glomerular pressure from 48 +/- 8 to 39 +/- 5 mmHg (p = 0.006) by decreasing the resistance of efferent arterioles. Benidipine made the pressure-natriuresis curve steeper and decreased the median sodium sensitivity index from 0.099 (0.084 and 0.117; 25th and 75th percentiles) to 0.048 (0.017 and 0.058; p = 0.018). Urinary excretion of proteins did not change. Our clinical study showed that benidipine lowered the glomerular pressure by decreasing the resistance of efferent arterioles and decreased the sodium sensitivity of blood pressure, but did not affect proteinuria in patients with nondiabetic nephropathy.

  20. Effect of Acetazolamide on Obesity-Induced Glomerular Hyperfiltration: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Erman, Arie; Bar Sheshet Itach, Sarit; Ori, Yaacov; Rozen-Zvi, Benaya; Gafter, Uzi; Chagnac, Avry

    2015-01-01

    Aims Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease. One of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease is glomerular hyperfiltration. Increasing salt-delivery to the macula densa is expected to decrease glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by activating tubuloglomerular feedback. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor which inhibits salt reabsorption in the proximal tubule, increases distal salt delivery. Its effects on obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration have not previously been studied. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether administration of acetazolamide to obese non diabetic subjects reduces glomerular hyperfiltration. Materials and Methods The study was performed using a randomized double-blind crossover design. Obese non-diabetic men with glomerular hyperfiltration were randomized to receive intravenously either acetazolamide or furosemide at equipotent doses. Twelve subjects received the allocated medications. Two weeks later, the same subjects received the drug which they had not received during the first study. Inulin clearance, p-aminohippuric acid clearance and fractional lithium excretion were measured before and after medications administration. The primary end point was a decrease in GFR, measured as inulin clearance. Results GFR decreased by 21% following acetazolamide and did not decrease following furosemide. Renal vascular resistance increased by 12% following acetazolamide, while it remained unchanged following furosemide administration. Natriuresis increased similarly following acetazolamide and furosemide administration. Sodium balance was similar in both groups. Conclusions Intravenous acetazolamide decreased GFR in obese non-diabetic men with glomerular hyperfiltration. Furosemide, administered at equipotent dose, did not affect GFR, suggesting that acetazolamide reduced glomerular hyperfiltration by activating tubuloglomerular feedback

  1. Restoring forbs for sage grouse habitat: Fire, microsites, and establishment methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The decline and range reduction of sage grouse populations are primarily due to permanent loss and degradation of sagebrusha??grassland habitat. Several studies have shown that sage grouse productivity may be limited by the availability of certain preferred highly nutritious forb species that have also declined within sagebrush ecosystems of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of three species of forbs for revegetation projects where improving sage grouse habitat is a goal. Species suitability was determined by evaluating the emergence, survival, and reproduction of Crepis modocensis, C. occidentalis, and Astragalus purshii in response to method of establishment (seeding or transplanting), site preparation treatment (burned or unburned), and microsite (mound or interspace) in an Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis vegetation association in south central Oregon. For seeded plants A. purshii had the lowest emergence (8%) of all three species. Both seeded Crepis species had similar overall emergence (38%). Significantly more Crepis seedlings emerged from shrub mounds in unburned areas (50%) than in any other fire-by-microsite treatment (33 to 36%). Approximately 10% more Crepis seedlings survived in mounds compared with interspaces. Nearly twice as many emerging Crepis seedlings survived in the burned areas as opposed to unburned areas (p < 0.01). This resulted in more plant establishment in burned mounds despite higher emergence in unburned mounds. Astragalus purshii seedlings also survived better in burned areas (p = 0.06) but had no differential response to microsite. Fire enhanced survival of both Crepis and A. purshii transplants (p = 0.08 and p = 0.001). We believe additional research is needed to improve A. purshii emergence before it will become an effective plant for restoring sage grouse habitat. Conversely, we conclude that these Crepis species provide a viable revegetation option for improving sage

  2. Yearling greater sage-grouse response to energy development in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloran, M.J.; Kaiser, R.C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped greater sage-grouse and lek counts to investigate natural-gas development influences on 1) the distribution of, and 2) the probability of recruiting yearling males and females into breeding populations in the Upper Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, USA. Yearling males avoided leks near the infrastructure of natural-gas fields when establishing breeding territories; yearling females avoided nesting within 950 m of the infrastructure of natural-gas fields. Additionally, both yearling males and yearling females reared in areas where infrastructure was present had lower annual survival, and yearling males established breeding territories less often, compared to yearlings reared in areas with no infrastructure. Our results supply mechanisms for population-level declines of sage-grouse documented in natural-gas fields, and suggest to land managers that current stipulations on development may not provide management solutions. Managing landscapes so that suitably sized and located regions remain undeveloped may be an effective strategy to sustain greater sage-grouse populations affected by energy developments. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Lee, Kristine E; Klein, Barbara EK; Muntner, Paul; Brazy, Peter C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nieto, F Javier; Danforth, Lorraine G; Schubert, Carla R; Tsai, Michael Y; Klein, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample. Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women). We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG) equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L. Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 by the MDRD equation had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was only 1 mg/L (interquartile range, 0.9–1.2 mg/L). This finding was similar for the CG equation. For the Mayo equation, 62.8% of those patients with GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was 1.3 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.2–1.5 mg/L). The MDRD and CG equations showed a false-positive rate of >10%. Discussion: We found that the MDRD and CG equations, the current standard to estimate GFR, appeared to overestimate the prevalence of CKD in a general population sample. PMID:20730018

  4. Improved Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunong; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jinxia; Lv, Linsheng; Ma, Huijuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weihong; Lou, Tanqi

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) is of critical importance in clinical practice. A previous study showed that models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) could achieve a better performance than traditional equations. However, large-sample cross-sectional surveys have not resolved questions about ANN performance. Methods A total of 1,180 patients that had chronic kidney disease (CKD) were enrolled in the development data set, the internal validation data set and the external validation data set. Additional 222 patients that were admitted to two independent institutions were externally validated. Several ANNs were constructed and finally a Back Propagation network optimized by a genetic algorithm (GABP network) was chosen as a superior model, which included six input variables; i.e., serum creatinine, serum urea nitrogen, age, height, weight and gender, and estimated GFR as the one output variable. Performance was then compared with the Cockcroft-Gault equation, the MDRD equations and the CKD-EPI equation. Results In the external validation data set, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the precision of the six-variable GABP network was the highest among all of the estimation models; i.e., 46.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. a range from 71.3 to 101.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, allowing improvement in accuracy (15% accuracy, 49.0%; 30% accuracy, 75.1%; 50% accuracy, 90.5% [P<0.001 for all]) and CKD stage classification (misclassification rate of CKD stage, 32.4% vs. a range from 47.3% to 53.3% [P<0.001 for all]). Furthermore, in the additional external validation data set, precision and accuracy were improved by the six-variable GABP network. Conclusions A new ANN model (the six-variable GABP network) for CKD patients was developed that could provide a simple, more accurate and reliable means for the estimation of GFR and stage of CKD than traditional equations. Further validations are needed to assess the ability of the ANN model in diverse

  5. Haematuria as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression in glomerular diseases: A review.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Antonio; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Sevillano, Ángel M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. KEY SUMMARY POINTS: 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended.

  6. Glomerular diseases outcome at one year in a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Huma Mamun; Kumar, Darshan; Irum, Humera; Farman Ali, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine outcome in primary and secondary glomerular diseases at one year follow up. Methods: Study design is observational cohort, done in out-patient department, Dow Iinternational Medical College, DUHS. All information gathered on a proforma. All patients with dipstick positive proteinuria and clinical glomerular disease were included in study. Patients with no proteinuria were excluded so were patients with stage 5 CKD. Patients were followed for proteinuria and renal insufficiency at completion of one year follow up. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS version 16. Result: Total number of patients who completed one year follow up was 173. Mean age of patients was 51.67+ 10.16 (range 15 to 75 years). Ninety two (53.2%), were males and 81(46.8%) were females, ratio being 1.1: 1.0. Mean weight of our patients was 67.43+ 14.13 Kg, (35 to 107 kg). Commonest cause of glomerular disease in our patient was diabetic nephropathy which was seen in 94.2% patients. Commonest associated problem with glomerular disease was hypertension seen in 66.5% of patients. Four out of 173 patients had stage 5 CKD at end of follow up at one year while quantitativ proteinuria remained same at one year follow up. Conclusion: One year follow up is critical for patients with glomerular disease associated with stage 4 CKD as progression to end stage renal failure may be seen within one year in these patients. PMID:26101512

  7. Podocyte-associated talin1 is critical for glomerular filtration barrier maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xuefei; Kim, Jin Ju; Monkley, Susan M.; Gotoh, Nanami; Nandez, Ramiro; Soda, Keita; Inoue, Kazunori; Balkin, Daniel M.; Hassan, Hossam; Son, Sung Hyun; Lee, Yashang; Moeckel, Gilbert; Calderwood, David A.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Critchley, David R.; Zent, Roy; Reiser, Jochen; Ishibe, Shuta

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are specialized actin-rich epithelial cells that line the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. The interface between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane requires integrins, and defects in either α3 or β1 integrin, or the α3β1 ligand laminin result in nephrotic syndrome in murine models. The large cytoskeletal protein talin1 is not only pivotal for integrin activation, but also directly links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we found that mice lacking talin1 specifically in podocytes display severe proteinuria, foot process effacement, and kidney failure. Loss of talin1 in podocytes caused only a modest reduction in β1 integrin activation, podocyte cell adhesion, and cell spreading; however, the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes was profoundly altered by the loss of talin1. Evaluation of murine models of glomerular injury and patients with nephrotic syndrome revealed that calpain-induced talin1 cleavage in podocytes might promote pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of calpain activity following glomerular injury substantially reduced talin1 cleavage, albuminuria, and foot process effacement. Collectively, these findings indicate that podocyte talin1 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and provide insight into the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24531545

  8. Nephritogenic lupus antibodies recognize glomerular basement membrane-associated chromatin fragments released from apoptotic intraglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2006-06-01

    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  9. Effects of Therapy on Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Nondiabetic Glomerular Diseases with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Vanavanan, Somlak; Chittamma, Anchalee; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Lertrit, Amornpan; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya

    2016-01-01

    Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is widely used as a biomarker for acute kidney injury. Cross-sectional studies have shown that NGAL may be elevated in glomerular diseases, but there is limited information on the value of NGAL in predicting treatment response or on the changes of NGAL levels after therapy. We prospectively evaluated the effects of therapy on NGAL in nondiabetic glomerular diseases. Urine NGAL was collected at biopsy and follow-up at 12 months. At baseline, NGAL in glomerular disease patients (n = 43) correlated with proteinuria, but not with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers and/or immune modulating agents, change of NGAL correlated with change of proteinuria, but not with change of GFR. NGAL at baseline was not different between patients in complete remission (CR) at follow-up compared to those not in remission (NR). Compared to baseline, NGAL at follow-up decreased in CR (n = 10), but not in NR. Change of NGAL was greater in CR than NR. In conclusion, the change of urine NGAL correlated with the change of proteinuria. Baseline NGAL was not a predictor of complete remission. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role of NGAL as a predictor of long term outcome in proteinuric glomerular diseases. PMID:27525120

  10. A nanoporous surface is essential for glomerular podocyte differentiation in three-dimensional culture

    PubMed Central

    Zennaro, Cristina; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Bakeine, Gerald James; Delfino, Riccarda; Tonon, Federica; Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Gabriele; Artero, Mary; Tormen, Massimo; Carraro, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well recognized that cell–matrix interactions are based on both molecular and geometrical characteristics, the relationship between specific cell types and the three-dimensional morphology of the surface to which they are attached is poorly understood. This is particularly true for glomerular podocytes – the gatekeepers of glomerular filtration – which completely enwrap the glomerular basement membrane with their primary and secondary ramifications. Nanotechnologies produce biocompatible materials which offer the possibility to build substrates which differ only by topology in order to mimic the spatial organization of diverse basement membranes. With this in mind, we produced and utilized rough and porous surfaces obtained from silicon to analyze the behavior of two diverse ramified cells: glomerular podocytes and a neuronal cell line used as a control. Proper differentiation and development of ramifications of both cell types was largely influenced by topographical characteristics. Confirming previous data, the neuronal cell line acquired features of maturation on rough nanosurfaces. In contrast, podocytes developed and matured preferentially on nanoporous surfaces provided with grooves, as shown by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton stress fibers and the proper development of vinculin-positive focal adhesions. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that in vitro studies regarding podocyte attachment to the glomerular basement membrane should take into account the geometrical properties of the surface on which the tests are conducted because physiological cellular activity depends on the three-dimensional microenvironment. PMID:27757030

  11. Analysis of mRNA With Microsomal Fractionation Using a SAGE-Based DNA Microarray System Facilitates Identification of the Genes Encoding Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda , Nobuaki; Nagai, Shigenori; Terashima, Yuya; Motomura, Kazushi; Haino, Makoto; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Takizawa, Hajime; Matsushima, Kouji

    2003-01-01

    In the regulation of host defense responses such as inflammation and immunity, the secretory proteins, including membrane proteins, play central roles. Although many secretory proteins have been identified by using methods such as differential display, random screening, or the signal sequence trap method, each method suffers from poor reproducibility, low sensitivity, or time-consuming or laborious work. Therefore, the strategy for facilitating the selection of the genes encoding the secretory proteins is desired. In this paper, we describe a system for isolating the genes encoding secretory proteins by analyzing mRNAs with microsomal fractionation on serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)–based DNA microarray system. This system succeeded in discriminating the genes encoding secretory proteins from ones encoding nonsecretory proteins with 80% accuracy. We applied this system to human T lymphocytes. As a result, we were able to identify the genes that are not only encoding secretory proteins but also expressing selectively in a specific subset of T lymphocytes. The SAGE-based DNA microarray system is a promising system to identify the genes encoding specific secretory proteins. PMID:12805275

  12. Applicability of estimating glomerular filtration rate equations in pediatric patients: comparison with a measured glomerular filtration rate by iohexol clearance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fang; Finer, Gal; Haymond, Shannon; Brooks, Ellen; Langman, Craig B

    2015-03-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has become popular in clinical medicine as an alternative to measured GFR (mGFR), but there are few studies comparing them in clinical practice. We determined mGFR by iohexol clearance in 81 consecutive children in routine practice and calculated eGFR from 14 standard equations using serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urea nitrogen that were collected at the time of the mGFR procedure. Nonparametric Wilcoxon test, Spearman correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, bias (median difference), and accuracy (P15, P30) were used to compare mGFR with eGFR. For the entire study group, the mGFR was 77.9 ± 38.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Eight of the 14 estimating equations demonstrated values without a significant difference from the mGFR value and demonstrated a lower bias in Bland-Altman analysis. Three of these 8 equations based on a combination of creatinine and cystatin C (Schwartz et al. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20:629-37; Schwartz et al. Improved equations estimating GFR in children with chronic kidney disease using an immunonephelometric determination of cystatin C. Kidney Int 2012;82:445-53; Chehade et al. New combined serum creatinine and cystatin C quadratic formula for GFR assessment in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014;9:54-63) had the highest accuracy with approximately 60% of P15 and 80% of P30. In 10 patients with a single kidney, 7 with kidney transplant, and 11 additional children with short stature, values of the 3 equations had low bias and no significant difference when compared with mGFR. In conclusion, the 3 equations that used cystatin C, creatinine, and growth parameters performed in a superior manner over univariate equations based on either creatinine or cystatin C and also had good applicability in specific pediatric patients with single kidneys, those with a kidney transplant, and short stature. Thus, we suggest that eGFR calculations in pediatric clinical practice

  13. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow injection fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Lu, Yingjian; Sheng, Yi; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-03-27

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The individual components in the sage samples were also characterized with an ultraperformance liquid chromatograph with a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC Q-TOF MS). The results suggested that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints combined with PCA could differentiate organic and conventional sage samples effectively. FIMS may serve as a quick test capable of distinguishing organic and conventional sages in 1 min and could potentially be developed for high-throughput applications, whereas HPLC fingerprints could provide more chemical composition information with a longer analytical time.

  14. DC-8 and ER-2 in Sweden for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 48 second video shows Dryden's Airborne Science aircraft in Kiruna Sweden in January 2000. The DC-8 and ER-2 conducted atmospheric studies for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE).

  15. The effect of harvest periods on the chemical compositions of essential oils of sage (Salvia aucheri L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Guilles; Chalchat, Jean Claude; Chalard, Pierre; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of sage leaves (Salvia aucheri Bentham var. canescens Boiss. & Heldr.), growing wild in South Anatolia, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the essential oils from sage leaves harvested at different years were 1.0%, 1.3%, 1.3%, 1.0%, 1.4%, 1.5% and 1.2%, respectively. In this study, 1,8-cineole, camphre, camphene α-pinene and β-pinene were identified as the major components of sage leaves collected at different periods. The main constituents of sage oil collected over the years were 1,8-cineole (35.01-48.06%), camphre (13.58-23.92%), camphene (6.77-8.82%), α-pinene (5.79-8.54%) and β-pinene (4.32-6.28%).

  16. Structural and oxidative stabilization of spray dried fish oil microencapsulates with gum arabic and sage polyphenols: Characterization and release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Jeyakumari, A; Muhamed Ashraf, P; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-03-15

    The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE). Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images revealed uniform encapsulates with good sphericity and smooth surface for SOE, compared to FOE powder. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates indicated negligible oil release in buffered saline whereas more than 80% of the oil loaded in encapsulates were released in simulated GI fluids. The encapsulates containing sage extract showed a lower rate of lipid oxidation during storage.

  17. Glomerular ANF receptor regulation during changes in sodium and water metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gauquelin, G; Garcia, R; Carrier, F; Cantin, M; Gutkowska, J; Thibault, G; Schiffrin, E L

    1988-01-01

    The concentration of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in atria and plasma was investigated in relation to the regulation of renal glomerular ANF receptors in the rat during changes in water and sodium intake. A decrease in plasma immunoreactive ANF (IR-ANF) was observed after 4 days of water deprivation or after 1 wk on a low-sodium diet, whereas animals offered 1% NaCl in their drinking water had elevated plasma ANF values. Atrial IR-ANF was lower in water-deprived and higher in sodium-restricted rats than in their respective controls. A low-sodium intake or water deprivation increased the density of glomerular ANF receptors, whereas the inverse occurred with a high-salt consumption. It is concluded that an inverse correlation exists between ANF plasma concentration and renal glomerular ANF receptor sites.

  18. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Spino, M.; Chai, R.P.; Isles, A.F.; Balfe, J.W.; Brown, R.G.; Thiessen, J.J.; MacLeod, S.M.

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine renal function in 10 healthy control subjects and eight patients with cystic fibrosis in stable condition. Sequential bolus injections of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 125/I-OIH were administered to assess glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow, respectively. Blood was subsequently collected for 3 hours, and urine for 24 hours. Renal clearances of both radioisotope markers were virtually identical in patients and controls. Inasmuch as neither glomerular filtration rate nor effective renal plasma flow was enhanced in patients with cystic fibrosis, increased clearance of drugs in these patients is unlikely to be the result of enhanced glomerular filtration or tubular secretion.

  19. Odorant response properties of individual neurons in an olfactory glomerular module

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shu; Fletcher, Max L.; Homma, Ryota; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Nagayama, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neuronal networks that are directly associated with glomeruli in the olfactory bulb are thought to comprise functional modules. However, this has not yet been experimentally proven. In this study, we explored the anatomical and functional architecture of glomerular modules using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging. Surprisingly, the deep portions of the glomerular modules showed considerable spatial overlap with other modules. Juxtaglomerular cells showed similar excitatory odorant response profiles to presynaptic olfactory sensory neuron inputs. Mitral cells exhibited a more sharply tuned molecular receptive range compared to juxtaglomerular cells, and their odorant response profiles varied depending on their interneuronal horizontal distances. These data suggest that glomerular modules are composed of functionally distinct neurons, and that homogenous odor inputs to each glomerulus may be parsed and processed in different fashions within the modules before being sent to higher olfactory centers. PMID:23522047

  20. A comparison of cirrus clouds determined by ISCCP and SAGE-II and their relation to convection in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Results of tropical thin cirrus cloud retrievals using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gaseous Experiment (SAGE-II) data from January 1985 are presented. A preliminary analysis of the results shows that thin cirrus increases with increasing height in both data sets, and SAGE-II exhibits a high frequency of occurrence. The thin cirrus extinction coefficient shows maxima around the convective regions of South America and the western Pacific Ocean.

  1. Role of enhanced glomerular synthesis of thromboxane A2 in progressive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Salvati, P; Ferti, C; Ferrario, R G; Lamberti, E; Duzzi, L; Bianchi, G; Remuzzi, G; Perico, N; Benigni, A; Braidotti, P

    1990-09-01

    Normotensive rats of the Milan strain (MNS) spontaneously develop focal glomerulosclerosis. In order to explore the contribution of glomerular thromboxane (TX) A2 synthesis to the development of the disease, we have characterized the time course of renal functional and biochemical changes, and their modification by long-term treatment with a TX-synthase inhibitor. Oral administration (150 mg.kg-1 from 1 to 14 months of age) of FCE 22178 suppressed enhanced glomerular TXB2 production at all experimental times (mean inhibition 80%) and proteinuria (varying between 27.1 and 73.0%) while preserving renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. These effects of TX-synthase inhibition were seen in the absence of any statistically significant changes in systemic blood pressure. Moreover, FCE 22178 had no antihypertensive effects in hypertensive rats of the Milan strain (MHS) nor in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Treatment also prevented the age-related hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia observed in control MNS and significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced glomerular histologic damage, as demonstrated by light microscopy studies and measurement of sclerotic area. We conclude that: 1) MNS rats provide an animal model of long-lasting proteinuria characterized by an age-related increase in glomerular TXB2 production paralleled by progressive loss of renal structural integrity and function and by a secondary dyslipidemia; 2) pharmacological inhibition of glomerular TX-synthase attenuates the structural as well as the functional expression of kidney disease, without a primary effect on systemic blood pressure. These data are suggestive of an important modulating role of TXA2 in the progression of MNS renal disease.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus detection in kidney biopsy specimens correlates with glomerular mesangial injury.

    PubMed

    Iwama, H; Horikoshi, S; Shirato, I; Tomino, Y

    1998-11-01

    To determine the relationship between the detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific DNA and glomerular injury, 33 renal needle-biopsy specimens that had been formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with subsequent nonradioactive Southern blot technique. Light microscopic examination and immunofluorescence were also performed. In 30 of 33 renal biopsy specimens, the beta globin gene could be successfully amplified as integrity controls. These 30 patients consisted of 12 patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), 10 patients with minor glomerular abnormalities, 6 patients with membranous nephropathy, and 2 patients with focal/segmental lesions. EBV was detected in 7 of 12 patients with IgAN (58%), 3 of 6 patients with membranous nephropathy (50%), 0 of 10 patients with minor glomerular abnormalities (0%), and 2 of 2 patients with focal/segmental lesions. EBV detection was not disease specific. The EBV detection ratio of the group with glomerular mesangial lesions (64%; 9 of 14 patients) was significantly greater than those without (19%; 3 of 16 patients; P < 0.012, chi-square test). The EBV detection ratio of the group with glomerular lesions (60%; 12 of 20 patients) was significantly greater than those without (0%; 0 of 10 patients; P < 0.0016, Fisher's exact test), and the EBV detection ratio of the group with fibrinogen deposits observed in immunofluorescence (73%; 11 of 15 patients) was significantly greater than those without (7%; 1 of 15 patients; P < 0.0002, chi-square test). The EBV detection ratio of the group with immunoglobulin deposits (57%; 12 of 21 patients) was also significantly greater than those without (0%; 0 of 9 patients; P < 0.0040, Fisher's exact test). These data suggest that EBV can damage the glomerular mesangium beyond disease units and be mediated by immunoglobulin in patients with various chronic glomerulonephritides.

  3. Changes in glomerular hemodynamic response to angiotensin II after subacute renal denervation in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, B J; Mundy, C A; Maciejewski, A R; Printz, M P; Ziegler, M G; Pelayo, J C; Blantz, R C

    1986-01-01

    We examined the changes in glomerular hemodynamics produced by angiotensin II (AII) in both normal Munich-Wistar rats and rats which were unilaterally renal denervated (measured kidney) 4-6 d prior to the measurement periods. Measurements of glomerular dynamics were performed in a control period after plasma volume expansion and during infusion of 11 ng X 100 g body wt-1 X min-1 of AII. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient increased from 38 +/- 1 to 49 +/- 1 mmHg in denervated rats compared with a lesser response in controls (from 39 +/- 1 to 45 +/- 1 mmHg, P less than 0.05). Single nephron plasma flow decreased from 213 +/- 17 to 87 +/- 4 nl X min-1 X g kidney wt (KW)-1 in denervated kidneys versus a more modest decrease in control kidneys (from 161 +/- 9 to 102 +/- 5 nl X min X gKW-1). These changes were due to a greater increase in both afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance after AII infusion in denervated compared with control kidneys. Glomerular AII receptor maximum binding was 1,196 +/- 267 fmol/mg protein in denervated kidneys compared with 612 +/- 89 fmol/mg protein (P less than 0.01) in controls with no change in receptor affinity. We conclude the subacute unilateral renal denervation results in renal vasodilation, denervation magnifies the vasoconstrictive effect of AII infusion on glomerular hemodynamics, and the observed increased response to AII after denervation is associated with increases in glomerular AII receptors. PMID:3745432

  4. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

    1985-12-01

    The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of

  5. Correlation between glomerular filtration rate and urinary N acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase in children with persistent proteinuria in chronic glomerular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Deok

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Urinary excretion of N acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-M) was increased in the presence of proximal tubular damage. Based on these urinary materials, we investigated the ability of expecting renal function in chronic glomerular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) urinary NAG, and urinary β2-M. Methods We evaluated 52 children with chronic kidney disease at the Chung-Ang University Hospital between January 2003 and August 2009. We investigated the 24-hour urinalysis and hematologic values in all 52 patients. Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (Ccr), serum cystatin C, urinary β2-M and urinary NAG were measured. Results Out of 52 patients, there were 13 children with minimal change in disease, 3 children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 17 children with immunoglobulin A nephropathy, 15 children with Henoch-Schönlein purpua nephritis, 3 children with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and 1 child with thin glomerular basement membrane disease. In these patients, there were significant correlation between the Ccr and urinary NAG (r=-0.817; P<0.01), and between the GFR (as determined by Schwartz method) and urinary NAG (r=-0.821; P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the GFR (as determined by Bokencamp method) and urinary NAG (r=-0.858; P<0.01). Conclusion In our study, there was a significant correlation between the GFR and urinary NAG, but there was no correlation between the GFR and urinary β2-M, suggesting that the GFR can be predicted by urinary NAG in patients with chronic glomerular disease. PMID:22574074

  6. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC point source classification in SAGE-Spec (Woods+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, P. M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Kemper, F.; van Loon, J. T.; Sargent, B. A.; Matsuura, M.; Szczerba, R.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O.; Gorjian, V.; Kraemer, K. E.; Gielen, C.; Meixner, M.; Blum, R. D.; Sewilo, M.; Riebel, D.; Shiao, B.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Boyer, M. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Antoniou, V.; Bernard, J.-P.; Cohen, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gordon, K. D.; Harris, J.; Hony, S.; Hora, J. L.; Kawamura, A.; Lawton, B.; Leisenring, J. M.; Madden, S.; Marengo, M.; McGuire, C.; Mulia, A. J.; O'Halloran, B.; Olsen, K.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Reach, W. T.; Rubin, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Soszynski, I.; Speck, A. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Aarle, E.; van Dyk, S. D.; van Winckel, H.; Vijh, U. P.; Whitney, B.; Wilkins, A. N.

    2011-09-01

    We present the classification of 197 point sources observed with the Infrared Spectrograph in the SAGE-Spec Legacy programme on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We introduce a decision-tree method of object classification based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, which is used to classify the SAGE-Spec sample of point sources. The decision tree has a broad application to mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys, where supporting photometry and variability information are available. We use these classifications to make deductions about the stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the success of photometric classification methods. We find 90 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 29 young stellar objects, 23 post-AGB objects, 19 red supergiants, eight stellar photospheres, seven background galaxies, seven planetary nebulae, two HII regions and 12 other objects, seven of which remain unclassified. (1 data file).

  8. An intercomparison of ozone profile measurements from LIMS, SAGE, and SBUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Wong, C. K.; Klenk, K. F.

    1983-01-01

    Ozone profile measurements by the Limb IR Monitor of Stratosphere (LIMS) and the Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV) aboard the Nimbus satellite, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) aboard the AEM-2 satellite are intercompared in an effort to assess the quality of satellite ozone retrieval techniques. Good correlation between LIMS and SBUV observations is noted in the ozone layer bounded by pressures of 31.2-15.6 mb; absolute differences are generally less than 10 percent, with similar zonal variations. Above 35 km SAGE values are systematically larger than SBUV or LIMS. The differences generally increase with height and are largest in the tropics. Finally, excellent agreement is noted to exist among the three data sets between 10 and 35 km of altitude with respect to the latitude dependence of the ozone profiles.

  9. Modeling Manganese Silicate Inclusion Composition Changes during Ladle Treatment Using FactSage Macros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Kumar, Deepoo; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2017-02-01

    This work investigated the use of FactSage macros to simulate steel-slag and steel-inclusion reaction kinetics in silicon-manganese killed steels, and predict oxide inclusion composition changes during ladle treatment. These changes were assessed experimentally using an induction furnace to simulate deoxidation and slag addition. The average steel mass transfer coefficient for the experimental setup was calculated from the analyzed aluminum pick-up by steel. Average oxide inclusion composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the physical state (solid or liquid) of oxide inclusions in selected samples. The changes in the chemical compositions of the oxide inclusions and the steel agreed with the FactSage macro simulations.

  10. Performance and operation of Sage Spring Creek unit ''A'', Natrona County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.C.; Warren, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Sage Spring Creek Unit A was discovered in 1949, and produces from a fractured Dakota Sandstone. The field was under fluid expansion/solution gas drive primary recovery until a 5-injection well peripheral waterflood began in 1972. Injection rates were low to establish a flood front and prevent channeling. In 1978, a volumetric sweep program was initiated in 3 injection wells to divert injection into the lower permeability rock. Cationic and anionic polymers and aluminum citrate were injected to provide in-depth diversion of injection water. This work reviews field geology and development, characterizes the reservoir, evaluates secondary performance, and describes the design and benefits of the polymer program. Performance of the Sage Spring Creek Unit A confirms a high flood efficiency and superior oil recovery. The sweep improvement program is a technical and economic success.

  11. Nest-site selection by sage thrashers in southeastern Idaho. [Oreoscoptes montanus

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L. ); Best, L.B. )

    1991-09-01

    Nest sites selected by Sage Thrashers (Oreoscoptes montanus) were characterized and compared with available habitat. The study area, consisting of 25 ha of sagebrush shrubsteppe on the upper Snake River plain 11 km south of Howe, Idaho, is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Microhabitats within 5 m of nests had taller and more aggregated shrubs and less bare ground than the study area in general. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis) plants used for nesting were taller than average available shrubs, had greater foliage density, were more often living, and more frequently had branches and foliage within 30 cm of the ground. Nest placement was specific with respect to relative nest height and distance from the top and perimeter of the support shrub. Sage Thrashers disproportionately used easterly exposures and underused westerly exposures for their nests.

  12. The post-pinatubo evolution of stratospheric aerosol surface area density as inferred from SAGE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Thomason, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June of 1991, the aerosol mass loading of the stratosphere increased from -1 Mt to approximately 30 Mt. This change in aerosol loading was responsible for numerous radiative and chemical changes observed within the stratosphere. As a result, the ability to quantify aerosol properties on a global basis during this period is important. Aerosol surface area density is a critical parameter in governing the rates of heterogeneous reactions, such as ClONO2 plus H2O yields HNO3 plus HOCl, which influence the stratospheric abundance of ozone. Following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2) indicated that the stratospheric aerosol surface area density increased by as much as a factor of 100. Using SAGE 2 multi-wavelength aerosol extinction data, aerosol surface area density as well as mass are derived for the period following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo through the present.

  13. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  14. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  15. Identification of irradiated sage tea ( Salvia officinalis L.) by ESR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepe Çam, Semra; Engin, Birol

    2010-04-01

    The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to accurately distinguish irradiated from unirradiated sage tea was examined. Before irradiation, sage tea samples exhibit one asymmetric singlet ESR signal centered at g=2.0037. Besides this central signal, two weak satellite signals situated about 3 mT left and right to it in radiation-induced spectra. Irradiation with increasing doses caused a significant increase in radiation-induced ESR signal intensity at g=2.0265 (the left satellite signal) and this increase was found to be explained by a polynomial varying function. The stability of that radiation-induced ESR signal at room temperature was studied over a storage period of 9 months. Also, the kinetic of signal at g=2.0265 was studied in detail over a temperature range 313-353 K by annealing samples at different temperatures for various times.

  16. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  17. Greater sage-grouse population response to energy development and habitat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.L.; Naugle, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.

    2007-11-15

    Modification of landscapes due to energy development may alter both habitat use and vital rates of sensitive wildlife species. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, have experienced rapid, widespread changes to their habitat due to recent coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development. We analyzed lek-count, habitat, and infrastructure data to assess how CBNG development and other landscape features influenced trends in the numbers of male sage-grouse observed and persistence of leks in the PRB. From 2001 to 2005, the number of males observed on leks in CBNG fields declined more rapidly than leks outside of CBNG. Of leks active in 1997 or later, only 38% of 26 leks in CBNG fields remained active by 2004-2005, compared to 84% of 250 leks outside CBNG fields. By 2005, leks in CBNG fields had 46% fewer males per active lek than leks outside of CBNG. Persistence of 110 leks was positively influenced by the proportion of sagebrush habitat within 6.4 km of the lek. After controlling for habitat, we found support for negative effects of CBNG development within 0.8 km and 3.2 km of the lek and for a time lag between CBNG development and lek disappearance. Current lease stipulations that prohibit development within 0.4 km of sage-grouse leks on federal lands are inadequate to ensure lek persistence and may result in impacts to breeding populations over larger areas. Seasonal restrictions on drilling and construction do not address impacts caused by loss of sagebrush and incursion of infrastructure that can affect populations over long periods of time. Regulatory agencies may need to increase spatial restrictions on development, industry may need to rapidly implement more effective mitigation measures, or both, to reduce impacts of CBNG development on sage-grouse populations in the PRB.

  18. Pinyon and juniper encroachment into sagebrush ecosystems impacts distribution and survival of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian; Ricca, Mark; Gustafson, K. Ben; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems, encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; hereafter, “pinyon-juniper”) trees has increased dramatically since European settlement. Understanding the impacts of this encroachment on behavioral decisions, distributions, and population dynamics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and other sagebrush obligate species could help benefit sagebrush ecosystem management actions. We employed a novel two-stage Bayesian model that linked avoidance across different levels of pinyon-juniper cover to sage-grouse survival. Our analysis relied on extensive telemetry data collected across 6 yr and seven subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS), on the border of Nevada and California. The first model stage indicated avoidance behavior for all canopy cover classes on average, but individual grouse exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in avoidance behavior of the lowest cover class (e.g., scattered isolated trees). The second stage modeled survival as a function of estimated avoidance parameters and indicated increased survival rates for individuals that exhibited avoidance of the lowest cover class. A post hoc frailty analysis revealed the greatest increase in hazard (i.e., mortality risk) occurred in areas with scattered isolated trees consisting of relatively high primary plant productivity. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that local sage-grouse distributions and demographic rates are influenced by pinyon-juniper, especially in habitats with higher primary productivity but relatively low and seemingly benign tree cover. Such areas may function as ecological traps that convey attractive resources but adversely affect population vital rates. To increase sage-grouse survival, our model predictions support reducing actual pinyon-juniper cover as low as 1.5%, which is lower than the published target of 4.0%. These results may represent effects of pinyon

  19. The interpretation of SAGE II ozone measurements in the lower mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.C.A.

    1989-01-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle=90{degree}) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 km and 65 km altitude. Because of rapid conversion of atomic oxygen to ozone at sunset and the reverse at sunrise, the onion peeling assumption of constant ozone in the SAGE II retrievals is invalid in this altitude range. The observations are compared against predictions from a one-dimensional model by deriving simulated ozone profiles obtained by applying the onion peel procedure to model results. Good agreement between the observed and modeled sunrise/sunset ratios is then obtained. The results indicate that the SAGE II ozone retrievals overestimate by a factor of 1.3 at sunrise and 1.1 at sunset at 65 km (for example). Between 55 and 60 km altitude the Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the sunrise and sunset ratio, but between 60 and 65 km this ratio is affected by the destruction of O{sub x} by HO{sub x} during the first part of the night. SAGE II ozone profiles between 60 and 65 km altitude thus provide information on mesospheric HO{sub x} chemistry not only through profiles averages but also through the sunrise/sunset ratio. The observations, for example, indicate an OH concentration at 65 km altitude in the tropics an hour after dark of approximately 8x10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3}.

  20. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    PubMed

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  1. Weather, habitat composition, and female behavior interact to modify offspring survival in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel; Blomberg, Erik J; Atamian, Michael T; Sedinger, James S

    2017-01-01

    Weather is a source of environmental variation that can affect population vital rates. However, the influence of weather on individual fitness is spatially heterogeneous and can be driven by other environmental factors, such as habitat composition. Therefore, individuals can experience reduced fitness (e.g., decreased reproductive success) during poor environmental conditions through poor decisions regarding habitat selection. This requires, however, that habitat selection is adaptive and that the organism can correctly interpret the environmental cues to modify habitat use. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are an obligate of the sagebrush ecosystems of western North America, relying on sagebrush for food and cover. Greater Sage-Grouse chicks, however, require foods with high nutrient content (i.e., forbs and insects), the abundance of which is both temporally and spatially dynamic and related primarily to water availability. Our goal was to assess whether nest site selection and movements of broods by females reduced the negative effect of drought on offspring survival. As predicted, chick survival was negatively influenced by drought severity. We found that sage-grouse females generally preferred to nest and raise their young in locations where their chicks would experience higher survival. We also found that use of habitats positively associated with chick survival were also positively associated with drought severity, which suggests that females reduced drought impacts on their dependent young by selecting more favorable environments during drought years. Although our findings suggest that female nest site selection and brood movement rates can reduce the negative effects of drought on early offspring survival, the influence of severe drought conditions was not completely mitigated by female behavior, and that drought conditions should be considered a threat to Greater Sage-Grouse populati