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Sample records for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  2. Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Van Noorden, C J

    1984-01-01

    Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has found many applications in biomedical research. However, up to several years ago, the methods used often appeared to be unreliable because many artefacts occurred during processing and staining of tissue sections or cells. The development of histochemical methods preventing loss or redistribution of the enzyme by using either polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer or a semipermeable membrane interposed between tissue section and incubation medium, has lead to progress in the topochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Optimization of incubation conditions has further increased the precision of histochemical methods. Precise cytochemical methods have been developed either by the use of a polyacrylamide carrier in which individual cells have been incorporated before staining or by including polyvinyl alcohol in the incubation medium. In the present text, these methods for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for light microscopical and electron microscopical purposes are extensively discussed along with immunocytochemical techniques. Moreover, the validity of the staining methods is considered both for the localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in cells and tissues and for cytophotometric analysis. Finally, many applications of the methods are reviewed in the fields of functional heterogeneity of tissues, early diagnosis of carcinoma, effects of xenobiotics on cellular metabolism, diagnosis of inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, analysis of steroid-production in reproductive organs, and quality control of oocytes of mammals. It is concluded that the use of histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is of highly significant value in the study of diseased tissues. In many cases, the first pathological change is an increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    PubMed

    De Rose, Aldo Franco; Mantica, Guglielmo; Tosi, Mattia; Bovio, Giulio; Terrone, Carlo

    2016-10-05

    Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Avci, Fatma; Guzelay, Nihal

    2014-01-29

    Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-6-phosphogluconolactonase: a unique bifunctional enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Jortzik, Esther; Mailu, Boniface M; Preuss, Janina; Fischer, Marina; Bode, Lars; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2011-06-15

    The survival of malaria parasites in human RBCs (red blood cells) depends on the pentose phosphate pathway, both in Plasmodium falciparum and its human host. G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency, the most common human enzyme deficiency, leads to a lack of NADPH in erythrocytes, and protects from malaria. In P. falciparum, G6PD is combined with the second enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway to create a unique bifunctional enzyme named GluPho (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-6-phosphogluconolactonase). In the present paper, we report for the first time the cloning, heterologous overexpression, purification and kinetic characterization of both enzymatic activities of full-length PfGluPho (P. falciparum GluPho), and demonstrate striking structural and functional differences with the human enzymes. Detailed kinetic analyses indicate that PfGluPho functions on the basis of a rapid equilibrium random Bi Bi mechanism, where the binding of the second substrate depends on the first substrate. We furthermore show that PfGluPho is inhibited by S-glutathionylation. The availability of recombinant PfGluPho and the major differences to hG6PD (human G6PD) facilitate studies on PfGluPho as an excellent drug target candidate in the search for new antimalarial drugs.

  7. Dissimilar Deficiency of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) among the AFARS and the Somalis of Djibouti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    DEFICIENCY OF GLUCOSE - 6 - PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (G- 6 ...the prevalence of deficient activity of the enzyme glucose - 6 - phosphate dehydrogenase (G- 6 -PD) among - Ces difficiences enzymatiques sant plus particu...Screening for glucose - 6 - 3 - CaosBy W.H. - Hematologic diseases. In : I lunter’s Tropical phosphate dehydrogenase (G- 6 -PD) deficiency by a simple

  8. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency An estimated 400 million ...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  10. Fulminant hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moiz, Bushra; Ali, Sidra Asad

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder affecting some 400 million people worldwide. Though clinically silent, it may result in hemolysis on oxidative stress induced by drugs or infections. Viral hepatitis A with coexisting G6PD deficiency can be devastating associated with severe hemolysis, anemia, renal failure, and hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  16. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Costa, Mônica R F; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Brito, Marcelo A M; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2014-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: disadvantages and possible benefits.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Genesia; Masullo, Ugo; Passarelli, Stefania; Filosa, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    We review here some recent data about Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the housekeeping X-linked gene encoding the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a NADPH-producing dehydrogenase. This enzyme has been popular among clinicians, biochemists, geneticists and molecular biologists because it is the most common form of red blood cell enzymopathy. G6PD deficient erythrocytes do not generate NADPH in any other way than through the PPP and for this reason they are more susceptible than any other cells to oxidative damage. Moreover, this enzyme has also been of crucial importance in many significant discoveries; indeed, G6PD polymorphisms have been instrumental in studying X-inactivation in the human species, as well as in establishing the clonal nature of certain tumors. G6PD deficiency, generally considered as a mild and benign condition, is significantly disadvantageous in certain environmental conditions like in presence of certain drugs. Nevertheless, G6PD deficiency has been positively selected by malaria, and recent knowledge seems to show that it also confers an advantage against the development of cancer, reduces the risk of coronary diseases and has a beneficial effect in terms of longevity.

  18. The investigation of plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phoshogluconate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase in premenauposal patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Ozcicek, Fatih; Aktas, Mehmet; Türkmen, Kultigin; Coban, T Abdulkadir; Cankaya, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Iron is an essential element that is necessary for all cells in the body. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in both developed and developing countries. The glutathione pathway is paramount to antioxidant defense and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient cells do not cope well with oxidative damage. The goal of this study was to check the activities of G6PD, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase in patients with IDA. We analyzed the plasma samples of 102 premenopausal women with IDA and 88 healthy control subjects. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity as compared to the reduction of NADP +, glutathione reductase activity was performed based on the oxidation of NADPH. 2 ml of plasma were used in all analyzes. SPSS program was used for all of the statistical analysis. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in patients belonging to the analysis of blood were ferritin 3.60 ± 2.7 ng / mL, hemoglobin 9.4 ± 1.5 mg / dl and hematocrit 30.7 ± 4.1% ratio; in healthy subjects ferritin 53.5 ± 41.7 ng/ml, hemoglobin level 13.9 ± 1.3 mg / dl and hematocrit ratio 42 ± 3.53%. When compared to healthy subjects the glutathione reductase level (P<0.001) was found to be significantly higher in patients with IDA. IDA patients with moderate and severe anemia had lower GR activity when compared to IDA patients with mild anemia. But the plasma levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P<0,600) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (P<0,671) did not show any differences between healthy subjects and in patients with IDA. It was shown that Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase have no effect on iron-deficiency anemia in patients. The plasma GR levels of premenopausal women with IDA were found to be higher compared to healthy subjects, which could be secondary to erythrocyte protection against oxidative stress being commonly seen in IDA.

  19. Androgen-estrogen synergy in rat levator ani muscle Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of castration and hormone administration on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat levator ani muscle were studied. Castration caused a decrease in enzyme activity and in wet weight of the levator ani muscle. Chronic administration of testosterone propionate increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle of castrated rats; the magnitude of the recovery of enzyme activity was related to the length of time of exposure to testosterone propionate after castration as well as to the length of time the animals were castrated. The longer the period of castration before exposure to testosterone propionate, the greater the effect. This result may be related to previously reported castration-mediated increases in androgen receptor binding in muscle. Dihydrotestosterone was less effective than testosterone propionate in enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle from castrated rats; estradiol-17-beta alone was ineffective. Combined treatment with estradiol-17-beta and dihydrotestosterone, however, was as effective as testosterone alone. Thus, androgens and estrogens may exert synergistic effects on levator ani muscle.

  20. Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Bryan; Sharma, Aman; Shaikh, Saad

    2017-07-23

    We report a case of new onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a 63-year-old African-American male who presented with worsening night vision over a period of five years. The pathogenesis of G6PD-mediated oxidative biological damage is reviewed and a mechanism for the onset of retinal disease proposed.

  1. [Congenital hemolytic anemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Mura, M; Saidi, R; Wolf, A; Moalic, J L; Oliver, M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme defect with a wide range of clinical manifestations that can be severe. A variety of factors including many medications can induce hemolytic episodes. Screening for G6PD deficiency is required before use of some drugs especially primaquine or dapsone.

  2. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barretto, O C de O; Oshiro, M; Oliveira, R A G; Fedullo, J D L; Nonoyama, K

    2006-05-01

    In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 +/- 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 +/- 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH) in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa). The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 microM) for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 microM) were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively). A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  3. [Association of methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients treated with primaquine].

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli Stela; da Rocha, Marcos Antonio Ferreira; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Sardinha, José Felipe Jardim; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2007-01-01

    This study had the aim of investigating occurrences of methemoglobinemia among individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency during treatment for malaria infection using primaquine. Patients with a diagnosis of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or the V+F mixture (Plasmodium vivax + Plasmodium falciparum) were selected. Group 1 consisted of 74 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of methemoglobinemia and Group 2 consisted of 161 individuals without a clinical diagnosis of methemoglobinemia. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency rates (numbers of enzymopenic individuals) in Groups 1 and 2 were 51.3% (38) and 8.7% (14) respectively. These data demonstrated a statistically significant association with methemoglobinemia only among the individuals in Group 1 (p<0.05). Investigation of the relationship between methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency showed that there was a possible association such that enzymopenic individuals may develop methemoglobinemia more frequently.

  4. Ischaemic Priapism and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Mechanism of Increased Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed

    Morrison, B F; Thompson, E B; Shah, S D; Wharfe, G H

    2014-07-03

    Ischaemic priapism is a devastating urological condition that has the potential to cause permanent erectile dysfunction. The disorder has been associated with numerous medical conditions and the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents. The aetiology is idiopathic in a number of cases. There are two prior case reports of the association of ischaemic priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We report on a third case of priapism associated with G6PD deficiency and review recently described molecular mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of ischaemic priapism. The case report of a 32-year old Afro-Caribbean male with his first episode of major ischaemic priapism is described. Screening for common causes of ischaemic priapism, including sickle cell disease was negative. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was discovered on evaluation for priapism. Penile aspiration was performed and erectile function was good post treatment.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a cause for ischaemic priapism and should be a part of the screening process in idiopathic causes of the disorder. Increased oxidative stress occurs in G6PD deficiency and may lead to priapism.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  6. Drug-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-related hemolysis risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zuofeng; Nan, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an essential enzyme that protects human red blood cells from premature destruction caused by oxidative damage. People suffering from G6PD deficiency would be vulnerable to various oxidative substances, such as fava beans and oxidant drugs. Until now, many institutes, organizations or domain experts have compiled low-risk or high-risk drugs collection for patients with G6PD deficiency, mainly from the case report or clinical trails. Recently, we have explored a classification system to predict drug-induced hemolytic potential. In this paper, we screen the normally used over-the-counter (OTC) drugs for "high-risk" and "low-risk" ones to G6PD deficient patients by this system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Garassini, M E; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1994-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme related to the metabolism of glutation, an antioxidant agent. Its deficiency causes hemolisis, generally well tolerated. However there are some factors including, exercise, infections and oxidants drugs that stimulate the hemolisis of the older red blood cells. We report two patients with G6PD deficiency, that were initially diagnosed as acute viral hepatitis. Although this pathology is not frequent it should be recognized, for the implication of giving profilactic antimalaric drugs in endemic areas. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with unconjugated jaundice, always investigating the previous ingestion of oxidants drugs.

  8. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  9. Increased resistance to oxidative stress in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient hemolysates in the presence of enzyme substrates.

    PubMed

    Yücel, G; Yeşilkaya, A; Aksu, T A; Yeğin, A; Alicigüzel, Y

    1997-01-01

    Erythrocytes and hemolysates from 10 normal and 10 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals were incubated with cumene hydroperoxide, and free radical-induced lipid peroxidation was monitored by chemiluminescence. Chemiluminescence intensities in erythrocytes of normal and deficient subjects were similar in the presence or absence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase substrates. Hemolysates of normal and deficient subjects also showed similar chemiluminescence in the absence of substrates. However, with the addition of substrates to the incubation medium, deficient hemolysates reached maximum chemiluminescence intensity within a shorter period, and maximum values were higher than in normal hemolysates. We believe this offers a new means of detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient patients.

  10. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Netanya Y; Stanton, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase. Decreased G6PD activity and, as a result, decreased NADPH level have been associated with diabetic kidney disease, altered nitric oxide production, aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysfunction, and dialysis-associated anemia. Increased G6PD activity is associated with all cancers including kidney cancer. Inherited G6PD deficiency is the most common mutation in the world that is thought to be a relatively mild disorder primarily associated with anemia. Yet, intriguing studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in G6PD-deficient people. It is not known if G6PD-deficient people are at more risk for other diseases. Much more research needs to be done to determine the role of altered G6PD activity (inherited or acquired) in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Alzheimer's disease: Partners in crime? The hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ulusu, N Nuray

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifaceted brain disorder which involves various coupled irreversible, progressive biochemical reactions that significantly reduce quality of life as well as the actual life expectancy. Aging, genetic predispositions, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deficiencies in insulin signaling, dysfunction of mitochondria-associated membranes, cerebrovascular changes, high cholesterol level, increased oxidative stress and free radical formation, DNA damage, disturbed energy metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction, high blood pressure, obesity, dietary habits, exercise, social engagement, and mental stress are noted among the risk factors of this disease. In this hypothesis review I would like to draw the attention on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its relationship with Alzheimer's disease. This enzymopathy is the most common human congenital defect of metabolism and defined by decrease in NADPH+H(+) and reduced form of glutathione concentration and that might in turn, amplify oxidative stress due to essentiality of the enzyme. This most common enzymopathy may manifest itself in severe forms, however most of the individuals with this deficiency are not essentially symptomatic. To understand the sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the writer of this paper thinks that, looking into a crystal ball might not yield much of a benefit but glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could effortlessly give some clues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Yali; Wang, Xia; Li, Yingying; Jiang, Dongmei; Dai, Wei; Jiang, Yongmei

    2018-03-01

    Our goals were to screen newborns and characterize the occurrence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in southwestern China. Meanwhile, we would like to analyze the factors that might affect the results of neonatal dried blood spots for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase screening test, to improve the clinical quality control level, effectively reduce the external factors in the process of detection. This study involved an evaluation of G6PD data for 20,644 newborns from a universal newborn screening program. Heel prick blood specimens were collected around 72 hours after birth and were dried on filter papers. For G6PD deficiency the fluorescent spot test was employed. We studied the association between incidence of G6PD deficiency and influence factors. This study involved an evaluation of G6PD data for 20,644 neonatal heel prick blood samples from 10,984 males and 9,660 females. There were 503 positive results for G6PD deficiency (299 males and 204 females), and the G6PD deficiency-positive rate was estimated to be around 2.4%. The gender-specific prevalence for males was 2.7%, and for females 2.1%. Multiple factors may influence the result of the G6PD test, such as season, temperature, and specimen of indwelling time. This study analyzed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Sichuan, China. Accelerating the speed of sample delivery and ensuring availability of screening results can aid the screening and diagnosis.

  13. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Spring, Rachel; Schlaack, Hanna; Rice, Marilyn; Staat, Mary A; Quinn, Charles T

    2018-05-01

    There are conflicting guidelines about screening of internationally adopted children for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a common genetic disorder. In a multi-ethnic population of 2,169 internationally adopted children, we found that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 1.6% overall and 2.2% in males. Prevalence differed by country or region of origin, ranging from 0 to 13% overall and 0 to 22% in males. The prevalence in females was 1%. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency informs the treatment of malaria and enables education and counseling to prevent morbidity and mortality from G6PD deficiency. Screening for G6PD deficiency should be strongly considered for internationally adopted children. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Tandem dye-ligand chromatography and biospecific elution applied to the purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Y; Dean, P D

    1983-01-01

    1. A total of 65 immobilized triazine dyes were screened for their ability to purify the dual-nucleotide-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. From this screen a 'negative' (Matrex Gel Purple A) and a 'positive' (Matrex Gel Orange B) adsorbent were found to be the best in terms of overall purification and yield and were therefore combined to give the best purification. 2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides was purified approx. 56-fold in a two-step tandem chromatographic system using Matrex Gel Purple A followed by Matrex Gel Orange B chromatography to a specific activity of 228 units/mg of protein in a final yield of 73%. 3. A study of the elution characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to Matrex Gel Orange B by KCl (pulse and gradient) and biospecific eluents (pulse) was carried out. NADP+, NADPH and adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate were found to be the only effective biospecific eluents. A pulse of 50 microM-NADP+ (1/2 column vol.) was found to give a better purification than a 0-1 M-KCl gradient and therefore was the preferred method of elution. 4. Presaturation of the enzyme with various nucleotides was carried out to determine the effect on the subsequent binding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to Matrex Gel Orange B. The results of these and biospecific-elution studies lead us to propose two possible schemes to explain the mechanism of the dye-protein interaction. 5. Reusability, capacity of the adsorbent and effect of varying the ligand concentration were also studied in the purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on Matrex Gel Orange B. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6847623

  16. Tandem dye-ligand chromatography and biospecific elution applied to the purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    PubMed

    Hey, Y; Dean, P D

    1983-02-01

    1. A total of 65 immobilized triazine dyes were screened for their ability to purify the dual-nucleotide-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. From this screen a 'negative' (Matrex Gel Purple A) and a 'positive' (Matrex Gel Orange B) adsorbent were found to be the best in terms of overall purification and yield and were therefore combined to give the best purification. 2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides was purified approx. 56-fold in a two-step tandem chromatographic system using Matrex Gel Purple A followed by Matrex Gel Orange B chromatography to a specific activity of 228 units/mg of protein in a final yield of 73%. 3. A study of the elution characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to Matrex Gel Orange B by KCl (pulse and gradient) and biospecific eluents (pulse) was carried out. NADP+, NADPH and adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate were found to be the only effective biospecific eluents. A pulse of 50 microM-NADP+ (1/2 column vol.) was found to give a better purification than a 0-1 M-KCl gradient and therefore was the preferred method of elution. 4. Presaturation of the enzyme with various nucleotides was carried out to determine the effect on the subsequent binding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to Matrex Gel Orange B. The results of these and biospecific-elution studies lead us to propose two possible schemes to explain the mechanism of the dye-protein interaction. 5. Reusability, capacity of the adsorbent and effect of varying the ligand concentration were also studied in the purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on Matrex Gel Orange B.

  17. OCT Angiographic Findings in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shangjun; Choudhry, Netan

    2017-08-01

    Fovea plana (FP) describes the abnormal absence of the foveal pit in the retina. It is a sign that is associated with prematurity, albinism, and other ophthalmic disorders. The authors present the optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in a case of a 19-year-old male with FP and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is a very common condition that typically presents with hemolytic anemia and jaundice. G6PD deficiency is also known to affect vision, but these pathologies have been less well-characterized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of G6PD deficiency in FP. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:664-667.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase phenotypes in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, F A; Al-Allawi, N A; Rassam, M; Al-Shamma, G; Al-Hashimi, A

    2002-01-01

    We attempted to characterize biochemically glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Iraqi individuals. Thus 758 healthy Iraqi males aged 18-60 years were randomly selected and 46 (6.1%) were G6PD deficient. Although the predominant non-deficient G6PD phenotype was G6PD B (92.6%), G6PD A+ was found in polymorphic frequency (1.3%). In the deficient group, 31 cases were fully characterized, including 17 cases with features consistent with G6PD Mediterranean variant, while 12 had other biochemical features and were labelled as non-Mediterranean variant. The remaining two deficient cases were characterized as G6PD A- variant. The presence of a significant number of non-Mediterranean variant was unexpected and may be related to the more heterogeneous background of the Iraqi people.

  19. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elella, Soheir Abo; Tawfik, Mahaa; Barseem, Naglaa; Moustafa, Wafaa

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder which causes neonatal jaundice in most cases, and under certain conditions, can cause a spectrum of hemolytic manifestations. To determine the local prevalence of G6PD deficiency in newborns. Cross-sectional. University hospital. Infants born during 2015 were prospectively screened for G6PD deficiency. Dried blood spot samples on filter paper were collected in collaboration with the central laboratories of the Ministry of Health. Quantitative measurement of G6PD enzyme activity was measured from the blood samples using fluorometric analysis. A value.

  20. Genetic diversity of the "Mediterranean" glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency phenotype.

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Voigtlander, V; Kotsakis, P; Akrivakis, A

    1971-06-01

    Genetic diversity of the "Mediterranean" phenotype of G-6-PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency was revealed when detailed studies were performed on blood specimens from 79 Greek males with G-6-PD levels 0-10% of normal. Four different mutants were found to be responsible for the severely deficient phenotypes: two mutants. G-6-PD U-M (Union-Markham) and G-6-PD Orchomenos, were distinguishable by electrophoresis, while the other two. G-6-PD Athens-like and G-6-PD Mediterranean, were distinguishable on the basis of their kinetic characteristics. Of the kinetic tests applied, the most useful for differentiating the variants were those measuring utilization rates of the analogue substrates deamino-NADP, 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate, and galactose-6-phosphate. Among unrelated males with severe G-6-PD deficiency, the relative frequencies of the four variants were: G-6-PD U-M. 5%; G-6-PD Orchomenos, 7%; G-6-PD Athens-like, 16%; G-6-PD Mediterranean, 72%. Genetic, biochemical, and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase laboratory assay: How, when, and why?

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Giardina, Bruno; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common defect of red blood cells. Although some different laboratory techniques or methods are employed for the biochemical screening, a strict relationship between biochemists, clinicians, and molecular biologists is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. This article represents an overview on the current laboratory tests finalized to the screening or to the definitive diagnosis of G6PD-deficiency, underlying the problems regarding the biochemical and molecular identification of heterozygote females other than those regarding the standardization of the clinical and laboratory diagnostic procedures. Finally, this review is aimed to give a flow-chart for the complete diagnostic approach of G6PD-deficiency.

  2. Neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pao, Mritunjay; Kulkarni, Anjali; Gupta, Vidya; Kaul, Sushma; Balan, Saroja

    2005-10-01

    This study was carried out to detect the incidence of erythrocytic Glucose-6 -Phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, to compare the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in G-6-PD deficient neonates as compared to G-6-PD normal neonates and to asses the usefulness of neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency. In a retrospective hospital based study 2,479 male and female neonates consecutively born at Indraprastha Apollo hospital between July 1998 to June 2003 who were screened for G-6-PD levels were evaluated for the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency. Incidence of G-6-PD deficiency was found to be 2.0%. Incidence in males was 283% and female was 1.05%. The incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was found to be 32% in G-6-PD deficient neonates which was significantly higher than the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with normal G-6-PD, which was 12.3% (P< 0.001). Our data suggests that neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency is a useful test for preventing and early treatment of complications associated with it.

  3. The ALD6 gene product is indispensable for providing NADPH in yeast cells lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota; Chelstowska, Anna

    2003-04-18

    Reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH are essential for many enzymatic steps involved in the biosynthesis of cellular macromolecules. An adequate level of NADPH is also required to protect cells against oxidative stress. The major enzymatic source of NADPH in the cell is the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. Disruption of the ZWF1 gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in methionine auxotrophy and increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents. It is assumed that both phenotypes are due to an NADPH deficiency in the zwf1Delta strain. We used a Met(-) phenotype displayed by the zwf1Delta strain to look for multicopy suppressors of this deletion. We found that overexpression of the ALD6 gene coding for cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which utilizes NADP(+) as its cofactor, restores the Met(+) phenotype of the zwf1Delta strain. Another multicopy suppressor identified in our screen, the ZMS1 gene encoding a putative transcription factor, regulates the level of ALD6 expression. A strain bearing a double ZWF1 ALD6 gene disruption is not viable. Thus, our results indicate the reaction catalyzed by Ald6p as an important source of reducing equivalents in the yeast cells.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: not exclusively in males.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Leonie; Heylen, Evelien; van den Akker, Machiel

    2016-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, often presenting with neonatal jaundice and/or acute hemolytic anemia, triggered by oxidizing agents. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary disease, mainly affecting men, but should also be considered in females with an oxidative hemolysis.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

    2014-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADPH, and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. Many scientists think that the roles and regulation of G6PD in physiology and pathophysiology have been well established as the enzyme was first identified 80 years ago. And that G6PD has been extensively studied especially with respect to G6PD deficiency and its association with hemolysis, and with respect to the role G6PD plays in lipid metabolism. But there has been a growing understanding of the central importance of G6PD to cellular physiology as it is a major source of NADPH that is required by many essential cellular systems including the antioxidant pathways, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, cytochrome p450 system, and others. Indeed G6PD is essential for cell survival. It has also become evident that G6PD is highly regulated by many signals that affect transcription, post-translation, intracellular location, and interactions with other protein. Pathophysiologic roles for G6PD have also been identified in such disease processes as diabetes, aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, cancer, and others. It is now clear that G6PD is under complex regulatory control and of central importance to many cellular processes. In this review the biochemistry, regulatory signals, physiologic roles, and pathophysiologic roles for G6PD that have been elucidated over the past 20 years are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Janina; Jortzik, Esther; Becker, Katja

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is still one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. The high drug resistance rates of malarial parasites make its eradication difficult and furthermore necessitate the development of new antimalarial drugs. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria and therefore of special interest with regard to drug development. Plasmodium parasites are highly dependent on glucose and very sensitive to oxidative stress; two observations that drew interest to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) with its key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). A central position of the PPP for malaria parasites is supported by the fact that human G6PD deficiency protects to a certain degree from malaria infections. Plasmodium parasites and the human host possess a complete PPP, both of which seem to be important for the parasites. Interestingly, there are major differences between parasite and human G6PD, making the enzyme of Plasmodium a promising target for antimalarial drug design. This review gives an overview of the current state of research on glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in P. falciparum and its impact on malaria infections. Moreover, the unique characteristics of the enzyme G6PD in P. falciparum are discussed, upon which its current status as promising target for drug development is based. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Update and Analysis of New Mutations around the World

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; González-Valdez, Abigail; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC). Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein. PMID:27941691

  9. Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Rosemary; Ohrt, Colin; Baresel, Paul C; Campo, Brice; Sampath, Aruna; Magill, Alan J; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A

    2013-10-22

    Individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for the development of hemolytic anemia when given 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs), an important class of antimalarial/antiinfective therapeutics. However, there is no suitable animal model that can predict the clinical hemolytic potential of drugs. We developed and validated a human (hu)RBC-SCID mouse model by giving nonobese diabetic/SCID mice daily transfusions of huRBCs from G6PD-deficient donors. Treatment of SCID mice engrafted with G6PD-deficient huRBCs with primaquine, an 8-AQ, resulted in a dose-dependent selective loss of huRBCs. To validate the specificity of this model, we tested known nonhemolytic antimalarial drugs: mefloquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, and pyrimethamine. No significant loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs was observed. Treatment with drugs known to cause hemolytic toxicity (pamaquine, sitamaquine, tafenoquine, and dapsone) resulted in loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs comparable to primaquine. This mouse model provides an important tool to test drugs for their potential to cause hemolytic toxicity in G6PD-deficient populations.

  10. Intracellular NADPH Levels Affect the Oligomeric State of the Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Angela; Lanini, Claudio; Cialfi, Samantha; De Biase, Daniela; Falcone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is detected as two differently migrating forms on native polyacrylamide gels. The pivotal metabolic role of G6PDH in K. lactis led us to investigate the mechanism controlling the two activities in respiratory and fermentative mutant strains. An extensive analysis of these mutants showed that the NAD+(H)/NADP+(H)-dependent cytosolic alcohol (ADH) and aldehyde (ALD) dehydrogenase balance affects the expression of the G6PDH activity pattern. Under fermentative/ethanol growth conditions, the concomitant activation of ADH and ALD activities led to cytosolic accumulation of NADPH, triggering an alteration in the oligomeric state of the G6PDH caused by displacement/release of the structural NADP+ bound to each subunit of the enzyme. The new oligomeric G6PDH form with faster-migrating properties increases as a consequence of intracellular redox unbalance/NADPH accumulation, which inhibits G6PDH activity in vivo. The appearance of a new G6PDH-specific activity band, following incubation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cellular extracts with NADP+, also suggests that a regulatory mechanism of this activity through NADPH accumulation is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:23064253

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Ernest; Duparc, Stephan

    2007-10-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is relatively common in populations exposed to malaria. This deficiency appears to provide some protection from this infection, but it can also cause hemolysis after administration of some antimalarial drugs, especially primaquine. The risk of drug-induced G6PD deficiency-related hemolysis depends on a number of factors including the G6PD variant, the drug and drug dosage schedule, patient status, and disease factors. Although a great deal is known about the molecular biology of G6PD, determining the potential for drug-induced hemolysis in the clinical setting is still challenging. This report discusses the potential strategies for assessing drug-induced G6PD deficiency-related hemolytic risk preclinically and in early clinical trials. Additionally, the issues important for conducting larger clinical trials in populations in which G6PD deficiency is prevalent are examined, with a particular focus on antimalarial drug development.

  12. Review and drug therapy implications of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belfield, Kristen D; Tichy, Eric M

    2018-02-01

    The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and medication-use implications of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common enzyme deficiency in humans, are reviewed. Originally identified as favism in patients who experienced hemolysis after ingestion of fava beans, G6PD deficiency results from an X-linked chromosomal mutation that leads to reduced activity of the enzyme responsible for the final step of the pentose phosphate pathway, through which reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate required for protection of cells from oxidative stress is produced. G6PD deficiency affects about 400 million people worldwide. Diagnosis of G6PD can be made through detection of enzymatic activity (by spectrophotometric testing, fluorescence testing, or formazan-based spot testing) or molecular analysis to detect known mutations of the gene encoding G6PD. Most individuals with G6PD deficiency are asymptomatic throughout life. Symptoms of acute hemolysis associated with G6PD deficiency include anemia, fatigue, back or abdominal pain, jaundice, and hemoglobinuria. The most common precipitators of oxidative stress and hemolysis in G6PD deficiency include medication use and infection. G6PD deficiency should be considered in patients who experience acute hemolysis after exposure to known oxidative medications, infection, or ingestion of fava beans. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency is most often made through enzymatic activity detection, but molecular analysis may be required in females heterozygous for the disorder. When clinically feasible, rasburicase, primaquine, dapsone, pegloticase, and methylene blue should not be used until a G6PD diagnostic test has been performed. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lowering effect of firefly squid powder on triacylglycerol content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Morita, Ritsuko; Shirai, Yoko; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Terashima, Teruya; Ushikubo, Shun; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of dietary firefly squid on serum and liver lipid levels were investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 5% freeze-dried firefly squid or Japanese flying squid for 2 weeks. There was no significant difference in the liver triacylglycerol level between the control and Japanese flying squid groups, but the rats fed the firefly squid diet had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol content than those fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in serum triacylglycerol levels between the control and firefly squid groups. The rats fed the firefly squid had a significantly lower activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the rats fed the control diet. There was no significant difference in liver fatty acid synthetase activity among the three groups. Hepatic gene expression and lipogenic enzyme activity were investigated; a DNA microarray showed that the significantly enriched gene ontology category of down-regulated genes in the firefly squid group was "lipid metabolic process". The firefly squid group had lower mRNA level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the controls. These results suggest that an intake of firefly squid decreases hepatic triacylglycerol in rats, and the reduction of mRNA level and enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase might be related to the mechanisms.

  14. Frequency of haemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Basra.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M K; Taha, J Y; Al-Naama, L M; Widad, N M; Jasim, S N

    2003-01-01

    Basra, southern Iraq, was mapped for haemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Of 1064 couples aged 14-60 years recruited from the Public Health Laboratory, 49 had beta-thalassaemia trait, 69 had sickle-cell trait, 2 had haemoglobin D trait, 2 had haemoglobin C trait and 1 had high persistent fetal haemoglobin. Carriers of major beta-globin disorders comprised 11.48%. G6PD deficiency was detected in 133 individuals (12.5%). Only 10 couples (0.94%) were at risk of having children affected with either sickle-cell disease or beta-thalassaemia major. These defects constitute a real health problem and necessitate a management plan and public health education for early diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rochford, Rosemary; Ohrt, Colin; Baresel, Paul C.; Campo, Brice; Sampath, Aruna; Magill, Alan J.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for the development of hemolytic anemia when given 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs), an important class of antimalarial/antiinfective therapeutics. However, there is no suitable animal model that can predict the clinical hemolytic potential of drugs. We developed and validated a human (hu)RBC-SCID mouse model by giving nonobese diabetic/SCID mice daily transfusions of huRBCs from G6PD-deficient donors. Treatment of SCID mice engrafted with G6PD-deficient huRBCs with primaquine, an 8-AQ, resulted in a dose-dependent selective loss of huRBCs. To validate the specificity of this model, we tested known nonhemolytic antimalarial drugs: mefloquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, and pyrimethamine. No significant loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs was observed. Treatment with drugs known to cause hemolytic toxicity (pamaquine, sitamaquine, tafenoquine, and dapsone) resulted in loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs comparable to primaquine. This mouse model provides an important tool to test drugs for their potential to cause hemolytic toxicity in G6PD-deficient populations. PMID:24101478

  16. Effect of feeding and of DDT on the activity of hepatic glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase in two salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Benville, P.

    1969-01-01

    The specific activity of liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in yearling rainbow trout remained unchanged when the fish were starved for periods as long as 8 weeks and when starved animals were fed diets of various compositions. Injection of insulin concurrently with refeeding also failed to alter the specific activity of the enzyme in trout. The absence of a dietary or insulin influence on the teleost enzyme system is to be contrasted with studies in mammals in which the activity of hepatic glucose 6-P dehydrogenase was markedly stimulated after refeeding starved animals or injection of insulin.Ingestion of the pesticide DDT by juvenile coho salmon or adult rainbow trout also had no effect on the specific activity of liver glucose 6-P dehydrogenase and DDT failed to inhibit the rainbow trout enzyme in vitro. These results also differ considerably from those found in higher animals.These results suggest that the glucose 6-P dehydrogenase enzyme in teleosts may be under a different type of regulatory control from that found in mammals.

  17. A multiplex method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Yang, Y; Liu, R; Li, Q; Yang, F; Ma, L; Liu, H; Chen, X; Yang, Z; Cui, L; He, Y

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect caused by G6PD gene mutations. This study aimed to develop a cost-effective, multiplex, genotyping method for detecting common mutations in the G6PD gene. We used a SNaPshot approach to genotype multiple G6PD mutations that are common to human populations in South-East Asia. This assay is based on multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension reactions. Different G6PD gene mutations were determined by peak retention time and colors of the primer extension products. We designed PCR primers for multiplex amplification of the G6PD gene fragments and for primer extension reactions to genotype 11 G6PD mutations. DNA samples from a total of 120 unrelated G6PD-deficient individuals from the China-Myanmar border area were used to establish and validate this method. Direct sequencing of the PCR products demonstrated 100% concordance between the SNaPshot and the sequencing results. The SNaPshot method offers a specific and sensitive alternative for simultaneously interrogating multiple G6PD mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mathematical modelling of metabolic pathways affected by an enzyme deficiency. Energy and redox metabolism of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, R; Jacobasch, G; Holzhütter, H G

    1989-07-01

    The effects of various forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on erythrocyte metabolism have been studied on the basis of a complex mathematical model which comprises the main pathways of this cell: glycolysis, pentose pathway, reactions of the glutathione and adenine nucleotide metabolism. The calculated flux rates through the oxidative pentose pathway with and without methylene blue are in good accord with experimental results. The degree of deficiency as predicted by the model on the basis of calculated upper oxidative load boundaries, as well as of maximal methylene blue stimulation, correlates with the individual clinical manifestation of the metabolic disease. Therefore, the model allows one to judge the degree of metabolic disorder in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymopathies if the kinetic properties of the defect enzyme are known. Experimentally accessible parameters for an assessment of the oxidative load capacity of cells in vivo are proposed. It is pointed out that the threshold of tolerance as to energetic load is drastically reduced in the case of severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  19. Cellular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status modulates the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on human foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M L; Ho, H Y; Liang, C M; Chou, Y H; Stern, A; Lu, F J; Chiu, D T

    2000-06-23

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in cellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for cell survival. In the present study, we found that G6PD status determines the response of cells exposed to nitric oxide (NO) donor. Treatment with NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caused apoptosis in G6PD-deficient human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF1), whereas it was growth stimulatory in the normal counterpart (HFF3). Such effects were abolished by NO scavengers like hemoglobin. Ectopic expression of G6PD in HFF1 cells switched the cellular response to NO from apoptosis to growth stimulation. Experiments with 1H-¿1,2,4ŏxadiazolo¿4, 3-aquinoxalin-1-one and 8-bromo-cGMP showed that the effects of NO on HFF1 and HFF3 cells were independent of cGMP signalling pathway. Intriguingly, trolox prevented the SNP-induced apoptosis in HFF1 cells. These data demonstrate that G6PD plays a critical role in regulation of cell growth and survival.

  20. G6PDdb, an integrated database of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mutations.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Colin J; Martin, Andrew C R; Au, Shannon W N; Lam, Veronica M S

    2002-03-01

    G6PDdb (http://www.rubic.rdg.ac.uk/g6pd/ or http://www.bioinf.org.uk/g6pd/) is a newly created web-accessible locus-specific mutation database for the human Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene. The relational database integrates up-to-date mutational and structural data from various databanks (GenBank, Protein Data Bank, etc.) with biochemically characterized variants and their associated phenotypes obtained from published literature and the Favism website. An automated analysis of the mutations likely to have a significant impact on the structure of the protein has been performed using a recently developed procedure. The database may be queried online and the full results of the analysis of the structural impact of mutations are available. The web page provides a form for submitting additional mutation data and is linked to resources such as the Favism website, OMIM, HGMD, HGVBASE, and the PDB. This database provides insights into the molecular aspects and clinical significance of G6PD deficiency for researchers and clinicians and the web page functions as a knowledge base relevant to the understanding of G6PD deficiency and its management. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Correlation between normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Ajlaan, S K; al-Naama, L M; al-Naama, M M

    2000-01-01

    The study involved 143 individuals and aimed to correlate normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) level with haematological parameters. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between G6PD level and haemoglobin, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between G6PD level and white blood cell count and reticulocyte count, but no significant correlation was found between G6PD level and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. The negative correlation between G6PD level and haemoglobin suggests that anaemic people have higher G6PD levels than normal individuals. The positive correlation between G6PD level and white blood cell count indicates that white blood cells may play an important role in contributing to G6PD level.

  2. Is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency more prevalent in Carrion's disease endemic areas in Latin America?

    PubMed

    Mazulis, Fernando; Weilg, Claudia; Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Pons, Maria J; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a cytoplasmic enzyme with an important function in cell oxidative damage prevention. Erythrocytes have a predisposition towards oxidized environments due to their lack of mitochondria, giving G6PD a major role in its stability. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) is the most common enzyme deficiency in humans; it affects approximately 400 million individuals worldwide. The overall G6PDd allele frequency across malaria endemic countries is estimated to be 8%, corresponding to approximately 220 million males and 133 million females. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of G6PDd in Andean communities where bartonellosis is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucose regulates enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH in skeletal muscle cells; a novel role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-07-01

    Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) is a functionally important metabolite required to support numerous cellular processes. However, despite the identification of numerous NADPH-producing enzymes, the mechanisms underlying how the organellar pools of NADPH are maintained remain elusive. Here, we have identified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as an important source of NADPH in mitochondria. Activity analysis, submitochondrial fractionation, fluorescence microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays revealed that G6PDH is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. 6-ANAM, a specific G6PDH inhibitor, depleted mitochondrial NADPH pools and increased oxidative stress revealing the importance of G6PDH in NADPH maintenance. We also show that glucose availability and differences in metabolic state modulate the enzymatic sources of NADPH in mitochondria. Indeed, cells cultured in high glucose (HG) not only adopted a glycolytic phenotype but also relied heavily on matrix-associated G6PDH as a source of NADPH. In contrast, cells exposed to low-glucose (LG) concentrations, which displayed increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial metabolic efficiency, and decreased glycolysis, relied predominantly on isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) as the principal NADPH-producing enzyme in the mitochondria. Culturing glycolytic cells in LG for 48 h decreased G6PDH and increased ICDH protein levels in the mitochondria, further pointing to the regulatory role of glucose. 2-Deoxyglucose treatment also prevented the increase of mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG. The role of glucose in regulating enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH pool maintenance was confirmed using human myotubes from obese adults with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (post-T2DM). Myotubes from post-T2DM participants failed to increase mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG in contrast to mitochondria in myotubes from control participants (non-T2DM). Hence, we not only identified a matrix

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: correlation between the genotype, biochemistry and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daisy K L

    2008-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic enzyme defect present in many people from African, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean and Asian countries. Individuals with the enzyme deficiency may remain asymptomatic, develop an acute haemolytic crises to infections or Fava beans, neonatal jaundice or chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. Electrophoretic mobility may be fast, slow or normal. Over 160 mutations have been described, mostly due to single amino acid substitution. Although correlation of the genotype and biochemistry with the clinical phenotype of G6PD deficient individuals remains somewhat variable, there is better correlation among individuals presenting with chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia, which is related to the NADP structure of the enzyme.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  6. Purification and investigation of some kinetic properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves.

    PubMed

    Coban, T Abdül Kadir; Ciftçi, Mehmet; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan

    2002-05-01

    In this study, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49; G6PD) was purified from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves, and analysis of the kinetic behavior and some properties of the enzyme were investigated. The purification consisted of three steps: preparation of homogenate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-Sephadex A50 ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme was obtained with a yield of 8.79% and had a specific activity of 2.146 U (mg protein)(-1). The overall purification was about 58-fold. Temperature of +4 degrees C was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was spectrophotometrically measured according to the Beutler method, at 340 nm. In order to control the purification of enzyme, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out in 4% and 10% acrylamide for stacking and running gel, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for enzyme. The molecular weight was found to be 77.6 kDa by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatography. A protein band corresponding to a molecular weight of 79.3 kDa was obtained on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For the enzymes, the stable pH, optimum pH, and optimum temperature were found to be 6.0, 8.0, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Moreover, KM and Vmax values for NADP+ and G6-P at optimum pH and 25 degrees C were determined by means of Lineweaver-Burk graphs. Additionally, effects of streptomycin sulfate and tetracycline antibiotics were investigated for the enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in vitro.

  7. Rasburicase-induced Hemolytic Anemia in an Adolescent With Unknown Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Akande, Manzilat; Audino, Anthony N; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Rasburicase, used in the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), may cause hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Although routine screening for G6PD deficiency has been recommended, given the turnaround time for test results and the urgency to treat TLS, such screening may not be feasible. We report a case of rasburicase-induced hemolytic anemia without methemoglobinemia in an adolescent with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, TLS, and previously unrecognized G6PD deficiency. Previous reports of hemolytic anemia with rasburicase are reviewed, mechanisms discussed, and preventative strategies presented.

  8. Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: the crystal structure reveals a structural NADP(+) molecule and provides insights into enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed

    Au, S W; Gover, S; Lam, V M; Adams, M J

    2000-03-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first committed step in the pentose phosphate pathway; the generation of NADPH by this enzyme is essential for protection against oxidative stress. The human enzyme is in a dimer<-->tetramer equilibrium and its stability is dependent on NADP(+) concentration. G6PD deficiency results from many different point mutations in the X-linked gene encoding G6PD and is the most common human enzymopathy. Severe deficiency causes chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia; the usual symptoms are neonatal jaundice, favism and haemolytic anaemia. We have determined the first crystal structure of a human G6PD (the mutant Canton, Arg459-->Leu) at 3 A resolution. The tetramer is a dimer of dimers. Despite very similar dimer topology, there are two major differences from G6PD of Leuconostoc mesenteroides: a structural NADP(+) molecule, close to the dimer interface but integral to the subunit, is visible in all subunits of the human enzyme; and an intrasubunit disulphide bond tethers the otherwise disordered N-terminal segment. The few dimer-dimer contacts making the tetramer are charge-charge interactions. The importance of NADP(+) for stability is explained by the structural NADP(+) site, which is not conserved in prokaryotes. The structure shows that point mutations causing severe deficiency predominate close to the structural NADP(+) and the dimer interface, primarily affecting the stability of the molecule. They also indicate that a stable dimer is essential to retain activity in vivo. As there is an absolute requirement for some G6PD activity, residues essential for coenzyme or substrate binding are rarely modified.

  9. The role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Jeong; Choe, Sung Sik; Sohn, Jee Hyung; Kim, Jae Bum

    2017-04-03

    Obesity is closely associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. One hallmark characteristics of obesity is chronic inflammation that is coordinately controlled by complex signaling networks in adipose tissues. Compelling evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its related signaling pathways play crucial roles in the progression of chronic inflammation in obesity. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is an anabolic pathway that utilizes the glucoses to generate molecular building blocks and reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH. In particular, NADPH acts as one of the key modulators in the control of ROS through providing an electron for both ROS generation and scavenging. Recently, we have reported that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP, is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Mechanistically, G6PD potentiates generation of ROS that augments pro-inflammatory responses in adipose tissue macrophages, leading to systemic insulin resistance. Here, we provide an overview of cell type- specific roles of G6PD in the regulation of ROS balance as well as additional details on the significance of G6PD that contributes to pro-oxidant NADPH generation in obesity-related chronic inflammation and insulin resistance.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in Switzerland. Demonstration of a new variant (G-6-PD Aarau) with chronic nonsphaerocytic haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Schröter, W; Sturzenegger, M; Bornhalm, D; Marti, H R

    1976-08-01

    A new variant of erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has been found in a family of Swiss origin. It is associated with chronic nonsphaerocytic haemolytic anaemia. The enzyme from the erythrocytes of a young boy of this family was partially purified 110-fold and characterized. It revealed reduced catalytic activity, increased thermolability and two maxima of the pH activity curve at pH 7.0 and 8.5. The Km value for glucose-6-phosphate was reduced, that for NADP was normal. The enzyme showed an increased inhibitor constant for NADPH with respect to NADP. Electrophoretic mobility was normal (B+). 2-Desoxyglucose-6-phosphate and galactose-6-phosphate were utilized at normal rates, whereas the analogue deamino-NADP gave an increased utilization rate. The mother of the propositus could be identified as heterozygous for this enzyme deficiency. Chronic haemolysis is possibly due to the increased thermolability of the variant enzyme.

  11. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Acero-Navarro, Kevin E; Jiménez-Ramírez, Mariella; Villalobos, Miguel A; Vargas-Martínez, Rocío; Perales-Vela, Hugo V; Velasco-García, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) (EC 1.1.1.363) plays an important role in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa because it generates NADPH, an essential cofactor for several biosynthetic pathways and antioxidant enzymes. P. aeruginosa G6PDH is also a key enzyme in the metabolism of various carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, fructose, and mannitol. Understanding the kinetic characteristics and mechanisms that control the activity of this enzyme is crucial for future studies in this context. However, one of the impediments to achieving this goal is the limited amount of protein obtained when current purification protocols are implemented, a factor curtailing its biochemical characterization. In this study, we report a fast, efficient and reproducible procedure for the purification of P. aeruginosa G6PDH that can be implemented in a short period (2 days). In order to establish this protocol, the zwf gene, which encodes for this enzyme, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. In contrast to other procedures, our method is based on protein precipitation with CaCl 2 and further purification by ion exchange chromatography. Using this protocol, we were able to obtain 31 mg/L of pure protein that manifested specific activity of 145.7 U/mg. The recombinant enzyme obtained in this study manifested similar physicochemical and kinetic properties to those reported in previous works for this molecule. The large quantities of active enzyme obtained using this procedure will facilitate its structural characterization and identify differences between P. aeruginosa- and human G6PDH, thus contributing to the search for selective inhibitors against the bacterial enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and risk of colorectal cancer in Northern Sardinia: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria P; Davoli, Agnese; Longo, Nunzio; Marras, Giuseppina; Pes, Giovanni M

    2016-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been associated with a lower cancer risk, possibly via a reduction of mutagenic oxygen-free radicals and by reducing nicotinamide-adeninedinucleotide-phosphate for replicating cells. In Sardinia, the enzyme defect is frequent as a consequence of selection by malaria in the past. This study investigated the relationship between G6PD deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC).A retrospective case-control study of 3901 patients from Sardinia, who underwent a colonoscopy between 2006 and 2016, was performed. G6PD phenotype was assessed for each subject. The proportion of pre and malignant colorectal lesions was compared in cases (G6PD-deficient) and controls (G6PD-normal). Data concerning age, sex, family history of CRC, smoking habits, body height, and weight, and also associated diseases were collected.The CRC risk reduction was 43.2% among G6PD-deficient compared with G6PD-normal subjects (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.37-0.87, P = 0.010). Age, sex, family history of CRC, and also comorbidities such as type 1 diabetes and ischemic heart disease, were significantly associated with CRC risk. The protective effect of G6PD deficiency remained significant after adjusting for all covariates by logistic regression analysis, and was consistently lower across all age groups.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency is associated with a reduced risk of CRC.

  13. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in children: a case report].

    PubMed

    Verdugo L, Patricia; Calvanese T, Marlene; Rodríguez V, Diego; Cárcamo C, Cassandra

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) is the most common red blood cell (RBC) enzyme disorder. The decrease as well as the absence of the enzyme increase RBC vulnerability to oxidative stress caused by exposure to certain medications or intake of fava beans. Among the most common clinical manifestations of this condition, acute hemolysis, chronic hemolysis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and an asymptomatic form are observed. To analyze the case of a child who presented hemolytic crisis due to favism. A 2 year and 7 month old boy with a history of hyperbilirubinemia during the newborn period with no apparent cause, no family history of hemolytic anemia or parental consanguinity. He presented a prolonged neonatal jaundice and severe anemia requiring RBC transfusion. An intake of fava beans 48 h prior to onset of symptoms was reported. G6PD qualitative determination was compatible with this enzyme deficiency. G6PD deficiency can be highly variable in its clinical presentation, so it is necessary to keep it in mind during the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia at any age.

  14. Reduced Cellular Mg2+ Content Enhances Hexose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity and Expression in HepG2 and HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Voma, Chesinta; Barfell, Andrew; Croniger, Colleen; Romani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that Mg2+ dynamically regulates glucose 6-phosphate entry into the endoplasmic reticulum and its hydrolysis by the glucose 6-phosphatase in liver cells. In the present study, we report that by modulating glucose 6-phosphate entry into the endoplasmic reticulum of HepG2 cells, Mg2+ also regulates the oxidation of this substrate via hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD). This regulatory effect is dynamic as glucose 6-phosphate entry and oxidation can be rapidly down-regulated by the addition of exogenous Mg2+. In addition, HepG2 cells growing in low Mg2+ show a marked increase in hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA and protein expression. Metabolically, these effects on hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase are important as this enzyme increases intra-reticular NADPH production, which favors fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Similar effects of Mg2+ were observed in HL-60 cells. These and previously published results suggest that in an hepatocyte culture model changes in cytoplasmic Mg2+ content regulates glucose 6-phosphate utilization via glucose 6 phosphatase and hexose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase in alternative to glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. This alternative regulation might be of relevance in the transition from fed to fasted state. PMID:24631573

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants associated with favism in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Laosombat, Vichai; Sattayasevana, Benjamas; Chotsampancharoen, Teerachit; Wongchanchailert, Malai

    2006-02-01

    In a study conducted at Songklanagarind Hospital in the south of Thailand, the subjects were 225 patients (210 boys and 15 girls) with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Favism was found in 3.6% of the G6PD-deficient children. Approximately one half of the G6PD-deficient patients with favism were younger than 2 years. Sudden onset of anemia was found within 1 to 3 days after ingestion of dried fava beans. The classic features of favism, which are pallor, hemoglobinuria, and jaundice, were detected in all cases. To characterize the known G6PD mutations in Thai children, molecular analysis was performed for 8 G6PD-deficient children with favism by a combination of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and amplification refractory mutation system analysis. The G6PD variants in these children were G6PD Kaiping 1388,G-->A; G6PD Mahidol 487,G-->A; G6PD Viangchan 871,G-->A; and uncharacterized mutation with silent mutation 1311,C-->T.

  16. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4±3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p = 0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p = 0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p = 0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection. PMID:23874768

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficiency in Transfusion Medicine: The Unknown Risks

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard O.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Pham, Huy P.; Hod, Eldad A.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce hemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing hemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage, and mechanisms of hemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed. PMID:23815264

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in transfusion medicine: the unknown risks.

    PubMed

    Francis, R O; Jhang, J S; Pham, H P; Hod, E A; Zimring, J C; Spitalnik, S L

    2013-11-01

    The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce haemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing haemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage and mechanisms of haemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. [Changes of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in erythrocyte band 3 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoyu; Li, Jialin; Tian, Xingya; Lin, Hong; Wang, Xiaoying

    2002-11-01

    To explore the hemolytic mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient erythrocytes in the view of phosphorylation of membrane protein. The alternation of membrane protein phosphorylation and the effect of dithiothreitol (DTT) on protein phosphorylation were analysed by Western blot technique. The activity of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPs) was determined by using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3 protein was obviously enhanced in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes. The activity of PTPs was low compared to the normal erythrocytes. The level of phosphotyrosine in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes incubated with DTT was almost the same as in those without DTT. The results were consistent with the activity of PTPs. PTPs activity reduction and tyrosine phosphorylation enhancement induced by oxidation in G6PD deficiency play an important role in erythrocytes hemolysis. However, the alternation of thiol group is not the only factor affecting the activity of PTPs in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes.

  1. An unusual distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency of south Indian newborn population.

    PubMed

    Ramadevi, R; Savithri, H S; Devi, A R; Bittles, A H; Rao, N A

    1994-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is seen at a higher frequency in many national and ethnic groups in areas of current or former malaria endemicity. A screening programme undertaken to evaluate the gene frequencies for this deficiency in the highly inbred South Indian population of Karnataka revealed that of the 5140 neonates screened, 7.8% were G6PD deficient with no correlation between the reported level of inbreeding and enzyme deficiency. An interesting finding was the equal number of male (198) and female (207) individuals, with G6PD activity of less than 3 IU. The possible implications of this finding with regard to the expression of G6PD gene is discussed.

  2. Deletion Mapping of zwf, the Gene for a Constitutive Enzyme, Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Fraenkel, D. G.; Banerjee, Santimoy

    1972-01-01

    Genes for three enzymes of intermediary sugar metabolism in E. coli, zwf (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, constitutive), edd (gluconate 6-phosphate dehydrase, inducible), and eda (2-keto-3-deoxygluconate 6-phosphate aldolase, differently inducible) are closely linked on the E. coli genetic map, the overall gene order being man... old... eda. edd. zwf... cheB... uvrC... his. One class of apparent revertants of an eda mutant strain contains a secondary mutation in edd, and some of these mutations are deletions extending into zwf. We have used a series of spontaneous edd-zwf deletions to map a series of point mutants in zwf and thus report the first fine structure map of a gene for a constitutive enzyme (zwf). PMID:4560065

  3. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-21

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is a regulator of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Rakhee S; Ata, Hirotaka; Rawat, Dhawjbahadur; Abe, Madoka; Taylor, Mark S; Ochi, Rikuo; Gupte, Sachin A

    2011-02-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and a major source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), which regulates numerous enzymatic (including glutathione reductase and NADPH oxidase that, respectively, generates reduced glutathione and reactive oxygen species) reactions involved in various cellular actions, yet its physiological function is seldom investigated. We, however, recently showed that inhibiting G6PD causes precontracted coronary artery (CA) to relax in an endothelium-derived relaxing factor- and second messenger-independent manner. Here we assessed the role of G6PD in regulating CA contractility. Treating bovine CAs for 20 min with potassium chloride (KCl; 30 mM), amphotericin B (50 μM), or U46619 (100 nM) significantly (p < 0.05) increased both G6PD activity and glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. The effect was Ca(2+) independent, and there was a corresponding increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Activation of G6PD by KCl was blocked by the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin (10 μM) or by knocking down PKCδ expression using siRNA. Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (10 μM), a PKC activator, significantly increased G6PD phosphorylation and activity, whereas single (S210A, T266A) and double (S210A/T266A) mutations at sites flanking the G6PD active site significantly inhibited phosphorylation, shifted the isoelectric point, and reduced enzyme activity. Knocking down G6PD decreased NADPH and reactive oxygen species generation, and reduced KCl-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, thereby reducing CA contractility. Similarly, aortas from G6PD-deficient mice developed less KCl/phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate-evoked force than those from their wild-type littermates. Conversely, overexpression of G6PD augmented KCl-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i), thereby augmenting CA contraction. Our findings demonstrate that G6PD activity and NADPH

  5. Molecular analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in the Solomon Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Ishii, A.; Hirono, K.

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders, and >100 million people are considered to have mutant genes. G6PD deficiency is frequent in the area where plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic, probably because the G6PD-deficient subjects are resistant to the parasite. Falciparum and vivax malarias have been highly endemic in the Solomon Islands, and a high frequency of G6PD deficiency has also been expected. A recent investigation showed that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in the Solomon Islands was 8.4%-14.4%. Although >80 G6PD variants from various populations have been molecularly analyzed, little is known about thosemore » in Melanesians. G6PD Maewo, which was originally found in Vanuatu, has so far been the only Melanesian variant whose structural abnormality was determined. 14 refs., 1 fig.« less

  6. Increasing Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Restores Redox Balance in Vascular Endothelial Cells Exposed to High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Hu, Ji; Liew, Chong Wee; Zhang, Yingyi; Leopold, Jane A.; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Stanton, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high glucose increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells that contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Accumulation of ROS is due to dysregulated redox balance between ROS-producing systems and antioxidant systems. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that high glucose decreases the principal cellular reductant, NADPH by impairing the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). We and others also have shown that the high glucose-induced decrease in G6PD activity is mediated, at least in part, by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). As both the major antioxidant enzymes and NADPH oxidase, a major source of ROS, use NADPH as substrate, we explored whether G6PD activity was a critical mediator of redox balance. We found that overexpression of G6PD by pAD-G6PD infection restored redox balance. Moreover inhibition of PKA decreased ROS accumulation and increased redox enzymes, while not altering the protein expression level of redox enzymes. Interestingly, high glucose stimulated an increase in NADPH oxidase (NOX) and colocalization of G6PD with NOX, which was inhibited by the PKA inhibitor. Lastly, inhibition of PKA ameliorated high glucose mediated increase in cell death and inhibition of cell growth. These studies illustrate that increasing G6PD activity restores redox balance in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose, which is a potentially important therapeutic target to protect ECs from the deleterious effects of high glucose. PMID:23185302

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase a novel hope on a blood-based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Evlice, Ahmet; Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder that numerous factors have key properties in the development of this proteopathy. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the most common form of enzymopathy. We have examined G6PD enzyme activity levels in the serum of newly diagnosed AD patients compared with control subjects without dementia from the both sexes. Serum G6PD levels were found to be significantly higher (approximately two times) in AD patients compared to control geriatric subjects in both sexes. We have concluded that G6PD seems to play an integral role in the progress and/or prevention of AD.

  8. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    LaRue, Nicole; Kahn, Maria; Murray, Marjorie; Leader, Brandon T; Bansil, Pooja; McGray, Sarah; Kalnoky, Michael; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Huiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2014-10-01

    A barrier to eliminating Plasmodium vivax malaria is inadequate treatment of infected patients. 8-Aminoquinoline-based drugs clear the parasite; however, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for hemolysis from these drugs. Understanding the performance of G6PD deficiency tests is critical for patient safety. Two quantitative assays and two qualitative tests were evaluated. The comparison of quantitative assays gave a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7585 with significant difference in mean G6PD activity, highlighting the need to adhere to a single reference assay. Both qualitative tests had high sensitivity and negative predictive value at a cutoff G6PD value of 40% of normal activity if interpreted conservatively and performed under laboratory conditions. The performance of both tests dropped at a cutoff level of 45%. Cytochemical staining of specimens confirmed that heterozygous females with > 50% G6PD-deficient cells can seem normal by phenotypic tests. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Pediatric Provider Insight Into Newborn Screening for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Janine; Nock, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a major contributor to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, yet newborn screening for this disorder in the United States is not standard practice. We surveyed pediatric providers regarding a novel newborn G6PD screening program successfully implemented in 2007 at a US urban women's hospital newborn nursery. An electronic survey was distributed to 472 pediatric providers addressing extent to which they were influenced by the screening program. Ninety-two (20%) providers responded, of whom 74 (80%) had taken care of G6PD-deficient patients diagnosed by the screening program. A majority found the diagnosis helpful for patient management and influential in their management. Most common changes in management included more counseling on jaundice and follow-up and avoidance of hemolytic crisis triggers. General pediatric providers support newborn G6PD screening and appreciate the current program. Knowing the G6PD deficiency status of newborns informed and influenced pediatric providers' care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status and risk of hemolysis in Plasmodium falciparum-infected African children receiving single-dose primaquine.

    PubMed

    Eziefula, Alice C; Pett, Helmi; Grignard, Lynn; Opus, Salome; Kiggundu, Moses; Kamya, Moses R; Yeung, Shunmay; Staedke, Sarah G; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme function and genotype were determined in Ugandan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria enrolled in a primaquine trial after exclusion of severe G6PD deficiency by fluorescent spot test. G6PD A- heterozygotes and hemizygotes/homozygotes experienced dose-dependent lower hemoglobin concentrations after treatment. No severe anemia was observed. Copyright © 2014, Eziefula et al.

  11. Impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Peter A.; Leopold, Jane A.; Gupte, Sachin A.; Recchia, Fabio A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the rate-determining step in the pentose phosphate pathway and produces NADPH to fuel glutathione recycling. G6PD deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in humans and affects over 400 million people worldwide; however, its impact on cardiovascular disease is poorly understood. The glutathione pathway is paramount to antioxidant defense, and G6PD-deficient cells do not cope well with oxidative damage. Limited clinical evidence indicates that G6PD deficiency may be associated with hypertension. However, there are also data to support a protective role of G6PD deficiency in decreasing the risk of heart disease and cardiovascular-associated deaths, perhaps through a decrease in cholesterol synthesis. Studies in G6PD-deficient (G6PDX) mice are mixed and provide evidence for both protective and deleterious effects. G6PD deficiency may provide a protective effect through decreasing cholesterol synthesis, superoxide production, and reductive stress. However, recent studies indicate that G6PDX mice are moderately more susceptible to ventricular dilation in response to myocardial infarction or pressure overload-induced heart failure. Furthermore, G6PDX hearts do not recover as well as nondeficient mice when faced with ischemia-reperfusion injury, and G6PDX mice are susceptible to the development of age-associated cardiac hypertrophy. Overall, the limited available data indicate a complex interplay in which adverse effects of G6PD deficiency may outweigh potential protective effects in the face of cardiac stress. Definitive clinical studies in large populations are needed to determine the effects of G6PD deficiency on the development of cardiovascular disease and subsequent outcomes. PMID:23241320

  12. Dexmedetomidine-based intravenous anesthesia of a pediatric patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: A case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nanae; Ogawa, Takashi; Wajima, Zen'ichiro; Omi, Akibumi

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, resulting in deficits in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate production, an important intracellular antioxidant enzyme. G6PD-deficient subjects present with a susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress and hemolysis, and should avoid drugs or stressors that have oxidative actions. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic agent with antioxidant actions. A 5-year-old boy with G6PD deficiency. The patient was diagnosed with G6PD deficiency at birth. His red blood cell levels were indicating Class II G6PD activity by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, but had no history of hemolytic anemia. Because of the patient's anxiety and hyperactivity prior to an operation for upper labial frenum resection, we performed perioperative management using intravenous sedation with dexmedetomidine, which provides upper airway patency and has an antioxidant action. There was no abnormal breathing observed during anesthesia, and arousal was smooth with stable hemodynamics. The patient had no symptoms of hemolytic anemia up to 1 week postsurgery. Antioxidant sedatives such as dexmedetomidine may be useful for reducing the risk of hemolysis after surgery in infant G6PD deficiency cases.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell genes in Bisha.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; al-Swailem, A; Warsy, A S

    1995-08-01

    This study was conducted on 820 Saudi males and females from Bisha in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were analysed to determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S (Hb S) genes, and to investigate interactions between the two genes. Severe G-6-PD deficiency in this population was due to G-6-PD-Mediterranean; the African variant G-6-PD-A- was not detected. The normal and common form of the enzyme was G-6-PD-B+, occurring at a frequency of 0.8444 and 0.8177 in males and females, respectively. Variants included G-6-PD-A+, G-6-PD-Mediterranean, and G-6-PD-Mediterranean-like at frequencies of 0.0043, 0.0767, and 0.0746, respectively, in males and 0.0057, 0.05413, and 0.0855, respectively, in females. Sickle cell haemoglobin (Hb S) was encountered in the homozygous (4 per cent) and heterozygous (10 per cent) states at a gene frequency of 0.0860. No interaction between G-6-PD deficiency and Hb S gene was observed. A severe haematological and clinical presentation of the Hb SS disease was encountered in the children from Bisha.

  14. Real-time monitoring of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity using liquid droplet arrays and its application to human plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se-Hui; Ji, Su-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2016-05-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) regulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels and is related to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including G6PD deficiency, type 2 diabetes, aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, and cancer. Therefore, a highly sensitive array-based assay for determining quantitative G6PD activity is required. Here, we developed an on-chip G6PD activity assay using liquid droplet fluorescence arrays. Quantitative G6PD activity was determined by calculating reduced resorufin concentrations in liquid droplets. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 0.162 mU/ml (2.89 pM), which is much more sensitive than previous assays. We used our activity assay to determine kinetic parameters, including Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and maximum rates of enzymatic reaction (Vmax) for NADP(+) and G6P, and half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). We successfully applied this new assay to determine G6PD activity in human plasma from normal healthy individuals (n=30) and patients with inflammation (n=30). The inflammatory group showed much higher G6PD activities than did the normal group (p<0.001), with a high area under the curve value of 0.939. Therefore, this new activity assay has the potential to be used for diagnosis of G6PD-associated diseases and utilizing kinetic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Buenos Aires: a novel de novo missense mutation associated with severe enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Concolino, Paola; Vendittelli, Francesca; Giardina, Bruno; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2008-06-01

    : Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first committed steps in the pentose phosphate pathway: the generation of NADPH by this enzyme is essential for protection against oxidative stress. The human enzyme is in a dimer<-->tetramer equilibrium and its stability depends on NADP(+) concentration. Herein, we report a case of a symptomatic baby affected by severe deficiency of G6PD activity due to a novel de novo genetic mutation (g1465C>T) in the thirteenth exon of its gene. : Clinical, biochemical and genetic evaluations of the affected baby and his mother were performed. : We found the g1465C>T novel mutation, in the thirteenth exon of G6PD gene (named "G6PD Buenos Aires variant"). This g1465C>T mutation produce a P489S substitution at protein level. The P489S mutation was absent in his mother, suggesting that G6PD Buenos Aires resulted from a de novo mutation. : The absence of mosaicism in the baby's DNA (from saliva and blood samples) suggests that a de novo mutation event may occur in the very early stages in embryogenesis or in the mother's germ cell lines.

  16. Severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency leads to susceptibility to infection and absent NETosis.

    PubMed

    Siler, Ulrich; Romao, Susana; Tejera, Emilio; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Kuzmenko, Elena; Valencia, Rocio G; Meda Spaccamela, Virginia; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Speer, Oliver; Schmugge, Markus; Kohne, Elisabeth; Hoenig, Manfred; Freihorst, Joachim; Schulz, Ansgar S; Reichenbach, Janine

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of red blood cells in human subjects, causing hemolytic anemia linked to impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and imbalanced redox homeostasis in erythrocytes. Because G6PD is expressed by a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic cells, a broader clinical phenotype could be postulated in G6PD-deficient patients. We describe 3 brothers with severe G6PD deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial infection. We sought to study the molecular pathophysiology leading to susceptibility to infection in 3 siblings with severe G6PD deficiency. Blood samples of 3 patients with severe G6PD deficiency were analyzed for G6PD enzyme activity, cellular oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate/NADPH levels, phagocytic reactive oxygen species production, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and neutrophil elastase translocation. In these 3 brothers strongly reduced NADPH oxidase function was found in granulocytes, leading to impaired NET formation. Defective NET formation has thus far been only observed in patients with the NADPH oxidase deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, who require antibiotic and antimycotic prophylaxis to prevent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Because severe G6PD deficiency can be a phenocopy of chronic granulomatous disease with regard to the cellular and clinical phenotype, careful evaluation of neutrophil function seems mandatory in these patients to decide on appropriate anti-infective preventive measures. Determining the level of G6PD enzyme activity should be followed by analysis of reactive oxygen species production and NET formation to decide on required antibiotic and antimycotic prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization Increases the Stability and Reusability of Pigeon Pea NADP+ Linked Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddhartha; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M Chandrakumar; Pandey, Pramod Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of enzymes is valuably important as it improves the stability and hence increases the reusability of enzymes. The present investigation is an attempt for immobilization of purified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from pigeon pea on different matrix. Maximum immobilization was achieved when alginate was used as immobilization matrix. As compared to soluble enzyme the alginate immobilized enzyme exhibited enhanced optimum pH and temperature. The alginate immobilized enzyme displayed more than 80% activity up to 7 continuous reactions and more than 50% activity up to 11 continuous reactions.

  18. Anemia in patients with coinherited thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Phanthong, Siratcha

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency are genetic disorders that cause hemolytic anemia. In areas with high frequencies of both hematological disorders, coinheritance of G-6-PD deficiency with thalassemia can be found. Whether G-6-PD deficiency, coinherited with thalassemia, enhances severe anemia is still unclear. Hematological parameters between thalassemia carriers with G-6-PD deficiency and those without G-6-PD deficiency were compared. The G-6-PD deficiency was diagnosed in 410 blood samples from thalassemia patients using a fluorescent spot test. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and Hb A2/Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys; HBB: c.79G>A] were measured using an automated blood counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The G-6-PD deficiency was found in 37 samples (9.02%). Mean levels of Hb, PCV, MCV and Hb A2/E were similar between the two groups. Thus, G-6-PD deficiency did not enhance red blood cell pathology or induce more anemic severity in thalassemia patients.

  19. Three major glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient polymorphic variants identified in Mazandaran state of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A; Sanati, Mohammad H; Mowjoodi, Alireza; Mason, Philip J; Vulliamy, Tom J; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad R

    2002-06-01

    We report the first investigation of glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among the Mazandaranians in the north of Iran. We analysed the G6PD gene in 74 unrelated G6PD-deficient men with a history of favism. Molecular analysis revealed three major different polymorphic variants: G6PD Mediterranean 66.2% (49 out of 74), G6PD Chatham 27% (20 out of 74), G6PD Cosenza 6.75% (5 out of 74). These findings indicated a higher prevalence of G6PD Chatham in this Iranian population than anywhere else in the world. In addition, the distribution of these G6PD variants is more similar to that found in an Italian population than in other Middle Eastern countries.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among tribal populations of India - Country scenario.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Malay B; Colah, Roshan B; Martin, Snehal; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-05-01

    It is believed that the tribal people, who constitute 8.6 per cent of the total population (2011 census of India), are the original inhabitants of India. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic defect, affecting around 400 million people worldwide and is characterized by considerable biochemical and molecular heterogeneity. Deficiency of this enzyme is highly polymorphic in those areas where malaria is/has been endemic. G6PD deficiency was reported from India more than 50 years ago. t0 he prevalence varies from 2.3 to 27.0 per cent with an overall prevalence of 7.7 per cent in different tribal groups. Since the tribal populations live in remote areas where malaria is/has been endemic, irrational use of antimalarial drugs could result in an increased number of cases with drug induced haemolysis. Therefore, before giving antimalarial therapy, routine screening for G6PD deficiency should be undertaken in those tribal communities where its prevalence is high.

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency A− Variant in Febrile Patients in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tamar E.; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St. Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R.; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A−. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A− in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A− allele (includes A− hemizygous males, A− homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti. PMID:24891465

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-08-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" [1].

  4. Detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in erythrocytes: a spectrophotometric assay and a fluorescent spot test compared with a cytochemical method.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B H; Weening, R S; Schutgens, R B; van Noorden, C J; Vogels, I M; Nagelkerke, N J

    1987-09-30

    The results of a quantitative spectrophotometric enzyme assay, a fluorescent spot test and a cytochemical assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were compared systematically. The high sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay and the fluorescent spot test in the detection of severely deficient individuals was confirmed. For the detection of heterozygote females, however both tests were unreliable; the sensitivities of the fluorescent spot test and the spectrophotometric assay being 32% and 11% respectively. Specificities for both tests were high (99%). Introduction of the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase (G-6-PD/PK ratio) activities increased the sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay to nearly 100%. It is concluded that the fluorescent spot test should be used for the diagnosis of G-6-PD deficiency in developing countries; whereas if spectrophotometric enzyme assays are available, the G-6-PD/PK ratio should always be performed. In cases where the ratio is less than 0.70, cytochemical analysis is indicated.

  5. [Gene promoter methylation in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan-Dan; Wen, Fei-Qiu; Lv, Rong-Yu; Zhang, Min; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Wen

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the features of methylation in the promoter region of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene and the association between gene promoter methylation and G6PD deficiency. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of G6PD in 130 children with G6PD deficiency. Sixty-five children without G6PD deficiency served as the control group. The methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting curve analysis and bisulfite PCR sequencing were used to analyze gene promoter methylation in 22 children with G6PD deficiency and low G6PD mRNA expression. The G6PD gene promoter methylation was analyzed in 44 girls with normal G6PD mRNA expression (7 from G6PD deficiency group and 37 from control group). Twenty-two (16.9%) children with G6PD deficiency had relatively low mRNA expression of G6PD; among whom, 16 boys showed no methylation, and 6 girls showed partial methylation. Among the 44 girls with normal G6PD mRNA expression, 40 showed partial methylation, and 4 showed no methylation (1 case in the G6PD group and 3 cases in the control group). Gene promoter methylation is not associated with G6PD deficiency in boys. Girls have partial methylation or no methylation in the G6PD gene, suggesting that the methylation may be related to G6PD deficiency in girls.

  6. A sensitive cytochemical staining method for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in individual erythrocytes. II. Further improvements of the staining procedure and some observations with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Noorden, C J; Vogels, I M

    1985-05-01

    A cytochemical method for staining glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in individual erythrocytes as reported previously has been optimized further by the incorporation of a number of technical improvements. Analysis of the enzyme content in erythrocytes of normal individuals as well as patients suffering from G6PD deficiency in the homozygous and heterozygous forms allows these three categories to be easily distinguished. Considerable formazan production occurs in most erythrocytes of a healthy person and only a small percentage of the cells appeared to be negative. Two cell populations of almost equal size could be discerned in heterozygotes for G6PD deficiency, one completely negative, the other with a variable amount of formazan per cell. Homozygous deficiency leads to a population of negative cells with a few positive ones after staining. It is concluded that a reliable method has been found for analysis of G6PD deficiency in erythrocytes at the single cell level.

  7. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Improves Insulin Resistance With Reduced Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ham, Mira; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Choi, Goun; Kim, Ji-Won; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Je-Won; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays important roles in redox regulation and de novo lipogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that aberrant upregulation of G6PD in obese adipose tissue mediates insulin resistance as a result of imbalanced energy metabolism and oxidative stress. It remains elusive, however, whether inhibition of G6PD in vivo may relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this study we showed that a hematopoietic G6PD defect alleviates insulin resistance in obesity, accompanied by reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermates, G6PD-deficient mutant (G6PD(mut)) mice were glucose tolerant upon high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Intriguingly, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes to produce reactive oxygen species was alleviated, whereas that of antioxidant genes was enhanced in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed G6PD(mut) mice. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the adipose tissue of G6PD(mut) mice decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by downregulated proinflammatory macrophages. Accordingly, macrophages from G6PD(mut) mice greatly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory signaling cascades, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of G6PD(mut) bone marrow to wild-type mice attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in DIO. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of macrophage G6PD would ameliorate insulin resistance in obesity through suppression of proinflammatory responses. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in U.S. Army personnel.

    PubMed

    Chinevere, Troy D; Murray, Clinton K; Grant, Earl; Johnson, Gregory A; Duelm, Felix; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2006-09-01

    The U.S. Army recently mandated that soldiers undergo glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing before deployment to malarious regions. We retrospectively characterize the presence and degree of G6PD deficiency in U.S. military personnel by sex, self-reported ethnicity, and World Health Organization deficiency classification through test results obtained October 1, 2004 through January 17, 2005. Data were available for 63,302 (54,874 males and 8,428 females) subjects; 2.5% of males and 1.6% of females were deficient, with most having only moderate enzyme deficiency. African American males (12.2%) and females (4.1%), along with Asian males (4.3%), had the highest rates of G6PD deficiency. Most males were found to have class III variants while most females were class IV variants. The most severely deficient were Asian males (class II). These results suggest that universal screening for G6PD deficiency is clinically warranted, and particularly essential for those male service members who self-report ethnicity as African American, Asian, or Hispanic.

  9. Description of a novel missense mutation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene associated with asymptomatic high enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Concolino, Paola; Antenucci, Mirca; Santonocito, Concetta; Ameglio, Franco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Giardina, Bruno; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2007-08-01

    We report a case of an asymptomatic young subject affected by severe deficiency of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. A novel genetic mutation (G130A) in the third exon was found. We named this novel mutation the "G6PD RIGNANO variant". These findings may contribute to a better knowledge of molecular epidemiology of the G6PD mutation and may represent an additional variant to be studied for a deep comprehension of in vivo compensation mechanisms of G6PD deficiency.

  10. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: isoenzymatic pattern in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, B; Cutillas, C; German, P; Guevara, D

    1991-12-01

    In the present communication we have studied the isoenzymatic pattern activity of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis, parasites of Capra hircus (goat), Ovis aries (sheep) and Sus scrofa domestica (pig) respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Different phenotypes have been observed in the G6PD isoenzymatic pattern activity in males and females of Oesophagostomum venulosum. Furthermore, G6PD activity has been assayed in Trichuris ovis collected from Ovis aries and Capra hircus. No differences have been observed in the isoenzymatic patterns attending to the different hosts. All the individuals exhibited one single band or two bands; this suggests a monomeric condition for G6PD in T. ovis. In T. suis the enzyme G6PD appeared as a single electrophoretic band in about 85.7% of the individuals.

  11. Data mining and pathway analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Yanling; Li, Yuqian; Han, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Huixin; Zhu, Yuechun

    2017-08-01

    Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a crucial enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and serves an important role in biosynthesis and the redox balance. G6PD deficiency is a major cause of neonatal jaundice and acute hemolyticanemia, and recently, G6PD has been associated with diseases including inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to conduct a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed library for articles discussing G6PD. Genes that were identified to be associated with G6PD were recorded, and the frequency at which each gene appeared was calculated. Gene ontology (GO), pathway and network analyses were then performed. A total of 98 G6PD‑associated genes and 33 microRNAs (miRNAs) that potentially regulate G6PD were identified. The 98 G6PD‑associated genes were then sub‑classified into three functional groups by GO analysis, followed by analysis of function, pathway, network, and disease association. Out of the 47 signaling pathways identified, seven were significantly correlated with G6PD‑associated genes. At least two out of four independent programs identified the 33 miRNAs that were predicted to target G6PD. miR‑1207‑5P, miR‑1 and miR‑125a‑5p were predicted by all four software programs to target G6PD. The results of the present study revealed that dysregulation of G6PD was associated with cancer, autoimmune diseases, and oxidative stress‑induced disorders. These results revealed the potential roles of G6PD‑regulated signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of these diseases.

  12. Data mining and pathway analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Yanling; Li, Yuqian; Han, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Huixin; Zhu, Yuechun

    2017-01-01

    Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a crucial enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and serves an important role in biosynthesis and the redox balance. G6PD deficiency is a major cause of neonatal jaundice and acute hemolyticanemia, and recently, G6PD has been associated with diseases including inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to conduct a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed library for articles discussing G6PD. Genes that were identified to be associated with G6PD were recorded, and the frequency at which each gene appeared was calculated. Gene ontology (GO), pathway and network analyses were then performed. A total of 98 G6PD-associated genes and 33 microRNAs (miRNAs) that potentially regulate G6PD were identified. The 98 G6PD-associated genes were then sub-classified into three functional groups by GO analysis, followed by analysis of function, pathway, network, and disease association. Out of the 47 signaling pathways identified, seven were significantly correlated with G6PD-associated genes. At least two out of four independent programs identified the 33 miRNAs that were predicted to target G6PD. miR-1207-5P, miR-1 and miR-125a-5p were predicted by all four software programs to target G6PD. The results of the present study revealed that dysregulation of G6PD was associated with cancer, autoimmune diseases, and oxidative stress-induced disorders. These results revealed the potential roles of G6PD-regulated signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of these diseases. PMID:28627690

  13. Neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency fails to detect heterozygote females.

    PubMed

    Zaffanello, Marco; Rugolotto, Simone; Zamboni, Giorgio; Gaudino, Rossella; Tatò, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    We examined glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in north-eastern Italian Caucasian neonates detected by neonatal screening, in order to measure the incidence of heterozygote females detected by neonatal screening, and to estimate the near-true total incidence. A total of 85,437 Caucasian neonates, born between January 2000 and December 2001, have been enclosed in the study. The total incidence of the disease, measured by fluorescent method, is 0.9 per thousand; the total incidence, calculated by Hardy-Weinberg law, is 4.8 per thousand. The frequency of missed females is 93% of total females expected with G6PD deficiency; most of them are very likely heterozygous females. The sensitivity of the fluorescent method might be not sufficient to detect all females. Since heterozygote females might develop the symptoms of G6PD deficiency later, these results suggest that the G6PD neonatal screening may not be helpful in preventing disease in females.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in two returning Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers who developed hemolytic anemia while receiving primaquine prophylaxis for malaria.

    PubMed

    Carr, Marcus E; Fandre, Matthew N; Oduwa, Felix O

    2005-04-01

    Use of antimalarial prophylaxis continues to be routine practice among military personnel returning from areas where malaria is endemic. Primaquine may be used for terminal prophylaxis against Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax. Serious complications of this regimen are infrequent. We report the occurrence of significant hemolytic anemia for two soldiers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom. They presented with dark urine, headaches, and classic laboratory findings of hemolysis. Both soldiers were subsequently found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and both responded to conservative treatment and cessation of medication. Although this complication is unusual, medical personnel involved in the care of recently returned deployed service members should be alert to its potential occurrence among patients who are receiving antimalarial prophylaxis. This complication could be completely avoided with prescreening of personnel for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, as is currently done in the Air Force and Navy, before the use of primaquine.

  15. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alex; MacDonald, Anita; Cleto, Esmeralda; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; Ramos, Paula Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César

    2017-01-01

    Pinto A, MacDonald A, Cleto E, Almeida MF, Ramos PC, Rocha JC. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 189-192. The objective was to describe the nutritional management of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. A 4-year-old male child, African descent, born from non-consanguineous parents presented with a clinical history of frequent respiratory infections, usually treated with antibiotics. At 30 months of age, G6PD diagnosis was made after eating one portion (40 - 60 g) of fava beans, resulting in severe hemolytic anemia hospitalization for 5 days. Diagnosis was confirmed by G6PD activity measurement. Nutritional counseling was given to avoid dietary oxidative stressors particularly the exclusion of fava beans and accidental ingestion of other similar beans. Dietary intake of high vitamin C containing foods was discouraged and adequate hydration advised. Nutritional management is crucial in preventing acute stress events in patients with G6PD deficiency.

  16. Neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Masooma S; Mohamed, Afaf M; Abdulla, Adel; Abdulla, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among infants with neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia (NIH); compare G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal patients regarding hyperbilirubinemia and need for exchange transfusions (ET); and assess risk factors for ET and kernicterus. This is a case-control retrospective study. Medical records of NIH patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed. Data on sex, age at presentation, hospitalization duration, need for ET, hemoglobin (Hb) level, reticulocyte count, direct Coombs test, serum total and indirect bilirubin levels, thyroid function, blood and urine cultures, G6PD status, and blood groups were collected and compared between the G6PD-deficent and G6PD-normal patients. Of 1,159 NIH patients admitted, 1,129 were included, of whom 646 (57%) were male. Among 1,046 patients tested, 442 (42%) were G6PD deficient, 49 (4%) needed ET, and 11 (1%) had suspected Kernicterus. The G6PD-deficient patients were mainly male ( P <0.0001), and had lower Hb levels ( P <0.0001) and higher maximum bilirubin levels ( P =0.001). More G6PD-deficient patients needed ET ( P <0.0001). G6PD deficiency ( P =0.006), lower Hb level ( P =0.002), lower hematocrit count ( P =0.02), higher bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), higher maximal bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), and positive blood culture result ( P <0.0001) were significant risk factors for ET. Maximal bilirubin level was a significant risk factor for kernicterus ( P =0.021) and independently related to ET ( P =0.03). G6PD deficiency is an important risk factor for severe NIH. In G6PD-deficent neonates, management of NIH should be hastened to avoid irreversible neurological complications.

  17. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Mimicking Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick R; Johnson, Sally; Brocklebank, Vicky; Salvatore, Jacobo; Christian, Martin; Kavanagh, David

    2018-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with nonimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Investigations for an underlying cause failed to identify a definitive cause and a putative diagnosis of complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) was made. The patient was started initially on plasma exchange and subsequently eculizumab therapy, after which his kidney function rapidly improved. While on eculizumab therapy, despite adequate complement blockade, he presented 2 more times with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, but without renal involvement. Genetic analysis did not uncover a mutation in any known aHUS gene (CFH, CFI, CFB, C3, CD46, THBD, INF2, and DGKE) and anti-factor H antibodies were undetectable. Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken to identify a cause for the eculizumab resistance. This revealed a pathogenic variant in G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), which was confirmed by functional analysis demonstrating decreased erythrocyte G6PD activity. Eculizumab therapy was withdrawn. Complement-mediated aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion and this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty that remains without an immediately available biomarker for confirmation. This case of G6PD deficiency presented with a phenotype clinically indistinguishable from complement-mediated aHUS. We recommend that G6PD deficiency be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with aHUS and suggest measuring erythrocyte G6PD concentrations in these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the sickle cell gene in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S; Bahakim, H H; al-Swailem, A

    1994-02-01

    This study was conducted on 689 Saudi males and females living in the Makkah area in the western province of Saudi Arabia. The frequency of severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in the male and female populations was 0.055 and 0.042 respectively. The normal G-6-PD was G-6-PD-B+ and the G-6-PD phenotypes identified included G-6-PD-A+, G-6-PD-A-, G-6-PD-Mediterranean, and G-6-PD-Mediterranean-like at gene frequencies of 0.0288, 0.0026, 0.05497, and 0.1969 in the male population and 0.026, 0.0146, 0.0407, and 0.02606 in the female population. The main variants producing severe and mild G-6-PD deficiency were G-6-PD-Mediterranean and G-6-PD-Mediterranean-like, respectively. The sickle cell gene was identified at a frequency of 0.029 and no interaction between sickle cell and G-6-PD deficiency genes was encountered.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico and description of a novel mutation.

    PubMed

    García-Magallanes, N; Luque-Ortega, F; Aguilar-Medina, E M; Ramos-Payán, R; Galaviz-Hernández, C; Romero-Quintana, J G; Del Pozo-Yauner, L; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Arámbula-Meraz, E

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in the northern region of Mexico, which is important because of the genetic heterogeneity described in Mexican population. Therefore, samples from the northern Mexico were biochemically screened for G6PD deficiency, and PCR-RFLPs, and DNA sequencing used to identify mutations in positive samples. The frequency of G6PD deficiency in the population was 0.95% (n = 1993); the mutations in 86% of these samples were G6PD A(-202A/376G), G6PDA(-376G/968C) and G6PD Santamaria(376G/542T). Contrary to previous reports, we demonstrated that G6PD deficiency distribution is relatively homogenous throughout the country (P = 0.48336), and the unique exception with high frequency of G6PD deficiency does not involve a coastal population (Chihuahua: 2.4%). Analysis of eight polymorphic sites showed only 10 haplotypes. In one individual we identified a new G6PD mutation named Mexico DF(193A>G) (rs199474830), which probably results in a damaging functional effect, according to PolyPhen analysis. Proteomic impact of the mutation is also described.

  20. What is the role of the second "structural" NADP+-binding site in human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Chan, Ting Fai; Lam, Veronica M S; Engel, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, purified after overexpression in E. coli, was shown to contain one molecule/subunit of acid-extractable "structural" NADP+ and no NADPH. This tightly bound NADP+ was reduced by G6P, presumably following migration to the catalytic site. Gel-filtration yielded apoenzyme, devoid of bound NADP+ but, surprisingly, still fully active. Mr of the main component of "stripped" enzyme by gel filtration was approximately 100,000, suggesting a dimeric apoenzyme (subunit Mr = 59,000). Holoenzyme also contained tetramer molecules and, at high protein concentration, a dynamic equilibrium gave an apparent intermediate Mr of 150 kDa. Fluorescence titration of the stripped enzyme gave the K d for structural NADP+ as 37 nM, 200-fold lower than for "catalytic" NADP+. Structural NADP+ quenches 91% of protein fluorescence. At 37 degrees C, stripped enzyme, much less stable than holoenzyme, inactivated irreversibly within 2 d. Inactivation at 4 degrees C was partially reversed at room temperature, especially with added NADP+. Apoenzyme was immediately active, without any visible lag, in rapid-reaction studies. Human G6PD thus forms active dimer without structural NADP+. Apparently, the true role of the second, tightly bound NADP+ is to secure long-term stability. This fits the clinical pattern, G6PD deficiency affecting the long-lived non-nucleate erythrocyte. The Kd values for two class I mutants, G488S and G488V, were 273 nM and 480 nM, respectively (seven- and 13-fold elevated), matching the structural prediction of weakened structural NADP+ binding, which would explain decreased stability and consequent disease. Preparation of native apoenzyme and measurement of Kd constant for structural NADP+ will now allow quantitative assessment of this defect in clinical G6PD mutations.

  1. Quantitative neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase screening: distribution, reference values, and classification by phenotype.

    PubMed

    Algur, Nurit; Avraham, Irit; Hammerman, Cathy; Kaplan, Michael

    2012-08-01

    To determine enzyme assay reference values for newborns in a Sephardic Jewish population at high risk for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Quantitative G6PD testing was performed on umbilical cord blood. The reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, reflecting G6PD activity, was measured spectrophotometrically. Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured on the same sample. G6PD activity was recorded as U/g Hb. Males (N = 1502) were separated into 2 distinct groups: those <7 U/g Hb (n = 243 [16.2%], median 0.28 U/g Hb), designated G6PD deficient, presumably hemizygotes; and those ≥ 9 U/g Hb (n = 1256 [83.8%], 18.76 U/g Hb), designated G6PD normal, presumably hemizygotes. Female (n = 1298) values were a continuum and were categorized based on the male distribution: those <7 U/g Hb (n = 81 [6.2%], 4.84 U/g Hb), G6PD deficient, probably homozogytes; those ≥ 9.5 U/g Hb, equivalent to 50% of the male normal value, (n = 1153 (88.8%), 18.36 U/g Hb), G6PD normal, probably homozygotes; and those with intermediate values (n = 64 [4.9%], 8.61 U/g Hb), probable heterozygotes. Accurate identification of the male G6PD-deficient state was possible despite high normal neonatal G6PD values. Female values were presented as a continuum preventing accurate classification but were classified based on male phenotype for practical use. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased Glutathione S-transferase Level and Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Associated with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Perspective Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdi, Sameer Yaseen

    2017-02-01

    Classically, genetically decreased bilirubin conjugation and/or hemolysis account for the mechanisms contributing to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. However, these mechanisms are not involved in most cases of this hyperbilirubinemia. Additional plausible mechanisms for G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia need to be considered. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity depends on a steady quantity of reduced form of glutathione (GSH). If GSH is oxidized, it is reduced back by glutathione reductase, which requires the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The main source of NADPH is the pentose phosphate pathway, in which G6PD is the first enzyme. Rat kidney GSH, rat liver GST, and human red blood cell GST levels have been found to positively correlate with G6PD levels in their respective tissues. As G6PD is expressed in hepatocytes, it is expected that GST levels would be significantly decreased in hepatocytes of G6PD-deficient neonates. As hepatic GST binds bilirubin and prevents their reflux into circulation, hypothesis that decreased GST levels in hepatocytes is an additional mechanism contributing to G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia seems plausible. Evidence for and against this hypothesis are discussed in this article hoping to stimulate further research on the role of GST in G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and a-thalassemia in Qatif and Al Hasa.

    PubMed

    Nasserullah, Z; Al Jame, A; Abu Srair, H; Al Qatari, G; Al Naim, S; Al Aqib, A; Mokhtar, M

    1998-01-01

    Screening programs to determine the frequency of sickle cell, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and alpha-thalassemia gene are available in Saudi Arabia, although not used frequently. Greater use of these programs will decrease the morbidity and mortality of Saudi children affected by these disorders. Neonatal hemoglobin electrophoresis and glucose-6-dehydrogenase fluorescent spot tests were performed on newborn babies delivered between December 1992 and December 1993 at the Qatif Central Hospital and at the King Fahad Hospital in Al Hasa. Cord blood samples were collected from babies born in these two hospitals. Babies born in other hospitals had blood collected in their first visit to Qatif primary care centers at the time of vaccination. All specimens were sent to Dammam Central Laboratory. The diagnosis of sickle cell and alpha-thalassemia was based on cellulose acetate electrophoresis and confirmed by agar gel electrophoresis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was confirmed by fluorescent spot test. A total of 12,220 infants, including 11,313 Saudis (92.6%), were screened over a 12-month period. The common phenotypes detected in these infants included AF, AF Bartâs, SFA, SFA Bartâs, FS and FS Bartâs. In the Saudi infants, homozygous sickle cell disease was detected in 2.35% and 1.08% in Qatif and Al Hasa, respectively. The frequencies of sickle cell gene were 0.1545% and 0.1109% in Qatif and Al Hasa. alphathalassemia gene based on an elevated level of Hb Bartâs were 28% and 16.3% in Qatif and Al Hasa. The screening for G6PD deficiency revealed a high prevalence of 30.6% and 14.7% in Qatif and Al Hasa. In the non-Saudi infants, the frequencies were low. The outcome of this study indicates that the Saudi populations in Qatif and Al Hasa are at risk for hemoglobinopathies and G6PD. Neonatal screening programs are essential and cost effective and should be maintained as a routine practice.

  4. Two novel DNA variants associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency found in Argentine pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Alejandro; Eberle, Silvia Eandi; Defelipe, Lucas; Pepe, Carolina; Milanesio, Berenice; Aguirre, Fernando; Fernandez, Diego; Turjanski, Adrian; Feliú-Torres, Aurora

    2016-07-01

    The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first step in the pentose phosphate pathway, producing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). NADPH plays a crucial role in preventing oxidative damage to proteins and other molecules in cells, mostly red blood cells. G6PD deficiency has an x-linked pattern of inheritance in which hemizygous males are deficient, while females may or may not be deficient depending on the number of affected alleles. We report two novel DNA variants in the G6PD gene detected in two male probands with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA), who were referred for hematological evaluation. Probands and their relatives underwent clinical, biochemical, and molecular assessment. Two novel DNA variants, c.995C>T and c.1226C>A, were found in this study. At the protein level, they produce the substitution of Ser332Phe and Pro409Gln, respectively. These DNA variants were analyzed in the female relatives of probands for genetic counseling. The novel DNA variants were classified as class I based on the clinical, biochemical, and molecular evaluations performed. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweedan, Suleimman A; Awwad, Nor

    2012-01-01

    In Jordan, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a significant health problem, and the incidence was reported to be about 3.6%. The aims of this study are to investigate the most common molecular mutations of the G6PD gene among Jordanians in northern Jordan and to examine the correlation between the genotype and phenotype of this enzyme deficiency. Seventy-five blood samples were collected from patients attending King Abdullah University Hospital and Princess Rahma Teaching Hospital. The G6PD gene was scanned for mutations using a DNA sequencing technique. Our results showed 11 variations (7 exonic and 4 intronic) as follows: c.202 G>A (rs1050828), c.376 A>G (rs1050829), c.404 A>C (CM962574 single-nucleotide polymorphism), c.542 A>T (rs5030872), c.563 C>T (rs5030868), c.1003 G>A (rs5030869), c.1311 C>T (rs2230037), c.486-90 C>T, c.486-60 C>G (rs2515904), c.770+175 C>T (rs2515905) and c.1311 C>T (rs2230037). Among these, G6PD Mediterranean (c.563 C>T) was the most common in our patients, with a frequency of 76.2%, followed by G6PD A- (c.202 G>A + c.376 A>G) with 19%, and an equal frequency of 1.6% was found for G6PD Chatham (c.1003 G>A), G6PD Santamaria (c.542 A>T + c.376 A>G) and G6PD Cairo (c.404 A>C). This is the first report of G6PD Santamaria and Cairo among our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on the metabolic and cardiac responses to obesogenic or high-fructose diets.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Peter A; Mapanga, Rudo F; Kimar, Charlene P; Ribeiro, Rogerio F; Brown, Bethany H; O'Connell, Kelly A; Cox, James W; Shekar, Kadambari C; Asemu, Girma; Essop, M Faadiel; Stanley, William C

    2012-10-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzymopathy that affects cellular redox status and may lower flux into nonoxidative pathways of glucose metabolism. Oxidative stress may worsen systemic glucose tolerance and cardiometabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency exacerbates diet-induced systemic metabolic dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress but in myocardium prevents diet-induced oxidative stress and pathology. WT and G6PD-deficient (G6PDX) mice received a standard high-starch diet, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet to induce obesity (DIO), or a high-fructose diet. After 31 wk, DIO increased adipose and body mass compared with the high-starch diet but to a greater extent in G6PDX than WT mice (24 and 20% lower, respectively). Serum free fatty acids were increased by 77% and triglycerides by 90% in G6PDX mice, but not in WT mice, by DIO and high-fructose intake. G6PD deficiency did not affect glucose tolerance or the increased insulin levels seen in WT mice. There was no diet-induced hypertension or cardiac dysfunction in either mouse strain. However, G6PD deficiency increased aconitase activity by 42% and blunted markers of nonoxidative glucose pathway activation in myocardium, including the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activation and advanced glycation end product formation. These results reveal a complex interplay between diet-induced metabolic effects and G6PD deficiency, where G6PD deficiency decreases weight gain and hyperinsulinemia with DIO, but elevates serum free fatty acids, without affecting glucose tolerance. On the other hand, it modestly suppressed indexes of glucose flux into nonoxidative pathways in myocardium, suggesting potential protective effects.

  7. Effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on the metabolic and cardiac responses to obesogenic or high-fructose diets

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Peter A.; Mapanga, Rudo F.; Kimar, Charlene P.; Ribeiro, Rogerio F.; Brown, Bethany H.; O'Connell, Kelly A.; Cox, James W.; Shekar, Kadambari C.; Asemu, Girma; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzymopathy that affects cellular redox status and may lower flux into nonoxidative pathways of glucose metabolism. Oxidative stress may worsen systemic glucose tolerance and cardiometabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency exacerbates diet-induced systemic metabolic dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress but in myocardium prevents diet-induced oxidative stress and pathology. WT and G6PD-deficient (G6PDX) mice received a standard high-starch diet, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet to induce obesity (DIO), or a high-fructose diet. After 31 wk, DIO increased adipose and body mass compared with the high-starch diet but to a greater extent in G6PDX than WT mice (24 and 20% lower, respectively). Serum free fatty acids were increased by 77% and triglycerides by 90% in G6PDX mice, but not in WT mice, by DIO and high-fructose intake. G6PD deficiency did not affect glucose tolerance or the increased insulin levels seen in WT mice. There was no diet-induced hypertension or cardiac dysfunction in either mouse strain. However, G6PD deficiency increased aconitase activity by 42% and blunted markers of nonoxidative glucose pathway activation in myocardium, including the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activation and advanced glycation end product formation. These results reveal a complex interplay between diet-induced metabolic effects and G6PD deficiency, where G6PD deficiency decreases weight gain and hyperinsulinemia with DIO, but elevates serum free fatty acids, without affecting glucose tolerance. On the other hand, it modestly suppressed indexes of glucose flux into nonoxidative pathways in myocardium, suggesting potential protective effects. PMID:22829586

  8. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundiced Egyptian neonates.

    PubMed

    M Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa; Rizk, Mohammed Soliman

    2016-12-01

    The enzyme, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficiency leads to impaired production of reduced glutathione and predisposes the red cells to be damaged by oxidative metabolites, causing hemolysis. Deficient neonates may manifest clinically as hyperbilirubinemia or even kernicterus. This study was carried out to detect erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To determine the frequency and effect of G6PD deficiency, this study was conducted on 202 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. All term and preterm babies up to 13 day of age admitted with clinically evident jaundice were taken for the study. G6PD activity is measured by the UV-Kinetic Method using cellular enzyme determination reagents by spectrophotometry according to manufacturer's instructions. A total of 202 babies were enrolled in this study. Male babies outnumbered the female (71.3% versus 28.7%). Mean age of the study newborns was 3.75 ± 2.5 days. Eighteen neonates (8.9%) had G6PD deficiency, all are males. One case had combined G6PD deficiency and RH incompatibility. Mean serum total bilirubin was 17.2 ± 4.4 in G6PD deficient cases. There was significant positive correlation between the time of appearance of jaundice in days and G6PD levels in G6PD deficient cases. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with various clinical comorbidities. G6PD deficiency is found to one important cause of neonatal jaundice developing on day 2 onwards.

  9. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  10. Deletion of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene KlZWF1 Affects both Fermentative and Respiratory Metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis▿

    PubMed Central

    Saliola, Michele; Scappucci, Gina; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Mancini, Patrizia; Falcone, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    In Kluyveromyces lactis, the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative route for the dissimilation of glucose. The first enzyme of the pathway is the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), encoded by KlZWF1. We isolated this gene and examined its role. Like ZWF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KlZWF1 was constitutively expressed, and its deletion led to increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide on glucose, but unlike the case for S. cerevisiae, the Klzwf1Δ strain had a reduced biomass yield on fermentative carbon sources as well as on lactate and glycerol. In addition, the reduced yield on glucose was associated with low ethanol production and decreased oxygen consumption, indicating that this gene is required for both fermentation and respiration. On ethanol, however, the mutant showed an increased biomass yield. Moreover, on this substrate, wild-type cells showed an additional band of activity that might correspond to a dimeric form of G6PDH. The partial dimerization of the G6PDH tetramer on ethanol suggested the production of an NADPH excess that was negative for biomass yield. PMID:17085636

  11. Molecular Characterization of Cosenza Mutation among Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in huzestan Province, Southwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi Nezhad, Seyed Reza; Fahmi, Fatemeh; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Musaviun, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymatic disorders in human, increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. It is also characterized by remarkable molecular and biochemical heterogeneity. According to previous investigations, G6PD Cosenza (G1376C) is a common G6PD mutation in some parts of . Therefore in the present study we have characterized mutation among G6PD deficient individuals in Khuzestan province. In order to identify G6PD Cosenza, we analyzed the G6PD gene in 64 samples out of 231 deficient individuals who had not G6PD Mediterranean mutation, using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. G6PD Cosenza mutation was found in 6 males of 231 samples, resulting in the relative rate of 2.6% and allele frequency of 0.023 among Khuzestanian G6PD deficient subjects. A comparison of these results with previous findings in some parts of suggests that G6PD Cosenza is a common mutation in Khuzestanian G6PD deficient individuals. PMID:23365477

  12. N-acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol augment selenium-glutathione peroxidase activity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alicigüzel, Y; Aslan, M

    2004-09-01

    In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes, failure to maintain normal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) due to decreased NADPH regeneration in the hexose monophosphate pathway results in acute hemolytic anemia following exposure to oxidative insults, such as ingestion of Vicia fava beans or use of certain drugs. GSH is a source of protection against oxidative attack, used by the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px)/reductase (GR) system to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, provided that sufficient GSH is made available. In this study, Se-GSH-Px activity was analyzed in G6PD-deficient patients in the presence of reducing agents such as N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol. Se-GSH-Px activity was decreased in G6PD-deficient red blood cells (RBCs). N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol increased Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes, indicating that other reducing agents can be utilized to complement Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD deficiency. Based on the increased susceptibility of G6PD-deficient patients to oxidative stress, the reported increase in Se-GSH-Px activity can facilitate the detoxification of reactive oxygen species.

  13. Effect of age, period and birth-cohort on the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Sardinian adults.

    PubMed

    Pes, Giovanni Mario; Errigo, Alessandra; Bitti, Angela; Dore, Maria Pina

    2018-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited disorder common in Sardinia. In this study, the frequency variation of G6PD-deficiency across age groups and birth cohorts was investigated using Age-Period-Cohort analysis. Data were collected from the clinical records of 11,252 patients (6975 women, age range 17-94 years) who underwent endoscopy between 2000 and 2016 at a teaching hospital (University of Sassari), Italy. G6PD status was assessed by enzymatic assay based on G6PD/6GPD ratio. A Poisson log-linear regression model was used to identify age and time trend in G6PD deficiency. Enzyme deficiency was detected in 11.4% of the entire cohort (men: 7.9%; women: 13.6%). Age-Period-Cohort analysis showed no inflection points across age groups, especially after age 80. The effects of time period and birth cohorts on G6PD deficiency were negligible (frequencies before and after 1950 were 11.0% and 11.8%, respectively). These findings indicate that the frequency of G6PD deficiency does not vary significantly in oldest subjects. The lack of evidence for selection across the malaria eradication time may be explained by other factors, including somatic cell selection or misclassification of heterozygotes women as G6PD normal in the older birth cohorts. Additional molecular studies may help clarify these issues. Key message The frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is stable across age groups and does not vary in generations born before or after malaria eradication.

  14. Biochemical and cytochemical evaluation of heterozygote individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Aksu, Tevfik Aslan; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient females by an inexpensive cytochemical G6PD staining method that is easy to perform, allowing diagnosis of G6PD deficiency without cumbersome genetic analysis. Three subject groups were included in the study. The first group consisted of 15 hemizygous deficient males. The second and the third group were composed of 15 heterozygous deficient females and 15 healthy individuals, respectively. Biochemical determination and cytochemical staining of G6PD activity were performed in samples of all subjects. Results obtained with the cytochemical staining method correlated significantly with the biochemical data (p < 0.001), but a only 51-68% of the erythrocytes were stained positively in females with normal biochemical G6PD activity despite their having a G6PD-deficient child. This observation clearly indicates that these individuals are heterozygously deficient. These findings show that the cytochemical staining method to detect G6PD activity in erythrocytes is reliable, sensitive and specific and is superior to the biochemical method. Therefore, this method can be used routinely to detect heterozygous G6PD deficiency.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) as a risk factor of male neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Far, Z; Ghadiri, K; Rostami-Far, M; Shaveisi-Zadeh, F; Amiri, A; Rahimian Zarif, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is a disease process, which represents the systemic response of bacteria entering the bloodstream during the first 28 days of life. The prevalence of sepsis is higher in male infants than in females, but the exact cause is unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, which leads to the production of NADPH. NADPH is required for the respiratory burst reaction in white blood cells (WBCs) to destroy microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in neonates with sepsis. Materials and methods. This study was performed on 76 neonates with sepsis and 1214 normal neonates from February 2012 to November 2014 in the west of Iran. The G6PD deficiency status was determined by fluorescent spot test. WBCs number and neutrophils percentages were measured and compared in patients with and without G6PD deficiency. Results. The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency in neonates with sepsis was significantly higher compared to the control group (p=0.03). WBCs number and neutrophils percentages in G6PD deficient patients compared with patients without G6PD deficiency were decreased, but were not statistically significant (p=0.77 and p=0.86 respectively). Conclusions. G6PD deficiency is a risk factor of neonatal sepsis and also a justification for more male involvement in this disease. Therefore, newborn screening for this disorder is recommended.

  16. The Preterm Infant: A High-Risk Situation for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Michael; Hammerman, Cathy; Bhutani, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    Prematurity and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The 2 conditions may interact additively or synergistically, contributing to extreme hyperbilirubinemia, with the potential for bilirubin neurotoxicity. This hyperbilirubinemia is the result of sudden, unpredictable, and acute episodes of hemolysis in combination with immaturity of bilirubin elimination, primarily of conjugation. Avoidance of contact with known triggers of hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals will prevent some, but not all, episodes of hemolysis. All preterm infants with G6PD deficiency should be vigilantly observed for the development of jaundice both in hospital and after discharge home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Marked decrease in specific activity contributes to disease phenotype in two human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants, G6PD(Union) and G6PD(Andalus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Lam, Veronica M S; Engel, Paul C

    2005-09-01

    Clones overexpressing clinical glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mutants Union (c.1360C>T/p.Arg454Cys) and Andalus (c.1361G>A/p.Arg454His), have been constructed. These abolish a salt bridge between Arg454 and Asp 286. One mutant is reportedly a Class II clinical variant and the other a Class I. Kinetic studies of the purified proteins reveal that, for both mutants, kcat is about 10-fold decreased, thus giving a 90% decrease in the WHO assay, and also presumably under physiological conditions. In contrast with unfavourable changes in Vmax for both mutants, Km values for both G6P and NADP+ are decreased approximately 5-fold. Measurements with alternative substrates confirm that G6PD Union, like the wild-type enzyme, follows a rapid-equilibrium random-order mechanism, allowing calculation of enzyme-substrate dissociation constants from initial-rate parameters. The mutations result in several-fold tighter binding of glucose 6-phosphate to the free enzyme. Binding, however, is clearly less productive than with normal enzyme. G6PD mutations are thought to cause haemolytic anaemia by compromising enzyme stability. Both these mutants indeed show somewhat decreased thermostability. However, at 37 degrees C and with NADP+, the stability differences are only moderate. Decreased catalytic efficiency clearly contributes to the disease phenotype of these two mutants, entirely accounting for reported decrease in leukocyte G6PD levels, though not for still lower levels in erythrocytes. Neither the kinetic nor the stability effects appear to justify the different clinical classification of these mutations.

  18. What is the role of the second “structural” NADP+-binding site in human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Chan, Ting Fai; Lam, Veronica M.S.; Engel, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, purified after overexpression in E. coli, was shown to contain one molecule/subunit of acid-extractable “structural” NADP+ and no NADPH. This tightly bound NADP+ was reduced by G6P, presumably following migration to the catalytic site. Gel-filtration yielded apoenzyme, devoid of bound NADP+ but, surprisingly, still fully active. Mr of the main component of “stripped” enzyme by gel filtration was ∼100,000, suggesting a dimeric apoenzyme (subunit Mr = 59,000). Holoenzyme also contained tetramer molecules and, at high protein concentration, a dynamic equilibrium gave an apparent intermediate Mr of 150 kDa. Fluorescence titration of the stripped enzyme gave the K d for structural NADP+ as 37 nM, 200-fold lower than for “catalytic” NADP+. Structural NADP+ quenches 91% of protein fluorescence. At 37°C, stripped enzyme, much less stable than holoenzyme, inactivated irreversibly within 2 d. Inactivation at 4°C was partially reversed at room temperature, especially with added NADP+. Apoenzyme was immediately active, without any visible lag, in rapid-reaction studies. Human G6PD thus forms active dimer without structural NADP+. Apparently, the true role of the second, tightly bound NADP+ is to secure long-term stability. This fits the clinical pattern, G6PD deficiency affecting the long-lived non-nucleate erythrocyte. The K d values for two class I mutants, G488S and G488V, were 273 nM and 480 nM, respectively (seven- and 13-fold elevated), matching the structural prediction of weakened structural NADP+ binding, which would explain decreased stability and consequent disease. Preparation of native apoenzyme and measurement of K d constant for structural NADP+ will now allow quantitative assessment of this defect in clinical G6PD mutations. PMID:18493020

  19. [Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a protection against malaria and a risk for hemolytic accidents].

    PubMed

    Wajcman, Henri; Galactéros, Frédéric

    2004-08-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway, which in the RBC leads to the formation of NADPH, essential to prevent the cell from an oxidative stress. Worldwide, more than 400 million people (90% being males) are affected by G6PD deficiency, in regions that are, or have been, endemic for malaria and in populations originating from these regions. RBCs with low G6PD activity offer a hostile environment to parasite growth and thus an advantage to G6PD deficiency carriers. The counterpart of this protective effect is an increased susceptibility to oxidants such as some foods (fava beans), drugs (anti-malarial or sulphonamides), or various chemicals. In the case of G6PD deficiency, the hypothesis of a convergent evolution between parasite, protecting mutation, and cultural traditions (food, skin painting...) has been proposed. Near to 150 different G6PD variants have been described, which are classified into four types, according to their clinical effects. Several variants, such as the G6PD A- or the Mediterranean variant, reach the polymorphism level in endemic regions. The recent determination of the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme allows one to explain now the mechanisms of the disorders in terms of structure-function relationship.

  20. The role of the G6PD AEth376G/968C allele in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the seerer population of Senegal.

    PubMed

    De Araujo, Carla; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Guitard, Juliette; Pelleau, Stéphane; Vulliamy, Tom; Ducrocq, Rolande

    2006-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in tropical Sub-Saharan countries. The allele most frequently associated with G6PD deficiency in this a region is G6PD 376G/202A. Here, we show that, the prevalence of G6PD deficiency is 12% in the Sereer ethnic group from Senegal ant that the 376G/968C genotype is predominant; the frequency of the 376G/202A genotype is very low in this ethnic group.

  1. Physiological role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cold acclimation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Dingqun; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zejing; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in study of new resistance mechanism in fruit trees. All these regard the climate change and subsequent fruit production. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and the expression of this enzyme is related to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Under accumulation of low temperature stress, the significant increase in G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, sugar contents as well as changes of superoxide (O2•-). It is suggested that the enhancement of cold resistance of strawberry, which induced by cold acclimation, related to the significant increase in G6PDH activity. On one hand, G6PDH activates NADPH oxidase to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); on the other hand, it may be involved in the activation of antioxidant enzymes, and accelerates many other important NADPH-dependent enzymatic reactions. Then further result in the elevation of membrane stability and cold resistance of strawberry. Interestingly, even though the plants were placed again under a temperature of 25°C for 1 d, the higher cold resistance, enzyme activities and soluble sugar content acquired.

  2. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Islam, Md Tarikul; Eckhoff, Grace; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A K M; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh.

  3. Genetic determinants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and clinical phenomena such as primaquine-sensitivity and protection from severe malaria remains poorly defined, with past association studies yielding inconsistent and conflicting results. One possibility is that examination of a single genetic variant might underestimate the presence of true effects in the presence of unrecognized functional allelic diversity. Methods We systematically examined this possibility in Kenya, conducting a fine-mapping association study of erythrocyte G6PD activity in 1828 Kenyan children across 30 polymorphisms at or around the G6PD locus. Results We demonstrate a strong functional role for c.202G>A (rs1050828), which accounts for the majority of variance in enzyme activity observed (P=1.5×10−200, additive model). Additionally, we identify other common variants that exert smaller, intercorrelated effects independent of c.202G>A, and haplotype analyses suggest that each variant tags one of two haplotype motifs that are opposite in sequence identity and effect direction. We posit that these effects are of biological and possible clinical significance, specifically noting that c.376A>G (rs1050829) augments 202AG heterozygote risk for deficiency trait by two-fold (OR = 2.11 [1.12 - 3.84], P=0.014). Conclusions Our results suggest that c.202G>A is responsible for the majority of the observed prevalence of G6PD deficiency trait in Kenya, but also identify a novel role for c.376A>G as a genetic modifier which marks a common haplotype that augments the risk conferred to 202AG heterozygotes, suggesting that variation at both loci merits consideration in genetic association studies probing G6PD deficiency-associated clinical phenotypes. PMID:25201310

  4. Genetic determinants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivang S; Macharia, Alex; Makale, Johnstone; Uyoga, Sophie; Kivinen, Katja; Craik, Rachel; Hubbart, Christina; Wellems, Thomas E; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Williams, Thomas N

    2014-09-09

    The relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and clinical phenomena such as primaquine-sensitivity and protection from severe malaria remains poorly defined, with past association studies yielding inconsistent and conflicting results. One possibility is that examination of a single genetic variant might underestimate the presence of true effects in the presence of unrecognized functional allelic diversity. We systematically examined this possibility in Kenya, conducting a fine-mapping association study of erythrocyte G6PD activity in 1828 Kenyan children across 30 polymorphisms at or around the G6PD locus. We demonstrate a strong functional role for c.202G>A (rs1050828), which accounts for the majority of variance in enzyme activity observed (P=1.5×10⁻²⁰⁰, additive model). Additionally, we identify other common variants that exert smaller, intercorrelated effects independent of c.202G>A, and haplotype analyses suggest that each variant tags one of two haplotype motifs that are opposite in sequence identity and effect direction. We posit that these effects are of biological and possible clinical significance, specifically noting that c.376A>G (rs1050829) augments 202AG heterozygote risk for deficiency trait by two-fold (OR = 2.11 [1.12 - 3.84], P=0.014). Our results suggest that c.202G>A is responsible for the majority of the observed prevalence of G6PD deficiency trait in Kenya, but also identify a novel role for c.376A>G as a genetic modifier which marks a common haplotype that augments the risk conferred to 202AG heterozygotes, suggesting that variation at both loci merits consideration in genetic association studies probing G6PD deficiency-associated clinical phenotypes.

  5. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Amein K; Al-Mustafa, Zaki H; Al-Madan, Mohammed; Qaw, Foad; Al-Ateeq, Suad

    2002-08-01

    The level of activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was determined in 154 unrelated Saudi males and females with G6PD deficiency who were residing in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for known G6PD mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Two different polymorphic mutations were identified which accounted for 90% of the samples analyzed. Of 114 G6PD-deficient males, 96 had G6PD Mediterranean, nine had African deficient variant G6PD A- and in nine the mutation has not been identified. Of the 40 G6PD-deficient females, 34 were homozygous for the G6PD Mediterranean mutation and six were genetic compound, G6PD Mediterranean/G6PD A-. The data indicate that the G6PD Mediterranean mutation is the most common (84%) in the Eastern Province, followed by G6PD A- (5.8%). Seventy one subjects who suffered from favism were found to carry the Mediterranean mutation.

  6. Performance of the CareStart Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Rapid Diagnostic Test in Gressier, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    von Fricken, Michael E.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Eaton, Will T.; Masse, Roseline; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V. E.; Okech, Bernard A.

    2014-01-01

    Administering primaquine (PQ) to treat malaria patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can pose a serious risk of drug-induced hemolysis (DIH). New easy to use point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests are being developed as an alternative to labor-intensive spectrophotometric methods, but they require field testing before they can be used at scale. This study screened 456 participants in Gressier, Haiti using the Access Bio CareStart qualitative G6PD rapid detection test compared with the laboratory-based Trinity Biotech quantitative spectrophotometric assay. Findings suggest that the CareStart test was 90% sensitive for detecting individuals with severe deficiency and 84.8% sensitive for detecting individuals with moderate and severe deficiency compared with the Trinity Biotech assay. A high negative predictive value of 98.2% indicates excellent performance in determining those patients able to take PQ safely. The CareStart G6PD test holds much value for screening malaria patients to determine eligibility for PQ therapy. PMID:24778197

  7. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The prevalence of hemoglobin S and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Jordanian newborn.

    PubMed

    Talafih, K; Hunaiti, A A; Gharaibeh, N; Gharaibeh, M; Jaradat, S

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HbS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Jordanian newborn. A total of 181 male and female babies born at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, randomly selected, and cord blood samples were collected, and the erythrocyte G6PD activity was measured, and the hemoglobin electrophoresis for blood lysate was conducted and scanned for HbS scanning. The frequencies of two major red cell genetic defects, sickle hemoglobin (HbS) and deficiency G6PD was determined, of the studied subjects 10 (11%) females and 11 (12%) males were found to be deficient in the G6PD gene. The frequency of HbS carriers among the females was 4% while it was 6% among males. The coincidence of both G6PD deficiency and sickle cell hemoglobin in the samples was 1%. No coincidence was found between G6PD deficiency and hyperbilirubinemia. A better understanding of the distributions of these genetic disorders has the potential to aid in the more efficient utilization of health care resources and improved planning.

  9. Hyperglycaemia per se does not affect erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in ketosis-prone diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choukem, S P; Sobngwi, E; Garnier, J P; Letellier, S; Mauvais-Jarvis, F; Calvo, F; Gautier, J-F

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we described patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, but no mutation of the G6PD gene. Our present study used two complementary approaches to test whether hyperglycaemia might inhibit G6PD activity: (1) effect of acute hyperglycaemia induced by glucose ramping; and (2) effect of chronic hyperglycaemia using correlation between G6PD activity and HbA1c levels. In the first substudy, 16 KPD patients were compared with 11 healthy, non-diabetic control subjects of the same geographical background. Erythrocyte G6PD activity and plasma glucose were assessed at baseline and every 40 min during intravenous glucose ramping that allowed maintaining hyperglycaemia for more than 3h. In the second substudy, erythrocyte G6PD activity and HbA1c levels were evaluated in 108 consecutive African patients with either type 2 diabetes or KPD, and a potential correlation sought between the two variables. The maximum plasma glucose level after 200 min of glucose perfusion was 20.9±3.7 mmol/L for patients and 10.7±2.3mmol/L for controls. There was no difference between baseline and repeated G6PD activity levels during acute hyperglycaemia in either KPD patients (P=0.94) or controls (P=0.57), nor was there any significant correlation between residual erythrocyte G6PD activity and HbA1c levels (r=-0.085, P=0.38). Neither acute nor chronic hyperglycaemia affects erythrocyte G6PD activity. Thus, hyperglycaemia alone does not explain cases of G6PD deficiency in the absence of gene mutation as described earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Physical and Mental Health until Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with adolescent physical and mental health, as effects of G6PD deficiency on health are rarely reported. Methods In a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327), we estimated the adjusted associations of G6PD deficiency with growth using generalized estimating equations, with pubertal onset using interval censored regression, with hospitalization using Cox proportional hazards regression and with size, blood pressure, pubertal maturation and mental health using linear regression with multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting. Results Among 5,520 screened adolescents (66% follow-up), 4.8% boys and 0.5% girls had G6PD deficiency. G6PD-deficiency was not associated with birth weight-for-gestational age or length/height gain into adolescence, but was associated with lower childhood body mass index (BMI) gain (-0.38 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57, -0.20), adjusted for sex and parental education, and later onset of pubic hair development (time ratio = 1.029, 95% CI 1.007, 1.050). G6PD deficiency was not associated with blood pressure, height, BMI or mental health in adolescence, nor with serious infectious morbidity until adolescence. Conclusions G6PD deficient adolescents had broadly similar physical and mental health indicators, but transiently lower BMI gain and later pubic hair development, whose long-term implications warrant investigation. PMID:27824927

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Physical and Mental Health until Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with adolescent physical and mental health, as effects of G6PD deficiency on health are rarely reported. In a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327), we estimated the adjusted associations of G6PD deficiency with growth using generalized estimating equations, with pubertal onset using interval censored regression, with hospitalization using Cox proportional hazards regression and with size, blood pressure, pubertal maturation and mental health using linear regression with multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting. Among 5,520 screened adolescents (66% follow-up), 4.8% boys and 0.5% girls had G6PD deficiency. G6PD-deficiency was not associated with birth weight-for-gestational age or length/height gain into adolescence, but was associated with lower childhood body mass index (BMI) gain (-0.38 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57, -0.20), adjusted for sex and parental education, and later onset of pubic hair development (time ratio = 1.029, 95% CI 1.007, 1.050). G6PD deficiency was not associated with blood pressure, height, BMI or mental health in adolescence, nor with serious infectious morbidity until adolescence. G6PD deficient adolescents had broadly similar physical and mental health indicators, but transiently lower BMI gain and later pubic hair development, whose long-term implications warrant investigation.

  12. Alterations in Energy/Redox Metabolism Induced by Mitochondrial and Environmental Toxins: A Specific Role for Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Paraquat Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder with a complex etiology including genetic risk factors, environmental exposures, and aging. While energy failure and oxidative stress have largely been associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells in PD and the toxicity induced by mitochondrial/environmental toxins, very little is known regarding the alterations in energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and their causative role in cell death progression. In this study, we investigated the alterations in the energy/redox-metabolome in dopaminergic cells exposed to environmental/mitochondrial toxins (paraquat, rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium [MPP+], and 6-hydroxydopamine [6-OHDA]) in order to identify common and/or different mechanisms of toxicity. A combined metabolomics approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and direct-infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) was used to identify unique metabolic profile changes in response to these neurotoxins. Paraquat exposure induced the most profound alterations in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) metabolome. 13C-glucose flux analysis corroborated that PPP metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, glucono-1,5-lactone, and erythrose-4-phosphate were increased by paraquat treatment, which was paralleled by inhibition of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Proteomic analysis also found an increase in the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which supplies reducing equivalents by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels. Overexpression of G6PD selectively increased paraquat toxicity, while its inhibition with 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death. These results suggest that paraquat “hijacks” the PPP to increase NADPH reducing equivalents and stimulate paraquat redox cycling, oxidative stress, and cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates that alterations

  13. Genetic Profiles of Korean Patients With Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewoong; Park, Joonhong; Choi, Hayoung; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack Gyun; Cho, Bin

    2017-03-01

    We describe the genetic profiles of Korean patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencies and the effects of G6PD mutations on protein stability and enzyme activity on the basis of in silico analysis. In parallel with a genetic analysis, the pathogenicity of G6PD mutations detected in Korean patients was predicted in silico. The simulated effects of G6PD mutations were compared to the WHO classes based on G6PD enzyme activity. Four previously reported mutations and three newly diagnosed patients with missense mutations were estimated. One novel mutation (p.Cys385Gly, labeled G6PD Kangnam) and two known mutations [p.Ile220Met (G6PD São Paulo) and p.Glu416Lys (G6PD Tokyo)] were identified in this study. G6PD mutations identified in Koreans were also found in Brazil (G6PD São Paulo), Poland (G6PD Seoul), United States of America (G6PD Riley), Mexico (G6PD Guadalajara), and Japan (G6PD Tokyo). Several mutations occurred at the same nucleotide, but resulted in different amino acid residue changes in different ethnic populations (p.Ile380 variant, G6PD Calvo Mackenna; p.Cys385 variants, Tomah, Madrid, Lynwood; p.Arg387 variant, Beverly Hills; p.Pro396 variant, Bari; and p.Pro396Ala in India). On the basis of the in silico analysis, Class I or II mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious, and the effects of one Class IV mutation were equivocal. The genetic profiles of Korean individuals with G6PD mutations indicated that the same mutations may have arisen by independent mutational events, and were not derived from shared ancestral mutations. The in silico analysis provided insight into the role of G6PD mutations in enzyme function and stability.

  14. Cryopreservation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity inside red blood cells: developing a specimen repository in support of development and evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzyme deficiency. It is characterized by abnormally low levels of G6PD activity. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are at risk of undergoing acute haemolysis when exposed to 8‒aminoquinoline-based drugs, such as primaquine. For this reason it is imperative to identify individuals with G6PD deficiency prior to administering these anti-malarial drugs. There is a need for the development and evaluation of point-of-care G6PD deficiency screening tests suitable for areas of the developing world where malarial treatments are frequently administered. The development and evaluation of new G6PD tests will be greatly assisted with the availability of specimen repositories. Methods Cryopreservation of erythrocytes was evaluated as a means to preserve G6PD activity. Blood specimens from 31 patients including ten specimens with normal G6PD activity, three with intermediate activity, and 18 with deficient activity were cryopreserved for up to six months. Results Good correlation in G6PD activity between fresh and cryopreserved specimens (R2 = 0.95). The cryopreserved specimens show an overall small drop in mean G6PD activity of 0.23 U/g Hb (P=0.23). Cytochemical staining showed that intracellular G6PD activity distribution within the red blood cell populations is preserved during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the mosaic composition of red blood cells in heterozygous women is also preserved for six months or more. The fluorescent spot and the BinaxNOW qualitative tests for G6PD deficiency also showed high concordance in G6PD status determination between cryopreserved specimens and fresh specimens. Conclusions A methodology for establishing a specimen panel for evaluation of G6PD tests is described. The approach is similar to that used in several malaria research facilities for the cryopreservation of parasites in clinical specimens and axenic cultures. Specimens stored in this manner will aid

  15. Cryopreservation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity inside red blood cells: developing a specimen repository in support of development and evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency tests.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Maria; LaRue, Nicole; Bansil, Pooja; Kalnoky, Michael; McGray, Sarah; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2013-08-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzyme deficiency. It is characterized by abnormally low levels of G6PD activity. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are at risk of undergoing acute haemolysis when exposed to 8‒aminoquinoline-based drugs, such as primaquine. For this reason it is imperative to identify individuals with G6PD deficiency prior to administering these anti-malarial drugs. There is a need for the development and evaluation of point-of-care G6PD deficiency screening tests suitable for areas of the developing world where malarial treatments are frequently administered. The development and evaluation of new G6PD tests will be greatly assisted with the availability of specimen repositories. Cryopreservation of erythrocytes was evaluated as a means to preserve G6PD activity. Blood specimens from 31 patients including ten specimens with normal G6PD activity, three with intermediate activity, and 18 with deficient activity were cryopreserved for up to six months. Good correlation in G6PD activity between fresh and cryopreserved specimens (R2 = 0.95). The cryopreserved specimens show an overall small drop in mean G6PD activity of 0.23 U/g Hb (P=0.23). Cytochemical staining showed that intracellular G6PD activity distribution within the red blood cell populations is preserved during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the mosaic composition of red blood cells in heterozygous women is also preserved for six months or more. The fluorescent spot and the BinaxNOW qualitative tests for G6PD deficiency also showed high concordance in G6PD status determination between cryopreserved specimens and fresh specimens. A methodology for establishing a specimen panel for evaluation of G6PD tests is described. The approach is similar to that used in several malaria research facilities for the cryopreservation of parasites in clinical specimens and axenic cultures. Specimens stored in this manner will aid both the development and evaluation of

  16. Cloning and Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa zwf Gene Encoding Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme Important in Resistance to Methyl Viologen (Paraquat)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ju-Fang; Hager, Paul W.; Howell, Michael L.; Phibbs, Paul V.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we cloned the Pseudomonas aeruginosa zwf gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate. The predicted zwf gene product is 490 residues, which could form a tetramer with a molecular mass of ∼220 kDa. G6PDH activity and zwf transcription were maximal in early logarithmic phase when inducing substrates such as glycerol, glucose, or gluconate were abundant. In contrast, both G6PDH activity and zwf transcription plummeted dramatically when bacteria approached stationary phase, when inducing substrate was limiting, or when the organisms were grown in a citrate-, succinate-, or acetate-containing basal salts medium. G6PDH was purified to homogeneity, and its molecular mass was estimated to be ∼220 kDa by size exclusion chromatography. Estimated Km values of purified G6PDH acting on glucose-6-phosphate, NADP+, and NAD+ were 530, 57, and 333 μM, respectively. The specific activities with NAD+ and NADP+ were calculated to be 176 and 69 μmol/min/mg. An isogenic zwf mutant was unable to grow on minimal medium supplemented with mannitol. The mutant also demonstrated increased sensitivity to the redox-active superoxide-generating agent methyl viologen (paraquat). Since one by-product of G6PDH activity is NADPH, the latter data suggest that this cofactor is essential for the activity of enzymes critical in defense against paraquat toxicity. PMID:9537370

  17. Antiplatelet and invasive treatment in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and acute coronary syndrome. The safety of aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, N V; Liakos, C I; Mouzarou, A G

    2015-06-01

    Aspirin is an important drug in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, its use is contraindicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (risk for haemolytic anaemia). We report the management of 2 patients with class II G6PD deficiency and non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). The two patients were safely and efficiently treated with dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT, aspirin plus ticagrelor) and PCI using new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) despite G6PD deficiency. NSTE-ACS management with DAPT and DES is probably safe and effective in class II G6PD-deficient patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Two apparent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in normal XY males: G6PD Alabama.

    PubMed

    Prchal, J T; Hall, K; Csepreghy, M; Lilly, M; Berkow, R; Scott, C W

    1988-03-01

    A six-year-old black boy who had transient hemolysis after a viral infection was found to have mildly decreased red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity (1.25 IU/g hemoglobin). Two G6PD bands, both slightly faster than normal G6PD B, were seen on electrophoresis in both the propositus as well as in his maternal grandfather. This is an unexpected finding, since the G6PD gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome that is subject to X-chromosome inactivation, and available evidence indicates that it is present as a single functional copy in the human genome. The obvious possibility of duplication of the X chromosome was eliminated by cytogenetic analysis with G-banding. G6PD duplication is unlikely, since peripheral blood granulocytes, platelets, and lymphocytes; cultured skin and bone marrow fibroblasts; and Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated lymphocytes yielded only a single electrophoretic band with mobility identical to the slower band seen in crude red blood cell hemolysate. Study of partially purified red blood cell hemolysate G6PD also yielded a single band with identical mobility. Kinetic studies of the enzyme in the propositus and in three generations of his family identified a unique, previously unpublished G6PD mutant that is herein designated G6PD Alabama. Red blood cells were separated by density gradient into a reticulocyte-enriched, an intermediate, and a dense, older portion. Two distinct enzyme bands were identified on electrophoresis of hemolysate from the reticulocyte-enriched portion, but not from the other two portions. It is postulated that two transcriptional products of the mutant G6PD gene exist; one with a short half-life and detectable only in young red blood cells, and another with a longer half-life present in all cells. The existence of two distinct mutant genes in the genome or a unique post-translational form of the mutant G6PD detected only in reticulocytes cannot be excluded.

  19. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (1.1.1.49) deficiency in Antalya province, Turkey: an epidemiologic and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Aksu, T A; Esen, F; Dolunay, M S; Alicigüzel, Y; Yücel, G; Cali, S; Baykal, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (1.1.1.49) activity was assessed in 1986-1988 in blood samples from 1,521 individuals from 375 families living an Antalya city and adjacent villages by Beutler's fluorescence spot test. The families were randomly selected by the State Statistical Institute. Complete deficiency occurred in 7.4% of males and 1.8% of females. Mean enzyme activity was 6.77 +/- 1.07 IU/g Hb in normals and ranged between 0 and 0.48 IU/g Hb in those considered deficient. Kinetic measurements made with partially purified enzyme showed that GdB+ and GdB- variants were present in normal and in deficient subjects, respectively.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Tunisia: molecular data and phenotype-genotype association.

    PubMed

    Laouini, N; Bibi, A; Ammar, H; Kazdaghli, K; Ouali, F; Othmani, R; Amdouni, S; Haloui, S; Sahli, C A; Jouini, L; Hadj Fredj, S; Siala, H; Ben Romdhane, N; Toumi, N E; Fattoum, S; Messsaoud, T

    2013-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. In this study, we aimed to perform a molecular investigation of G6PD deficiency in Tunisia and to associate clinical manifestations and the degree of deficiency with the genotype. A total of 161 Tunisian subjects of both sexes were screened by spectrophotometric assay for enzyme activity. Out of these, 54 unrelated subjects were selected for screening of the most frequent mutations in Tunisia by PCR/RFLP, followed by size-based separation of double-stranded fragments under non-denaturing conditions on a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography system. Of the 56 altered chromosomes examined, 75 % had the GdA(-) mutation, 14.28 % showed the GdB(-) mutation and no mutations were identified in 10.72 % of cases. Hemizygous males with GdA(-) mutation were mostly of class III, while those with GdB(-) mutation were mainly of class II. The principal clinical manifestation encountered was favism. Acute hemolytic crises induced by drugs or infections and neonatal jaundice were also noted. Less severe clinical features such as low back pain were present in heterozygous females and in one homozygous female. Asymptomatic individuals were in majority heterozygote females and strangely one hemizygous male. The spectrum of mutations seems to be homogeneous and similar to that of Mediterranean countries; nevertheless 10.72 % of cases remain with undetermined mutation thus suggesting a potential heterogeneity of the deficiency at the molecular level. On the other hand, we note a better association of the molecular defects with the severity of the deficiency than with clinical manifestations.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Tantiprabha, Watcharee; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common inherited enzymopathies in endemic areas of malaria including Southeast Asia. The molecular features of G6PD deficiency are similar among Southeast Asian population, with differences in the type of the prominent variants in each region. This study determined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of G6PD deficiency in northern Thailand. Quantitative assay of G6PD activity was conducted in 566 neonatal cord blood samples and 6 common G6PD mutations were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method on G6PD complete and intermediate deficiency samples. Ninety newborns had G6PD deficiency, with prevalence in male newborns of 17% and that of female newborns having an intermediate and complete deficiency of 13% and 2%, respectively. From 95 G6PD alleles tested, G6PD Mahidol, G6PD Kaiping, G6PD Canton, G6PD Viangchan, G6PD Union, and G6PD Chinese-5 was detected in 19, 17, 15, 13, 7, and 2 alleles, respectively. Our study shows that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in northern Thai population is high and combination of the common Chinese mutations is the majority, a distribution different from central and southern Thailand where G6PD Viangchan is the prominent variant. These findings suggest a higher proportion of assimilated Chinese ethnic group in the northern Thai population.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient variants from German ancestry.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq; Schwarzl, Sonja; Fischer, Stefan; Efferth, Thomas

    2007-07-18

    Loss of function of dimeric glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents the most common inborn error of metabolism throughout the world affecting an estimated 400 million people. In Germany, this enzymopathy is very rare. On the basis of G6PD crystal structures, we have analyzed six G6PD variants of German ancestry by three-dimensional modeling. All mutations present in the German population are either close to one of the three G6P or NADP(+) units or to the interface of the two monomers. Two of the three mutated amino acids of G6PD Vancouver are closer to the binding site of NADP(+). The G6PD Aachen mutation is also closer to the second NADP(+) unit. The G6PD Wayne mutation is closer to the G6P binding region. These mutations may affect the binding of G6P and NADP(+) units. Three mutations, i.e. G6PD Munich, G6PD Riverside and G6PD Gastonia, lie closer to the interface of the two monomers. These may also affect the interface of two monomers. None of these G6PD variants share mutations with the common G6PD variants known from the Mediterranean, Near East, or Africa indicating that they have developed independently. The G6PD variants have been compared with mutants from other populations and the implications for survival of G6PD variants from natural selection have been discussed.

  3. Effects of folic acid deficiency in pregnant Wistar rats on the activities of D5-3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase in the ovaries of their litters.

    PubMed

    Uche-Nwachi, E O; Caxton-Martins, A E

    1997-06-01

    Histochemical studies of the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and D5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (D5-3 beta-HSD) in the ovaries of 40 day old litters of Wistar rats whose mothers were folic acid deficient from the 13th day of gestation showed very weak or no enzyme activity. Biochemical estimations of these enzymes showed that the specific activity of 3 beta-HSD in the experimental animal was 20% that of control while that of G-6-PD in the experimental animals was 14% that of control. This implies that folic acid deficiency instituted at a critical period in gestation in Wistar rats adversely affects steroidogenesis in the ovaries of their litters.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A. K. M.; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh. PMID:27880809

  5. Performance of the CareStart glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) rapid diagnostic test in Gressier, Haiti.

    PubMed

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Masse, Roseline; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Okech, Bernard A

    2014-07-01

    Administering primaquine (PQ) to treat malaria patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can pose a serious risk of drug-induced hemolysis (DIH). New easy to use point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests are being developed as an alternative to labor-intensive spectrophotometric methods, but they require field testing before they can be used at scale. This study screened 456 participants in Gressier, Haiti using the Access Bio CareStart qualitative G6PD rapid detection test compared with the laboratory-based Trinity Biotech quantitative spectrophotometric assay. Findings suggest that the CareStart test was 90% sensitive for detecting individuals with severe deficiency and 84.8% sensitive for detecting individuals with moderate and severe deficiency compared with the Trinity Biotech assay. A high negative predictive value of 98.2% indicates excellent performance in determining those patients able to take PQ safely. The CareStart G6PD test holds much value for screening malaria patients to determine eligibility for PQ therapy. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme stability in filter paper dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Flores, Sharon R; Hall, Elizabeth M; De Jesús, Víctor R

    2017-10-01

    Prior to initial distribution of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) proficiency testing (PT) materials, we evaluated G6PD enzyme stability in dried blood spots (DBS) under various temperature and humidity environments to develop storage and usage guidelines for our new materials. We prepared fresh G6PD-normal DBS materials and conducted stability evaluations of daily use and short and long-term storage under various temperature and humidity environments. G6PD DBS PT materials retained 92% of initial activity after 30days of use at 4°C. Materials stored at -20°C and 4°C with desiccant for 30days retained 95% and 90% of initial activity, respectively. When stored for one year at -20°C or six months at 4°C specimens retained >90% of initial activity. Specimens stored at 37°C with desiccant lost 10% activity in three days. At the end of 30days, specimens stored under 'Extreme'-humidity >50% without desiccant- conditions at 37°C assayed below the NSQAP cut off for G6PD. Humidity exacerbated loss of enzyme activity with increasing temperature and time duration. Data suggest that G6PD PT materials can be stored at 4°C and used for up to one month and can be stored at -20°C for one year and yield >90% enzyme activity. Exposure to warm temperatures, especially with elevated humidity, should be avoided. Desiccant should always be used to mitigate humidity effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase, and Glutathione Reductase from Rat Heart and Inhibition Effects of Furosemide, Digoxin, and Dopamine on the Enzymes Activities.

    PubMed

    Adem, Sevki; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate characterization and purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glutathione reductase from rat heart and the inhibitory effect of three drugs. The purification of the enzymes was performed using 2',5'-ADP sepharose 4B affinity material. The subunit and the natural molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Biochemical characteristics such as the optimum temperature, pH, stable pH, and salt concentration were examined for each enzyme. Types of product inhibition and Ki values with Km and Vmax values of the substrates and coenzymes were determined. According to the obtained Ki and IC50 values, furosemide, digoxin, and dopamine showed inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities at low millimolar concentrations in vitro conditions. Dopamine inhibited the activity of these enzymes as competitive, whereas furosemide and digoxin inhibited the activity of the enzyme as noncompetitive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Genetic Variants in Malaria Patients in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tamar E; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Lopez, Karen; Bonnell, Victoria; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Aseffa, Abraham; Janies, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to observe a portion of the G6PD gene where the common G6PD mutations (A376G, G202A, and C563T) are found. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the samples were single Plasmodium vivax infections (83.7%). For G6PD genotyping, A376G was detected in 23.26% of individuals, whereas G202A and C563T were absent. Three other uncommon mutations were identified: rs782669677 (535G→A), rs370658483, (485 + 37 G→T), and a new mutation at chrX:154535443(C→T). Bioinformatic analysis of these mutations' potential functional impact suggests minimal effect on protein function. The discovery of both common and uncommon G6PD mutations contributes to the discussion on G6PD deficiency and appropriate primaquine treatment in Ethiopia.

  9. Decreased erythrocyte nucleoside transport and hENT1 transporter expression in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, Mohammad; Craik, James D

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with erythrocyte sensitivity to oxidative damage and hemolytic crises. In β-thalassemia major, where hemoglobin instability imposes oxidative stress, erythrocytes show reduced hENT1 nucleoside transporter expression and decreased nucleoside uptake. This study investigated hENT1 expression and nucleoside transport in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes to determine if decreased hENT1 activity might be a contributory feature in the variable pathology of this enzymopathy. Uptake of (3)H-uridine was measured at room temperature using an inhibitor-oil stop protocol and 5-s incubations. Erythrocyte membranes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and nucleoside (hENT1), glucose (GLUT-1), and anion exchange (Band 3) transporter polypeptides quantitated on immunoblots. In G6PD-deficient cells, uridine uptake (mean 8.18, 95 % CI 5.6-10.7 vs controls mean 12.35, 95 % CI 9.2-15.5, pmol uridine/gHb/min; P = 0.031) and expression of hENT1 (mean 50.4 %, 95 % CI 38.1-62.7 %, arbitrary units n = 11 vs controls mean 95.23 %, 95 % CI 88.38-102.1 % arbitrary units, n = 8; P < 0.001) were significantly lower; expression of GLUT-1 (mean 106.9 %, vs control mean 99.75 %; P = 0.308) and Band 3 polypeptides (mean 100.1 %, vs control mean 102.84 %; P = 0.329) were unchanged. Nucleoside transporter activity in human erythrocytes sustains intracellular purine nucleotide levels and assists in control of plasma adenosine levels; decreased hENT1 expression and activity in G6PD-deficiency could affect red metabolism and influence a wide spectrum of responses mediated by adenosine receptors.

  10. Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm due to seatbelt injury in a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient adult.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Zhen; Lau, Yuk Fai; Lai, Kang Yiu; Lau, Chu Pak

    2013-11-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with abdominal pain after suffering blunt trauma caused by a seatbelt injury. His low platelet count of 137 × 10(9)/L was initially attributed to trauma and his underlying hypersplenism due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Despite conservative management, his platelet count remained persistently reduced even after his haemoglobin and clotting abnormalities were stabilised. After a week, follow-up imaging revealed an incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm (measuring 9 mm × 8 mm × 10 mm) adjacent to a splenic laceration. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully closed via transcatheter glue embolisation; 20% of the spleen was also embolised. A week later, the platelet count normalised, and the patient was subsequently discharged. This case highlights the pitfalls in the detection of a delayed occurrence of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm after blunt injury via routine delayed phase computed tomography. While splenomegaly in G6PD may be a predisposing factor for injury, a low platelet count should arouse suspicion of internal haemorrhage rather than hypersplenism.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diabetes mellitus with severe retinal complications in a Sardinian population, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Antonio; Contini, Emma Luigia; Carru, Ciriaco; Solinas, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, with a high prevalence in Sardinia, Italy. Evidence indicates that G6PD-deficient patients are protected against vascular disease. Little is known about the relationship between G6PD deficiency and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare G6PD deficiency prevalence in Sardinian diabetic men with severe retinal vascular complications and in age-matched non-diabetic controls and ascertain whether G6PD deficiency may offer protection against this vascular disorder. Erythrocyte G6PD activity was determined using a quantitative assay in 390 diabetic men with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 390 male non-diabetic controls, both aged ≥50 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes with severe retinal complications. G6PD deficiency was found in 21 (5.4 %) diabetic patients and 33 (8.5 %) controls (P=0.09). In a univariate conditional logistic regression model, G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but the odds ratio (OR) fell short of statistical significance (OR=0.6, 95% confidence interval=0.35-1.08, P=0.09). In multivariate conditional logistic regression models, including as covariates G6PD deficiency, plasma glucose, and systemic hypertension or systolic or diastolic blood pressure, G6PD deficiency showed no statistically significant protection against diabetes with PDR. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in diabetic men with PDR was lower than in age-matched non-diabetic controls. G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but results were not statistically significant.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming V.; Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030; Chen, Weiqin

    2010-05-07

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressedmore » GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.« less

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia in a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient Geriatric Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Födinger, Agnes M.; Kammerlander, Christian; Luger, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic enzymatic disorder causing hemolytic anemia. Exposure to drugs is considered to be the most common cause of acute hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. Experience with regional anesthesia, in particular peripheral nerve blocks, is rarely described in patients with G6PD deficiency, but is of great clinical interest. For this reason, we now report on the successful management of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block in a patient with geriatric G6PD deficiency. Case report: A female, 75-year-old geriatric trauma patient with G6PD deficiency and a fracture of the left forearm, was scheduled for osteosynthesis of the left forearm. For surgery regional anesthesia with ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5% was established. Surgical operation und postoperative course were uneventful and with no signs of hemolysis. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with bupivacaine was a safe and effective technique in this patient with G6PD deficiency. Peripheral nerve block is a major analgesic approach and of great value for anesthesiologists and surgeons, especially in our aging and multimorbid society. PMID:23569708

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and malaria: cytochemical detection of heterozygous G6PD deficiency in women.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2009-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a X-chromosomally transmitted disorder of the erythrocyte that affects 400 million people worldwide. Diagnosis of heterozygously-deficient women is complicated: as a result of lyonization, these women have a normal and a G6PD-deficient population of erythrocytes. The cytochemical assay is the only reliable assay to discriminate between heterozygously-deficient women and non-deficient women or homozygously-deficient women. G6PD deficiency is mainly found in areas where malaria is or has been endemic. In these areas, malaria is treated with drugs that can cause (severe) hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals. A cheap and reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent hemolytic disorders when treating malaria. In this review, it is concluded that the use of two different tests for diagnosing men and women is the ideal approach to detect G6PD deficiency. The fluorescent spot test is inexpensive and easy to perform but only reliable for discriminating hemizygous G6PD-deficient men from non-deficient men. For women, the cytochemical assay is recommended. However, this assay is more expensive and difficult to perform and should be simplified into a kit for use in developing countries.

  15. Genetic Profiles of Korean Patients With Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewoong; Choi, Hayoung; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack-Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Background We describe the genetic profiles of Korean patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencies and the effects of G6PD mutations on protein stability and enzyme activity on the basis of in silico analysis. Methods In parallel with a genetic analysis, the pathogenicity of G6PD mutations detected in Korean patients was predicted in silico. The simulated effects of G6PD mutations were compared to the WHO classes based on G6PD enzyme activity. Four previously reported mutations and three newly diagnosed patients with missense mutations were estimated. Results One novel mutation (p.Cys385Gly, labeled G6PD Kangnam) and two known mutations [p.Ile220Met (G6PD São Paulo) and p.Glu416Lys (G6PD Tokyo)] were identified in this study. G6PD mutations identified in Koreans were also found in Brazil (G6PD São Paulo), Poland (G6PD Seoul), United States of America (G6PD Riley), Mexico (G6PD Guadalajara), and Japan (G6PD Tokyo). Several mutations occurred at the same nucleotide, but resulted in different amino acid residue changes in different ethnic populations (p.Ile380 variant, G6PD Calvo Mackenna; p.Cys385 variants, Tomah, Madrid, Lynwood; p.Arg387 variant, Beverly Hills; p.Pro396 variant, Bari; and p.Pro396Ala in India). On the basis of the in silico analysis, Class I or II mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious, and the effects of one Class IV mutation were equivocal. Conclusions The genetic profiles of Korean individuals with G6PD mutations indicated that the same mutations may have arisen by independent mutational events, and were not derived from shared ancestral mutations. The in silico analysis provided insight into the role of G6PD mutations in enzyme function and stability. PMID:28028996

  16. Molecular heterogeneity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Gaza Strip Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, Mahmoud; Reading, N Scott; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Perkins, Sherrie L; Shubair, Mohammad E; Aboud, Lina; Roper, David; Prchal, Josef T

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, affecting more than 500 million people worldwide, is one of the most common of inherited disorders. There are 186 G6PD mutations published, with mutational clustering within defined ethnic/racial groups. However comprehensive molecular characterization of ethnically associated G6PD mutants and their clinical implications are lacking. Eighty unrelated Palestinian children hospitalized for hemolysis were studied. G6PD activity was determined by quantitative spectrophotometry and G6PD mutations were analyzed by sequencing of gDNA. 65 of 80 children (81%) had G6PD deficiency, accounting for most of the hemolytic disease in this age group. G6PD Mediterranean(c.563T), African G6PD A-(c.202A/c.376G), and G6PD Cairo(c.404C) were common with relative allele frequencies of 0.33 [1], 0.26, and 0.18 respectively. Two other variants were discovered, G6PD Beverly Hills(c.1160A) mutation, and a novel G6PD missense mutation c.536G>A (Ser179Asn), designated G6PD "Gaza". Three samples exhibited enzyme deficiency without detectable exonic or exon/intron boundary mutations. G6PD deficiency accounts for the majority of diagnoses for hemolysis in Palestinian children (81%), providing support for newborn G6PD deficiency screening programs. We report unanticipated molecular heterogeneity of G6PD variants among Gaza Strip Palestinians greater than reported in neighboring Arab populations. We report a high proportion of affected children with G6PD Cairo, which was observed previously in only a single Egyptian, and a novel mutation G6PD "Gaza". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Linkage and Correlations to Storage Capacity in Erythrocytes from Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Donors.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Julie A; Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Nemkov, Travis; Voulgaridou, Artemis I; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2017-01-01

    In glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, decreased NADPH regeneration in the pentose phosphate pathway and subnormal levels of reduced glutathione result in insufficient antioxidant defense, increased susceptibility of red blood cells (RBCs) to oxidative stress, and acute hemolysis following exposure to pro-oxidant drugs and infections. Despite the fact that redox disequilibrium is a prominent feature of RBC storage lesion, it has been reported that the G6PD-deficient RBCs store well, at least in respect to energy metabolism, but their overall metabolic phenotypes and molecular linkages to the storability profile are scarcely investigated. We performed UHPLC-MS metabolomics analyses of weekly sampled RBC concentrates from G6PD sufficient and deficient donors, stored in citrate phosphate dextrose/saline adenine glucose mannitol from day 0 to storage day 42, followed by statistical and bioinformatics integration of the data. Other than previously reported alterations in glycolysis, metabolomics analyses revealed bioactive lipids, free fatty acids, bile acids, amino acids, and purines as top variables discriminating RBC concentrates for G6PD-deficient donors. Two-way ANOVA showed significant changes in the storage-dependent variation in fumarate, one-carbon, and sulfur metabolism, glutathione homeostasis, and antioxidant defense (including urate) components in G6PD-deficient vs. sufficient donors. The levels of free fatty acids and their oxidized derivatives, as well as those of membrane-associated plasticizers were significantly lower in G6PD-deficient units in comparison to controls. By using the strongest correlations between in vivo and ex vivo metabolic and physiological parameters, consecutively present throughout the storage period, several interactomes were produced that revealed an interesting interplay between redox, energy, and hemolysis variables, which may be further associated with donor-specific differences in the post

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Screening in Israel-Arab and Palestinian-Arab Neonates.

    PubMed

    Abu Omar, Rawan; Algur, Nurit; Megged, Orli; Hammerman, Cathy; Kaplan, Michael

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, the incidence of clinically significant jaundice (any serum total bilirubin value >75th percentile on the hour-specific bilirubin nomogram), and the need for phototherapy in the pooled male Israeli-Arab and Palestinian-Arab population born at the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Quantitative G-6-PD enzyme testing of umbilical cord blood was performed during birth hospitalization. G-6-PD deficiency was defined as any G-6-PD value <7.0 U/gHb. Transcutaneous bilirubin was performed daily during birth hospitalization, with serum total bilirubin testing in those with a transcutaneous bilirubin value >75th percentile. Ten of 286 (3.5%) consecutively delivered male Arab newborns had G-6-PD deficiency. Clinically significant jaundice was higher in the population with G-6-PD deficiency compared with normal controls (relative risk, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.24-9.58). Thirty percent of the newborns with G-6-PD deficiency met American Academy of Pediatrics indications for phototherapy according to the high-risk (middle) curve on the phototherapy graph. The frequency of G-6-PD deficiency in the Arab neonatal population delivering at this medical center meets World Health Organization criteria for neonatal G-6-PD screening (3%-5%). As in other ethnic groups, clinically significant jaundice is more frequent in newborns of this ethnic group with G-6-PD deficiency compared with G-6-PD-normal controls. Neonatal G-6-PD screening for both males and females of this population subgroup, in conjunction with parental education regarding the dangers of the condition and its prophylaxis, has now been incorporated into our institution's routine G-6-PD screening program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid detection of common Chinese glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    PubMed

    Lam, V M; Huang, W; Lam, S T; Yeung, C Y; Johnson, P H

    1996-03-01

    We describe here the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to detect the most common Chinese glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants, which are the single point mutations: G-->T at nt 1376, G-->A at 1388 both in exon 12 and A-->G at nt 95 in exon 02. In each case, the mutant allele resolves well from the normal allele(s). The distinct heteroduplex bands are characteristic of a particular genotype suggesting that this feature is very useful for identifying all heterozygous carriers for this and other X-linked diseases. When the analysis is extended to other exons, DGGE scans the gene and coupled with direct sequencing, it leads to the identification of new G6PD variation(s). With this approach, we identified a mutation in exon 9 which had not been reported in Hong Kong. Since DGGE can rapidly screen many unknown samples in one gel, this approach could be used to diagnose these G6PD mutations and to identify the at-risk for counselling.

  20. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang.

  1. Point-of-Care Quantitative Measure of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Kaplan, Michael; Glader, Bertil; Cotten, Michael; Kleinert, Jairus; Pamula, Vamsee

    2015-11-01

    Widespread newborn screening on a point-of-care basis could prevent bilirubin neurotoxicity in newborns with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We evaluated a quantitative G6PD assay on a digital microfluidic platform by comparing its performance with standard clinical methods. G6PD activity was measured quantitatively by using digital microfluidic fluorescence and the gold standard fluorescence biochemical test on a convenience sample of 98 discarded blood samples. Twenty-four samples were designated as G6PD deficient. Mean ± SD G6PD activity for normal samples using the digital microfluidic method and the standard method, respectively, was 9.7 ± 2.8 and 11.1 ± 3.0 U/g hemoglobin (Hb), respectively; for G6PD-deficient samples, it was 0.8 ± 0.7 and 1.4 ± 0.9 U/g Hb. Bland-Altman analysis determined a mean difference of -0.96 ± 1.8 U/g Hb between the digital microfluidic fluorescence results and the standard biochemical test results. The lower and upper limits for the digital microfluidic platform were 4.5 to 19.5 U/g Hb for normal samples and 0.2 to 3.7 U/g Hb for G6PD-deficient samples. The lower and upper limits for the Stanford method were 5.5 to 20.7 U/g Hb for normal samples and 0.1 to 2.8 U/g Hb for G6PD-deficient samples. The measured activity discriminated between G6PD-deficient samples and normal samples with no overlap. Pending further validation, a digital microfluidics platform could be an accurate point-of-care screening tool for rapid newborn G6PD screening. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. How We Manage Invasive Fungal Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Glucose 6 Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents a common human enzyme defect, particularly prevalent in the Mediterranean, African e Asian area, where malaria was or is still endemic. Recently, we identified G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and particularly Candida Sepsis in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that there is an urgent need for strategies to properly manage this kind of patients at high risk of invasive mycoses. Here we propose our algorithm for correct identification, prophylaxis, and treatment of IFD in patients with G6PD deficiency undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML. PMID:28894556

  3. How We Manage Invasive Fungal Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Glucose 6 Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents a common human enzyme defect, particularly prevalent in the Mediterranean, African e Asian area, where malaria was or is still endemic. Recently, we identified G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and particularly Candida Sepsis in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that there is an urgent need for strategies to properly manage this kind of patients at high risk of invasive mycoses. Here we propose our algorithm for correct identification, prophylaxis, and treatment of IFD in patients with G6PD deficiency undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML.

  4. Screening and prevention of neonatal glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Li, B; Cao, W; Jiang, X; Jia, X; Chen, Q; Wu, J

    2014-06-09

    We aimed to summarize the results of screening protocol and prevention of neonatal glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency during a 22-year-long period to provide a basis of reference for the screening of this disease. About 1,705,569 newborn subjects in Guangzhou City were screened for this deficiency. Specimens were collected according to the conventional method of specimen acquisition for "newborn dried bloodspot screening", preserved, and inspected. The specimens were studied with fluorescent spot test and quantitative fluorescence assay. Diagnosis was performed using the modified NBTG6PD/6PGD ratio method. Bloodspot filter paper specimens were sent to the laboratory within 24 h via EMS Express, and the G6PD test was performed on the same day. The G6PD deficiency-positive rate was 4.2% in the samples screened using the fluorescent spot test, while it was 5% in case of the quantitative fluorescence assay. Neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency for 11,437 cases (6117 boys and 5320 girls) showed positive results in 481 cases. About 420 cases (318 boys and 102 girls) of G6PD deficiency were confirmed with the modified Duchenne NBT ratio method. The total detection rate was 3.7:5.2% for boys and 1.9% for girls. Quantitative fluorescence assay improved the sensitivity and detection rate. Accelerating the speed of sample delivery by using Internet network systems and ensuring online availability of screening results can aid the screening and diagnosis of this deficiency within 1 week of birth.

  5. Molecular characterization of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Al-Ain District, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, R A; Nur-E-Kamal, M S; Tadayyon, M; Mohamed, K K; Mahboob, B H; Qureshi, M M; Lakhani, M S; Awaad, M O; Kaeda, J; Vulliamy, T J; Luzzatto, L

    1996-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the activity, electrophoretic mobility and genotypes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were determined among healthy, UAE national school boys from Al-Ain District in the United Arab Emirates, The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in this population sample was 11%. The majority of G6PD-deficient subjects were descendants of Omani, Baluchi or Yemeni migrants. Of 18 deficient subjects, 16 had an enzyme activity of < 10% of normal while 2 had an activity of just above 10%. Electrophoresis was performed on 166 samples and showed that, apart from deficient samples, all had the normal mobility of G6PD type B. Of the 18 deficient subjects, 14 had the B type mobility of G6PD Mediterranean and 4 had the A type mobility of G6PD A-. Genotyping demonstrated that 10 had the Mediterranean mutation while 3 had the A- mutation, consistent with their electrophoretic mobility. Another 3 had the G6PD Aures mutation, recently described as polymorphic in Algeria and Spain. The mutations in the remaining 2 subjects have not yet been identified.

  6. Co-occurrence of biphenotypic acute leukaemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin E trait in a single child.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Debkrishna; Thapa, Rajoo; Biswas, Biswajit

    2016-02-01

    Acute leukaemias occur as the result of clonal expansion subsequent to transformation and arrest at a normal differentiation stage of haematopoietic precursors, which commit to a single lineage, such as myeloid or B-lymphoid or T-lymphoid cells. Biphenotypic acute leukaemia (BAL) constitutes a biologically different group of leukaemia arising from a precursor stem cell and co-expressing more than one lineage specific marker. The present report describes a child with unusual co-occurrence of biphenotypic (B-precursor cell and Myeloid) acute leukaemia, haemoglobin E trait and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this constellation of haematological conditions in a single child has never been described before. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Antimalarial NADPH-Consuming Redox-Cyclers As Superior Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Copycats.

    PubMed

    Bielitza, Max; Belorgey, Didier; Ehrhardt, Katharina; Johann, Laure; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Gallo, Valentina; Schwarzer, Evelin; Mohring, Franziska; Jortzik, Esther; Williams, David L; Becker, Katja; Arese, Paolo; Elhabiri, Mourad; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2015-05-20

    Early phagocytosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum were shown to protect G6PD-deficient populations from severe malaria. Here, we investigated the mechanism of a novel antimalarial series, namely 3-[substituted-benzyl]-menadiones, to understand whether these NADPH-consuming redox-cyclers, which induce oxidative stress, mimic the natural protection of G6PD deficiency. We demonstrated that the key benzoylmenadione metabolite of the lead compound acts as an efficient redox-cycler in NADPH-dependent methaemoglobin reduction, leading to the continuous formation of reactive oxygen species, ferrylhaemoglobin, and subsequent haemichrome precipitation. Structure-activity relationships evidenced that both drug metabolites and haemoglobin catabolites contribute to potentiate drug effects and inhibit parasite development. Disruption of redox homeostasis by the lead benzylmenadione was specifically induced in Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and not in non-infected cells, and was visualized via changes in the glutathione redox potential of living parasite cytosols. Furthermore, the redox-cycler shows additive and synergistic effects in combination with compounds affecting the NADPH flux in vivo. The lead benzylmenadione 1c is the first example of a novel redox-active agent that mimics the behavior of a falciparum parasite developing inside a G6PD-deficient red blood cell (RBC) giving rise to malaria protection, and it exerts specific additive effects that are inhibitory to parasite development, without harm for non-infected G6PD-sufficient or -deficient RBCs. This strategy offers an innovative perspective for the development of future antimalarial drugs for G6PD-sufficient and -deficient populations.

  8. [Electrophoretic forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and esterase in Amoeba species amoebas].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2000-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), acid phosphatase and esterases in free-living amoebae of 7 Amoeba species were investigated with the use of disc-electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The evidence provided is suggestive that the electrophoretic isoenzyme patterns of acid phosphatase and esterases (and G6PD in some cases), in addition to a few morphological characters, can serve as a taxonomic criterion for species identification within this genus, as well as for revealing erroneously classified species and strains. It is suggested that A. indica is an independent species whose preliminary diagnosis has been given in this paper. It is concluded that A. discoides and A. lescherae are strains of A. proteus, rather than two independent species. A and As-102 amoebian strains, kept in the collection of protozoan strains and species of the Institute of Cytology RAS and referred to as strains of A. proteus, belong in reality to another Amoeba species and even to another genus within the family Amoebidae. This conclusion has been documented by results of our analysis of electrophoretic patterns of acid phosphatase and esterases in these strains.

  9. Frequency of malaria and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Anette J; Maselli, Daniel A; Saipphudin, Karimov; Wyss, Kaspar

    2006-06-16

    During the Soviet era, malaria was close to eradication in Tajikistan. Since the early 1990s, the disease has been on the rise and has become endemic in large areas of southern and western Tajikistan. The standard national treatment for Plasmodium vivax is based on primaquine. This entails the risk of severe haemolysis for patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Seasonal and geographical distribution patterns as well as G6PD deficiency frequency were analysed with a view to improve understanding of the current malaria situation in Tajikistan. Spatial and seasonal distribution was analysed, applying a risk model that included key environmental factors such as temperature and the availability of mosquito breeding sites. The frequency of G6PD deficiency was studied at the health service level, including a cross-sectional sample of 382 adult men. Analysis revealed high rates of malaria transmission in most districts of the southern province of Khatlon, as well as in some zones in the northern province of Sughd. Three categories of risk areas were identified: (i) zones at relatively high malaria risk with high current incidence rates, where malaria control and prevention measures should be taken at all stages of the transmission cycle; (ii) zones at relatively high malaria risk with low current incidence rates, where malaria prevention measures are recommended; and (iii) zones at intermediate or low malaria risk with low current incidence rates where no particular measures appear necessary. The average prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 2.1% with apparent differences between ethnic groups and geographical regions. The study clearly indicates that malaria is a serious health issue in specific regions of Tajikistan. Transmission is mainly determined by temperature. Consequently, locations at lower altitude are more malaria-prone. G6PD deficiency frequency is too moderate to require fundamental changes in standard national treatment of cases of P

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient Epithelial Cells Are Less Tolerant to Infection by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hung-Yao; Chen, Lei-Chin; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shu, Jwu-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and provides reducing energy to all cells by maintaining redox balance. The most common clinical manifestations in patients with G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. The effects of microbial infection in patients with G6PD deficiency primarily relate to the hemolytic anemia caused by Plasmodium or viral infections and the subsequent medication that is required. We are interested in studying the impact of bacterial infection in G6PD-deficient cells. G6PD knock down A549 lung carcinoma cells, together with the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in our cell infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lower cell viability was observed among G6PD-deficient cells when compared to scramble controls upon bacterial infection using the MTT assay. A significant increase in the intracellular ROS was detected among S. aureus-infected G6PD-deficient cells by observing dichlorofluorescein (DCF) intensity within cells under a fluorescence microscope and quantifying this signal using flow cytometry. The impairment of ROS removal is predicted to enhance apoptotic activity in G6PD-deficient cells, and this enhanced apoptosis was observed by annexin V/PI staining under a confocal fluorescence microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. A higher expression level of the intrinsic apoptotic initiator caspase-9, as well as the downstream effector caspase-3, was detected by Western blotting analysis of G6PD-deficient cells following bacterial infection. In conclusion, we propose that bacterial infection, perhaps the secreted S. aureus α-hemolysin in this case, promotes the accumulation of intracellular ROS in G6PD-deficient cells. This would trigger a stronger apoptotic activity through the intrinsic pathway thereby reducing cell viability when compared to wild type cells. PMID:24223971

  11. RED CELL GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY--A NEWLY RECOGNIZED CAUSE OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE AND KERNICTERUS IN CANADA.

    PubMed

    NAIMAN, J L; KOSOY, M H

    1964-12-12

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these.G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia.

  12. Red Cell Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency—A Newly Recognized Cause of Neonatal Jaundice and Kernicterus in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Naiman, J. Lawrence; Kosoy, Martin H.

    1964-01-01

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these. G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14226101

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bazie, Bapio Valery Jean Télesphore Elvira; Diarra, Birama; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Djigma, Florencia; Pietra, Virginio; Moret, Remy; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic country. Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3% vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD A- was the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient (P<0.001). The asymptomatic parasitaemia was also significantly higher among G6PD non-deficient compared to G6PD-heterozygous females (P<0.001). This study showed that the G6PD A- variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.

  14. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P < 0.001 for DBS samples plus sodium citrate that were examined the first day after preparation, there were no significant differences in the mean GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio between the G6PD deficiency-positive and negative groups when examined three days after sample preparation. The concentration of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG in blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  15. A new paper-based analytical device for detection of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaewarsa, Phuritat; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic haemolytic disorder. Most persons with G6PD deficiency are asymptomatic, but exposure to oxidant drugs, such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine, may induce haemolysis, which is commonly found in Asian countries. A reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent an acute haemolytic crisis. This study proposes a novel quantitative method to detect G6PD deficiency using paper-based analytical devices (G6PDD-PAD). Wax printing was utilized for fabricating circular reaction zone patterns in paper. The colorimetric assay is based on the formation of formazan via a reduction of tetra-nitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) by the G6PD enzyme on G6PDD-PAD. Detection was achieved by capturing the colour using a desktop scanner and the colour intensity was analysed with Adobe Photoshop C56. The results showed that the G6PD activity analysed by G6PDD-PAD was highly correlated with the standard biochemical assay (SBA) (r 2 =0.87, p<0.01). Moreover, good agreement by Bland-Altman bias plot was demonstrated between G6PDD-PAD and the SBA (mean bias 1.4 IU/gHb). The detection limit was 0 IU/gHb of G6PD activity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using G6PDD-PAD. This simple, low-cost test ($0.1/test) should be useful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Increases Redox Stress and Moderately Accelerates the Development of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Peter A.; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Ribeiro, Rogerio F.; Rastogi, Sharad; Brown, Bethany H.; O’Connell, Kelly A.; Cox, James W.; Shekar, Kadambari C.; Gamble, Dionna; Sabbah, Hani N.; Leopold, Jane A.; Gupte, Sachin A.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Stanley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world. In failing hearts, G6PD is upregulated and generates NADPH that is used by the glutathione pathway to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), but also as a substrate by ROS-generating enzymes. Therefore, G6PD deficiency might prevent heart failure by decreasing NADPH and ROS production. Methods and Results This hypothesis was evaluated in a mouse model of human G6PD deficiency (G6PDX mice, ~40% normal activity). Myocardial infarction with 3 months followup resulted in LV dilation and dysfunction in both WT and G6PDX mice, but significantly greater end diastolic volume and wall thinning in G6PDX mice. Similarly, pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 6 weeks caused greater LV dilation in G6PDX mice than WT. We further stressed TAC mice by feeding a high fructose diet to increase flux through G6PD and ROS production, and again observed worse LV remodeling and a lower ejection fraction in G6PDX than WT mice. Tissue content of lipid peroxidation products was increased in G6PDX mice in response to infarction and aconitase activity was decreased with TAC, suggesting that G6PD deficiency increases myocardial oxidative stress and subsequent damage. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, G6PD deficiency increased redox stress in response to infarction or pressure overload. However, we found only a modest acceleration of LV remodeling, suggesting that, in individuals with G6PD deficiency and concurrent hypertension or myocardial infarction, the risk for developing heart failure is higher, but limited by compensatory mechanisms. PMID:23170010

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yin Key; Lai, Nai Ming; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey

    2017-05-01

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may have a higher risk of developing diabetes. The aim of the review was to synthesise the evidence on the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes. A systematic search on Medline, EMBASE, AMED and CENTRAL databases for studies published between January 1966 and September 2016 that assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes was conducted. This was supplemented by a review of the reference list of retrieved articles. We extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes and performed an assessment on the methodological quality of the studies. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Fifteen relevant publications involving 949,260 participants were identified, from which seven studies contributed to the meta-analysis. G6PD deficiency was associated with a higher odd of diabetes (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.73). The odds ratio of diabetes among men was higher (2.22, 1.31-3.75) compared to women (1.87, 1.12-3.12). This association was broadly consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Current evidence suggests that G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for diabetes, with higher odds among men compared to women. Further research is needed to determine how G6PD deficiency moderates diabetes.

  18. Role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in freezing-induced freezing resistance of Populus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Wen-Feng; Lin, Yuan-Zhen; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Bao-Qing

    2005-02-01

    To explore the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) in the enhancement of freezing resistance induced by freezing acclimation, G6PDH was purified from the leaves of 8-week-old Populus suaveolens cuttings. The G6PDH activity in the absence or the presence of reduced dithiothreitol (DTT(red)) were determined, and the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxides (POD) and cytosolic G6PDH activities, malondial-dehyde (MDA) content as well as freezing resistance (expressed as LT(50)) of P. suaveolens cuttings during freezing acclimation at -20 degrees C were investigated. The results showed that the purified G6PDH was probably located in the cytosol of P. suaveolens. Freezing acclimation increased the activities of SOD, POD and cytosolic G6PDH, and decreased the MDA content and LT(50) of cuttings, while 2 d of de-acclimation at 25 degrees C resulted in a decrease in SOD, POD and cytosolic G6PDH activities, and caused an increase in MDA content and LT(50). The change in cytosolic G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of SOD, POD and MDA, and to the degree of freezing resistance of cuttings during freezing acclimation. It is suggested that the enhancement of freezing resistance of cuttings induced by freezing acclimation is related to the distinct increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, which may be involved in the activation of SOD and POD, and the induction of freezing resistance of cuttings.

  19. [The genotype analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Chu, J; Ban, G; Huang, X; Xu, S; Li, M

    2001-08-01

    To identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations in 23 patients with G6PD deficiency and to gain further understanding of the molecular and genetic background of G6PD gene in Yunnan province, China. The mutations located in exons 2-12 and in parts of introns of G6PD gene were analyzed by amplification refractory mutation system(ARMS), natural and mis-match primer PCR/restrict enzyme, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP ) analysis and automatic DNA sequencing. Among these 23 samples, 5 different point mutations in G6PD gene were identified, and they constituted 5 genotypes. There were 7 Han and 3 Dai patients with G487A mutation, 7 cases with both intron 11 T93C and C1311T mutations, 4 cases with intron 5 636 or 637 T-->del mutation, 1 case with G871A mutation, and 1 case with G487A/T93C/C1311T mutation. Two haplotypes, 93C/1311T and 93C/1311T/487A were identified in Yunnan. A strong association was observed between C1311T and the Nla III restriction site produced by intron 11 T93C. The findings of the investigators on IVS-5 636 or 637T-->del in Chinese, on G871A in mainland of China, and on G487A in the Han people of Yunnan have not been reported previously. G6PD deficiency is very heterogenous in Yunnan; G487A is one of the common mutations in that province and may be of different origins. Possibly IVS-11 T93C mutation is of non-African origin. IVS-11 T93C and C1311T might jointly result in G6PD deficiency. The above data on G6PD gene mutation types could be useful for clinical diagnosis, prevention of G6PD deficiency, and researches in the origin and migration of minorities in Yunnan or other regions.

  20. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its association with Plasmodium falciparum infection among children in Iganga distric in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bwayo, Denis; Kaddumukasa, Mark; Ddungu, Henry; Kironde, Fred

    2014-06-18

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, its especially important in red blood cell metabolism. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease characterised by abnormally low levels of G6PD. About 400 million people worldwide have a deficiency of this enzyme. The remarkable geographic correlation of G6PD deficiency distribution with historical endemicity patterns of malaria has led to suggestions that the two could be linked. Some studies have concluded that G6PD deficiency confers resistance to malaria. To determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and determine its relationship with prevalence and incidence of P. falciparum infection among children in Uganda. This was longitudinal study involving 245 children, 135 were actively followed up for 12 months. G6PD status was assessed for using PCR-RFLP method. A thick smear was done to determine presence of plasmodium trophozoites and parasite densities. A total of 245 children between 6 months and 9 years were recruited. Of these 46.5% were males. Overall prevalence for the X-linked G6PD A- mutation was; 79.59% wild type, 12.65% heterozygous and 7.76% homozygous or hemizygous. Among the males 14% were hemizygous. At baseline, 40.8% had asymptomatic P falciparum infection. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence and incidence rates of malaria infection among the different G6PD genotypes with prevalence among heterozygous, homozygous, and wild type being 29%, 42.6% and 43% respectively (p = 0.11) and incidence among heterozygous and wild type being 0.56 and 0.52 episodes/year (p = 0.5). The heterozygous G6PD A- females had a lower parasite density compared to the wild type (2505 vs 941 parasites/μL; P = 0.024). This study showed that 20.41% of the population in this part of Uganda carry the G6PD A-mutation, within the range of 15-32% seen in other parts of Africa. P

  1. A Novel de novo Mutation in the G6PD Gene in a Korean Boy with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Ki-O; Kim, Sun-Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hemolytic anemia caused by a mutation in the G6PD gene on Xq28. Herein, we describe a Korean boy with G6PD deficiency resulting from a novel mutation in G6PD. A 20-month-old boy with hemolytic anemia was referred for molecular diagnosis. He had no relevant family history. The G6PD activity was severely decreased at 0.2 U/g Hb (severe deficiency). Direct sequencing analyses on the G6PD gene revealed that he was hemizygous for a novel missense variant, c.1187C>G (p.Pro396Arg), in exon 10 of G6PD. Family study involving his parents revealed the de novo occurrence of the mutation. This is the first report of genetically confirmed G6PD deficiency in Korea. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. G6PD/PK ratio: a reliable parameter to identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency associated with microcytic anemia in heterozygous subjects.

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Bastone, Loredana; Paleari, Renata; Mosca, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    To determine if measuring the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to pyruvate kinase (PK) is more reliable than only measuring G6PD activity to identify heterozygous G6PD- individuals with associated microcytic anemia in the Calabrian population, which shows high frequencies of both the thalassaemia (thal) trait and G6PD deficiency. Measurement of G6PD and PK activities was carried out on 205 samples of whole blood from Calabrian subjects of both sexes (age range 10-50 years) using a double starter differential pH-metry technique. The G6PD/PK ratio is able to differentiate G6PD- heterozygous individuals from the normal population. G6PD/PK values also allowed us to easily identify the G6PD- heterozygous subjects with microcytic anaemia. Student's t test shows that G6PD/PK ratio is more reliable in both sample groups, relative to G6PD activity in normal subjects. G6PD/PK ratio is a reliable diagnostic parameter for mass screening for G6PD deficiency.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Roshankhah, Shiva; Rostami-Far, Zahra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Farhad; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Jila

    2016-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. G6PD plays a key role in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a major source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for oxidation-reduction reductions involved in protecting against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species such as H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency may reduce the amount of NADPH in sperms, thereby inhibiting the detoxification of H 2 O 2 , which could potentially affect their motility and viability, resulting in an increased susceptibility to infertility. Semen samples were obtained from four males with G6PD deficiency and eight healthy males as a control. In both groups, motile sperms were isolated from the seminal fluid and incubated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM concentrations of H 2 O 2 . After 1 hour incubation at 37℃, sperms were evaluated for motility and viability. Incubation of sperms with 10 and 20 µM H 2 O 2 led to very little decrease in motility and viability, but motility decreased notably in both groups in 40, 60, and 80 µM H 2 O 2 , and viability decreased in both groups in 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM H 2 O 2 . However, no statistically significant differences were found between the G6PD-deficient group and controls. G6PD deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 , and the reducing equivalents necessary for protection against H 2 O 2 are most likely produced by other pathways. Therefore, G6PD deficiency cannot be considered as major risk factor for male infertility.

  4. [Detection of gene mutation in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency by RT-PCR sequencing].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Rong-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Min; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Yu, Jie; Wen, Fei-Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Since glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common hereditary hemolytic erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, most cases have single nucleotide mutations in the coding region, and current test methods for gene mutation have some missed detections, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of RT-PCR sequencing in the detection of gene mutation in G6PD deficiency. According to the G6PD/6GPD ratio, 195 children with anemia of unknown cause or who underwent physical examination between August 2013 and July 2014 were classified into G6PD-deficiency group with 130 children (G6PD/6GPD ratio <1.00) and control group with 65 children (G6PD/6GPD ratio≥1.00). The primer design and PCR amplification conditions were optimized, and RT-PCR sequencing was used to analyze the complete coding sequence and verify the genomic DNA sequence in the two groups. In the G6PD-deficiency group, the detection rate of gene mutation was 100% and 13 missense mutations were detected, including one new mutation. In the control group, no missense mutation was detected in 28 boys; 13 heterozygous missense mutations, 1 homozygous same-sense mutation (C1191T) which had not been reported in China and abroad, and 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms of C1311T were detected in 37 girls. The control group showed a high rate of missed detection of G6PD deficiency (carriers) in the specimens from girls (35%, 13/37). RT-PCR sequencing has a high detection rate of G6PD gene mutation and a certain value in clinical diagnosis of G6PD deficiency.

  5. The effect and mechanism of inhibiting glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity on the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaodan; Jiang, Chengrui; Fang, Zishui; Feng, Yi; Jiang, Weiying

    2017-05-01

    We screened >40,000 patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and found that the G6PD Kaiping allele was under the most positive selection for fighting against malaria in the Chinese population. However, the mechanism is unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-malarial effect and mechanism of G6PD deficiency. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was utilised for inhibiting the G6PD activity of erythrocytes. Giemsa staining of blood smears and quantitative real-time PCR were used for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A transmission electron microscope was used to observe the structural changes of P. falciparum. An atomic force microscopy was used for the analyses of morphology, roughness and Young's Modulus of the infective erythrocyte membrane. When G6PD activity was inhibited by DHEA, the infection rate of P. falciparum decreased, its cell nucleus shrank, the cell organelles and metabolites were reduced gradually and the Young's Modulus of the erythrocyte membrane increased with increasing DHEA concentrations. These data indicated that Plasmodium multiplication would be inhibited in G6PD deficient erythrocytes because the Plasmodium organelles could not obtain enough nutrients, including ribose-5-phosphate and the reducing equivalent, NADPH. Moreover, the Young's Modulus of the erythrocyte membrane increased, which resulted in an increased membrane stiffness and decreased deformation. It was difficult for the merozoites to invade erythrocytes through endocytosis. Understanding these points will have a major effect on searching for new anti-malarial drug targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Gambian school children.

    PubMed

    Okebe, Joseph; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Parr, Jason; Nishimura, Sei; Daswani, Melissa; Takem, Ebako N; Affara, Muna; Ceesay, Serign J; Nwakanma, Davis; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2014-04-17

    Primaquine, the only available drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages, induces also a dose-dependent haemolysis, especially in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals. Therefore, it is important to determine the prevalence of this deficiency in areas that would potentially benefit from its use. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by genotype and enzyme activity was determined in healthy school children in The Gambia. Blood samples from primary school children collected during a dry season malaria survey were screened for G6PDd and malaria infection. Genotypes for allele mutations reported in the country; 376, 202A-, 968A- and 542 were analysed while enzyme activity (phenotype) was assayed using a semi-quantitative commercial test kit. Enzyme activity values were fitted in a finite mixture model to determine the distribution and calculate a cut-off for deficiency. The association between genotype and phenotype for boys and girls as well as the association between mutant genotype and deficient phenotype was analysed. Samples from 1,437 children; 51% boys were analysed. The prevalence of P. falciparum malaria infection was 14%. The prevalence of the 202A-, 968 and 542 mutations was 1.8%, 2.1% and 1.0%, respectively, and higher in boys than in girls. The prevalence of G6PDd phenotype was 6.4% (92/1,437), 7.8% (57/728) in boys and 4.9% (35/709) in girls with significantly higher odds in the former (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.05, 2.53, p = 0.026). The deficient phenotype was associated with reduced odds of malaria infection (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.36, 1.62, p = 0.49). There is a weak association between genotype and phenotype estimates of G6PDd prevalence. The phenotype expression of deficiency represents combinations of mutant alleles rather than specific mutations. Genotype studies in individuals with a deficient phenotype would help identify alleles responsible for haemolysis.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status and severity of malarial anaemia in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro

    2011-11-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (Gd-) contributes to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa but recent data on the interaction between Gd- and malaria among children is scarce. We hypothesised that, being a haemolytic factor, Gd- makes severe malarial anaemia (SMA) more common and even more severe. We selected 930 children aged 0.5-12 years attending a reference hospital with microscopically proven falciparum malaria. G6PD and haemoglobin were typed by the fluorescent spot test and electrophoresis, respectively. Molecular typing by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion was also performed on 15% of randomly selected samples. Haematocrit (PCV) values, haemoglobin type, blood group, presence of sickle cell trait (HbAS), and parasite counts were compared between G6PD-normal and deficient children. Prevalence of Gd- was 16.4% and 8.1% among boys and girls with malaria, respectively. Mean PCV was 22.8% in deficient children compared with 21.0% in normal children (p = 0.041). In boys, 2.7% of Gd- had PCV ≤ 10%, as compared to 13.6% in Gd+ (p = 0.005). Similarly, 21.3% of Gd- had PCV ≤ 15% compared with 39.4% in Gd+ (p = 0.003). No such difference was found among girls. Overall, HbAS was typed in 7.6% and was more common in Gd- (13.0%) than in Gd+ (6.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.058). The mean parasite counts were significantly lower in Gd- (15477.5/µl) than in Gd+ (19784.4/µl; p = 0.013), and it was independent from HbAS. Gd- males but not females were significantly less likely to develop severe malarial anaemia.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis in asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in Sumba island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hana; Tamam, Moedrik; Soemantri, Augustinus; Ishida, Takafumi

    2005-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) caused by a 27-bp deletion in the band 3 gene (Band3Delta 27) are well-documented genetic traits resistant to malarial diseases; however, relationships between these traits and asymptomatic malaria infection hitherto had not been investigated. Filter-blotted blood samples were collected from a total of 210 healthy individuals, 100 males and 110 females, aged 6-17 years, in Sumba island, Indonesia, to survey for the presence of Plasmodium parasites, G6PD activity and the Band3Delta 27 mutation. Presence of P. falciparum and/or P. vivax was identified in 25 subjects (11.9%). In all, 24 subjects (11.4%) showed Band3Delta 27 heterozygously. In males and females, eight and nine subjects, respectively, showed G6PD deficiency. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection between individuals with or without these traits (P>0.05). No alterations in the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection suggest that parasite invasion into erythrocytes is unlikely to be a target phase in which the two polymorphisms demonstrate possible protective effects against malaria.

  9. Determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cut-off values in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Laouini, Naouel; Sahli, Chaima Abdelhafidh; Jouini, Latifa; Haloui, Sabrine; Fredj, Sondes Hadj; Daboubi, Rym; Siala, Hajer; Ouali, Faida; Becher, Meriam; Toumi, Nourelhouda; Bibi, Amina; Messsaoud, Taieb

    2017-07-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest enzymopathy worldwide. The incidence depends essentially on the methods used for the assessment. In this respect, we attempted in this study to set cut-off values of G6PD activity to discriminate among normal, heterozygous, and deficient individuals using the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Blood samples from 250 female and 302 male subjects were enrolled in this study. The G6PD activity was determined using a quantitative assay. The common G6PD mutations in Tunisia were determined using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) method. The ROC curve was used to choice the best cut-off. Normal G6PD values were 7.69±2.37, 7.86±2.39, and 7.51±2.35 U/g Hb for the entire, male, and female groups, respectively. Cut-off values for the total, male, and female were determined using the WHO classification and ROC curves analysis. In the male population, both cut-offs established using ROC curve analysis (4.00 U/g Hb) and the 60% level (3.82 U/g Hb), respectively are sensitive and specific resulting in a good efficiency of discrimination between deficient and normal males. For the female group the ROC cut-off (5.84 U/g Hb) seems better than the 60% level cut-off (3.88 U/g Hb) to discriminate between normal and heterozygote or homozygote women with higher Youden Index. The establishment of the normal values for a population is important for a better evaluation of the assay result. The ROC curve analysis is an alternative method to determine the status of patients since it correlates DNA analysis and G6PD activity.

  10. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among malaria patients in Upper Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Tae Im; Kang, Jung-Mi; Jun, Hojong; Lê, Hương Giang; Thái, Thị Lam; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2018-03-16

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) deficiency is one of the most common X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the world. Primaquine (PQ) has been used for radical cure of P. vivax to prevent relapse. Recently, it is also used to reduce P. falciparum gametocyte carriage to block transmission. However, PQ metabolites oxidize hemoglobin and generate excessive reactive oxygen species which can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in malaria patients with inherited G6PD deficiency. A total of 252 blood samples collected from malaria patients in Myanmar were used in this study. G6PD variant was analysed by a multiplex allele specific PCR kit, DiaPlexC™ G6PD Genotyping Kit [Asian type]. The accuracy of the multiplex allele specific PCR was confirmed by sequencing analysis. Prevalence and distribution of G6PD variants in 252 malaria patients in Myanmar were analysed. Six different types of G6PD allelic variants were identified in 50 (7 females and 43 males) malaria patients. The predominant variant was Mahidol (68%, 34/50), of which 91.2% (31/34) and 8.8% (3/34) were males and females, respectively. Other G6PD variants including Kaiping (18%, 9/50), Viangchan (6%, 3/50), Mediterranean (4%, 2/50), Union (2%, 1/50) and Canton (2%, 1/50) were also observed. Results of this study suggest that more concern for proper and safe use of PQ as a radical cure of malaria in Myanmar is needed by combining G6PD deficiency test before PQ prescription. Establishment of a follow-up system to monitor potential PQ toxicity in malaria patients who are given PQ is also required.

  11. A trade off between catalytic activity and protein stability determines the clinical manifestations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Boonyuen, Usa; Chamchoy, Kamonwan; Swangsri, Thitiluck; Junkree, Thanyaphorn; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Imwong, Mallika

    2017-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common polymorphism and enzymopathy in humans, affecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. It is responsible for various clinical manifestations, including favism, hemolytic anemia, chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the severity of G6PD deficiency is of great importance but that of many G6PD variants are still unknown. In this study, we report the construction, expression, purification, and biochemical characterization in terms of kinetic properties and stability of five clinical G6PD variants-G6PD Bangkok, G6PD Bangkok noi, G6PD Songklanagarind, G6PD Canton+Bangkok noi, and G6PD Union+Viangchan. G6PD Bangkok and G6PD Canton+Bangkok noi showed a complete loss of catalytic activity and moderate reduction in thermal stability when compared with the native G6PD. G6PD Bangkok noi and G6PD Union+Viangchan showed a significant reduction in catalytic efficiency, whereas G6PD Songklanagarind showed a catalytic activity comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The Union+Viangchan mutation showed a remarkable effect on the global stability of the enzyme. In addition, our results indicate that the location of mutations in G6PD variants affects their catalytic activity, stability, and structure. Hence, our results provide a molecular explanation for clinical manifestations observed in individuals with G6PD deficiency. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and risk of invasive fungal disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; Ledda, Antonio; Orrù, Federica; Fozza, Claudio; Deias, Paola; Tidore, Gianni; Dore, Fausto; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that leads to the production of NADPH, required to destroy microorganisms in the respiratory burst reaction of white blood cells. We evaluated the role of G6PD deficiency in susceptibility of IFD in 108 AML patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. In all, 28 patients harbored G6PD deficiency (G6PD-), whereas 80 were normal (G6PD +). Incidence of IFD was significantly higher in G6PD- patients compared to G6PD + patients (35.7% vs. 5%, p = .0002, OR = 10, 95% CI = 2.96-37.5). Higher risk of mold infections (17.9% vs. 5%, p = .048, OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.0-16.6) and Candida sepsis (17.9% vs. 0%, p = .0009, OR = 37.68, 95% CI =2.0-707.1) was observed in G6PD - patients. The evaluation of G6PD activity may help to identify AML patients at higher risk of IFD, allowing to design more intensive surveillance and therapeutic strategies.

  13. First Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency in Vivax Malaria Endemic Regions in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ji, So-Young; Shin, Hyun-Il; Moon, Jun-Hye; Cho, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Methods Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test) were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Results Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. Conclusions No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine. PMID:24853873

  14. First evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in vivax malaria endemic regions in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ji, So-Young; Shin, Hyun-Il; Moon, Jun-Hye; Cho, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test) were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Trypanothione reductase interaction protects Leishmania donovani from metalloid mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Saini, Savita; Das, Sushmita; Mandal, Abhishek; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ansari, Md Yousuf; Abhishek, Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Ruby; Verma, Sudha; Equbal, Asif; Ali, Vahab; Das, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. In-silico and in-vitro interaction observed by size exclusion chromatography, co-purification, pull-down assay and spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed LdG6PDH and LdTryR physically interact with each other in a NADPH dependent manner. Coupled enzymatic assay displayed that NADPH generation was severely impaired by addition of Sb III , As III and Te IV extraneously, which hint towards metalloid driven structural changes of the interacting proteins. Co-purification patterns and pull-down assays also depicted that metalloids (Sb III , As III and Te IV ) hinder the in-vitro interaction of these two enzymes. Surprisingly, metalloids at sub-lethal concentrations induced the in-vivo interaction of LdG6PDH and LdTryR, as analyzed by pull-down assays and fluorescence microscopy signifying protection against metalloid mediated ROS. Inhibition of LdTryR by thioridazine in LdG6PDH -/- parasites resulted in metalloid induced apoptotic death of the parasites due to abrupt fall in reduced thiol content, disrupted NADPH/NADP + homeostasis and lethal oxidative stress. Interestingly, clinical isolates of L.donovani resistant to SAG exhibited enhanced interaction between LdG6PDH and LdTryR and showed cross resistivity towards As III and Te IV . Thus, our findings propose the metabolon of LdG6PDH and LdTryR as an alternate therapeutic target and provide mechanistic insight about metalloid resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Homogeneous bioluminescence competitive binding assay for folate based on a coupled glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase--bacterial luciferase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Feltus, A; Witkowski, A; Daunert, S

    1996-05-01

    A homogeneous bioluminescence competitive binding assay for folate was developed by using a coupled enzyme system of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and bacterial luciferase. A highly substituted G6PDH-folate conjugate was prepared by employing an N-hydroxysuccinimide/carbodiimide method. Folate binding protein inhibits the activity of the conjugate. In the presence of folate, there is a competition between folate and the G6PDH-folate conjugate for the binding site of the folate binding protein, and the activity of the conjugate is recovered. Thus, the concentration of folate can be related to the activity of the G6PDH-folate conjugate, which is directly related to the bioluminescence produced by the coupled enzyme reaction. Using this assay, dose-response curves with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-8) M folate were obtained, which is an improvement of an order of magnitude with respect to an assay that monitors G6PDH activity spectrophotometrically. The assay was validated using vitamin tablets and a cell culture medium.

  17. Application of a new chemiluminescence method for the determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in healthy and enzyme-deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Gumuslu, Saadet; Yucel, Gultekin; Sarikcioglu, Sureyya Bilmen; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    A chemiluminescence (CL) technique, which determines the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities in healthy, heterozygous, and completely enzyme-deficient individuals was applied. CL intensities were detected for 4 h at 15-min intervals in each sample with or without addition of G-6-PD substrates into the reaction mixture. The results revealed an inverse correlation to the reference UV method (Zinkham method; r=-0.80). Furthermore, the CL assay was able to detect G-6-PD activities as low as 0.2 IU/gHb, which was not possible by the UV method. In conclusion, we believe that this method offers a new diagnostic tool for the detection of G-6-PD activities in enzyme-deficient individuals and, because of its increased sensitivity, makes it amenable for determining the effects of different pharmaceutical agents on G-6-PD activity in tissue or cell cultures.

  18. Clonal evolution following chemotherapy-induced stem cell depletion in cats heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Abkowitz, J.L.; Ott, R.M.; Holly, R.D.

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells necessary to support normal hematopoiesis is not known but may be small. If so, the depletion or damage of such cells could result in apparent clonal dominance. To test this hypothesis, dimethylbusulfan (2 to 4 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x 3) was given to cats heterozygous for the X-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). These cats were the daughters of domestic X Geoffroy parents. After the initial drug-induced cytopenias (2 to 4 weeks), peripheral blood counts and the numbers of marrow progenitors detected in culture remained normal, although the percentages of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) andmore » granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in DNA synthesis increased, as determined by the tritiated thymidine suicide technique. In three of six cats treated, a dominance of Geoffroy-type G-6-PD emerged among the progenitor cells, granulocytes, and RBCs. These skewed ratios of domestic to Geoffroy-type G-6-PD have persisted greater than 3 years. No changes in cell cycle kinetics or G-6-PD phenotypes were noted in similar studies in six control cats. These data suggest that clonal evolution may reflect the depletion or damage of normal stem cells and not only the preferential growth and dominance of neoplastic cells.« less

  19. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Greek newborns: the Mediterranean C563T mutation screening.

    PubMed

    Molou, Elina; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Thodi, Georgia; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Dotsikas, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Biti, Sofia; Loukas, Yannis L

    2014-04-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene is located at the X-chromosome at Xq28 and the disease is recessively inherited predominantly in males. More than 400 variants have been proposed based on clinical and enzymatic studies. The aim of the current study was to identify C563T mutation in G6PD-deficient newborns and to correlate the enzyme residual activity with the presence of the mutation. Some 1189 full-term neonates aged 3-5 days old were tested for G6PD activity in dried blood spots from Guthrie cards using a commercial kit. DNA extraction from Guthrie cards and mutation identification among the deficient samples were performed with current techniques. A total of 92 (7.7%) newborns were G6PD-deficient. In 46 (50%), the mutation C563T was identified. The residual activity in C563T hemizygote males (n = 28) was statistically significantly lower (1.23 ± 0.93 U/g Hb) than that in non-C563T G6PD-deficient males (n = 25) (4.01 ± 1.20 U/g Hb, p < 0.0001) and in controls (13.6 ± 2.9 U/g Hb, p < 0.0001). In C563T heterozygote females, the estimated enzyme activity was lower than that determined in non-C563T females. Male C563T hemizygotes suffer from G6PD deficiency and severe neonatal jaundice. G6PD activity showed statistically significant correlation with total bilirubin blood levels.

  20. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Keihanian, F; Basirjafari, S; Darbandi, B; Saeidinia, A; Jafroodi, M; Sharafi, R; Shakiba, M

    2017-06-01

    Considering the high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among newborns, different screening methods have been established in various countries. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among newborns in Rasht, Iran, and compare G6PD activity in cord blood samples, using quantitative and qualitative tests. This cross-sectional, prospective study was performed at five largest hospitals in Rasht, Guilan Province, Iran. The screening tests were performed for all the newborns, referred to these hospitals. Specimens were characterized in terms of G6PD activity under ultraviolet light, using the kinetic method and the qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST). We also determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the qualitative assay. Blood samples were collected from 1474 newborns. Overall, 757 (51.4%) subjects were male. As the findings revealed, 1376 (93.4%) newborns showed normal G6PD activity, while 98 (6.6%) had G6PD deficiency. There was a significant difference in the mean G6PD level between males and females (P = 0.0001). Also, a significant relationship was detected between FST results and the mean values obtained in the quantitative test (P < 0.0001). According to the present study, FST showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for G6PD activity, although it appeared inefficient for diagnostic purposes in some cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Ahmed, Ali Mahmoud; Titouna, Afaf; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Phuoc Long, Nguyen; Hoang Anh, Nguyen; Diem Nghi, Tran; The Hung, Bui; Van Hieu, Mai; Ky Anh, Nguyen; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-04-06

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency overlaps with malaria endemicity although it predisposes carriers to hemolysis. This fact supports the protection hypothesis against malaria. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the presence and the extent of protective association between G6PD deficiency and malaria. Thirteen databases were searched for papers reporting any G6PD alteration in malaria patients. Twenty-eight of the included 30 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Results showed absence of negative association between G6PD deficiency and uncomplicated falciparum malaria (odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-1.02; p = 0.07). However, this negative association happened in Africa (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.86; p = 0.007) but not in Asia (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.96-1.61; p = 0.10), and in the heterozygotes (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87; p = 0.001) but not the homo/hemizygous (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46-1.07; p = 0.10). There was no association between G6PD deficiency and total severe malaria (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.11; p = 0.20). Similarly, there was no association with other malaria species. G6PD deficiency can potentially protect against uncomplicated malaria in African countries, but not severe malaria. Interestingly, this protection was mainly in heterozygous, being x-linked thus related to gender.

  2. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Ahmed, Ali Mahmoud; Titouna, Afaf; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Phuoc Long, Nguyen; Hoang Anh, Nguyen; Diem Nghi, Tran; The Hung, Bui; Van Hieu, Mai; Ky Anh, Nguyen; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency overlaps with malaria endemicity although it predisposes carriers to hemolysis. This fact supports the protection hypothesis against malaria. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the presence and the extent of protective association between G6PD deficiency and malaria. Thirteen databases were searched for papers reporting any G6PD alteration in malaria patients. Twenty-eight of the included 30 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Results showed absence of negative association between G6PD deficiency and uncomplicated falciparum malaria (odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59–1.02; p = 0.07). However, this negative association happened in Africa (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40–0.86; p = 0.007) but not in Asia (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.96–1.61; p = 0.10), and in the heterozygotes (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57–0.87; p = 0.001) but not the homo/hemizygous (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46–1.07; p = 0.10). There was no association between G6PD deficiency and total severe malaria (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61–1.11; p = 0.20). Similarly, there was no association with other malaria species. G6PD deficiency can potentially protect against uncomplicated malaria in African countries, but not severe malaria. Interestingly, this protection was mainly in heterozygous, being x-linked thus related to gender. PMID:28382932

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH redox regulates cardiac myocyte L-type calcium channel activity and myocardial contractile function.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Dhwajbahadur K; Hecker, Peter; Watanabe, Makino; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Levy, Richard J; Okada, Takao; Edwards, John G; Gupte, Sachin A

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a 17-ketosteroid, epiandrosterone, attenuates L-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca-L)) in cardiac myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility. Because 17-ketosteroids are known to inhibit glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and to reduce intracellular NADPH levels, we hypothesized that inhibition of G6PD could be a novel signaling mechanism which inhibit I(Ca-L) and, therefore, cardiac contractile function. We tested this idea by examining myocardial function in isolated hearts and Ca(2+) channel activity in isolated cardiac myocytes. Myocardial function was tested in Langendorff perfused hearts and I(Ca-L) were recorded in the whole-cell patch configuration by applying double pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV and then normalized to the peak amplitudes of control currents. 6-Aminonicotinamide, a competitive inhibitor of G6PD, increased pCO(2) and decreased pH. Additionally, 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited G6PD activity, reduced NADPH levels, attenuated peak I(Ca-L) amplitudes, and decreased left ventricular developed pressure and ±dp/dt. Finally, dialyzing NADPH into cells from the patch pipette solution attenuated the suppression of I(Ca-L) by 6-aminonicotinamide. Likewise, in G6PD-deficient mice, G6PD insufficiency in the heart decreased GSH-to-GSSG ratio, superoxide, cholesterol and acetyl CoA. In these mice, M-mode echocardiographic findings showed increased diastolic volume and end-diastolic diameter without changes in the fraction shortening. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibiting G6PD activity and reducing NADPH levels alters metabolism and leads to inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channel activity. Notably, this pathway may be involved in modulating myocardial contractility under physiological and pathophysiological conditions during which the pentose phosphate pathway-derived NADPH redox is modulated (e.g., ischemia-reperfusion and heart failure).

  4. Red blood cell indices and prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in male Tanzanian residents of Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Mwakasungula, Solomon; Schindler, Tobias; Jongo, Said; Moreno, Elena; Kamaka, Kasimu; Mohammed, Mgeni; Joseph, Selina; Rashid, Ramla; Athuman, Thabit; Tumbo, Anneth Mwasi; Hamad, Ali; Lweno, Omar; Tanner, Marcel; Shekalaghe, Seif; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, are one of the most common monogenic disorders in humans. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is an inherited enzymopathy resulting in increased oxygen stress susceptibility of red blood cells. The distributions of these genetic traits in populations living in tropical and subtropical regions where malaria has been or is still present are thought to result from survival advantage against severe life threatening malaria disease. 384 male Tanzanian volunteers residing in Dar es Salaam were typed for G6PD, sickle cell disease and α-thalassemia. The most prominent red blood cell polymorphism was heterozygous α(+)-thalassemia (37.8%), followed by the G6PD(A) deficiency (16.4%), heterozygous sickle cell trait (15.9%), G6PD(A-) deficiency (13.5%) and homozygous α(+)-thalassemia (5.2%). 35%, 45%, 17% and 3% of these volunteers were carriers of wild type gene loci, one, two or three of these hemoglobinopathies, respectively. We find that using a cut off value of 28.6 pg. for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), heterozygous α(+)-thalassemia can be predicted with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 72% in this male population. All subjects carrying homozygous α(+)-thalassemia were identified based on their MCH value < 28.6 pg.

  5. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in southeast Iran: implications for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Salimi Khorashad, Alireza; Sakeni, Mohammad; Raeisi, Ahmad; Metanat, Zahra

    2015-03-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is an X-linked genetic disorder with a relatively high frequency in malaria-endemic regions. It is an obstacle to malaria elimination, as primaquine administered in the treatment of malaria can cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals. This study presents information on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Sistan and Balouchetsan province, which hosts more than 90% of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Iran. This type of information is needed for a successful malaria elimination program. A total of 526 students were randomly recruited through schools located in southeast Iran. Information was collected by interviewing the students using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples taken on filter papers were examined for G6PD deficiency using the fluorescent spot test. Overall, 72.8% (383/526) of the subjects showed normal G6PD enzyme function. Mild and severe G6PD deficiency was observed in 14.8% (78) and 12.2% (64) of subjects, respectively. A total 193/261 males (73.9%) and 190/265 (72%) females had normal enzyme activity. Mild G6PD deficiency was observed in 10.8% (28) and 18.9% (50) of male and female subjects, respectively. However, in comparison with females, a greater proportion of males showed severe enzyme deficiency (15.3% versus 9.1%). All these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.006). G6PD deficiency is highly prevalent in southeast Iran. G6PD-deficient individuals are susceptible to potentially severe and life-threatening hemolytic reactions after primaquine treatment. In order to achieve malaria elimination goals in the province, G6PD testing needs to be made routinely available within the health system.

  6. Safe fluoroquinolones prophylaxis in blood cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanna, M; Caocci, G; Orrù, F; Ledda, A; Vacca, A; Piras, E; Fozza, C; Deias, P; Tidore, G; Dore, F; La Nasa, G

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial infections are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in haematologic patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The only strategy shown to be effective in reducing febrile neutropenia incidence is fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, but the safety of this class of drugs in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-), the most common human enzyme defect, is still controversial because of the claimed association with acute haemolytic anaemia. We retrospectively analysed 242 patients treated with 628 intensive chemotherapy courses. Of these, 59 patients were with G6PD-. All patients underwent fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and were transfused according to our single-unit transfusion policy. The principal endpoint was the incidence of acute haemolytic anaemia. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of febrile neutropenia, microbiologically and clinically documented infection (MDI and CDI) and the incidence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative infections. No episode of acute haemolytic anaemia was observed in the entire cohort. The incidence of MDI and CDI was similar, but the incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD; P<.0001, HR 11.4, 95%CI 3.5-37.05) and Candida sepsis (P=.008, HR 37, 95%CI 2.01-680.9) was higher in patients with G6PD-. Interestingly, we observed a reduced incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients with G6PD- (P=.01, HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.25-0.8). Our data suggest that fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients with G6PD-, treated with intensive chemotherapy, is feasible and safe. Our findings on the incidence of IFD and febrile neutropenia suggest that G6PD may be important in susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens and host response in neutropenic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Should blood donors be routinely screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency? A systematic review of clinical studies focusing on patients transfused with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient red cells.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Husser, Eliette; Polonsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors associated with the use of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient blood in transfusion have not yet been well established. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate whether whole blood from healthy G6PD-deficient donors is safe to use for transfusion. The study undertook a systematic review of English articles indexed in COCHRANE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL, with no date restriction up to March 2013, as well as those included in articles' reference lists and those included in Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria required that studies be randomized controlled trials, case controls, case reports, or prospective clinical series. Data were extracted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews using a previously piloted form, which included fields for study design, population under study, sample size, study results, limitations, conclusions, and recommendations. The initial search identified 663 potentially relevant articles, of which only 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The reported effects of G6PD-deficient transfused blood on neonates and children appear to be more deleterious than effects reported on adult patients. In most cases, the rise of total serum bilirubin was abnormal in infants transfused with G6PD-deficient blood from 6 hours up to 60 hours after transfusion. All studies on neonates and children, except one, recommended a routine screening for G6PD deficiency for this at-risk subpopulation because their immature hepatic function potentially makes them less able to handle any excess bilirubin load. It is difficult to make firm clinical conclusions and recommendations given the equivocal results, the lack of standardized evaluation methods to categorize red blood cell units as G6PD deficient (some of which are questionable), and the limited methodological quality and low quality of evidence. Notwithstanding these limitations, based on our review of the available literature, there is little to

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among malaria suspects attending Gambella hospital, southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Arega; Golassa, Lemu; Mamo, Hassen; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-11-18

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) is widespread across malaria endemic regions. G6PD-deficient individuals are at risk of haemolysis when exposed, among other agents, to primaquine and tafenoquine, which are capable of blocking malaria transmission by killing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and preventing Plasmodium vivax relapses by targeting hypnozoites. It is evident that no measures are currently in place to ensure safe delivery of these drugs within the context of G6PDd risk. Thus, determining G6PDd prevalence in malarious areas would contribute towards avoiding possible complications in malaria elimination using the drugs. This study, therefore, was aimed at determining G6PDd prevalence in Gambella hospital, southwest Ethiopia, using CareStart™ G6PDd fluorescence spot test. Venous blood samples were collected from febrile patients (n = 449) attending Gambella hospital in November-December 2013. Malaria was diagnosed using blood films and G6PDd was screened using CareStart™ G6PDd screening test (Access Bio, New Jersey, USA). Haematological parameters were also measured. The association of G6PD phenotype with sex, ethnic group and malaria smear positivity was tested. Malaria prevalence was 59.2% (96.6% of the cases being P. falciparum mono infections). Totally 33 participants (7.3%) were G6PD-deficient with no significant difference between the sexes. The chance of being G6PD-deficient was significantly higher for the native ethnic groups (Anuak and Nuer) compared to the 'highlanders'/settlers (odds ratio (OD) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.481-31.418 for Anuak vs 'highlanders'; OD = 4.9, 95% CI 0.635-38.00 for Nuer vs 'highlanders'). G6PDd prevalence among the Nuer (14.3%) was significantly higher than that for the Anuak (12.0%). G6PDd prevalence in the area is substantial with 30 (90.9%) of the 33 deficient individuals having malaria suggesting the non-protective role of the disorder at least from clinical malaria

  9. African glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase alleles associated with protection from severe malaria in heterozygous females in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manjurano, Alphaxard; Sepulveda, Nuno; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Wangai, Hannah; Maxwell, Caroline; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh; Riley, Eleanor M; Drakeley, Christopher J; Clark, Taane G

    2015-02-01

    X-linked Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) A- deficiency is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa populations, and has been associated with protection from severe malaria. Whether females and/or males are protected by G6PD deficiency is uncertain, due in part to G6PD and malaria phenotypic complexity and misclassification. Almost all large association studies have genotyped a limited number of G6PD SNPs (e.g. G6PD202 / G6PD376), and this approach has been too blunt to capture the complete epidemiological picture. Here we have identified 68 G6PD polymorphisms and analysed 29 of these (i.e. those with a minor allele frequency greater than 1%) in 983 severe malaria cases and controls in Tanzania. We establish, across a number of SNPs including G6PD376, that only female heterozygotes are protected from severe malaria. Haplotype analysis reveals the G6PD locus to be under balancing selection, suggesting a mechanism of protection relying on alleles at modest frequency and avoiding fixation, where protection provided by G6PD deficiency against severe malaria is offset by increased risk of life-threatening complications. Our study also demonstrates that the much-needed large-scale studies of severe malaria and G6PD enzymatic function across African populations require the identification and analysis of the full repertoire of G6PD genetic markers.

  10. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.

    PubMed

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

    2014-07-01

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in people living in malaria endemic districts of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Prakash; Singh, Nihal; Ortega, Leonard; Rijal, Komal Raj; Adhikari, Bipin; Thakur, Garib Das; Marasini, Baburam

    2017-05-23

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a rate limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and is closely associated with the haemolytic disorders among patients receiving anti-malarial drugs, such as primaquine. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) is an impending factor for radical treatment of malaria which affects the clearance of gametocytes from the blood and subsequent delay in the achievement of malaria elimination. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in six malaria endemic districts in Southern Nepal. A cross-sectional population based prevalence survey was conducted in six malaria endemic districts of Nepal, during April-Dec 2013. A total of 1341 blood samples were tested for G6PDd using two different rapid diagnostic test kits (Binax-Now ® and Care Start™). Equal proportions of participants from each district (n ≥ 200) were enrolled considering ethnic and demographic representation of the population groups. Out of total 1341 blood specimens collected from six districts, the overall prevalence of G6PDd was 97/1341; 7.23% on Binax Now and 81/1341; 6.0% on Care Start test. Higher prevalence was observed in male than females [Binax Now: male 10.2%; 53/521 versus female 5.4%; 44/820 (p = 0.003) and Care Start: male 8.4%; 44/521 versus female 4.5%; 37/820 (p = 0.003)]. G6PDd was higher in ethnic groups Rajbanshi (11.7%; 19/162) and Tharu (5.6%; 56/1005) (p = 0.006), major inhabitant of the endemic districts. Higher prevalence of G6PDd was found in Jhapa (22/224; 9.8%) and Morang districts (18/225; 8%) (p = 0.031). In a multivariate analysis, male were found at more risk for G6PDd than females, on Binax test (aOR = 1.97; CI 1.28-3.03; p = 0.002) and Care Start test (aOR = 1.86; CI 1.16-2.97; p = 0.009). The higher prevalence of G6PDd in certain ethnic group, gender and geographical region clearly demonstrates clustering of the cases and ascertained the risk groups within the population. This is the

  12. Causes of death among lead smelters in relation to the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Pierluigi; Fadda, Domenica; Atzeri, Sergio; Avataneo, Giuseppe; Meloni, Michele; Flore, Costantino

    2007-06-01

    To assess, by updating a follow-up mortality study of a lead smelters cohort in Sardinia, Italy, the adverse health effects following occupational lead exposure in relation to the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) polymorphism. The 1973-2003 mortality of 1017 male lead smelters were followed-up, divided into two subcohorts according to the G6PD phenotype: whether G6PD deficient (G6PD-) or wild-type (wtG6PD). Deaths observed in the overall cohort and the two subcohorts were compared with those expected, on the basis of the age-, sex- and calendar year-specific mortality in the general male population of the island. Directly standardised mortality rates (sr) in the two subcohorts were also compared. Cardiovascular mortality was strongly reduced among production and maintenance workers, which is most related to the healthy worker effect. However, the sr for cardiovascular diseases was substantially lower among the G6PD- subcohort (5.0x10(-4)) than among the wtG6PD subcohort (33.6x10(-4); chi2 = 1.10; p = NS). Neoplasms of the haemopoietic system exceeded the expectation in the G6PD- subcohort (SMR = 388; 95% CI 111 to 1108). No other cancer sites showed any excess in the overall cohort or in the two subcohorts. No death from haemolytic anaemia occurred in the G6PD- subcohort. With due consideration of the limited statistical power of our study, previous results suggesting that in workplaces where exposure is under careful control, expressing the G6PD- phenotype does not convey increased susceptibility to lead toxicity are confirmed. The observed excess risk of haematopoietic malignancies seems to have most likely resulted from chance.

  13. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances germ cell apoptosis and causes defective embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H-C; Chen, T-L; Wu, Y-H; Cheng, K-P; Lin, Y-H; Cheng, M-L; Ho, H-Y; Lo, S J; Chiu, D T-Y

    2013-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, known as favism, is classically manifested by hemolytic anemia in human. More recently, it has been shown that mild G6PD deficiency moderately affects cardiac function, whereas severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice. How G6PD deficiency affects organisms has not been fully elucidated due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans was established by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to delineate the role of G6PD in animal physiology. Upon G6PD RNAi knockdown, G6PD activity was significantly hampered in C. elegans in parallel with increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage. Phenotypically, G6PD-knockdown enhanced germ cell apoptosis (2-fold increase), reduced egg production (65% of mock), and hatching (10% of mock). To determine whether oxidative stress is associated with G6PD knockdown-induced reproduction defects, C. elegans was challenged with a short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The early phase egg production of both mock and G6PD-knockdown C. elegans were significantly affected by H2O2. However, H2O2-induced germ cell apoptosis was more dramatic in mock than that in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. To investigate the signaling pathways involved in defective oogenesis and embryogenesis caused by G6PD knockdown, mutants of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined. Despite the upregulation of CEP-1 (p53), cep-1 mutation did not affect egg production and hatching in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Neither pmk-1 nor mek-1 mutation significantly affected egg production, whereas sek-1 mutation further decreased egg production in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Intriguingly, loss of function of sek-1 or mek-1 dramatically rescued defective hatching (8.3- and 9.6-fold increase, respectively) induced by G6PD knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that G6PD knockdown reduces egg production and hatching in C. elegans

  14. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances germ cell apoptosis and causes defective embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yang, H-C; Chen, T-L; Wu, Y-H; Cheng, K-P; Lin, Y-H; Cheng, M-L; Ho, H-Y; Lo, S J; Chiu, D T-Y

    2013-05-02

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, known as favism, is classically manifested by hemolytic anemia in human. More recently, it has been shown that mild G6PD deficiency moderately affects cardiac function, whereas severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice. How G6PD deficiency affects organisms has not been fully elucidated due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans was established by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to delineate the role of G6PD in animal physiology. Upon G6PD RNAi knockdown, G6PD activity was significantly hampered in C. elegans in parallel with increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage. Phenotypically, G6PD-knockdown enhanced germ cell apoptosis (2-fold increase), reduced egg production (65% of mock), and hatching (10% of mock). To determine whether oxidative stress is associated with G6PD knockdown-induced reproduction defects, C. elegans was challenged with a short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The early phase egg production of both mock and G6PD-knockdown C. elegans were significantly affected by H2O2. However, H2O2-induced germ cell apoptosis was more dramatic in mock than that in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. To investigate the signaling pathways involved in defective oogenesis and embryogenesis caused by G6PD knockdown, mutants of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined. Despite the upregulation of CEP-1 (p53), cep-1 mutation did not affect egg production and hatching in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Neither pmk-1 nor mek-1 mutation significantly affected egg production, whereas sek-1 mutation further decreased egg production in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Intriguingly, loss of function of sek-1 or mek-1 dramatically rescued defective hatching (8.3- and 9.6-fold increase, respectively) induced by G6PD knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that G6PD knockdown reduces egg production and hatching in C. elegans

  15. Influence of the Inherited Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency on the Appearance of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Marusic, Eugenija; Piperkova, Katica; Lozic, Bernarda; Skelin, Ana; Gruev, Todor; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical manifestation of the inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the inherited G6PD deficiency on the appearance of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in southern Croatia. The fluorescent spot test (FST) was used in a retrospective study to screen blood samples of 513 male children who had neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, of unknown cause, higher than 240 μmol/L. Fluorescence readings were performed at the beginning and at the fifth and tenth minute of incubation and were classified into three groups bright fluorescence (BF), weak fluorescence (WF) and no fluorescence (NF). Normal samples show bright fluorescence. All NF and WF samples at the fifth minute were quantitatively measured using the spectrophotometric method. Bright fluorescence was present in 461 patients (89.9%) at the fifth minute. The remaining 52 (10.1%) were quantitatively estimated using the spectrophotometric method. G6PD deficiency was observed in 38 patients (7.4%). Prevalence rate of G6PD deficiency among male newborns with hyperbilirubinemia in southern Croatia is significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared with the previously reported prevalence rate among male in general population of southern Croatia (0.75%). We recommend FST to be performed in hyperbilirubinemic newborns in southern Croatia.

  16. Field Trial of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer for the Determination of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; von Fricken, Michael E; Wilfong, Tara D; Aguenza, Elisa; Philippe, Taina T; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-10-01

    Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren ( N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti. In this population, 19.5% of participants (67/343) had some form of G6PD deficiency (< 60% residual activity) and 9.9% (34/343) had moderate-to-severe G6PD deficiency (< 30% residual activity). Overall, 18.95% of participants had the presence of the A-allele (65/343) with 7.87% (27/343) considered at high risk for drug-induced hemolysis (hemizygous males and homozygous females). Compared with the spectrophotometric assay, the sensitivity and specificity to determine participants with < 60% residual activity were 53.7% and 94.6%, respectively; for participants with 30% residual activity, the sensitivity and specificity were 5.9% and 99.7%, respectively. The biosensor overestimated the activity in deficient individuals and underestimated it in participants with normal G6PD activity, indicating the potential for a systematic measurement error. Thus, we suggest that the current version of the biosensor lacks adequate sensitivity and should be improved prior to its use as a point-of-care diagnostic for G6PD deficiency.

  17. In Vivo and in Vitro Studies of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Barley Root Plastids in Relation to Reductant Supply for NO2- Assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. P.; Huppe, H. C.; Turpin, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotide pools were measured in intact plastids from roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during the onset of NO2- assimilation and compared with the in vitro effect of the NADPH/NADP ratio on the activity of plastidic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) from N-sufficient or N-starved roots. The NADPH/NADP ratio increased from 0.9 to 2.0 when 10 mM glucose-6-phosphate was supplied to intact plastids. The subsequent addition of 1 mM NaNO2 caused a rapid decline in this ratio to 1.5. In vitro, a ratio of 1.5 inactivated barley root plastid G6PDH by approximately 50%, suggesting that G6PDH could remain active during NO2- assimilation even at the high NADPH/NADP ratios that would favor a reduction of ferredoxin, the electron donor of NO2- reductase. Root plastid G6PDH was sensitive to reductive inhibition by dithiothreitol (DTT), but even at 50 mM DTT the enzyme remained more than 35% active. In root plastids from barley starved of N for 3 d, G6PDH had a substantially reduced specific activity, had a lower Km for NADP, and was less inhibited by DTT than the enzyme from N-sufficient root plastids, indicating that there was some effect of N starvation on the G6PDH activity in barley root plastids. PMID:12223780

  18. Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Roach, Peter J.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.

    2010-11-22

    Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by themore » binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.« less

  19. Single Cell Cytochemistry Illustrated by the Demonstration of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2017-01-01

    Cytochemistry is the discipline that is applied to visualize specific molecules in individual cells and has become an essential tool in life sciences. Immunocytochemistry was developed in the sixties of last century and is the most frequently used cytochemical application. However, metabolic mapping is the oldest cytochemical approach to localize activity of specific enzymes, but in the last decades of the previous century and the first decade of the present century it almost became obsolete. The popularity of this approach revived in the past few years. Metabolism gained interest as player in chronic and complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and vascular diseases and both enzyme cytochemistry and metabolic mapping have become important tools in life sciences.In this chapter, we present glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most prevalent enzyme deficiency worldwide, to illustrate recent developments in enzyme cytochemistry or metabolic mapping. The first assays which were developed quantified enzyme activity but were unreliable for single cell evaluation. The field has expanded with the development of cytochemical single cell assays and DNA testing. Still, all assays-from the earliest developed tests up to the most recently developed tests-have their place in investigations on G6PD activity. Recently, nanoscopy has become available for light and fluorescence microscopy at the nanoscale. For nanoscopy, cytochemistry is an essential tool to visualize intracellular molecular processes. The ultimate goal in the coming years will be nanoscopy of living cells so that the molecular dynamics can be studied. Cytochemistry will undoubtedly play a critical role in these developments.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the use of primaquine: top-down and bottom-up estimation of professional costs.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Brito, Marcelo Augusto Mota; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes de

    2017-10-05

    The aim of this study has been to study whether the top-down method, based on the average value identified in the Brazilian Hospitalization System (SIH/SUS), is a good estimator of the cost of health professionals per patient, using the bottom-up method for comparison. The study has been developed from the context of hospital care offered to the patient carrier of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with severe adverse effect because of the use of primaquine, in the Brazilian Amazon. The top-down method based on the spending with SIH/SUS professional services, as a proxy for this cost, corresponded to R$60.71, and the bottom-up, based on the salaries of the physician (R$30.43), nurse (R$16.33), and nursing technician (R$5.93), estimated a total cost of R$52.68. The difference was only R$8.03, which shows that the amounts paid by the Hospital Inpatient Authorization (AIH) are estimates close to those obtained by the bottom-up technique for the professionals directly involved in the care.

  1. Alternations in quantities and activities of erythrocyte cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W L; Chu, S C; Lai, J C; Yang, S F; Chiou, H L; Hsieh, Y S

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the quantitative and activity alterations of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoenzymes in the erythrocytes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. Western Blot and CA esterase activity analysis were employed to measure cytosolic erythrocyte CA isoenzymes. The total CA activities were analyzed from erythrocytes of 30 healthy and 30 G6PD-deficient individuals. The mean values with standard error (SE) were 22.9+/-1.69 U/gHb and 27.2+/-2.1 U/gHb (P<0.01), respectively. The ratio of CAI/CAII of G6PD-deficient individuals (1.28+/-0.06) was significantly lower than that of the normal subjects (3.79+/-0.18) (P<0.001). Furthermore, the concentration of CAIII in G6PD-deficient individuals was significantly lower than that of the normal subjects (P<0.001) and there were significant correlations between the concentration of CAI, CAII, CAIII, and ratio of CAI/CAII, and the activity concentration of G6PD. Different carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes may serve different roles in the G6PD-deficient erythrocyte. CAI could be used as an indicator for hemolytic anemia. CAII is able to compensate for the functions of CAI and increased expression of CAII will promote oxidative damage. CAIII can provide the G6PD-deficient persons with some extent of protection against oxidative damage.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia: Hacettepe experıence.

    PubMed

    Celik, H Tolga; Günbey, Ceren; Unal, Sule; Gümrük, Fatma; Yurdakök, Murat

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in newborn infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and to compare the clinical features of G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal newborn infants. A total of 4906 term and preterm neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia were retrospectively evaluated according to demographic, neonatal features, bilirubin levels, erythrocyte G6PD levels, other risk factors and treatments. Among 4906 newborn infants with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia, 55 (1.12%) neonates were G6PD-deficient. In our study, no statistically significant difference was detected between G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal infants in relation to the time of onset of jaundice, bilirubin levels and duration of phototherapy. However, the incidence of exchange transfusion in G6PD-deficient infants was 16.4% while it was only 3.3% in G6PD normal infants (P < 0.05). Testing for G6PD must be ordered to all newborns who are receiving phototherapy and especially to those who are coming from the high incident geographical regions and less responsive to phototherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. [Molecular characterization of 71 cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Hainan province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Ai; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Dai-Feng; Cai, Wang-Wei

    2007-04-01

    To molecularly analyze in Han and Li individuals of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Hainan, China. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was employed to detect G1376T, G1388A and A95G mutations. The coding regions and flanking intronic regions from the second to the thirteenth exons of G6PD gene was analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the gene mutations in samples without G1376T, G1388A and A95G mutations. Among 29 Han cases of G6PD deficiency, 11 had G1376T (37.9%), 2 G1388A (6.9%), 1 G1376T and G1388A (3.4%) and 1 G1376T and A95G (3.4%) were identified. Mutations of G1376T, G1388A, A95G and their complex accounted for 51.7% of G6PD deficiency in the Han individuals. Among 42 Li cases of G6PD deficiency, 25 had G1376T (59.5%), 6 G1388A (14.3%), 2 A95G (4.8%), 4 G1376T and G1388A (9.5%), 1 G1376T and A95G (2.4% )were identified. These mutations accounted for 90.5% of the Li individuals. Gene mutation of 18 cases (14 Han and 4 Li individuals) remained unknown. Sequencing results of the 18 samples indicated that one case had a single base of T deletion at nucleotide 636 or 637 in the 5th intron (IVS-5 636 or 637 T del) and two cases had C1311T with IVS-11 T93C mutation. G6PD G1376T and G1388A are the most common mutations in the populations of the Han and Li nationalities in Hainan. The IVS-5 636 or 637 T del mutation is first reported in Chinese, and the complex mutation of G1376T/A95G is first found in the Li nationality.

  4. Two new glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants associated with congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia found in Japan: GD(-) Tokushima and GD(-) Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Miwa, S; Ono, J; Nakashima, K; Abe, S; Kageoka, T

    1976-01-01

    Two new variants of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency associated with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia were discovered in Japan. Gd(-) Tokushima was found in a 17-years-old male whose erythrocytes contained 4.4% of normal enzyme activity. Partially purified enzyme revealed a main band of normal electrophoretic mobility with additional two minor bands of different mobility; normal Km G6P, and Km NADP five-to sixfold higher than normal; normal utilization of 2-deoxy-G6P, galactose-6P, and deamino-NADP; marked thermal instability; a normal pH curve; and normal Ki NADPH. The hemolytic anemia was moderate to severe. Gd(-) Tokyo was characterized from a 15-year-old male who had chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia of mild degree. The erythrocytes contained 3% of normal enzyme activity, and partially purified enzyme revealed slow electrophoretic mobility (90% of normal for both a tris-hydrochloride buffer system and a tris-EDTA-borate buffer system, and 70% of normal for a phosphate buffer system); normal Km G6P and Km NADP; normal utilization of 2-deoxy-G6P, galactose-6P, and deamino-NADP; greatly increased thermal instability; a normal pH curve; and normal Ki NADPH. These two variants are clearly different from hitherto described G6PD variants, including the Japanese variants Gd(-) Heian and Gd(-) Kyoto. The mothers of both Gd(-) Tokushima and Gd(-) Tokoyo were found to be heterozygote by an ascorbate-cyanide test.

  5. Partial reactions of d-glucose 6-phosphate–1 l-myoinositol 1-phosphate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, J. E. G.; Rasheed, A.; Corina, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    After removal of tightly bound NAD+ by using charcoal, a preparation of d-glucose 6-phosphate–1 l-myoinositol 1-phosphate cyclase catalysed the reduction of 5-keto-d-glucitol 6-phosphate and 5-keto-d-glucose 6-phosphate by [4-3H]NADH to give [5-3H]-glucitol 6-phosphate and [5-3H]glucose 6-phosphate respectively. The position of the tritium atom in the latter was shown by degradation. Both enzyme-catalysed reductions were strongly inhibited by 2-deoxy-d-glucose 6-phosphate, a powerful competitive inhibitor of inositol cyclase. The charcoal-treated enzyme preparation also converted 5-keto-d-glucose 6-phosphate into [3H]myoinositol 1-phosphate in the presence of [4-3H]NADH, but less effectively. These partial reactions of inositol cyclase are interpreted as providing strong evidence for the formation of 5-keto-d-glucose 6-phosphate as an enzyme-bound intermediate in the conversion of d-glucose 6-phosphate into 1 l-myoinositol 1-phosphate. The enzyme was partially inactivated by NaBH4 in the presence of NAD+. Glucose 6-phosphate did not increase the inactivation, and there was no inactivation in the absence of NAD+. There was no evidence for Schiff base formation during the cyclization. d-Glucitol 6-phosphate (l-sorbitol 1-phosphate) was a good inhibitor of the overall reaction. It did not inactivate the enzyme. The apparent molecular weight of inositol cyclase as determined by Sephadex chromatography was 2.15×105. PMID:4352864

  6. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among hill-tribe school children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-07-01

    The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.

  7. Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham; Ismaeil, Mohammad; Embaby, Amira; Ataya, Farid; Malik, Ajamaluddin; Shalaby, Manal; El-Banna, Sabah; Ali, Ahmed Abdelrahim Mohamed; Bassiouny, Khalid

    2018-02-01

    In a previous study the full-length open reading frame of the Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius liver cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) cDNA was determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius cDNA was found to be 1545 nucleotides (accession number JN098421) that encodes a protein of 515 amino acids residues. In the present study, C. dromedarius recombinant G6PD was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and purified by immobilized metal affinity fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) in a single step. The purity and molecular weight of the enzyme were analyzed on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity was determined to be 2000 EU/mg protein. The optimum temperature and pH were found to be 60 °C and 7.4, respectively. The isoelectric point (pI) for the purified G6PD was determined to be 6.4. The apparent K m values for the two substrates NADP + and G6P were found to be 23.2 μM and 66.7 μM, respectively. The far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra of G6PD showed that it has two minima at 208 and 222 nm as well as maxima at 193 nm which is characteristic of high content of α-helix. Moreover, the far-UV CD spectra of the G6PD in the presence or absence of NADP + were nearly identical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel mutation in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in a subject with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia--characterization of enzyme using yeast expression system and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota; Jablonska-Skwiecinska, Ewa; Plochocka, Danuta; Chelstowska, Anna; Lewandowska, Irmina; Witos, Iwona; Majewska, Zofia; Rokicka-Milewska, Roma; Burzynska, Beata

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy. Human G6PD gene is highly polymorphic, with over 130 mutations identified, many of which cause hemolytic anemia. We studied a novel point mutation in the G6PD gene 1226 C-->G, predicting the proline 409 to arginine substitution (G6PD Suwalki). We expressed the human wild-type and mutated G6PD gene in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which allowed the characterization of the Suwalki variant. We showed that human wild-type, as well as the mutated (1226 C-->G) G6PD gene, functionally complemented the phenotype displayed by the yeast strain with disruption of the ZWF1 gene (homologue of the human G6PD gene). Comparison of wild-type (wt) human G6PD purified from yeast and from blood shows no significant differences in the Km values for G6P and in the utilization rate for the substrate analogue, 2-deoxyG6P. The P409R substitution leads to drastic changes in G6PD kinetics. The specific activity as well as stability of mutated G6PD is also significantly reduced. Besides this, the effect of this mutation was analyzed using a model of the tertiary structure of the human enzyme. The localization of the P409R mutation suggests that it may influence the stability of the whole protein by changing tetramer interactions and disturbing the binding of structural NADP+.

  9. Predictors of severe hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency following exposure to oxidant stresses.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweedan, Suleimman A; Jdaitawi, Hussein; Khriesat, Wadah M; Khader, Yousef Y; Al-Rimawi, Hala S

    2009-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic enzymatic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide, and is a major health problem in Jordan. We studied factors that may predict severe hemolysis in children with G6PD deficiency. We reviewed the records of patients with low G6PD activity admitted to a teaching hospital be- tween 1996 to 2007. We collected demographic data, details of sign and symptoms, history and type of fava bean ingestion, blood and Rh group, history of neonatal jaundice, history and type of drug use, abdominal pain at admission and the results of tests for hemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC), and hepatic function. We classified patients into mild and severe groups based on hemoglobin levels at admission. Of 428 children with G6PD deficiency, 79 (18%) were severe cases and 349 (82%) patients with mild disease. There were no statistically significant differences in most factors between the two groups. Factors that achieved statistical significance for severe hemolysis included younger age (P<.05), male gender (P<.05), higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P<.05), presence of fever at admission (P<.01), presence of vomiting during the at- tack (P=.006), and a negative family history for G6PD deficiency (P=.005). Severe hemolysis can be predicted during hemolytic episodes in children with low G6PD by young age, male gender, a negative family history of G6PD deficiency, the presence of fever and vomiting and a high ALP.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and reduced haemoglobin levels in African children with severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Nguetse, Christian N; Meyer, Christian G; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2016-07-07

    Extensive studies investigating the role of host genetic factors during malaria associate glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with relative protection. G6PD deficiency had been reported to associate with anti-malarial drug induced with haemolytic anaemia. A total of 301 Gabonese, Ghanaian, and Kenyan children aged 6-120 months with severe malaria recruited in a multicentre trial on artesunate were included in this sub-study. G6PD normal (type B), heterozygous (type A(+)) and deficient (type A(-)) genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of the common African mutations G202A and A376G. Furthermore, multivariate analyses were executed to associate possible contributions of G6PD deficiency with baseline haemoglobin levels, parasitaemia and with severe malarial anaemia. Two hundred and seventy-eight children (132 females and 146 males) were successfully genotyped for G6PD variants. The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 13 % [36/278; 3 % (4/132) female homozygous and 22 % (32/146) male hemizygous], 14 % (40/278) children were female heterozygous while 73 % (202/278) were G6PD normal [67 % (88/132) females and 78 % (114/146) males] individuals. Multivariate regression revealed a significant association of moderately and severely deficient G6PD genotypes with haemoglobin levels according to the baseline data (p < 0.0001; G6PD heterozygous: p < 0.0001; G6PD deficient: p = 0.009), but not with severe malarial anaemia (p = 0.66). No association of G6PD genotypes with baseline parasitaemia. In this study, moderately (type A(+)) and severely (type A(-)) G6PD deficiency showed significant association with lower haemoglobin concentrations at baseline in African children with severe malaria without leading to severe malarial anaemia. In addition, there was no association of G6PD variant types with parasite densities on admission.

  11. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Lodi844C: a study on its expression in blood cells and muscle.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, P; Bresolin, N; Baronciani, L; Fortunato, F; Comi, G; Magnani, M; Scarlato, G

    1991-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was found in erythrocytes, lymphocytes and muscle of an Italian male, whose family has lived for at least three generations in Lodi (Lombardy, northern Italy). The subject was hospitalized for myalgia and dark urine after intense physical exercise, but no sign of anemia and chronic hemolysis were present at rest. Family studies revealed that the mother and the maternal aunt had the same enzymopathy. The enzyme-specific activity in red blood cells was 15% of control and the kinetic properties were the following: slower electrophoretic mobility; biphasic pH activity curve; slightly reduced thermal stability, and increased utilization of the substrate analogs. The analysis of our patient's DNA showed a G----C mutation at nucleotide 844 which causes an Asp----His amino acid change in position 282. This is the same mutation found by De Vita et al. in the G6PD Seattle-like variant. However, by following a new convention, we labelled our variant as G6PD Lodi844C. As far as the muscle is concerned, we found that the enzyme-specific activity in this tissue was 14% of control values, but cultured myotubes and myoblasts revealed a normal level of G6PD as well as skin fibroblasts. On the contrary in the same type of cultured cells obtained from G6PD Mediterranean subjects, the G6PD activity was about 20% of normal. Our results complete the characterization of this mutant enzyme, demonstrate the expression of the deficit in muscle and describe the enzyme behaviour in cultured cells.

  13. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-07-01

    Storage of packed red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with progressive accumulation of lesions, mostly triggered by energy and oxidative stresses, which potentially compromise the effectiveness of the transfusion therapy. Concerns arise as to whether glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects (G6PD(-)), ~5% of the population in the Mediterranean area, should be accepted as routine donors in the light of the increased oxidative stress their RBCs suffer from. To address this question, we first performed morphology (scanning electron microscopy), physiology and omics (proteomics and metabolomics) analyses on stored RBCs from healthy or G6PD(-) donors. We then used an in vitro model of transfusion to simulate transfusion outcomes involving G6PD(-) donors or recipients, by reconstituting G6PD(-) stored or fresh blood with fresh or stored blood from healthy volunteers, respectively, at body temperature. We found that G6PD(-) cells store well in relation to energy, calcium and morphology related parameters, though at the expenses of a compromised anti-oxidant system. Additional stimuli, mimicking post-transfusion conditions (37°C, reconstitution with fresh healthy blood, incubation with oxidants) promoted hemolysis and oxidative lesions in stored G6PD(-) cells in comparison to controls. On the other hand, stored healthy RBC units showed better oxidative parameters and lower removal signaling when reconstituted with G6PD(-) fresh blood compared to control. Although the measured parameters of stored RBCs from the G6PD deficient donors appeared to be acceptable, the results from the in vitro model of transfusion suggest that G6PD(-) RBCs could be more susceptible to hemolysis and oxidative stresses post-transfusion. On the other hand, their chronic exposure to oxidative stress might make them good recipients, as they better tolerate exposure to oxidatively damaged long stored healthy RBCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Marked differences in drug-induced methemoglobinemia in sheep are not due to RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, or methemoglobin reductase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.G.; Guertler, A.T.; Lagutchik, M.S.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine is a commonly used topical anesthetic that is structurally similar to current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis. Benzocaine induces profound methemoglobinemia in some sheep but not others. After topical benzocaine administration certain sheep respond to form MHb (elevated MHb 16-50% after a 56-280 mg dose, a 2-10 second spray with benzocine), while other phenotypically similar sheep fail to significantly form MHb (less than a 2% increase from baseline). Deficiencies in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and MHb reductase increase the susceptibility to methemoglobinemia in man and animals. Sheep are used as a model for G-6-PD deficiency in man, andmore » differences in this enzyme level could cause the variable response seen in these sheep. Similarly, differences in GSH and MHb reductase could be responsible for the observed differences in MHb formation.« less

  15. Detailed functional analysis of two clinical glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants, G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan+Mahidol: Decreased stability and catalytic efficiency contribute to the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Boonyuen, Usa; Chamchoy, Kamonwan; Swangsri, Thitiluck; Saralamba, Naowarat; Day, Nicholas P J; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an X-linked hereditary genetic defect that is the most common polymorphism and enzymopathy in humans. To investigate functional properties of two clinical variants, G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan+Mahidol, these two mutants were created by overlap-extension PCR, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. We describe an overexpression and purification method to obtain substantial amounts of functionally active protein. The KM for G6P of the two variants was comparable to the KM of the native enzyme, whereas the KM for NADP(+) was increased 5-fold for G6PDViangchan and 8-fold for G6PDViangchan+Mahidol when compared with the native enzyme. Additionally, kcat of the mutant enzymes was markedly reduced, resulting in a 10- and 18-fold reduction in catalytic efficiency for NADP(+) catalysis for G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan+Mahidol, respectively. Furthermore, the two variants demonstrated significant reduction in thermostability, but similar susceptibility to trypsin digestion, when compared with the wild-type enzyme. The presence of NADP(+) is shown to improve the stability of G6PD enzymes. This is the first report indicating that protein instability and reduced catalytic efficiency are responsible for the reduced catalytic activity of G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan+Mahidol and, as a consequence, contribute to the clinical phenotypes of these two clinical variants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is the Major Polymorphic Variant in Tribal Populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaeda, J. S.; Chhotray, G. P.; Ranjit, M. R.; Bautista, J. M.; Reddy, P. H.; Stevens, D.; Naidu, J. M.; Britt, R. P.; Vulliamy, T. J.; Luzzatto, L.; Mason, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is usually found at high frequencies in areas of the world where malaria has been endemic. The frequency and genetic basis of G6PD deficiency have been studied in Africa, around the Mediterranean, and in the Far East, but little such information is available about the situation in India. To determine the extent of heterogeneity of G6PD, we have studied several different Indian populations by screening for G6PD deficiency, followed by molecular analysis of deficient alleles. The frequency of G6PD deficiency varies between 3% and 15% in different tribal and urban groups. Remarkably, a previously unreported deficient variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is responsible for most of the G6PD deficiency in tribal Indian populations but is not found in urban populations, where most of the G6PD deficiency is due to the G6PD Mediterranean (188 Ser→Phe) variant. The K of G6PD Orissa is fivefold higher than that of the normal enzyme. This may be due to the fact that the alanine residue that is replaced by glycine is part of a putative coenzyme-binding site. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:8533762

  17. Incidence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency among neonates for newborn screening in Chaozhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Wang, Q; Zheng, L; Zhan, X-F; Lin, M; Lin, F; Tong, X; Luo, Z-Y; Huang, Y; Yang, L-Y

    2015-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in southern China. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of this disease in Chinese neonates and determine its molecular characteristics using a novel molecular screening method. A total of 2500 neonates were routinely screened for G6PD deficiency using a modified fluorescent spot test (FST). PCR-high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was then used for the molecular assay. The overall incidence of G6PD deficiency was 2.68% in our study cohort. Frequency in male population was 3.22% (44 neonates of 1365 male neonates), and in female population was 2.03% (23 neonates of 1135 female neonates). Of the 67 newborns suspected to be G6PD deficient based on FST (44 males, 23 females), 58 of 67 (87%) were detected with gene alterations. Seven kinds of mutations [c.95A>G, c.392G>T, c.493A>G, c.871G>A, c.1360C>T, c.1376G>T, and c.1388G>A] were identified by HRM analysis. Routine newborn screening in Chaozhou, China with a relatively high prevalence of G6PD deficiency is justified and meets the World Health Organization recommendation. The usage of molecular diagnosis can favor the detection of heterozygotes which can be a supplement to regular newborn screening and useful for premarital and prenatal diagnosis for G6PD deficiency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Extremely high intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(H) in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takumi; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2017-03-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation and UV radiation, and oxidative stress caused by such radiations. NADP(H) seems to be important for this resistance (Slade and Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191; Slade, Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191, 2011), but the mechanism underlying the generation of NADP(H) or NAD(H) in D. radiodurans has not fully been addressed. Intracellular concentrations of NAD + , NADH, NADP + , and NADPH in D. radiodurans are also not determined yet. We found that cell extracts of D. radiodurans catalyzed reduction of NAD(P) + in vitro, indicating that D. radiodurans cells contain both enzymes and a high concentration of substrates for this activity. The enzyme and the substrate were attributed to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate of which intracellular concentration was extremely high. Unexpectedly, the intracellular concentration of NAD(H) was also much greater than that of NADP(H), suggesting some significant roles of NADH. These unusual features of this bacterium would shed light on a new aspect of physiology of this bacterium.

  19. External quality assessment program for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Guangxi region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zhou, Xiangyang; Liu, Xiaochun; Ning, Leping; Zhou, Weiya; He, Yi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the quality of testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency through evaluation and analysis of the laboratory tests for G6PD activity. External quality assessment (EQA) was carried out twice per year with five samples each from 2014 to 2016. Samples were used for quantitative and qualitative assays. Quantitative results were collected, qualitative results were determined with reference values, and information about methods, reagents and instruments from participating laboratories within the required time. Laboratory performance scores, coefficient of variation (CV), and the rates of false negative and positive results were calculated. As a result, a total of 2,834 cases of negative quality control (QC) samples and 2,451 cases of positive QC samples were assessed, where the rates of false negative and false positive results were 1.31% (37/2,834) and 1.34% (33/2,451), respectively. Quantitative results indicated an increasing trend in testing quality, which were consistent with conclusions based on the comparison of EQA full-score and acceptable ratio in six assessments. The 2nd assay in 2016 had the best full-score ratio of 68.9% (135/196) and best acceptable ratio of 84.2% (165/196). There was a decreasing trend in the average CV of six reagents produced in China, and the range of average CV increased to 14.6-23.6% in 2016. The average CV of low level and high level samples was 22.5% and 15.3%, respectively, demonstrating that samples with low G6PD activity have greater interlaboratory CV values. In conclusion, laboratories improved their testing quality and provided better diagnostic service for G6PD deficiency in areas with high incidence after participation in the EQA program in the Guangxi region.

  20. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the role of the A- variant in a Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Khalid Khalaf; Khan, Imran Ali

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among Saudi men, and to establish the frequency of the two mutations/polymorphisms associated with the G6PD A- mutation--G to A at nucleotide 202 (G202A) and A to G at nucleotide 376 (A376G)--in those found to have G6PD deficiency. Blood samples were obtained from healthy male Saudi donors and screened for G6PD deficiency using a fluorescent spot test. Samples from subjects shown to be G6PD deficient and controls were then analysed for the presence of the G202A and A376G mutations on exons 4 and 5, respectively, of the G6PD gene using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 2100 male subjects were screened; of these, 100 (4.76%) were shown to be G6PD deficient. The G6PD A- mutation (presence of both G202A and A376G) was observed in two (2%) of the 100 subjects with G6PD deficiency. There was no significant difference in the frequency of this mutation between those with G6PD deficiency and controls. The G6PD A- mutation (G202A and A376G) does not appear to have a role in G6PD deficiency in a Saudi population. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. [Case of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Wada, Rina; Hino, Hirofumi; Ando, Yumi; Tateda, Takeshi

    2008-02-01

    We report management of anesthesia in a patient suffering from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a condition that induces acute hemolysis when associated with surgical stress and infection, or following the application of oxidant drugs. A 5 year-old-male patient, suffering from G6PD deficiency was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient had exhibited signs of hemolysis during the course of various infections and after ingesting fava beans (favism). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and vecuronium and maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. There was no hemolytic change during the perioperative period. It was clear that this combination of drugs provided safe anesthesia for the G6PD patient in the present study. The most important considerations for patients with G6PD deficiency is firstly, the avoidance of oxidative stress, which can be caused by a variety of different conditions, and secondly, the use of anti-oxidative anesthetic drugs.

  2. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. PMID:27597985

  3. A population survey of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) 563C>T (Mediterranean) mutation in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Jamornthanyawat, Natsuda; Awab, Ghulam R; Tanomsing, Naowarat; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Yamin, Fazel; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common inherited enzyme defect and an important problem in areas with Plasmodium vivax infection because of the risk of haemolysis following administration of primaquine to treat the liver forms of the parasite. We undertook a genotypic survey of 713 male individuals across nine provinces of Afghanistan in which malaria is found, four in the north and five in the east. RFLP typing at nucleotide position 563 detected 40 individuals with the Mediterranean mutation 563C>T, an overall prevalence of 5.6%. This varied according to self-reported ethnicity, with prevalence in the Pashtun/Pashai group of 33/369 (8.9%) compared to 7/344 individuals in the rest of the population (2.0%; p<0.001, Chi-squared test). Multivariate analysis of ethnicity and geographical location indicated an adjusted odds ratio of 3.50 (95% CI 1.36-9.02) for the Pashtun/Pashai group, while location showed only a trend towards higher prevalence in eastern provinces (adjusted odds ratio = 1.73, 0.73-4.13). Testing of known polymorphic markers (1311C>T in exon 11, and C93T in intron XI) in a subset of 82 individuals wild-type at C563 revealed a mixture of 3 haplotypes in the background population and was consistent with data from the 1000 Genomes Project and published studies. By comparison individuals with G6PD deficiency showed a highly skewed haplotype distribution, with 95% showing the CT haplotype, a finding consistent with relatively recent appearance and positive selection of the Mediterranean variant in Afghanistan. Overall, the data confirm that the Mediterranean variant of G6PD is common in many ethnic groups in Afghanistan, indicating that screening for G6PD deficiency is required in all individuals before radical treatment of P. vivax with primaquine.

  4. Prevalence of Thalassemia and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Newborns and Adults at the Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee; Limrungsikul, Anchalee; Butthep, Punnee

    Thalassemias and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are the most common inherited blood disorders. They are distributed among populations living in malaria endemic regions resulting in survival advantage from severe malaria disease. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence of thalassemias and G6PD deficiency at the Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 616 adult and 174 cord blood samples were collected and analyzed for red blood cell (RBC) parameters, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and DNA analysis for G6PD mutations and α-thalassemia (α-thal). The two most prominent types of thalassemia were heterozygous Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A), (19.5% in newborns and 35.6% in adults) followed by heterozygous α-thal-2 [-α 3.7 (rightward) deletion] at 18.7% in newborns and 19.5% in adults. After performing G6PD genotyping using multiplex amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex ARMS-PCR) for 10 G6PD mutations, the prevalence of G6PD mutation was found in 12.0% of newborns and 11.7% of adults. The G6PD Viangchan [871 (G>A)] is the most common G6PD mutation in newborns (42.9%) and adults (52.8%). In addition, coinheritance of various types of thalassemia with G6PD deficiency were found. The results indicated that heterozygous Hb E and G6PD Viangchan are predominant both in newborns and adults in this study.

  5. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diagnostic challenges in 1500 immigrants in Denmark examined for haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Warny, Marie; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Petersen, Jesper; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Similar to the thalassaemia syndromes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in areas historically exposed to malaria. In the present study, we used quantitative and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a population of 1508 immigrants in Denmark. We found the allele frequency to be between 2.4 and 2.9% in the female immigrants. Furthermore, the mutation pattern in the studied population showed a high prevalence of the G6PD A-(202A) variant in African and African-American immigrants, a high prevalence of the G6PD Mediterranean variant in Mediterranean European and Western Asian immigrants, and substantial heterogeneity in the variants found in the Eastern Asian/Pacific immigrants. Inasmuch as many of the patients included in this investigation had various thalassaemic syndromes, we were able to evaluate the effects of the interaction between a low mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) value and G6PD activity, particularly in heterozygous females. The activity level was markedly influenced by the MCH value in females with normal G6PD activity, but not in heterozygous and homozygous females. Comparison of patients with normal G6PD activity and heterozygous females indicated considerable overlap in activity levels. To help separating heterozygous females from females with wild-type genes, a DNA analysis is necessary when the female activity level is between 4.0 and 4.9 U/g hgb corresponding to 50-60% of the median activity of unaffected males.

  6. Hepatic transcriptional profiling response to fava bean-induced oxidative stress in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Guankui; Xiao, Man; Wei, Xiuyu; Zhou, Chen; Li, Shuoshuo; Cai, Wangwei

    2018-04-30

    Favism is an acute hemolytic syndrome caused by the ingestion of fava bean (FB) in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals. However, little is known about the global transcripts alteration in liver tissue after FB ingestion in G6PD-normal and -deficient states. In this study, deep sequencing was used to analyze liver genes expression alterations underlying the effects of FB in C3H (Wild Type, WT) and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice and to evaluate and visualize the collective annotation of a list of genes to Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with favism. Our results showed that FB resulted in a decrease of glutathione (GSH)-to-oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the G6PDx and WT-control check (CK) mice plasma. Significantly, liver transcript differences were observed between the control and FB-treated groups of both WT and G6PDx mice. A total of 320 differentially expressed transcripts were identified by comparison of G6PDx-CK with WT-CK and were associated with immune response and oxidation-reduction function. A total of 149 differentially expressed genes were identified by comparison of WT-FB with WT-CK. These genes were associated with immune response, steroid metabolic process, creatine kinase activity, and fatty acid metabolic process. A total of 438 differential genes were identified by comparing G6PDx-FB with G6PD-CK, associated with the negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process, endoplasmic reticulum, iron binding, and glutathione transferase activity. These findings indicate that G6PD mutations may affect the functional categories such as immune response and oxidation-reduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-Dose Primaquine in a Preclinical Model of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Implications for Use in Malaria Transmission-Blocking Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Kristina S.; Baresel, Paul C.; Sousa, Jason; Vuong, Chau T.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Campo, Brice; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd) are at risk for developing hemolytic anemia when given the antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ). The WHO Evidence Review Group released a report suggesting that mass administration of a single dose of PQ at 0.25 mg of base/kg of body weight (mpk) (mouse equivalent of 3.125 mpk) could potentially reduce malaria transmission based on its gametocytocidal activity and could be safely administered to G6PD-deficient individuals, but there are limited safety data available confirming the optimum single dose of PQ. A single-dose administration of PQ was therefore assessed in our huRBC-SCID mouse model used to predict hemolytic toxicity with respect to G6PD deficiency. In this model, nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice are engrafted with human red blood cells (huRBC) from donors with the African or Mediterranean variant of G6PDd (A-G6PDd or Med-G6PDd, respectively) and demonstrate dose-dependent sensitivity to PQ. In mice engrafted with A-G6PD-deficient huRBC, single-dose PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk had no significant loss of huRBC compared to the vehicle control group. In contrast, in mice engrafted with Med-G6PDd huRBC, a single dose of PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk resulted in a significant, dose-dependent loss of huRBC compared to the value for the vehicle control group. Our data suggest that administration of a single low dose of 0.25 mpk of PQ could induce hemolytic anemia in Med-G6PDd individuals but that use of single-dose PQ at 0.25 mpk as a gametocytocidal drug to block transmission would be safe in areas where A-G6PDd predominates. PMID:27458212

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and susceptibility to mild malaria in Dogon and Fulani, Mali.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Campino, Susana; Sepulveda, Nuno; Corran, Patrick; Rockett, Kirk A; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Clark, Taane G

    2014-07-11

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with protection from severe malaria, and potentially uncomplicated malaria phenotypes. It has been documented that G6PD deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa is due to the 202A/376G G6PD A-allele, and association studies have used genotyping as a convenient technique for epidemiological studies. However, recent studies have shown discrepancies in G6PD202/376 associations with severe malaria. There is evidence to suggest that other G6PD deficiency alleles may be common in some regions of West Africa, and that allelic heterogeneity could explain these discrepancies. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of malaria susceptibility was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in the Sahel meso-endemic malaria zone of Mali. The study included Dogon (n = 375) and Fulani (n = 337) sympatric ethnic groups, where the latter group is characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fifty-three G6PD polymorphisms, including 202/376, were genotyped across the 712 samples. Evidence of association of these G6PD polymorphisms and mild malaria was assessed in both ethnic groups using genotypic and haplotypic statistical tests. It was confirmed that the Fulani are less susceptible to malaria, and the 202A mutation is rare in this group (<1% versus Dogon 7.9%). The Betica-Selma 968C/376G (~11% enzymatic activity) was more common in Fulani (6.1% vs Dogon 0.0%). There are differences in haplotype frequencies between Dogon and Fulani, and association analysis did not reveal strong evidence of protective G6PD genetic effects against uncomplicated malaria in both ethnic groups and gender. However, there was some evidence of increased risk of mild malaria in Dogon with the 202A mutation, attaining borderline statistical significance in females. The rs915942 polymorphism was found to be associated with asymptomatic malaria in Dogon females, and the rs61042368 polymorphism was associated with clinical malaria in

  9. Hematological parameters and red blood cell morphological abnormality of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency co-inherited with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Pengon, Jutharat; Svasti, Saovaros; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Vattanaviboon, Phantip

    2018-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and thalassemia are genetically independent hemolytic disorders. Co-inheritance of both disorders may affect red blood cell pathology to a greater extent than normally seen in either disorder alone. This study determines the prevalence and evaluates hematological changes of G-6-PD deficiency and thalassemia co-inheritance. G-6-PD deficiency was screened from 200 male thalassemia blood samples using a fluorescent spot test. Hematological parameters and red blood cell morphology were evaluated among G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance, G-6-PD deficiency alone, thalassemia alone, and normal individuals. G-6-PD deficiency was detected together with hemoglobin (Hb) E heterozygote, Hb E homozygote, β-thalassemia trait, and β-thalassemia/Hb E, α-thalassemia-2 trait, and Hb H disease. Hb level, hematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell Hb of G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with asymptomatic thalassemia carriers show significantly lower mean values compared to carriers with only the same thalassemia genotypes. Higher mean red blood cell distribution width was observed in G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with Hb E heterozygote, as with numbers of hemighost cells in G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance compared to those with either disorder. Apart from Hb level, hematological parameters of co-inheritance disorders were not different from individuals with a single thalassemia disease. G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with thalassemia in males was present in 10% of the participants, resulting in worsening of red blood cell pathology compared with inheritance of thalassemia alone. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification and detailed study of two clinically different human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants, G6PD(Plymouth) and G6PD(Mahidol): Evidence for defective protein folding as the basis of disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Choi, Mei Yee; Au, Shannon Wing Ngor; Au, Deborah Man Yee; Lam, Veronica Min Sien; Engel, Paul C

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency caused by two mutations, G6PD(Plymouth) (G163D) and G6PD(Mahidol) (G163S), the two variants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in G6PD-deficient E. coli DF 213 cells. A first indication of impaired folding came from problems in expressing these clinical mutants, which were only overcome by lowering the growth temperature or co-expressing with molecular chaperones (GroEL and GroES). Both strategies significantly increased soluble expression of recombinant G6PD(Plymouth) and G6PD(Mahidol), judged by both G6PD activity in extracts and the amount of immunoreactive protein. Using a modified 3-step protocol, the two mutant enzymes were successfully purified for the first time. Steady-state kinetic parameters (K(m) for NADP(+), K(m) for G6P and k(cat)) of the two mutants are very similar to the wild-type values, indicating that the catalytic efficiency of the two mutants remains unchanged. The two mutants are, however, markedly less stable than wild-type G6PD in both thermostability and urea-induced inactivation tests. In a typical experiment at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2 after 24h G6PD WT, G6PD(Mahidol) and G6PD(Plymouth) retained 58.3%, 27.0% and 3.9%, respectively, of their corresponding initial activity. The stability of all three enzymes is enhanced by addition of NADP(+). According to unfolding and refolding experiments, the two mutants are impaired in their folding properties. Thus structural instability appears to be the molecular basis of the clinical phenotype in G6PD(Plymouth) and G6PD(Mahidol) and in particular of the differing clinical severity of the two mutations. The 3-D structure solved for G6PD(Canton) allows an interpretation of these effects in terms of steric hindrance.

  11. Study of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: 5 Years Retrospective Egyptian Study.

    PubMed

    Hagag, Adel A; Badraia, Ibrahim M; Elfarargy, Mohamed S; Abd Elmageed, Mohamed M; Abo-Ali, Ehab A

    2018-02-13

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide that causes a spectrum of diseases including neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, acute and chronic hemolysis after exposure to oxidative stress. This five years retrospective study was carried out to study the demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 1000 patients with G6PD deficiency anemia registered in Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital. Data were collected from patient's files, from November 2011 to November 2016, using the pre-designed questionnaires to obtain the complete history, clinical presentation and laboratory investigations including the complete blood count, red blood cells morphology, liver and renal functions and quantitative assay of G6PD enzyme activity by spectrophotometric method. Males were more commonly affected than females (932 males versus 68 females). The highest prevalence of hemolytic crisis in G6PD deficiency patients was found within the age group of 1-3 years (920 patients; 92%) with mean age of the first presentation of 22.8±15.54 months. Patients presented mainly with pallor (1000 patients; 100%), dark red urine (896 patients; 89.6%) and jaundice (878 patients; 87.8%) after 24-72 hours of exposure to the precipitating factors (mean: 36±17.73 hours). Diets were the most common precipitating factor of hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency (834 patients; 83.4% of studied cases) especially fava beans (326 patients; 32.6%) and falafel (194 patients; 19.4%) which were the most common precipitating food products causing hemolysis followed by chick pea (108 patients; 10.8%), broad bean (76 patients; 7.6%), green pea (44 patients; 4.4%), pea nuts (38 patients; 3.8%), lentil (28 patients; 2.8%), and lastly black eyed peas (20 patients; 2 %). Infections were the 2nd most common cause of hemolysis (124 patients; 12.4%) including pneumonia (34 patients; 3.4%), tonsillitis (32 patients; 3.2%), typhoid fever (28

  12. Hemoglobin E and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kerry L; Ahmed, Sabeena; Rahman, Hafizur; Prue, Chai S; Khyang, Jacob; Ram, Malathi; Haq, M Zahirul; Chowdhury, Ashish; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory E; Shields, Timothy; Nyunt, Myaing M; Khan, Wasif A; Sack, David A; Sullivan, David J

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobin E is largely confined to south and southeast Asia. The association between hemoglobin E (HbE) and malaria is less clear than that of hemoglobin S and C. As part of a malaria study in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, an initial random sample of 202 individuals showed that 39% and 49% of Marma and Khyang ethnic groups, respectively, were positive for either heterozygous or homozygous hemoglobin E. In this group, 6.4% were also found to be severely deficient and 35% mildly deficient for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In a separate Plasmodium falciparum malaria case-uninfected control study, the odds of having homozygous hemoglobin E (HbEE) compared with normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were higher among malaria cases detected by passive surveillance than age and location matched uninfected controls (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-46.93). The odds of heterozygous hemoglobin E (HbAE) compared with HbAA were similar between malaria cases and uninfected controls (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.42-1.19). No association by hemoglobin type was found in the initial parasite density or the proportion parasite negative after 2 days of artemether/lumefantrine treatment. HbEE, but not HbAE status was associated with increased passive case detection of malaria. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Metabolic channeling of glucose towards gluconate in phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa P4 under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Buch, Aditi; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2008-01-01

    Most phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), including the Pseudomonas species, release P from sparingly soluble mineral phosphates by producing high levels of gluconic acid from extracellular glucose, in a reaction catalyzed by periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase, which is an integral component of glucose catabolism of pseudomonads. To investigate the differences in the glucose metabolism of gluconic acid-producing PSB pseudomonads and low gluconic acid-producing/non-PSB strains, several parameters pertaining to growth and glucose utilization under P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions were monitored for the PSB isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa P4 (producing approximately 46 mM gluconic acid releasing 437 microM P) and non-PSB P. fluorescens 13525. Our results show interesting differences in the channeling of glucose towards gluconate and other catabolic end-products like pyruvate and acetate with respect to P status for both strains. However, PSB strain P. aeruginosa P4, apart from exhibiting better growth under both low and high Pi conditions, differed from P. fluorescens 13525 in its ability to accumulate gluconate under P-solubilizing conditions. These alterations in growth, glucose utilization and acid secretion are correlated with glucose dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase activities. The ability to shift glucose towards a direct oxidative pathway under P deficiency is speculated to underlie the differential gluconic acid-mediated P-solubilizing ability observed amongst pseudomonads.

  14. Targeting 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin.

    PubMed

    Elf, S; Lin, R; Xia, S; Pan, Y; Shan, C; Wu, S; Lonial, S; Gaddh, M; Arellano, M L; Khoury, H J; Khuri, F R; Lee, B H; Boggon, T J; Fan, J; Chen, J

    2017-01-12

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is crucial for cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. We recently reported that targeting a key oxidative PPP enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), using our novel small-molecule 6PGD inhibitors Physcion and its derivative S3, shows anticancer effects. Notably, humans with genetic deficiency of either 6PGD or another oxidative PPP enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, exhibit non-immune hemolytic anemia upon exposure to aspirin and various antimalarial drugs. Inspired by these clinical observations, we examined the anticancer potential of combined treatment with 6PGD inhibitors and antimalarial drugs. We found that stable knockdown of 6PGD sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Combined treatment with DHA and Physcion activates AMP-activated protein kinase, leading to synergistic inhibition of human leukemia cell viability. Moreover, our combined therapy synergistically attenuates tumor growth in xenograft nude mice injected with human K562 leukemia cells and cell viability of primary leukemia cells from human patients, but shows minimal toxicity to normal hematopoietic cells in mice as well as red blood cells and mononucleocytes from healthy human donors. Our findings reveal the potential for combined therapy using optimized doses of Physcion and DHA as a novel antileukemia treatment without inducing hemolysis.

  15. Determination of the inhibitory effect of green tea extract on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase based on multilayer capillary enzyme microreactor.

    PubMed

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yujia; Yang, Jiqing; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Natural herbal medicines are an important source of enzyme inhibitors for the discovery of new drugs. A number of natural extracts such as green tea have been used in prevention and treatment of diseases due to their low-cost, low toxicity and good performance. The present study reports an online assay of the activity and inhibition of the green tea extract of the Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using multilayer capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme microreactors (CE-IMERs). The multilayer CE-IMERs were produced with layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly, which can easily enhance the enzyme loading capacity of the microreactor. The activity of the G6PDH enzyme was determined and the enzyme inhibition by the inhibitors from green tea extract was investigated using online assay of the multilayer CE-IMERs. The Michaelis constant (Km ) of the enzyme, the IC50 and Ki values of the inhibitors were achieved and found to agree with those obtained using offline assays. The results show a competitive inhibition of green tea extract on the G6PDH enzyme. The present study provides an efficient and easy-to-operate approach for determining G6PDH enzyme reaction and the inhibition of green tea extract, which may be beneficial in research and the development of natural herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Red cell glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the northern region of Turkey: is G6PD deficiency exclusively a male disease?

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic defect that can cause hemolytic crisis. However, this disease affects both males and females. In Turkey, the frequency of this enzyme deficiency was reported to vary, from 0.25 to 18%, by the geographical area. Its prevalence in the northern Black Sea region of Turkey is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the northern region Turkey in children and adults with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia. This report included a total of 976 G6PD enzyme results that were analyzed between May 2005 and January 2014. G6PD deficiency was detected in 5.0% of all patients. G6PD deficiency was significantly less frequent in females (1.9%, 6/323) than in males (6.6%, 43/653). G6PD deficiency was detected in 3.7% of infants with hyperbilirubinemia, 9.2% of children, and 4.5% of adults with hemolytic anemia. In both the newborn group and the group of children, G6PD deficiency was significantly more frequent in males. In the combined group of children (groups I and II), the proportion of males was 74% and 67% in all groups (P = .0008). In conclusion, in northern region of Turkey, G6PD deficiency is an important cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic crisis in children and adults. This study suggests that most pediatricians thought that G6PD deficiency is exclusively a male disease. For this reason, some female patients may have been undiagnosed.

  17. Screening for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Using Three Detection Methods: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michelle E.; Oyet, Caesar; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N.; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential benefit of primaquine in reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, concerns over risk of hemolytic toxicity in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) have hampered its deployment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to assess the G6PDd prevalence among 631 children between 6 and 59 months of age in southwestern Uganda, an area where primaquine may be a promising control measure. G6PDd prevalence was determined using three detection methods: a quantitative G6PD enzyme activity assay (Trinity Biotech® G-6-PDH kit), a qualitative point-of-care test (CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test [RDT]), and molecular detection of the G6PD A− G202A allele. Qualitative tests were compared with the gold standard quantitative assay. G6PDd prevalence was higher by RDT (8.6%) than by quantitative assay (6.8%), using a < 60% activity threshold. The RDT performed optimally at a < 60% threshold and demonstrated high sensitivity (≥ 90%) and negative predictive values (100%) across three activity thresholds (below 60%, 30%, and 40%). G202A allele frequency was 6.4%, 7.9%, and 6.8% among females, males, and overall, respectively. Notably, over half of the G202A homo-/hemizygous children expressed ≥ 60% enzyme activity. Overall, the CareStart™ G6PD RDT appears to be a viable screening test to accurately identify individuals with enzyme activities below 60%. The low prevalence of G6PDd across all three diagnostic modalities and absence of severe deficiency in our study suggests that there is little barrier to the use of single-dose primaquine in this region. PMID:27672207

  18. Screening for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Using Three Detection Methods: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michelle E; Oyet, Caesar; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-11-02

    Despite the potential benefit of primaquine in reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, concerns over risk of hemolytic toxicity in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) have hampered its deployment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to assess the G6PDd prevalence among 631 children between 6 and 59 months of age in southwestern Uganda, an area where primaquine may be a promising control measure. G6PDd prevalence was determined using three detection methods: a quantitative G6PD enzyme activity assay (Trinity Biotech ® G-6-PDH kit), a qualitative point-of-care test (CareStart ™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test [RDT]), and molecular detection of the G6PD A- G202A allele. Qualitative tests were compared with the gold standard quantitative assay. G6PDd prevalence was higher by RDT (8.6%) than by quantitative assay (6.8%), using a < 60% activity threshold. The RDT performed optimally at a < 60% threshold and demonstrated high sensitivity (≥ 90%) and negative predictive values (100%) across three activity thresholds (below 60%, 30%, and 40%). G202A allele frequency was 6.4%, 7.9%, and 6.8% among females, males, and overall, respectively. Notably, over half of the G202A homo-/hemizygous children expressed ≥ 60% enzyme activity. Overall, the CareStart ™ G6PD RDT appears to be a viable screening test to accurately identify individuals with enzyme activities below 60%. The low prevalence of G6PDd across all three diagnostic modalities and absence of severe deficiency in our study suggests that there is little barrier to the use of single-dose primaquine in this region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency prevalence and genetic variants in malaria endemic areas of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sócrates Herrera; Ocampo, Iván Darío; Arce-Plata, María Isabel; Recht, Judith; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2016-05-26

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme involved in prevention of cellular oxidative damage, particularly protecting erythrocytes from haemolysis. An estimated 400 million people present variable degrees of inherited G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) which puts them at risk for developing haemolysis triggered by several risk factors including multiple drugs and certain foods. Primaquine (PQ) is a widely used anti-malarial drug that can trigger haemolysis in individuals with G6PDd. Intensification of malaria control programmes worldwide and particularly malaria elimination planning in some regions recommend a more extensive use of PQ and related drugs in populations with different G6PDd prevalence. This a preliminary study to assess the prevalence of G6PDd in representative malaria endemic areas of Colombia by measuring G6PD phonotype and genotypes. Volunteers (n = 426) from four malaria endemic areas in Colombia (Buenaventura, Tumaco, Tierralta and Quibdo) were enrolled. Blood samples were drawn to evaluate G6PD enzymatic activity by using a quantitative G6PD test and a subset of samples was analysed by PCR-RFLP to determine the frequency of the three most common G6PD genotypic variants: A-, A+ and Mediterranean. A total of 28 individuals (6.56 %) displayed either severe or intermediate G6PDd. The highest prevalence (3.51 %) was in Buenaventura, whereas G6PDd prevalence was lower (<1 %) in Tierralta and Quibdo. G6PD A alleles were the most frequent (15.23 %) particularly in Buenaventura and Tumaco. Overall, a high frequency of G6PD A- genotype, followed by A+ genotype was found in the analysed population. G6PDd based on enzymatic activity as well as G6PD A allelic variants were found in malaria-endemic populations on the Pacific coast of Colombia, where most of malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax infections. These infections are treated for 14 days with PQ, however there are no official reports of PQ-induced haemolytic crises. Further

  20. Sub-Saharan red cell antigen phenotypes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency variants in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Petit, Florence; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2016-06-07

    The treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections requires the use of primaquine, which can lead to severe haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. However, most of the Latin American countries, which are still endemic for vivax malaria, lack information on the distribution of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd). No survey has been performed so far in French Guiana. Herein, 80 individuals of the French Guianan Noir Marron population were scrutinized for red cell surface antigens of six blood group systems (ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy and MNS) and G6PD genetic polymorphisms. First, the sub-Saharan origin of the red cell phenotypes was assessed in relation with the literature. Then, given that the main sub-Saharan G6PDd variants are expected to be encountered, only the G6PD sequences of exons 4, 5, 6 and 9 were screened. This work aims at appraising the G6PD gene variation in this population, and thus, contributing to the G6PD piecemeal information in Latin America. Ninety-seven percent (97 %) of the red cells are Fy(a- b-), either D+ C- E- c+ e+ or D+ C+ E- c+ e+ and 44 % exhibited the Fya-/Jkb-/S- combined phenotype. Noteworthy is the detection of the G6PD(Val68Met) variant characterized by c.202G > A transition, G6PD(Asn126Asp) variant characterized by c.376A>G transition and G6PD(Asp181Val) variant characterized by c.542A>T transversion of the G6PD gene in 22.5 % of the sample, characteristic of the A(-(202)), A and Santamaria G6PDd variants, respectively. French Guianan Noir Marron population represents a pool of Rh-D antigen positive, Duffy-negative and G6PD-deficient erythrocytes, the latter accounting for one in every eight persons. The present study provides the first community-based estimation of the frequency of G6PDd polymorphisms in French Guiana. These results contribute to the G6PD genetic background information puzzle in Latin America.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in an endemic area for malaria in Manaus: a cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli Stela; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in endemic areas for malaria in Latin America. This study determined the prevalence of the G6PD deficiency in 200 male non-consanguineous individuals residing in the Ismail Aziz Community, on the outskirts of Manaus (Brazilian Amazon). Six individuals (3%) were deficient using the qualitative Brewer's test. Gel electrophoresis showed that five of these patients were G6PD A(-). The deficiency was not associated with the ethnic origin (P = 0.571). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, G6PD deficiency protected against three or more episodes of malaria (P = 0.049), independently of the age, and was associated with a history of jaundice (P = 0.020) and need of blood transfusion (P = 0.045) during previous treatment for malarial infection, independently of the age and the previous malarial exposure. The frequency of G6PD deficiency was similar to other studies performed in Brazil and the finding of a predominant G6PD A(-) variant will help the clinical management of patients with drug-induced haemolysis. The history of jaundice and blood transfusion during previous malarial infection may trigger the screening of patients for G6PD deficiency. The apparent protection against multiple malarial infections in an area primarily endemic for Plasmodium vivax needs further investigation.

  2. The effect of Zn2+ on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity from Bufo arenarum toad ovary and alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Fonovich de Schroeder, Teresa M

    2005-02-01

    The effect of Zn2+ on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was monitored in samples from Bufo arenarum toad ovary and alfalfa plants, in the search for a possible new bioindicator able to detect levels of exposure through contaminated soils, and also to elucidate possible similarities between the enzyme from animal and plant tissues. The in vivo effect was evaluated after exposure of the toads to the metal in Ringer solution during 30 days and after 10 days of treatment in 6 weeks old plants, cultured under laboratory conditions. In vitro effects were measured in different extracts from control samples and partially purified enzyme from ovarian tissue as well as in different extracts from control alfalfa plants, by addition of the metal to the reaction mixture containing the enzyme. G6PD from toad ovary was noncompetitively inhibited by zinc both in vivo and in vitro, under all the experimental conditions studied. A kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity showed that the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was not modified, while maximal velocity (Vmax) decreased as the consequence of treatment. It was not possible to obtain a dose-response curve for the effects of Zn2+ on G6PD from alfalfa whole plants, measured in vivo or in vitro. Only leaf extracts evidenced a possible relationship between treatment with the metal and G6PD activity alteration. The results agree with a possible role for G6PD as a biomarker of effect and exposure to Zn2+ in B. arenarum ovarian tissue but not in alfalfa plants.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Mortality in Relation to Glucose - 6 - Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Consanguinity in Sardinia: A Spatial Correlation Analysis

    PubMed

    Pes, Giovanni Mario; Bassotti, Gabrio; Dore, Maria Pina

    2017-09-27

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diffuse malignancy in the world. In Southern Europe, the incidence and prevalence are lower than in most Western countries, although some hot spots of increased risk are emerging. In Sardinia, the cancer rate has risen steeply in the last years. Among risk factors for CRC, genomic homozygosity has been postulated. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been hypothesized to decrease CRC risk. In Sardinians, this disorder has a frequency of 12-24% due to selection by past malaria. In this study the relationship between mortality for CRC, homozygosity and G6PD deficiency was analysed using spatial analysis. Methods: The spatial association between CRC mortality and G6PD deficiency and homozygosity was assessed in the 377 municipalities of the island using ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression. Results: A consanguinity index, available across all municipalities, was used as a proxy for homozygosity. A significant inverse correlation was found between CRC mortality and G6PD deficiency (ρ = ‒0.216; p = 0.002) whereas no association was found for consanguinity (ρ = ‒0.077; p = 0.498). The geographical map of CRC mortality showed a significant clustering in mountain areas compared to the population living in lowlands, whereas hot spot areas of G6PD deficiency were observed on the south-western side of Sardinia. Conclusions: These results indicate that G6PD deficiency might contribute to reduce colon carcinogenesis, and is in line with in vitro and in vivo studies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. The pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. Hormonal and dietary control of the oxidative and non-oxidative reactions of the cycle in liver

    PubMed Central

    Novello, F.; Gumaa, J. A.; McLean, Patricia

    1969-01-01

    1. Measurements were made of the non-oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate cycle in liver (transketolase, transaldolase, ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase activities) in a variety of hormonal and nutritional conditions. In addition, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities were measured for comparison with the oxidative reactions of the cycle; hexokinase, glucokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities were also included. Starvation for 2 days caused significant lowering of activity of all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle based on activity in the whole liver. Re-feeding with a high-carbohydrate diet restored all the enzyme activities to the range of the control values with the exception of that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which showed the well-known `overshoot' effect. Re-feeding with a high-fat diet also restored the activities of all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle and of hexokinase; glucokinase activity alone remained unchanged. Expressed as units/g. of liver or units/mg. of protein hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transketolase and pentose phosphate isomerase activities were unchanged by starvation; both 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase activities decreased faster than the liver weight or protein content. 2. Alloxan-diabetes resulted in a decrease of approx. 30–40% in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase and transketolase; in contrast with this glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities were unchanged. Treatment of alloxan-diabetic rats with protamine–zinc–insulin for 3 days caused a very marked increase to above normal levels of activity in all the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway except ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase, which was restored to the control value

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants are associated with reduced susceptibility to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Siqueira, André M; Costa, Mônica F; Sampaio, Vanderson; Lacerda, Marcus V; Alecrim, Maria G

    2013-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) has been shown to protect against malaria infection and severe manifestations in African and Asia, but there is a scarcity of studies in the Americas. This study aimed to study the prevalence of G6PDd and its association with malaria occurrence in the Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the male population to estimate the prevalence of G6PDd and malaria infection. G6PD deficient samples were genotyped to identify the deficient variant. Number of previous malaria episodes and need for blood transfusion during malaria episodes were recorded by applying a standardized questionary. From a sample of 1478 male individuals, 66 were detected as G6PD deficient, resulting in a prevalence of of 4.5% (95% CI = 3.44-5.56%). Fifty six G6PD deficient individuals (3.8%; 95% CI = 2.82-4.77) presented the G6PD A-variant mutation, while 10 individuals (0.7%; 95% CI = 0.42-0.97) severely deficient were genotyped as carriers of the G6PD Mediterranean variant. After adjusting for age, G6PD deficient individuals were less likely to report the occurrence of malaria episodes, and the protective effect was related to the enzyme activity, with carriers of the GG6PD A-variant presenting a 88% reduction (AOR: 0.119; 95% CI = 0.057-0.252; p < 0.001) and carriers of the Meditarrenean variant presenting 99% lower risk (AOR: 0.010; 95% CI = 0.002-0.252; p < 0.001) when compared to non-deficient individuals. On the other hand, G6PD deficient subjects reported higher need of transfusion during malaria episodes (p < 0.001). G6PD enzyme activity was directly related to susceptibility to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, where P. vivax predominates. Severe G6PDd was associated with considerable higher risk of malaria-related transfusions.

  6. Screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates: a comparison between cord and peripheral blood samples.

    PubMed

    AlSaif, Saif; Ponferrada, Ma Bella; AlKhairy, Khalid; AlTawil, Khalil; Sallam, Adel; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Khawaji, Mohammed; AlHathlol, Khalid; Baylon, Beverly; AlSuhaibani, Ahmed; AlBalwi, Mohammed

    2017-07-11

    The use of cord blood in the neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is being done with increasing frequency but has yet to be adequately evaluated against the use of peripheral blood sample which is usually employed for confirmation. We sought to determine the incidence and gender distribution of G6PD deficiency, and compare the results of cord against peripheral blood in identifying G6PD DEFICIENCY neonates using quantitative enzyme activity assay. We carried out a retrospective and cross-sectional study employing review of primary hospital data of neonates born in a tertiary care center from January to December 2008. Among the 8139 neonates with cord blood G6PD assays, an overall incidence of 2% for G6PD deficiency was computed. 79% of these were males and 21% were females with significantly more deficient males (p < .001). Gender-specific incidence was 3.06% for males and 0.85% for females. A subgroup analysis comparing cord and peripheral blood samples (n = 1253) showed a significantly higher mean G6PD value for peripheral than cord blood (15.12 ± 4.52 U/g and 14.52 ± 4.43 U/g, respectively, p = 0.0008). However, the proportion of G6PD deficient neonates did not significantly differ in the two groups (p = 0.79). Sensitivity of cord blood in screening for G6PD deficiency, using peripheral G6PD assay as a gold standard was 98.6% with a NPV of 99.5%. There was no difference between cord and peripheral blood samples in discriminating between G6PD deficient and non-deficient neonates. A significantly higher mean peripheral G6PD assay reinforces the use of cord blood for neonatal screening since it has substantially low false negative results.

  7. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among malaria patients of Honduras: a descriptive study of archival blood samples.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Miguel Á; Mejía, Rosa E; Sánchez, Ana L; Sosa-Ochoa, Wilfredo H; Fontecha, Gustavo A

    2015-08-07

    The frequency of deficient variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDd) is particularly high in areas where malaria is endemic. The administration of antirelapse drugs, such as primaquine, has the potential to trigger an oxidative event in G6PD-deficient individuals. According to Honduras´ national scheme, malaria treatment requires the administration of chloroquine and primaquine for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections. The present study aimed at investigating for the first time in Honduras the frequency of the two most common G6PDd variants. This was a descriptive study utilizing 398 archival DNA samples of patients that had been diagnosed with malaria due to P. vivax, P. falciparum, or both. The most common allelic variants of G6PD: G6PD A+(376G) and G6PD A-(376G/202A) were assessed by two molecular methods (PCR-RFLP and a commercial kit). The overall frequency of G6PD deficient genotypes was 16.08%. The frequency of the "African" genotype A- (Class III) was 11.9% (4.1% A- hemizygous males; 1.5% homozygous A- females; and 6.3% heterozygous A- females). A high frequency of G6PDd alleles was observed in samples from malaria patients residing in endemic regions of Northern Honduras. One case of Santamaria mutation (376G/542T) was detected. Compared to other studies in the Americas, as well as to data from predictive models, the present study identified a higher-than expected frequency of genotype A- in Honduras. Considering that the national standard of malaria treatment in the country includes primaquine, further research is necessary to ascertain the risk of PQ-triggered haemolytic reactions in sectors of the population more likely to carry G6PD mutations. Additionally, consideration should be given to utilizing point of care technologies to detect this genetic disorder prior administration of 8-aminoquinoline drugs, either primaquine or any new drug available in the near future.

  9. Comparison of Spectrophotometry, Chromate Inhibition, and Cytofluorometry Versus Gene Sequencing for Detection of Heterozygously Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Females.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Leeuwen, Karin; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Vlaar, Alexander P J; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; van Zwieten, Rob

    2017-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide. Detection of heterozygously deficient females can be difficult as residual activity in G6PD-sufficient red blood cells (RBCs) can mask deficiency. In this study, we compared accuracy of 4 methods for detection of G6PD deficiency in females. Blood samples from females more than 3 months of age were used for spectrophotometric measurement of G6PD activity and for determination of the percentage G6PD-negative RBCs by cytofluorometry. An additional sample from females suspected to have G6PD deficiency based on the spectrophotometric G6PD activity was used for measuring chromate inhibition and sequencing of the G6PD gene. Of 165 included females, 114 were suspected to have heterozygous deficiency. From 75 females, an extra sample was obtained. In this group, mutation analysis detected 27 heterozygously deficient females. The sensitivity of spectrophotometry, cytofluorometry, and chromate inhibition was calculated to be 0.52 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.71), 0.85 (CI: 0.66-0.96), and 0.96 (CI: 0.71-1.00, respectively, and the specificity was 1.00 (CI: 0.93-1.00), 0.88 (CI: 0.75-0.95), and 0.98 (CI: 0.89-1.00), respectively. Heterozygously G6PD-deficient females with a larger percentage of G6PD-sufficient RBCs are missed by routine methods measuring total G6PD activity. However, the majority of these females can be detected with both chromate inhibition and cytofluorometry.

  10. Use of primaquine and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency testing: Divergent policies and practices in malaria endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Recht, Judith; Ashley, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse (‘radical cure’). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5–7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0.25 mg/kg is recommended). The main adverse effect of primaquine is dose-dependent haemolysis in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common human enzymopathy. X-linked mutations conferring varying degrees of G6PD deficiency are prevalent throughout malaria-endemic regions. Phenotypic screening tests usually detect <30% of normal G6PD activity, identifying nearly all male hemizygotes and female homozygotes and some heterozygotes. Unfortunately, G6PD deficiency screening is usually unavailable at point of care, and, as a consequence, radical cure is greatly underused. Both haemolytic risk (determined by the prevalence and severity of G6PD deficiency polymorphisms) and relapse rates vary, so there has been considerable uncertainty in both policies and practices related to G6PD deficiency testing and use of primaquine for radical cure. Review of available information on the prevalence and severity of G6PD variants together with countries’ policies for the use of primaquine and G6PD deficiency testing confirms a wide range of practices. There remains lack of consensus on the requirement for G6PD deficiency testing before prescribing primaquine radical cure regimens. Despite substantially lower haemolytic risks, implementation of SLD primaquine as a P. falciparum gametocytocide also varies. In Africa, a few countries have recently adopted SLD primaquine, yet many with areas of low seasonal transmission do not use

  11. Use of primaquine and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency testing: Divergent policies and practices in malaria endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Recht, Judith; Ashley, Elizabeth A; White, Nicholas J

    2018-04-01

    Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse ('radical cure'). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5-7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0.25 mg/kg is recommended). The main adverse effect of primaquine is dose-dependent haemolysis in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common human enzymopathy. X-linked mutations conferring varying degrees of G6PD deficiency are prevalent throughout malaria-endemic regions. Phenotypic screening tests usually detect <30% of normal G6PD activity, identifying nearly all male hemizygotes and female homozygotes and some heterozygotes. Unfortunately, G6PD deficiency screening is usually unavailable at point of care, and, as a consequence, radical cure is greatly underused. Both haemolytic risk (determined by the prevalence and severity of G6PD deficiency polymorphisms) and relapse rates vary, so there has been considerable uncertainty in both policies and practices related to G6PD deficiency testing and use of primaquine for radical cure. Review of available information on the prevalence and severity of G6PD variants together with countries' policies for the use of primaquine and G6PD deficiency testing confirms a wide range of practices. There remains lack of consensus on the requirement for G6PD deficiency testing before prescribing primaquine radical cure regimens. Despite substantially lower haemolytic risks, implementation of SLD primaquine as a P. falciparum gametocytocide also varies. In Africa, a few countries have recently adopted SLD primaquine, yet many with areas of low seasonal transmission do not use primaquine as

  12. The transcriptional regulator NtrC controls glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis through NADPH availability in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Sacomboio, Euclides Nenga Manuel; Kim, Edson Yu Sin; Correa, Henrique Leonardo Ruchaud; Bonato, Paloma; Pedrosa, Fabio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Chubatsu, Leda Satie; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2017-10-19

    The NTR system is the major regulator of nitrogen metabolism in Bacteria. Despite its broad and well-known role in the assimilation, biosynthesis and recycling of nitrogenous molecules, little is known about its role in carbon metabolism. In this work, we present a new facet of the NTR system in the control of NADPH concentration and the biosynthesis of molecules dependent on reduced coenzyme in Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. We demonstrated that a ntrC mutant strain accumulated high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), reaching levels up to 2-fold higher than the parental strain. In the absence of NtrC, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (encoded by zwf) increased by 2.8-fold, consequently leading to a 2.1-fold increase in the NADPH/NADP + ratio. A GFP fusion showed that expression of zwf is likewise controlled by NtrC. The increase in NADPH availability stimulated the production of polyhydroxybutyrate regardless the C/N ratio in the medium. The mutant ntrC was more resistant to H 2 O 2 exposure and controlled the propagation of ROS when facing the oxidative condition, a phenotype associated with the increase in PHB content.

  13. Nine different glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in a Malaysian population with Malay, Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli (aboriginal Malaysian) backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichun; Luo, Enjie; Hirai, Makoto; Arai, Meiji; Abdul-Manan, Eas; Mohamed-Isa, Zaleha; Hidayah, Ni; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    The Malaysian people consist of several ethnic groups including the Malay, the Chinese, the Indian and the Orang Asli (aboriginal Malaysians). We collected blood samples from outpatients of 2 hospitals in the State of Selangor and identified 27 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects among these ethnic groups. In the Malay, G6PD Viangchan (871GA, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and G6PD Mahidol (487GA) types, which are common in Cambodia and Myanmar, respectively, were detected. The Malay also had both subtypes of G6PD Mediterranean:the Mediterranean subtype (563CT, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and the Indo-Pakistan subtype (563CT, 1311C, IVS11 nt93T). In Malaysians of Chinese background, G6PD Kaiping (1388GA), G6PD Canton (1376GT) and G6PD Gaohe (95AG), which are common in China, were detected. Indian Malaysians possessed G6PD Mediterranean (Indo-Pakistan subtype) and G6PD Namoru (208TC), a few cases of which had been reported in Vanuatu and many in India. Our findings indicate that G6PD Namoru occurs in India and flows to Malaysia up to Vanuatu. We also discovered 5 G6PD-deficient cases with 2 nucleotide substitutions of 1311CT and IVS11 nt93TC, but without amino-acid substitution in the G6PD molecule. These results indicate that the Malaysian people have incorporated many ancestors in terms of G6PD variants.

  14. Rapid epidemiologic assessment of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia using a novel diagnostic kit.

    PubMed

    Jalloh, A; Tantular, I S; Pusarawati, S; Kawilarang, A P; Kerong, H; Lin, K; Ferreira, M U; Matsuoka, H; Arai, M; Kita, K; Kawamoto, F

    2004-05-01

    We recently reported a new rapid screening method for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This method incorporates a new formazan substrate (WST-8) and is capable of detecting heterozygous females both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here, we report its evaluation during field surveys at three malaria centres and in malaria-endemic villages of Myanmar and Indonesia, either alone or in combination with a rapid on-site diagnosis of malaria. A total of 57 severe (45 males and 12 females) and 34 mild (five males and 29 females) cases of G6PD deficiency were detected among 855 subjects in Myanmar whilst 30 severe (25 males and five females) and 23 mild (six males and 17 females) cases were found among 1286 subjects in Indonesia. In all cases, severe deficiency was confirmed with another formazan method but due to limitations in its detection threshold, mild cases were misdiagnosed as G6PD-normal by this latter method. Our results indicate that the novel method can qualitatively detect both severely deficient subjects as well as heterozygous females in the field. The antimalarial drug, primaquine, was safely prescribed to Plasmodium vivax-infected patients in Myanmar. Our new, rapid screening method may be essential for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency particularly in rural areas without electricity, and can be recommended for use in malaria control programmes.

  15. Newborn screening of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Guangxi, China: determination of optimal cutoff value to identify heterozygous female neonates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunyun; Luo, Shiyu; Li, Qifei; Xie, Bobo; Yang, Qi; Geng, Guoxing; Lin, Caijuan; Su, Jiasun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zailong; Luo, Jingsi; Chen, Shaoke; Fan, Xin

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study is to assess the disease incidence and mutation spectrum of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Guangxi, China, and to determine an optimal cutoff value to identify heterozygous female neonates. A total of 130, 635 neonates were screened from the year of 2013 to 2017. Neonates suspected for G6PD deficiency were further analyzed by quantitatively enzymatic assay and G6PD mutation analysis. The overall incidence of G6PD deficiency was 7.28%. A total of 14 G6PD mutations were identified, and different mutations lead to varying levels of G6PD enzymatic activities. The best cut-off value of G6PD activity in male subjects is 2.2 U/g Hb, same as conventional setting. In female population, however, the cut-off value is found to be 2.8 U/g Hb (sensitivity: 97.5%, specificity: 87.7%, AUC: 0.964) to best discriminate between normal and heterozygotes, and 1.6 U/g Hb (sensitivity: 82.2%, specificity: 85.9%, AUC: 0.871) between heterozygotes and deficient subjects. In conclusion, we have conducted a comprehensive newborn screening of G6PD deficiency in a large cohort of population from Guangxi, China, and first established a reliable cut-off value of G6PD activity to distinguish heterozygous females from either normal or deficient subjects.

  16. Single-Dose Primaquine in a Preclinical Model of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Implications for Use in Malaria Transmission-Blocking Programs.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Kristina S; Baresel, Paul C; Marcsisin, Sean R; Sousa, Jason; Vuong, Chau T; Reichard, Gregory A; Campo, Brice; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Rochford, Rosemary

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd) are at risk for developing hemolytic anemia when given the antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ). The WHO Evidence Review Group released a report suggesting that mass administration of a single dose of PQ at 0.25 mg of base/kg of body weight (mpk) (mouse equivalent of 3.125 mpk) could potentially reduce malaria transmission based on its gametocytocidal activity and could be safely administered to G6PD-deficient individuals, but there are limited safety data available confirming the optimum single dose of PQ. A single-dose administration of PQ was therefore assessed in our huRBC-SCID mouse model used to predict hemolytic toxicity with respect to G6PD deficiency. In this model, nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice are engrafted with human red blood cells (huRBC) from donors with the African or Mediterranean variant of G6PDd (A-G6PDd or Med-G6PDd, respectively) and demonstrate dose-dependent sensitivity to PQ. In mice engrafted with A-G6PD-deficient huRBC, single-dose PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk had no significant loss of huRBC compared to the vehicle control group. In contrast, in mice engrafted with Med-G6PDd huRBC, a single dose of PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk resulted in a significant, dose-dependent loss of huRBC compared to the value for the vehicle control group. Our data suggest that administration of a single low dose of 0.25 mpk of PQ could induce hemolytic anemia in Med-G6PDd individuals but that use of single-dose PQ at 0.25 mpk as a gametocytocidal drug to block transmission would be safe in areas where A-G6PDd predominates. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on sickle cell anaemia expression in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Benkerrou, Malika; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Haouari, Zinedine; Ba, Aissatou; Missud, Florence; Boizeau, Priscilla; Holvoet, Laurent; Ithier, Ghislaine; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Ducrocq, Rolande

    2013-12-01

    In patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), concomitant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is usually described as having no effect and only occasionally as increasing severity. We analysed sequential clinical and biological data for the first 42 months of life in SCA patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, including 27 G6PD-deficient patients, who were matched on sex, age and parents' geographic origin to 81 randomly selected patients with normal G6PD activity. In the G6PD-deficient group, steady-state haemoglobin was lower (-6·2 g/l, 95% confidence interval (CI), [-10·1; -2·3]) and reticulocyte count higher (247 × 10(9) /l, 95%CI, [97; 397]). The acute anaemic event rate was 3 times higher in the G6PD-deficient group (P < 10(-3) ). A higher proportion of G6PD-deficient patients required blood transfusion (20/27 [74%] vs. 37/81 [46%], P < 10(-3) ), for acute anaemic events, and also vaso-occlusive and infectious events. No significant between-group differences were found regarding the rates of vaso-occlusive, infectious, or cerebrovascular events. G6PD deficiency in babies with SCA worsens anaemia and increases blood transfusion requirements in the first years of life. These effects decrease after 2 years of age, presumably as the decline in fetal haemoglobin levels leads to increased sickle cell haemolysis and younger red blood cells with higher G6PD activity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The relationship between the enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and red blood cells deformability in hemizygous and heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, N; Yalcin, O; Aksu, T A; Baskurt, O K

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, red blood cell (RBC) lipid peroxidation and deformability were investigated in hemizygous and heterozygous G6PD deficient subjects and compared with normal individuals. None of the subjects were in acute hemolytic crises. G6PD activity was assessed based on the spectrophotometric determination of generated NADPH. Lipid peroxidation was measured as thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS). RBC deformability was analyzed by ektacytometry. RBC lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly higher in hemizygous subjects compared to control and heterozygous subjects, while RBC deformability was found to be significantly impaired. However, although lipid peroxidation was higher than control, RBC deformability was not significantly different from control in heterozygous individuals, characterized by significantly lower RBC G6PD activity. There were no significant correlations between these three parameters when the three groups were analyzed separately, but a significant negative correlation was found to exist between G6PD activity and TBARS when the pooled data from the three groups were used for the analysis. This was also true for the relationship between RBC deformability and G6PD activity. It has been concluded that G6PD activity is not a good predictor of oxidative damage resulting in mechanical impairment in heterozygous individuals.

  19. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; González-Valdez, Abigail; García-Torres, Itzhel; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency), and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency) (Class I, II and III, respectively) affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients. PMID:26633385

  20. Protein methylation as a marker of aspartate damage in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, Diego; Cimmino, Amelia; D'Angelo, Stefania; Alfinito, Fiorella; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2002-04-01

    The 'Mediterranean' variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is due to the C563CT point mutation, leading to replacement of Ser with Phe at position 188, resulting in acute haemolysis triggered by oxidants. Previous work has shown increased formation of altered aspartate residues in membrane proteins during cell ageing and in response to oxidative stress in normal erythrocytes. These abnormal residues are specifically recognized by the repair enzyme L-isoaspartate (d-aspartate) protein O-methyltransferase (PCMT; EC 2.1.1.77). The aim of this work was to study the possible involvement of protein aspartate damage in the mechanism linking the G6PD defect and erythrocyte injury, through oxidative stress. Patients affected by G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant) were selected. In situ methylation assays were performed by incubating intact erythrocytes in the presence of methyl-labelled methionine. Altered aspartate residues were detected in membrane proteins by methyl ester quantification. We present here evidence that, in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes, damaged residues are significantly increased in membrane proteins, in parallel with the decay of pyruvate kinase activity, used as a cell age marker. Erythrocytes from patients were subjected to oxidative stress in vitro, by treatment with t-butylhydroperoxide, monitored by a rise in concentration of both methaemoglobin and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. L-Isoaspartate residues increased dramatically in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes in response to such treatment, compared with baseline conditions. The increased susceptibility of G6PD-deficient erythrocytes to membrane protein aspartate damage in response to oxidative stress suggests the involvement of protein deamidation/isomerization in the mechanisms of cell injury and haemolysis.

  1. Crystal Structures of An F420-Dependent Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Fgd1 Involved in the Activation of the Anti-Tb Drug Candidate Pa-824 Reveal the Basis of Coenzyme And Substrate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiri, G.; Squire, C.J.; Moreland, N.J.

    2009-05-11

    The modified flavin coenzyme F{sub 420} is found in a restricted number of microorganisms. It is widely distributed in mycobacteria, however, where it is important in energy metabolism, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is implicated in redox processes related to non-replicating persistence. In Mtb, the F{sub 420}-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 provides reduced F{sub 420} for the in vivo activation of the nitroimidazopyran prodrug PA-824, currently being developed for anti-tuberculosis therapy against both replicating and persistent bacteria. The structure of M. tuberculosis FGD1 has been determined by x-ray crystallography both in its apo state and in complex with F{sub 420} andmore » citrate at resolutions of 1.90 and 1.95{angstrom}, respectively. The structure reveals a highly specific F{sub 420} binding mode, which is shared with several other F{sub 420}-dependent enzymes. Citrate occupies the substrate binding pocket adjacent to F{sub 420} and is shown to be a competitive inhibitor (IC{sub 50} 43 {micro}m). Modeling of the binding of the glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) substrate identifies a positively charged phosphate binding pocket and shows that G6P, like citrate, packs against the isoalloxazine moiety of F{sub 420} and helps promote a butterfly bend conformation that facilitates F{sub 420} reduction and catalysis.« less

  2. Analysis of the genetic variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in inhabitants of the 4th Nile cataract region in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka; Knap, Oktawian; Drozd, Arleta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Parafiniuk, Miroslaw; Parczewski, Milosz; Milkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2013-02-01

    Malaria is one of the most common diseases in the African population. Genetic variance in glucose dehydrogenase 6-phosphate (G6PD) in humans determines the response to malaria exposure. In this study, we aimed to analyze the frequency of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G202A and A376G) present in two local tribes of Sudanese Arabs from the region of the 4th Nile cataract in Sudan, the Shagia and Manasir. The polymorphisms in G6PD were analyzed in 217 individuals (126 representatives of the Shagia tribe and 91 of the Manasir tribe). Real-time PCR and RFLP-PCR were utilized to analyze significant differences in the prevalence of alleles and genotypes. The 202A G6P allele frequency was 0.7%, whereas the G202 variant was found in 93.3% of cases. The AA, GA, and GG genotype frequencies for the A376G G6PD codon among the Shagia were 88, 11.1, and 0.9%, respectively; this is similar to the distribution among Manasir tribe representatives (94.5, 3.3, and 2.2%, respectively; OR 3.44 [0.85-16.17], p=0.6). Notably, in north-eastern Sudan the G6PD B (202G/376A) compound genotype frequency was 90.3%, whereas the G6PD A variant (202G/376G) was found in 1.4% of that population. Identification of the G6PD A- variant (202A/376G) in the isolated Shagia tribe provides important information regarding the tribal ancestry. Taken together, the data presented in this study suggest that the Shagia tribe was still nomadic between 4000 and 12,000 years ago. Moreover, the lack of G6PD A- genotype among ethnically diverse Monasir tribesmen indicates a separation of the Shagia from the other tribes in the region of the 4th Nile cataract in Sudan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency at the China-Myanmar Border.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yang, Fang; Liu, Rong; Luo, Lan; Yang, Yuling; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Huaie; Zhang, Wen; Fan, Zhixiang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; He, Yongshu

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked hereditary disease that predisposes red blood cells to oxidative damage. G6PD deficiency is particularly prevalent in historically malaria-endemic areas. Use of primaquine for malaria treatment may result in severe hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. In this study, we systematically evaluated the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Kachin (Jingpo) ethnic group along the China-Myanmar border and determined the underlying G6PD genotypes. We surveyed G6PD deficiency in 1770 adult individuals (671 males and 1099 females) of the Kachin ethnicity using a G6PD fluorescent spot test. The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the study population was 29.6% (523/1770), among which 27.9% and 30.6% were males and females, respectively. From these G6PD deficient samples, 198 unrelated individuals (147 females and 51 males) were selected for genotyping at 11 known G6PD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Southeast Asia (ten in exons and one in intron 11) using a multiplex SNaPshot assay. Mutations with known association to a deficient phenotype were detected in 43.9% (87/198) of cases, intronic and synonymous mutations were detected alone in 34.8% (69/198) cases and no mutation were found in 21.2% (42/198) cases. Five non-synonymous mutations, Mahidol 487G>A, Kaiping 1388G>A, Canton 1376G>T, Chinese 4 392G>T, and Viangchan 871G>A were detected. Of the 87 cases with known deficient mutations, the Mahidol variant was the most common (89.7%; 78/87), followed by the Kaiping (8.0%; 7/87) and the Viangchan (2.2%; 2/87) variants. The Canton and Chinese 4 variants were found in 1.1% of these 87 cases. Among them, two females carried the Mahidol/Viangchan and Mahidol/Kaiping double mutations, respectively. Interestingly, the silent SNPs 1311C>T and IVS11nt93T>C both occurred in the same 95 subjects with frequencies at 56.4% and 23.5% in tested females and males, respectively (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that 24

  4. Safety of single low-dose primaquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient falciparum-infected African males: Two open-label, randomized, safety trials.

    PubMed

    Bastiaens, Guido J H; Tiono, Alfred B; Okebe, Joseph; Pett, Helmi E; Coulibaly, Sam A; Gonçalves, Bronner P; Affara, Muna; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Bougouma, Edith C; Sanou, Guillaume S; Nébié, Issa; Bradley, John; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Niemi, Mikko; Sirima, Sodiomon B; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0.25 (n = 20) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 20) dosage; G6PD-normal males received AL plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. In The Gambia, G6PDd adult males and boys received DP alone (n = 10) or with 0.25 mg/kg PQ (n = 20); G6PD-normal males received DP plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. The primary study endpoint was change in hemoglobin concentration during the 28-day follow-up. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer status, gametocyte carriage, haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts were also determined. In Burkina Faso, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin was -2.13 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.78, -1.49) in G6PDd individuals randomized to 0.25 PQ mg/kg and -2.29 g/dL (95% CI, -2.79, -1.79) in those receiving 0.40 PQ mg/kg. In The Gambia, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin concentration was -1.83 g/dL (95% CI, -2.19, -1.47) in G6PDd individuals receiving 0.25 PQ mg/kg. After adjustment for baseline concentrations, hemoglobin reductions in G6PDd individuals in Burkina Faso were more pronounced compared to those in G6PD-normal individuals receiving the same PQ doses (P = 0.062 and P = 0.022, respectively). Hemoglobin levels normalized during follow-up. Abnormal haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase levels provided additional evidence of mild transient hemolysis post-PQ. Single low-dose PQ in combination with AL and DP was associated with mild and transient reductions in hemoglobin. None of the study participants developed moderate or

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among children attending the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Iz; Mainasara, As; Erhabor, Osaro; Omojuyigbe, St; Dallatu, Mk; Bilbis, Ls; Adias, Tc

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human enzyme deficiencies in the world. It is particularly common in populations living in malaria-endemic areas, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. This present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children visiting the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital for pediatric-related care. The study included 118 children, made up of 77 (65.3%) males and 41 (34.7%) females aged ≤5 years with mean age of 3.26 ± 1.90 years. Randox G6PD quantitative in vitro test screening was used for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of the 118 children tested, 17 (14.4%) were G6PD-deficient. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency was concentrated predominantly among male children (22.1%). Male sex was significantly correlated with G6PD deficiency among the children studied (r = 7.85, P = 0.01). The highest prevalence occurred among children in the 2- to 5-year age-group. Of the 17 G6PD-deficient children, twelve (70.2%) were moderately deficient, while five (29.4%) were severely deficient. Blood film from G6PD-deficient children indicated the following morphological changes; Heinz bodies, schistocytes, target cells, nucleated red cells, spherocytes, and polychromasia. This present study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children residing in Sokoto in the northwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study indicated a male sex bias in the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the children studied. There is a need for the routine screening of children for G6PD deficiency in our environment, to allow for evidence-based management of these children and to ensure the avoidance of food, drugs, and infective agents that can potentially predispose these children to oxidative stress as well as diseases that deplete micronutrients that protect against oxidative stress. There is need to build capacity in our

  6. Metabolism of the hexose monophosphate shunt in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and closely interrelated reactions.

    PubMed

    Jacobasch, G; Bleiber, R; Schönian, G

    1982-12-01

    The metabolic changes of red blood cells from 25 patients with chronic hemolytic anemia caused by G6PD deficiency were investigated. The average G6PD activity exhibited 5 per cent of the normal control. The glucose oxidation was in most cases reduced even by 50 per cent. Three groups could be distinguished according to their degree of methylene blue stimulation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. These results are in agreement with changes of the kinetic constants for NADP, NADPH and G6P, respectively. The filtrability of red blood cells decreased in all cases of G6PD deficiency but no correlation was found with the survival time. First results of a preventive medication with D-L-alpha-tocopherol let assume a reduction of chronic hemolysis.

  7. Hemolytic Potential of Tafenoquine in Female Volunteers Heterozygous for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency (G6PD Mahidol Variant) versus G6PD-Normal Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Bancone, Germana; Harrell, Emma J; Beelen, Andrew P; Kongpatanakul, Supornchai; Möhrle, Jörg J; Rousell, Vicki; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Qureshi, Ammar; Narayan, Sushma; Yubon, Nushara; Miller, Ann; Nosten, François H; Luzzatto, Lucio; Duparc, Stephan; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Green, Justin A

    2017-09-01

    Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol 487A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ≥ 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ≥ 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ≥ 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ≥ 3/6 subjects. A dose-response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects ( N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (-2.65 to -2.95 g/dL [ N = 3]) and primaquine (-1.25 to -3.0 g/dL [ N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61-80% ( N = 2) and > 80% ( N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days.

  8. Hemolytic Potential of Tafenoquine in Female Volunteers Heterozygous for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency (G6PD Mahidol Variant) versus G6PD-Normal Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Bancone, Germana; Harrell, Emma J.; Beelen, Andrew P.; Kongpatanakul, Supornchai; Möhrle, Jörg J.; Rousell, Vicki; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Qureshi, Ammar; Narayan, Sushma; Yubon, Nushara; Miller, Ann; Nosten, François H.; Luzzatto, Lucio; Duparc, Stephan; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Green, Justin A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol487A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40–60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ≥ 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ≥ 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ≥ 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ≥ 3/6 subjects. A dose–response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects (N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (−2.65 to −2.95 g/dL [N = 3]) and primaquine (−1.25 to −3.0 g/dL [N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61–80% (N = 2) and > 80% (N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days. PMID:28749773

  9. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants among the Kurdish population of Northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Allawi, Nasir; Eissa, Adil A; Jubrael, Jaladet Ms; Jamal, Shakir Ar; Hamamy, Hanan

    2010-07-05

    Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. A total of 580 healthy male Kurdish Iraqis randomly selected from a main regional premarital screening center in Northern Iraq were screened for G6PD deficiency using methemoglobin reduction test. The results were confirmed by quantitative enzyme assay for the cases that showed G6PD deficiency. DNA analysis was performed on 115 G6PD deficient subjects, 50 from the premarital screening group and 65 unrelated Kurdish male patients with documented acute hemolytic episodes due to G6PD deficiency. Analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism for five deficient molecular variants, namely G6PD Mediterranean (563 C-->T), G6PD Chatham (1003 G-->A), G6PD A- (202 G-->A), G6PD Aures (143 T-->C) and G6PD Cosenza (1376 G-->C), as well as the silent 1311 (C-->T) mutation. Among 580 random Iraqi male Kurds, 63 (10.9%) had documented G6PD deficiency. Molecular studies performed on a total of 115 G6PD deficient males revealed that 101 (87.8%) had the G6PD Mediterranean variant and 10 (8.7%) had the G6PD Chatham variant. No cases of G6PD A-, G6PD Aures or G6PD Cosenza were identified, leaving 4 cases (3.5%) uncharacterized. Further molecular screening revealed that the silent mutation 1311 was present in 93/95 of the Mediterranean and 1/10 of the Chatham cases. The current study revealed a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Iraqi Kurdish population of Northern Iraq with most cases being due to the G6PD Mediterranean and Chatham variants. These results are

  10. Safety of single low-dose primaquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient falciparum-infected African males: Two open-label, randomized, safety trials

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Helmi E.; Coulibaly, Sam A.; Gonçalves, Bronner P.; Affara, Muna; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Bougouma, Edith C.; Sanou, Guillaume S.; Nébié, Issa; Bradley, John; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Niemi, Mikko; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; d’Alessandro, Umberto; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Background Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. Methods and findings In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0.25 (n = 20) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 20) dosage; G6PD-normal males received AL plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. In The Gambia, G6PDd adult males and boys received DP alone (n = 10) or with 0.25 mg/kg PQ (n = 20); G6PD-normal males received DP plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. The primary study endpoint was change in hemoglobin concentration during the 28-day follow-up. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer status, gametocyte carriage, haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts were also determined. In Burkina Faso, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin was -2.13 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.78, -1.49) in G6PDd individuals randomized to 0.25 PQ mg/kg and -2.29 g/dL (95% CI, -2.79, -1.79) in those receiving 0.40 PQ mg/kg. In The Gambia, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin concentration was -1.83 g/dL (95% CI, -2.19, -1.47) in G6PDd individuals receiving 0.25 PQ mg/kg. After adjustment for baseline concentrations, hemoglobin reductions in G6PDd individuals in Burkina Faso were more pronounced compared to those in G6PD-normal individuals receiving the same PQ doses (P = 0.062 and P = 0.022, respectively). Hemoglobin levels normalized during follow-up. Abnormal haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase levels provided additional evidence of mild transient hemolysis post-PQ. Conclusions Single low-dose PQ in combination with AL and DP was associated with mild and transient reductions in hemoglobin. None of the

  11. Discovery of a novel glucose metabolism in cancer: The role of endoplasmic reticulum beyond glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Cecilia; Ravera, Silvia; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orengo, Anna Maria; Bruno, Silvia; Bottoni, Gianluca; Emionite, Laura; Pastorino, Fabio; Monteverde, Elena; Garaboldi, Lucia; Martella, Roberto; Salani, Barbara; Maggi, Davide; Ponzoni, Mirco; Fais, Franco; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metabolism is characterized by an accelerated glycolytic rate facing reduced activity of oxidative phosphorylation. This “Warburg effect” represents a standard to diagnose and monitor tumor aggressiveness with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose whose uptake is currently regarded as an accurate index of total glucose consumption. Studying cancer metabolic response to respiratory chain inhibition by metformin, we repeatedly observed a reduction of tracer uptake facing a marked increase in glucose consumption. This puzzling discordance brought us to discover that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose preferentially accumulates within endoplasmic reticulum by exploiting the catalytic function of hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Silencing enzyme expression and activity decreased both tracer uptake and glucose consumption, caused severe energy depletion and decreased NADPH content without altering mitochondrial function. These data document the existence of an unknown glucose metabolism triggered by hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase within endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells. Besides its basic relevance, this finding can improve clinical cancer diagnosis and might represent potential target for therapy. PMID:27121192

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz ...

  13. High prevalence of hemoglobin disorders and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Republic of Guinea (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Millimono, Tamba S; Loua, Kovana M; Rath, Silvia L; Relvas, Luis; Bento, Celeste; Diakite, Mandiou; Jarvis, Martin; Daries, Nathalie; Ribeiro, Leticia M; Manco, Licínio; Kaeda, Jaspal S

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and accurate epidemiological data is a prerequisite for a cost effective screening program for inherited disorders, which however, is lacking in a number of developing countries. Here we report the first detailed population study in the Republic of Guinea, a sub-Saharan West African country, designed to assess the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobinopathies, including screening for thalassemia. Peripheral blood samples from 187 Guinean adults were screened for hemoglobin (Hb) variants by standard hematological methods. One hundred and ten samples from males were screened for G6PD deficiency by the fluorescent spot test. Molecular analysis was performed for the most common α-thalassemia (α-thal) deletions, β-globin gene mutations, G6PD variants B (376A), A (376G), A- (376G/202A) and Betica (376G/968C), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing. Of the 187 subjects screened, 36 were heterozygous for Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG] (allele frequency 9.62%). Sixty-four subjects were heterozygous and seven were homozygous for the -α(3.7) kb deletion (allele frequency 20.85%). β-Thalassemia alleles were detected in five subjects, four with the -29 (A>G) mutation (allele frequency 1.07%) and one with codon 15 (TGG>TAG) (allele frequency 0.96%). The G6PD A- and G6PD Betica deficient variants were highly prevalent with a frequency of 5.7 and 3.3%, respectively. While we did not test for ferritin levels or α(0)-thal, four females (5.2%) had red cell indices strongly suggestive of iron deficient anemia: Hb <9.7 g/dL; MCH <19.3 pg; MCV <68.2; MCHC <31.6 g/dl; RDW >19.8%. Our results are consistent with high frequency of alleles such as Hb S, α-thal and G6PD deficient alleles associated with malaria resistance. Finding a 9.6% Hb S allele frequency supports the notion for a proficient neonatal screening to identify the sickle cell patients, who might benefit

  14. High incidence of 3-thalassemia, hemoglobin E, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in populations of malaria-endemic southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Than, Aung Myint; Harano, Teruo; Harano, Keiko; Myint, Aye Aye; Ogino, Tetsuya; Okadaa, Shigeru

    2005-08-01

    Samples from 916 members of various ethnic groups from malaria-endemic southern Shan State, Myanmar, were analyzed for 3-thalassemia (3-thal), 3-thalassemia (3-thal), abnormal hemoglobin variants, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Of these subjects, 530 (57.9%) were found to have at least one of these red cell genetic disorders. The overall frequencies for the various red cell genetic disorders were as follows: 3-thal, 37.5% (343/916); hemoglobin E (Hb-E), 20.3% (186/916); G6PD-Mahidol, 17.5% (160/916); and 3-thal, 0.3% (3/916). The frequencies of combined disorders were 6.9% (63/ 916) for 3-thal/Hb-E, 5.7% (52/916) for 3-thal/G6PD-Mahidol, 2.8% (26/916) for Hb-E/G6PD-Mahidol, 1.1% (10/916) for 3-thal/Hb-E/G6PD-Mahidol, and 0.1% (1/916) for 3-thal/3-thal/G6PD-Mahidol. Of the various ethnic and non-ethnic groups, the Bamar population showed the highest frequencies of 3-thal (56.9%, 177/311), Hb-E (28.3%, 88/311), and G6PD-Mahidol (21.2%, 66/311) (all duplicated and triplicated cases were included). In addition, 2 new mutations, an 3 gene triplication (/333(anti3.7); 0.2%, 2/916) and Hb-Neapolis (0.1%, 1/916), were detected. Our results showed that race was the dominant factor affecting the frequencies of red cell genetic disorders in malaria-endemic areas of Myanmar.

  15. Genetic Epidemiology of Glucose-6-Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the Arab World.

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Alasmar, Dima R; Bux, Reem I; Sneha, P; Bakhsh, Fadheela Dad; Al-Azwani, Iman; Bekay, Rajaa El; Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-17

    A systematic search was implemented using four literature databases (PubMed, Embase, Science Direct and Web of Science) to capture all the causative mutations of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDD) in the 22 Arab countries. Our search yielded 43 studies that captured 33 mutations (23 missense, one silent, two deletions, and seven intronic mutations), in 3,430 Arab patients with G6PDD. The 23 missense mutations were then subjected to phenotypic classification using in silico prediction tools, which were compared to the WHO pathogenicity scale as a reference. These in silico tools were tested for their predicting efficiency using rigorous statistical analyses. Of the 23 missense mutations, p.S188F, p.I48T, p.N126D, and p.V68M, were identified as the most common mutations among Arab populations, but were not unique to the Arab world, interestingly, our search strategy found four other mutations (p.N135T, p.S179N, p.R246L, and p.Q307P) that are unique to Arabs. These mutations were exposed to structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation analysis (MDSA), which predicting these mutant forms as potentially affect the enzyme function. The combination of the MDSA, structural analysis, and in silico predictions and statistical tools we used will provide a platform for future prediction accuracy for the pathogenicity of genetic mutations.

  16. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S in high and moderate malaria transmission areas of Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Segeja, M D; Mmbando, B P; Kamugisha, M L; Akida, J A; Savaeli, Z X; Minja, D T; Msangeni, H A; Lemnge, M M

    2008-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and haemoglobin S (HbS) are very common genetic disorders in sub Saharan Africa, where malaria is endemic. These genetic disorders have been associated with protection against malaria and are therefore under strong selection pressure by the disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS in the population and relate these to malaria infection and haemoglobin levels in lowland and highland areas of differing malaria transmission patterns of Muheza, Tanzania. Blood samples from 1959 individuals aged 6 months to 45 years were collected. A total of 415 (21%) and 1181 (60%) samples were analysed for G6PD deficiency and HbS, respectively. Malarial parasite prevalence was 17.2% (114/1959) in the highlands and 39.6% (49/1959) in the lowlands. Lowlands had higher prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS than highlands (G6PD deficiency = 11.32% (24/212) versus 4.43% (9/203), P = 0.01, and HbS = 16.04% (98/611) versus 6.32% (36/570), P = 0.0001). Logistic regression model showed an association between G6PD deficiency and altitude [lowlands] (Odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% CI = 1.49; 7.90, P = 0.004). In the lowlands, G6PD deficient individuals had lower mean haemoglobin (10.9g/dl) than normal ones (12.8g/dl), P = 0.01. These findings show that high malaria transmission in the lowlands might have selected for G6PD deficiency and HbS.

  17. Evaluation of the phenotypic test and genetic analysis in the detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Paul, Rick; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Imwong, Mallika

    2013-08-21

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is particularly prevalent in historically malaria-endemic countries. Although most individuals with G6PD deficiency are asymptomatic, deficiency can result in acute haemolytic anaemia after exposure to oxidative agents. A reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent an acute haemolytic crisis following, for example, anti-malarial treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate which method was the best predictor of this disorder. The present study investigated four G6PD activity detections (fluorescence spot (FS), methaemoglobin reduction (MR), biochemical and cytochemical test). These methods accompanied with mutation analysis of blood samples were taken from 295 apparently healthy individuals with unknown G6PD deficiency status. Molecular characterization of 295 Thai adults revealed an overall prevalence of 14.2%. The G6PD Viangchan (871 G>A) was the most common (83.3%), followed by G6PD Mahidol (487G>A) (11.9%), and G6PD Union (1360 C>T) (4.8%). There were two cases of G6PD deficiency carrying the double mutations of Viangchan (871G > A)-Mahidol (487G > A) and Viangchan (871G > A)-Union (1360C > T). In comparison, the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 6.1% by FS test and 7.1% by MR test. G6PD activity was 11 ± 2.5 IU/gHb in non-deficient females (mean ± SD), and 10.9 ± 0.6 IU/gHb in non-deficient males. The upper and lower limit cut-off points for partial and severe deficiency in adults were 5.7 IU/gHb (60% of the normal mean) and 0.95 IU/gHb (10% of the normal mean), respectively. All hemizygote, homozygote and double mutations were associated with severe enzyme deficiency (the residual enzyme activity <10% of the normal mean), whereas only 14.3% of the heterozygote mutations showed severe enzyme deficiency. Based on the cut-off value <5.7 IU/gHb, the quantitative G6PD assay diagnosed 83% of cases as G6PD-deficient. Using a cut-off number of negative cell >20% in

  18. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants among the Kurdish population of Northern Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. Methods A total of 580 healthy male Kurdish Iraqis randomly selected from a main regional premarital screening center in Northern Iraq were screened for G6PD deficiency using methemoglobin reduction test. The results were confirmed by quantitative enzyme assay for the cases that showed G6PD deficiency. DNA analysis was performed on 115 G6PD deficient subjects, 50 from the premarital screening group and 65 unrelated Kurdish male patients with documented acute hemolytic episodes due to G6PD deficiency. Analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism for five deficient molecular variants, namely G6PD Mediterranean (563 C→T), G6PD Chatham (1003 G→A), G6PD A- (202 G→A), G6PD Aures (143 T→C) and G6PD Cosenza (1376 G→C), as well as the silent 1311 (C→T) mutation. Results Among 580 random Iraqi male Kurds, 63 (10.9%) had documented G6PD deficiency. Molecular studies performed on a total of 115 G6PD deficient males revealed that 101 (87.8%) had the G6PD Mediterranean variant and 10 (8.7%) had the G6PD Chatham variant. No cases of G6PD A-, G6PD Aures or G6PD Cosenza were identified, leaving 4 cases (3.5%) uncharacterized. Further molecular screening revealed that the silent mutation 1311 was present in 93/95 of the Mediterranean and 1/10 of the Chatham cases. Conclusions The current study revealed a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Iraqi Kurdish population of Northern Iraq with most cases being due to the G6PD Mediterranean and

  19. Glucocorticoid regulation in rat brain cell cultures. Hydrocortisone increases the rate of synthesis of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in C6 glioma cells. [Tritium tracer technique

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    Cytoplasmic glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (sn-glycerol-3-phosphate: NAD/sup +/ 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.8) was rapidly purified from rat skeletal muscle in high yield using a combination of classical and affinity techniques. A single band of protein having a molecular weight of 30,000 was found using dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were generated in rabbits against the purified enzyme and demonstrated to be monospecific by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion against crude homogenates from hydrocortisone-induced and uninduced C6 cells. All of the radioactivity in immunoprecipitates from (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled cells co-migrated with purified glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The amount of radioactivity precipitated was directly proportional to the amount ofmore » labeled glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase present, indicating that the assay could be used to quantitate newly synthesized glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase molecules. Using these techniques, the induction of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity by hydrocortisone in the C6 glioma cell line was shown to be due to an increase in the rate of synthesis of the enzyme. Analysis of the kinetics of induction and deinduction supports the above conclusion and suggests that there is essentially no change in the rate of degradation of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in the presence and absence of hormone.« less

  20. Prevalence and molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Afghan populations: implications for treatment policy in the region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), an x-linked inherited enzymopathy, is a barrier to malaria control because primaquine cannot be readily applied for radical cure in individuals with the condition. In endemic areas, including in Afghanistan, the G6PD status of vivax patients is not routinely determined so the drug is rarely, if ever, prescribed even though it is included as a recommended treatment in local, regional and global guidelines. This study assessed the prevalence and genotype of G6PD deficiency in Afghan populations and examined the need for routine G6PD testing as a malaria treatment and control tool. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using random sampling in five Afghan cities to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghan ethnic groups. Filter-paper blood spots were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using a fluorescent spot test. Molecular analysis was conducted to identify the genetic basis of the disorder. Results Overall, 45/1,436 (3.1%) people were G6PD deficient, 36/728 (5.0%) amongst males and 9/708 (1.3%) amongst females. Amongst males the prevalence was highest in the Pashtun ethnic group (10%, 26/260) while in Tajik males it was 8/250 (3.2%); in Hazara males it was 1/77 (1.3%) and in Uzbek males is was 0/125. Genetic testing in those with deficiency showed that all were of the Mediterranean type (Med-) characterized by a C-T change at codon 563 of the G6PD gene. Conclusion Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghanistan varies considerably by ethnic group and is predominantly of the Mediterranean type. G6PD deficient individuals are susceptible to potentially severe and life-threatening haemolysis after standard primaquine treatment. If the aim of increasing access to radical treatment of vivax is to be successful reliable G6PD testing needs to be made routinely available within the health system. PMID:23834949

  1. Prevalence and molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Afghan populations: implications for treatment policy in the region.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Toby; Moiz, Bushra; Mohammad, Nader; Amanzai, Omar; Ur Rasheed, Haroon; Jan, Sakhi; Siddiqi, Abdul M; Nasir, Amna; Beg, Mohammad A; Vink, Martijn

    2013-07-08

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), an x-linked inherited enzymopathy, is a barrier to malaria control because primaquine cannot be readily applied for radical cure in individuals with the condition. In endemic areas, including in Afghanistan, the G6PD status of vivax patients is not routinely determined so the drug is rarely, if ever, prescribed even though it is included as a recommended treatment in local, regional and global guidelines. This study assessed the prevalence and genotype of G6PD deficiency in Afghan populations and examined the need for routine G6PD testing as a malaria treatment and control tool. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using random sampling in five Afghan cities to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghan ethnic groups. Filter-paper blood spots were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using a fluorescent spot test. Molecular analysis was conducted to identify the genetic basis of the disorder. Overall, 45/1,436 (3.1%) people were G6PD deficient, 36/728 (5.0%) amongst males and 9/708 (1.3%) amongst females. Amongst males the prevalence was highest in the Pashtun ethnic group (10%, 26/260) while in Tajik males it was 8/250 (3.2%); in Hazara males it was 1/77 (1.3%) and in Uzbek males is was 0/125. Genetic testing in those with deficiency showed that all were of the Mediterranean type (Med-) characterized by a C-T change at codon 563 of the G6PD gene. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Afghanistan varies considerably by ethnic group and is predominantly of the Mediterranean type. G6PD deficient individuals are susceptible to potentially severe and life-threatening haemolysis after standard primaquine treatment. If the aim of increasing access to radical treatment of vivax is to be successful reliable G6PD testing needs to be made routinely available within the health system.

  2. Effects of long-term exposure to Cu2+ and Cd2+ on the pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenase activities in the ovary of adult Bufo arenarum: possible role as biomarker for Cu2+ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Carattino, Marcelo D; Peralta, Susana; Pérez-Coll, Cristina; Naab, Fabián; Burlón, Alejandro; Kreiner, Andrés J; Preller, Ana F; de Schroeder, Teresa M Fonovich

    2004-03-01

    The effects of copper and cadmium on metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway were evaluated in Bufo arenarum toad ovary. The effects of the two metals on dehydrogenases from this pathway were evaluated by three experiments: (1) in samples obtained from control females with addition of the metals to the reaction mixture (in vitro), (2) in samples obtained from control females and after long-term exposure of females to 4 and 100 microg/L of Cu or Cd in the incubation media (in vitro after exposure to the metals in vivo), and (3) 14CO2 production through the pentose phosphate pathway was evaluated after [U-14C]glucose microinjection on ovulated oocytes (in vivo after microinjection of the metals). Results from (1) evidenced inhibition of both enzyme activities but only above 1.5 mM Cu and Cd added to the reaction mixture. In (2) both glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities decreased in samples from the ovaries of females exposed in vivo to Cu, in a concentration-dependent manner (up to 90% in females exposed to 100 microg/L Cu: 2.12 +/- 1.57 NADPH micromol/min microg protein x 10(-5) vs 19.97 +/- 8.54 in control females). Cd treatment of the toads only rendered an inhibitory effect on 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity after exposure to 4 microg/L of the bivalent cation. (3) In vivo 14CO2 evolution significantly decreased in oocytes coinjected with 6.3 x 10(-3) mM Cu (calculated intracellular final concentration of the metal injected) and radioactive glucose. Cu and Cd concentration in samples from exposed females were always under detection limit by particle-induced X-ray emission. The results presented here are in agreement with a role for both glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities determination as biomarkers of effect and exposure for Cu but not for Cd toxicity.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum clearance with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently the most effective medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Artemisinin has previously been shown to increase the clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients with haemoglobin E trait, but it did not increase parasite inhibition in an in vitro study using haemoglobin AS erythrocytes. The current study describes the efficacy of artemisinin derivatives on P. falciparum clearance in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), a haemoglobin enzyme deficiency, not yet studied in the same context, but nonetheless is a common in malaria endemic areas, associated with host protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria. The impact of G6PD deficiency on parasite clearance with ACT treatment was compared between G6PD-deficient patients and G6PD-normal group. Methods Blood samples from children and adults participants (1 to 70 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria residing in Kambila, Mali were analysed. Study participants were randomly assigned to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) or artesunate plus mefloquine (Artequin™). A restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA samples was used to identify the (A-) allele of the gene mutation responsible for G6PD deficiency (G6PD*A-). 470 blood samples were thus analysed and of these, DNA was extracted from 315 samples using the QIAamp kit for PCR to identify the G6PD*A- gene. Results The DNA amplified from 315 samples using PCR showed that G6PD*A- deficiency was present in 56 participants (17.8%). The distribution of the specific deficiency was 1%, 7% and, 9.8% respectively for homozygous, hemizygous, and heterozygous genotypes. Before treatment, the median parasitaemia and other baseline characteristics (mean haemoglobin, sex and age groups) between G6PD deficiency (hemizygous, heterozygous, and homozygous) and G6PD-normal participants were comparable (p > 0

  4. Plasmodium falciparum clearance with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Mali.

    PubMed

    Kone, Abdoulaye K; Sagara, Issaka; Thera, Mahamadou A; Dicko, Alassane; Guindo, Aldiouma; Diakite, Seidina; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Walcourt, Asikiya; Doumbo, Ogabara

    2010-11-21

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently the most effective medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Artemisinin has previously been shown to increase the clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients with haemoglobin E trait, but it did not increase parasite inhibition in an in vitro study using haemoglobin AS erythrocytes. The current study describes the efficacy of artemisinin derivatives on P. falciparum clearance in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), a haemoglobin enzyme deficiency, not yet studied in the same context, but nonetheless is a common in malaria endemic areas, associated with host protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria. The impact of G6PD deficiency on parasite clearance with ACT treatment was compared between G6PD-deficient patients and G6PD-normal group. Blood samples from children and adults participants (1 to 70 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria residing in Kambila, Mali were analysed. Study participants were randomly assigned to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) or artesunate plus mefloquine (Artequin™). A restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified DNA samples was used to identify the (A-) allele of the gene mutation responsible for G6PD deficiency (G6PD*A-). 470 blood samples were thus analysed and of these, DNA was extracted from 315 samples using the QIAamp kit for PCR to identify the G6PD*A- gene. The DNA amplified from 315 samples using PCR showed that G6PD*A- deficiency was present in 56 participants (17.8%). The distribution of the specific deficiency was 1%, 7% and, 9.8% respectively for homozygous, hemizygous, and heterozygous genotypes. Before treatment, the median parasitaemia and other baseline characteristics (mean haemoglobin, sex and age groups) between G6PD deficiency (hemizygous, heterozygous, and homozygous) and G6PD-normal participants were comparable (p > 0.05). After treatment

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient infants: Enzyme activity and gene variants as risk factors for phototherapy in the first week of life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fei-Liang; Ithnin, Azlin; Othman, Ainoon; Cheah, Fook-Choe

    2017-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a recognised cause of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and identifying which infants are at risk could optimise care and resources. In this study, we determined if G6PD enzyme activity (EA) and certain gene variants were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy during the first week after birth. Newborn infants with G6PD deficiency and a group with normal results obtained by the fluorescent spot test were selected for analyses of G6PD EA and the 10 commonly encountered G6PD mutations in this region, relating these with whether the infants required phototherapy before discharge from the hospital in the first week. A total of 222 infants with mean gestation and birth weight of 38.3 ± 1.8 weeks and 3.02 ± 0.48 kg, respectively, were enrolled. Of these, n = 121 were deficient with EA ≤6.76 U/g Hb, and approximately half (43%) received phototherapy in the first week after birth. The mean EA level was 3.7 U/g Hb. The EA had good accuracy in predicting phototherapy use, with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.81 ± 0.05. Infants on phototherapy more commonly displayed World Health Organization Class II mutations (<10% residual EA). Logistic regression analysis showed that deficiency in EA and mutation at c.1388G>A (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 and 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-1.76 and 1.30-25.0, respectively) were independent risk factors for phototherapy. Low G6PD EA (<6.76 U/g Hb) and the G6PD gene variant, c.1388G>A, are risk factors for the need of phototherapy in newborn infants during the first week after birth. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Systematic review of the clinical manifestations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greater Mekong Subregion: implications for malaria elimination and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken Ing Cherng; Kosugi, Hodaka; Thoeun, Sophea; Araki, Hitomi; Thandar, Moe Moe; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Brey, Paul T; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-01-01

    To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax , as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum . However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS. The protocol for this systematic review was registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42016043146). We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases for published articles describing the clinical manifestations of G6PDd in the GMS. We included articles of all study designs from inception until 31 July 2016, reporting the clinical manifestations of G6PDd. We then performed a narrative synthesis of these articles. We included 56 articles in this review, 45 of which were from Thailand. Haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals was caused not only by primaquine but also by other medicines and infections. Other clinical manifestations of G6PDd that were found were favism, neonatal jaundice and chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. G6PDd also influenced the clinical presentations of genetic disorders and infections, such as thalassemia and typhoid fever. As G6PDd also affects the clinical presentations of other infections, the benefits of G6PD testing and proper record keeping transcend those of malaria case management. Therefore, healthcare workers at the community level should be made familiar with complications resulting from G6PDd as these complications extend beyond the scope of malaria.

  7. Systematic review of the clinical manifestations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greater Mekong Subregion: implications for malaria elimination and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ken Ing Cherng; Kosugi, Hodaka; Thoeun, Sophea; Araki, Hitomi; Thandar, Moe Moe; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Brey, Paul T; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS. Methods The protocol for this systematic review was registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42016043146). We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases for published articles describing the clinical manifestations of G6PDd in the GMS. We included articles of all study designs from inception until 31 July 2016, reporting the clinical manifestations of G6PDd. We then performed a narrative synthesis of these articles. Results We included 56 articles in this review, 45 of which were from Thailand. Haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals was caused not only by primaquine but also by other medicines and infections. Other clinical manifestations of G6PDd that were found were favism, neonatal jaundice and chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. G6PDd also influenced the clinical presentations of genetic disorders and infections, such as thalassemia and typhoid fever. Conclusion As G6PDd also affects the clinical presentations of other infections, the benefits of G6PD testing and proper record keeping transcend those of malaria case management. Therefore, healthcare workers at the community level should be made familiar with complications resulting from G6PDd as these complications extend beyond the scope of malaria. PMID:29082022

  8. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration. PMID:20684792

  9. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Melissa; Wijesinghe, Rushika; Ho, Mei-Fong; Pelecanos, Anita; Bobogare, Albino; Landry, Losi; Bugora, Hugo; Vallely, Andrew; McCarthy, James

    2010-08-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide-involved defense against oxidative stress under salt stress in red kidney bean roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinggao; Wu, Ruru; Wan, Qi; Xie, Gengqiang; Bi, Yurong

    2007-03-01

    The pivotal role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production in the tolerance to oxidative stress induced by 100 mM NaCl in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots was investigated. The results show that the G-6-PDH activity was enhanced rapidly in the presence of NaCl and reached a maximum at 100 mM. Western blot analysis indicated that the increase of G-6-PDH activity in the red kidney bean roots under 100 mM NaCl was mainly due to the increased content of the G-6-PDH protein. NO production and nitrate reductase (NR) activity were also induced by 100 mM NaCl. The NO production was reduced by NaN(3) (an NR inhibitor), but not affected by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (an NOS inhibitor). Application of 2.5 mM Na(3)PO(4), an inhibitor of G-6-PDH, blocked the increase of G-6-PDH and NR activity, as well as NO production in red kidney bean roots under 100 mM NaCl. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in red kidney bean roots increased in the presence of 100 mM NaCl or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor. The increased activities of all antioxidant enzymes tested at 100 mM NaCl were completely inhibited by 2.5 mM Na(3)PO(4). Based on these results, we conclude that G-6-PDH plays a pivotal role in NR-dependent NO production, and in establishing tolerance of red kidney bean roots to salt stress.

  11. Astroglial pentose phosphate pathway rates in response to high-glucose environments

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Izawa, Yoshikane; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux). Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2), which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke. PMID:22300409

  12. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Brazilian Children With Sickle Cell Anemia is not Associated With Clinical Ischemic Stroke or High-Risk Transcranial Doppler.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André Rolim; Rodrigues Sales, Rahyssa; Evelin Toledo, Nayara; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Maria Silva, Célia; Borato Viana, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is a severe complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA). The role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the development of stroke in children with SCA is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of clinical ischemic stroke, high-risk transcranial Doppler measurements (TCD), and hematological features with molecular variants usually linked to G6PD deficiency or with the biochemical activity of G6PD in a cohort of 395 Brazilian children with SCA. G6PD activity was quantitatively determined using an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. G6PD mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Clinical and hematological data were retrieved from the children's records. The prevalence of molecularly defined deficiency (hereafter, molecular deficiency) was 4.3% (95% confidence interval: 2.3-6.3%). The mean G6PD activity was 16.88 U/g hemoglobin (Hb) (standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.28) in the group without G6PD molecular deficiency and 8.43 (SEM 1.01) U/g Hb in the group with G6PD A(-) molecular deficiency. G6PD molecular deficiency was not associated with any hematological features. No effects of G6PD molecular deficiency on clinical ischemic stroke or high-risk TCD were detected. The mean G6PD activity was similar in children who had clinical ischemic stroke and in those without stroke. Similar results were obtained in analyses comparing children who had high-risk TCD and those without high-risk TCD. Our study demonstrated that G6PD molecular deficiency was not associated either with clinical ischemic stroke or high-risk TCD. Similarly, we found no associations between G6PD enzyme activity and stroke or high-risk TCD. Small sample size precludes definitive conclusions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Serum Soluble Transferrin Receptor Concentrations Are Elevated in Congolese Children with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants, but Not Sickle Cell Variants or α-Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Barker, Mikaela K; Henderson, Amanda M; Naguib, Karimah; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Albert, Arianne Y; Bahizire, Esto; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Boy, Erick; Green, Tim J; Karakochuk, Crystal D

    2017-09-01

    Background: Anemia is common in Congolese children, and inherited blood disorders may be a contributing cause. The presence of sickle cell variants, X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and α-thalassemia, has been previously reported. G6PD A- deficiency is characterized by the co-inheritance of G6PD 376 and 202 variants and is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: We aimed to measure the associations between inherited blood disorders and hemoglobin, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in Congolese children. Methods: Venous blood was collected from 744 children aged 6-59 mo from 2 provinces. We measured biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status and malaria. Pyrosequencing was used to detect sickle cell variants. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect G6PD variants and α-thalassemia deletions. Results: Overall, 11% of children had a sickle cell variant, 19% of boys were G6PD A- hemizygotes, 12% and 10% of girls were G6PD A- hetero- or homozygotes, respectively, and 12% of children had α-thalassemia. Multivariable linear regression models (adjusted for age, province, altitude, malaria, and biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status) showed that G6PD A- hemizygous boys and G6PD 376 homozygous girls had higher sTfR concentrations [geometric mean ratios (95% CIs): 1.20 (1.03, 1.39) and 1.25 (1.02, 1.53), respectively] than children with no G6PD variants. Hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were not independently associated with any of the inherited blood disorder genotypes. Conclusions: We found that 2 G6PD variant genotypes were associated with elevated sTfR concentrations, which limits the accuracy of sTfR as a biomarker of iron status in this population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Phenotypic and genotypic spectra of patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency gene known pathogenic variants: a single-center study].

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Yang, L; Wang, H J; Wu, B B; Lu, Y L; Dong, X R; Zhou, W H

    2018-05-02

    Objective: To analyze the hotspots of known pathogenic disease-causing variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and the phenotype spectrum of neonatal patients with known pathogenic disease-causing variants of G6PD. Methods: The known pathogenic disease-causing variants of G6PD were collected from Human Gene Mutation Database. Screening was performed for these variants among the 7 966 cases (2 357 neonatal, 5 609 non-neonatal) in the database of sequencing at Molecular Diagnosis Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University. All these samples were from patients suspected with genetic disorder. The database contained Whole Exon Sequencing data and Clinical Exon Sequencing data. We screened out the patients with known pathogenic disease-causing variants of G6PD, analyzed the hotspot of G6PD and the phenotype spectrum of neonatal patients with known pathogenic disease-causing variants of G6PD. Results: (1) Among the next generation sequencing data of the 7 966 samples, 86 samples (1.1%) were detected as positive for the known pathogenic disease-causing variants of G6PD (positive samples set). In the positive sample set, 51 patients (33 males, 18 females) were newborn babies. Forty-three patients (26 males, 17 females) had the enzyme activity data of G6PD. (2) Among the 86 samples, Arg463His, Arg459Leu, Leu342Phe, Val291Met were the leading 4 disease-causing variants found in 72 samples (84%). (3) Male neonatal patients with the same variants had the statistically significant differences in enzyme activity: among 13 patients with Arg463His, enzyme activity of 9 patients was ranked as grade Ⅲ, 1 case ranked as Ⅳ, 3 cases had no activity data;among 10 patients with Arg459Leu, enzyme activity of 4 patients was ranked as Ⅱ, 4 cases ranked as Ⅲ, 2 cases had no activity data;among 2 patients with His32Arg, enzyme activity of one patient was ranked as Ⅱ, another was Ⅲ. Male neonatal patients with the same mutation and enzyme activity also had the

  16. Vascular smooth muscle cell contractile protein expression is increased through protein kinase G-dependent and -independent pathways by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chettimada, Sukrutha; Joshi, Sachindra Raj; Dhagia, Vidhi; Aiezza, Alessandro; Lincoln, Thomas M; Gupte, Rakhee; Miano, Joseph M; Gupte, Sachin A

    2016-10-01

    Homeostatic control of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation is critical for contractile activity and regulation of blood flow. Recently, we reported that precontracted blood vessels are relaxed and the phenotype of VSMC is regulated from a synthetic to contractile state by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) inhibition. In the current study, we investigated whether the increase in the expression of VSMC contractile proteins by inhibition and knockdown of G6PD is mediated through a protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent pathway and whether it regulates blood pressure. We found that the expression of VSMC-restricted contractile proteins, myocardin (MYOCD), and miR-1 and miR-143 are increased by G6PD inhibition or knockdown. Importantly, RNA-sequence analysis of aortic tissue from G6PD-deficient mice revealed uniform increases in VSMC-restricted genes, particularly those regulated by the MYOCD-serum response factor (SRF) switch. Conversely, expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is decreased by G6PD inhibition. Interestingly, the G6PD inhibition-induced expression of miR-1 and contractile proteins was blocked by Rp-β-phenyl-1,N 2 -etheno-8-bromo-guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, a PKG inhibitor. On the other hand, MYOCD and miR-143 levels are increased by G6PD inhibition through a PKG-independent manner. Furthermore, blood pressure was lower in the G6PD-deficient compared with wild-type mice. Therefore, our results suggest that the expression of VSMC contractile proteins induced by G6PD inhibition occurs via PKG1α-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Inhibitory effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae constituents on human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Stefano; Lo Curcio, Valeria; Catalani, Simona; Palma, Francesco; Battistelli, Serafina; Benedetti, Serena

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on human UDP-α-d-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) activity, a cytosolic enzyme involved both in tumor progression and in phytochemical bioavailability. Both the hydrophilic and ethanolic AFA extracts as well as the constitutive active principles phycocyanin (PC), phycocyanobilin (PCB) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were tested. Among AFA components, PCB presented the strongest inhibitory effect on UGDH activity, acting as a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP-glucose and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD(+). In preliminary experiments, AFA PCB was also effective in reducing the colony formation capacity of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells. Overall, these findings confirmed that AFA and its active principles are natural compounds with high biological activity. Further studies evaluating the effects of AFA PCB in reducing tumor cell growth and phytochemical glucuronidation are encouraged.

  18. Haptoglobin, alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and risk of abnormal transcranial Doppler among patients with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sharon E; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; L'Esperence, Veline S; Kija, Edward; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Newton, Charles R J; Birch, Anthony A; Prentice, Andrew M; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2014-06-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) of basal intracranial vessels and is used clinically to detect stroke risk in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Co-inheritance in SCA of alpha-thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) polymorphisms is reported to associate with high CBFv and/or risk of stroke. The effect of a common functional polymorphism of haptoglobin (HP) is unknown. We investigated the effect of co-inheritance of these polymorphisms on CBFv in 601 stroke-free Tanzanian SCA patients aged <24 years. Homozygosity for alpha-thalassaemia 3·7 deletion was significantly associated with reduced mean CBFv compared to wild-type (β-coefficient -16·1 cm/s, P = 0·002) adjusted for age and survey year. Inheritance of 1 or 2 alpha-thalassaemia deletions was associated with decreased risk of abnormally high CBFv, compared to published data from Kenyan healthy control children (Relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0·53 [95% confidence interval (CI):0·35-0·8] & RRR = 0·43 [95% CI:0·23-0·78]), and reduced risk of abnormally low CBFv for 1 deletion only (RRR = 0·38 [95% CI:0·17-0·83]). No effects were observed for G6PD or HP polymorphisms. This is the first report of the effects of co-inheritance of common polymorphisms, including the HP polymorphism, on CBFv in SCA patients resident in Africa and confirms the importance of alpha-thalassaemia in reducing risk of abnormal CBFv. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, chlorproguanil-dapsone with artesunate and post-treatment haemolysis in African children treated for uncomplicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Van Malderen, Carine; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Machevo, Sonia; González, Raquel; Bassat, Quique; Talisuna, Ambrose; Yeka, Adoke; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Piola, Patrice; Daniel, Atwine; Turyakira, Eleanor; Forret, Pascale; Van Overmeir, Chantal; van Loen, Harry; Robert, Annie; D' Alessandro, Umberto

    2012-07-10

    Malaria is a leading cause of mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African children. Prompt and efficacious treatment is important as patients may progress within a few hours to severe and possibly fatal disease. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) was a promising artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), but its development was prematurely stopped because of safety concerns secondary to its associated risk of haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. The objective of the study was to assess whether CDA treatment and G6PD deficiency are risk factors for a post-treatment haemoglobin drop in African children<5 years of age with uncomplicated malaria. This case-control study was performed in the context of a larger multicentre randomized clinical trial comparing safety and efficacy of four different ACT in children with uncomplicated malaria. Children, who after treatment experienced a haemoglobin drop≥2 g/dl (cases) within the first four days (days 0, 1, 2, and 3), were compared with those without an Hb drop (controls). Cases and controls were matched for study site, sex, age and baseline haemoglobin measurements. Data were analysed using a conditional logistic regression model. G6PD deficiency prevalence, homo- or hemizygous, was 8.5% (10/117) in cases and 6.8% (16/234) in controls (p=0.56). The risk of a Hb drop≥2 g/dl was not associated with either G6PD deficiency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.81; p=0.76) or CDA treatment (AOR: 1.28; p=0.37) alone. However, patients having both risk factors tended to have higher odds (AOR: 11.13; p=0.25) of experiencing a Hb drop≥2 g/dl within the first four days after treatment, however this finding was not statistically significant, mainly because G6PD deficient patients treated with CDA were very few. In non-G6PD deficient individuals, the proportion of cases was similar between treatment groups while in G6PD-deficient individuals, haemolytic anaemia occurred

  20. Liver glucose metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Pérez-Felpete, Noemi; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Pazos-García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP–glucose. Minor amounts of UDP–glucose are used to form UDP–glucuronate and UDP–galactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glucose is present within the hepatocyte. Finally, glucose 6-phosphate may produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism supplies intermediates for glycosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins and lipids that modulates their activity. Congenital deficiency of phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-1 and PGM-3 is associated with impaired glycosylation. In addition to metabolize carbohydrates, the liver produces glucose to be used by other tissues, from glycogen breakdown or from de novo synthesis using primarily lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). PMID:27707936

  1. Improving ethanol yield in acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cofactor engineering of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and deletion of ALD6.

    PubMed

    Papapetridis, Ioannis; van Dijk, Marlous; Dobbe, Arthur P A; Metz, Benjamin; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-04-26

    Acetic acid, an inhibitor of sugar fermentation by yeast, is invariably present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are used or considered as feedstocks for yeast-based bioethanol production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been constructed, in which anaerobic reduction of acetic acid to ethanol replaces glycerol formation as a mechanism for reoxidizing NADH formed in biosynthesis. An increase in the amount of acetate that can be reduced to ethanol should further decrease acetic acid concentrations and enable higher ethanol yields in industrial processes based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The stoichiometric requirement of acetate reduction for NADH implies that increased generation of NADH in cytosolic biosynthetic reactions should enhance acetate consumption. Replacement of the native NADP(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae by a prokaryotic NAD(+)-dependent enzyme resulted in increased cytosolic NADH formation, as demonstrated by a ca. 15% increase in the glycerol yield on glucose in anaerobic cultures. Additional deletion of ALD6, which encodes an NADP(+)-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, led to a 39% increase in the glycerol yield compared to a non-engineered strain. Subsequent replacement of glycerol formation by an acetate reduction pathway resulted in a 44% increase of acetate consumption per amount of biomass formed, as compared to an engineered, acetate-reducing strain that expressed the native 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ALD6. Compared to a non-acetate reducing reference strain under the same conditions, this resulted in a ca. 13% increase in the ethanol yield on glucose. The combination of NAD(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase expression and deletion of ALD6 resulted in a marked increase in the amount of acetate that was consumed in these proof-of-principle experiments, and this concept is ready for further testing in industrial strains as well as in hydrolysates. Altering the cofactor

  2. Increased erythrocyte deformability in fetal erythropoiesis and in erythrocytes deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and other glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R M; Panchoosingh, H; Goyette, G; Ravindranath, Y

    1999-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was determined in more than 500 clinical samples, and was found to be elevated in conditions in which fetal-like red cells are produced: aplastic anemia (3/3 cases), myelodysplastic syndromes, polycythemias, sickle cell anemia during treatment with hydroxyurea, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and recovery from B12 deficiency. Elevated deformability was observed in neonatal erythrocytes, and during recovery from transient erythroblastopenia of childhood, when fetal-like red cells are known to be produced. Increased deformability appears to be a feature of fetal and fetal-like red cells. Forty-eight cases of enzymatically verified glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-PD) deficiency were also examined. Thirty out of 32 G-6-PD(A-) individuals, including both heterozygotes and hemizygotes, exhibited increased deformability during the steady state. In contrast, G-6-PD(Med) hemizygotes had normal deformability. Increased deformability was also found in G-6-PD(Huron) (n=3), G-6-PD(Wayne) (n=4), triose phosphate isomerase deficiency (n=2), and pyruvate kinase deficiency (n=2). An elevated osmoscan was found in more than 90% of female G-6-PD heterozygotes, affording a simple screening test for heterozygotes. Deformability remained high during hemolytic episodes, when older enzyme deficient cells are removed from the circulation. In four cases of G-6-PD deficiency with normal deformability, evidence for co-existing hereditary spherocytosis was found. The combination of conditions with opposing effects on deformability resulted in nearly normal deformability. Because increased red cell deformability is a feature of fetal erythrocytes, these results suggest that the red cells in many cases of glycolytic enzyme deficiency are fetal-like.

  3. Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2017-01-12

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.

  4. Biochemistry and physiology of hexose-6-phosphate knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Agnieszka E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2011-04-10

    Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) has emerged as an important factor in setting the redox status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. An important role of H6PDH is to generate a high NADPH/NADP(+) ratio which permits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to act as an oxo-reductase, catalyzing the activation of glucocorticoids (GCs). In H6PDH knockout mice 11β-HSD1 assumes dehydrogenase activity and inactivates GCs, rendering the target cell relatively GC insensitive. Consequently, H6PDHKO mice have a phenotype consistent with defects in the permissive and adaptive actions of GCs upon physiology. H6PDHKO mice have also offered an insight into muscle physiology as they also present with a severe vacuolating myopathy, abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and activation of the unfolded protein response due to ER stress, and a number of mechanisms driving this phenotype are thought to be involved. This article will review what we understand of the redox control of GC hormone metabolism regulated by H6PDH, and how H6PDHKO mice have allowed an in-depth understanding of its potentially novel, GC-independent roles in muscle physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Juan, E-mail: juanricardorodrigues@gmail.com; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Central University of Venezuela; Branco, Vasco

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibitedmore » the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI{sub 50}: 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg{sup 2+} > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite

  6. Inverse Association between Glucose‒6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Marras, Giuseppina; Assy, Silas; Pes, Giovanni Mario

    2018-04-27

    Background: Studies in experimental models and humans suggest that glucose‒6phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an inherited condition, may be inversely related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We tested this hypothesis in a large cohort of Sardinian patients. Methods: A case-control study was performed using data from 11,143 records of patients who underwent upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2017. Gender, age, G6PD status and information regarding the presence of HCC, were recorded. Cases (HCC positive) and controls (HCC negative) were compared for the presence of G6PD deficiency adjusting for major HCC risk factors using logistic regression. Results: Overall, 114 HCC cases and 11,029 controls were identified. G6PD deficiency was detected in 11.5% of study participants, and was associated with a reduced risk of HCC [odds ratio (OR); 0.451; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.207−0.982] after adjusting for all covariates. Factors significantly associated with HCC were cirrhosis (OR, 23.30; 95% CI, 11.48−47.25), diabetes (OR, 2.396; 95% CI, 1.449−3.963), among infection hepatitis HBV with an OR of 2.326, age ≥65 years (OR, 1.941; 95% CI, 1.234−2.581) and male gender (OR, 1.611; 95% CI, 1.006−3.081). Conclusions: Our study revealed a significant inverse association between G6PD deficiency and risk of HCC. These findings need to be confirmed in further studies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and identification of a novel haplotype 487G>A/IVS5-612(G>C) in the Achang population of Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, YinFeng; Zhu, YueChun; Li, DanYi; Li, ZhiGang; Lü, HuiRu; Wu, Jing; Tang, Jing; Tong, ShuFen

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and its gene mutations were studied in the Achang population from Lianghe County in Southwestern China. We found that 7.31% (19 of 260) males and 4.35% (10 of 230) females had G6PD deficiency. The molecular analysis of G6PD gene exons 2-13 was performed by a PCR-DHPLC-Sequencing or PCR-Sequencing. Sixteen independent subjects with G6PD Mahidol (487G>A) and the new polymorphism IVS5-612 (G>C), which combined into a novel haplotype, were identified accounting for 84.2% (16/19). And 100% Achang G6PD Mahidol were linked to the IVS5-612 C. The percentage of G6PD Mahidol in the Achang group is close to that in the Myanmar population (91.3% 73/80), which implies that there are some gene flows between Achang and Myanmar populations. Interestingly, G6PD Canton (1376G>T) and G6PD Kaiping (1388G>A), which were the most common G6PD variants from other ethnic groups in China, were not found in this Achang group, suggesting that there are different G6PD mutation profiles in the Achang group and other ethnic groups in China. Our findings appear to be the first documented report on the G6PD genetics of the AChang people, which will provide important clues to the Achang ethnic group origin and will help prevention and treatment of malaria in this area.

  8. Tolerability and safety of weekly primaquine against relapse of Plasmodium vivax in Cambodians with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kheng, Sim; Muth, Sinoun; Taylor, Walter R J; Tops, Narann; Kosal, Khem; Sothea, Khon; Souy, Phum; Kim, Saorin; Char, Chuor Meng; Vanna, Chan; Ly, Po; Ringwald, Pascal; Khieu, Virak; Kerleguer, Alexandra; Tor, Pety; Baird, John K; Bjorge, Steven; Menard, Didier; Christophel, Eva

    2015-08-25

    Primaquine is used to prevent Plasmodium vivax relapse; however, it is not implemented in many malaria-endemic countries, including Cambodia, for fear of precipitating primaquine-induced acute haemolytic anaemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). Reluctance to use primaquine is reinforced by a lack of quality safety data. This study was conducted to assess the tolerability of a primaquine regimen in Cambodian severely deficient G6PD variants to ascertain whether a weekly primaquine could be given without testing for G6PDd. From January 2013 to January 2014, Cambodians with acute vivax malaria were treated with dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine on days (D) 0, 1 and 2 with weekly doses of primaquine 0.75 mg/kg for 8 weeks (starting on D0, last dose on D49), and followed until D56. Participants' G6PD status was confirmed by G6PD genotype and measured G6PD activity. The primary outcome was treatment completion without primaquine toxicity defined as any one of: (1) severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <7 g/dL), (2) a >25 % fractional fall in Hb from D0, (3) the need for a blood transfusion, (4) haemoglobinuria, (5) acute kidney injury (an increase in baseline serum creatinine >50 %) or (6) methaemoglobinaemia >20 %. We enrolled 75 patients with a median age of 24 years (range 5-63); 63 patients (84 %) were male. Eighteen patients were G6PDd (17/18 had the Viangchan variant) and had D0 G6PD activity ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 U/g Hb (median 0.85 U/g Hb). In the 57 patients with normal G6PD (G6PDn), D0 G6PD activity ranged from 6.9 to 18.5 U/g Hb (median 12 U/g Hb). Median D0 Hb concentrations were similar (P = 0.46) between G6PDd (13 g/dL, range 9.6-16) and G6PDn (13.5 g/dL, range 9-16.3) and reached a nadir on D2 in both groups: 10.8 g/dL (8.2-15.3) versus 12.4 g/dL (8.8-15.2) (P = 0.006), respectively. By D7, five G6PDd patients (27.7 %) had a >25 % fall in Hb, compared to 0 G6PDn patients (P = 0.00049). One of these G6PDd patients required a

  9. I.V. ascorbic acid for treatment of apparent rasburicase-induced methemoglobinemia in a patient with acute kidney injury and assumed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reeves, David J; Saum, Lindsay M; Birhiray, Ruemu

    2016-05-01

    A case of apparent rasburicase-induced methemoglobinemia and acute kidney injury treated with i.v. ascorbic acid because of suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is reported. A 46-year-old African-American man with a recent diagnosis of multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency was admitted to the hospital with a cough, hemoptysis, and fatigue. His medical history included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ventricular tachycardia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and pleural effusion. No treatments for multiple myeloma were started before hospital admission. Levofloxacin 750 mg orally daily for possible pneumonia, lenalidomide 10 mg orally daily, and dexamethasone 20 mg orally weekly were administered. Plasmapheresis was also initiated. Laboratory test results revealed sustained hyperuricemia, which was believed to be due in part to tumor lysis, and a single dose of rasburicase 6 mg i.v. was administered. Subsequently, the patient experienced a decrease in oxygen saturation. Methemoglobinemia was suspected, and the patient's methemoglobin fraction was found to be 14.5%. The patient developed worsening shortness of breath and a drop in hemoglobin concentration, consistent with methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. Ascorbic acid 5 g i.v. every 6 hours was initiated for a total of six doses. Because the patient was assumed to have G6PD deficiency, which was later confirmed, methylene blue was avoided. Within 24 hours, the patient's oxygen saturation values and symptoms improved. A patient with apparent rasburicase-induced methemoglobinemia and acute kidney injury was treated with i.v. ascorbic acid (5 g every six hours for six doses) because of the possibility, later proved, that he had G6PD deficiency. The methemoglobinemia resolved without worsening of renal function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Asención Diez, Matías D; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E M; Lawson, David M; Iglesias, Alberto A; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-20

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    PubMed Central

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  12. [Evaluations of newborn screening program performance and enzymatic diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tang, F; Huang, Y L; Jiang, X; Jia, X F; Li, B; Feng, Y; Chen, Q Y; Tang, C F

    2018-05-02

    Objective: To reveal the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene and to evaluate based on the genetic analysis the newborn screening program performance and enzymatic diagnosis of G6PD deficiency in Guangzhou. Methods: G6PD enzyme activities were measured by quantitative fluorescence assay in dry blood spots of 16 319 newborns(8 725 males, 7 594 females) 3-7 days after birth in Guangzhou Newborn Center. They were born in Guangzhou form Oct. 1 to 20, 2016. The cutoff value of G6PD was less than 2.6 U/g Hb in dry blood spots. G6PD deficiency was diagnosed when G6PD<1 700 U/L or G6PD/6PGD<1 in red blood cells. Genetic analysis of G6PD gene was performed on the dry blood spot samples of 823 newborns (including positive 346, negative 477)with various levels of G6PD enzyme activities through fluorescence PCR melting curve analysis(FMCA) to detect 15 kinds of mutations reported to be common among Chinese.G6PD gene Sanger sequency was performed in seven highly suspicious patients with negative results by FMCA. Results: (1) Using the cutoff value of G6PD< 2.6 U/g Hb , a total of 687(4.2%) newborns showed positive screening results, including 560 (6.4%) males and 127(1.7%) females. (2) Among the newborns with positive screening results, 214 males and 122 females were randomly chosen for G6PD gene analysis. The results showed that 197 (92.1%) males were hemizygote and 108(88.6%) females were mutation carriers with one to four alleles. Among the newborns with negative screening results, 41 males with G6PD 2.6-2.8 U/g Hb and 436 females with G6PD 2.6-4.5 U/g Hb were chosen for genetic analysis.Mutations were detected in 5(12.2%)boys, and 226(51.8%) girls were carriers.G6PD gene Sanger sequency of seven highly suspicious patients showed that c.406C>T, c.551C>T, c.835A>T hemizygote were found in 3 male's samples, respectively. (3) The estimated prevalence of harboring mutation was 6.0% in males and 13.5% in females according to

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate transporter gene therapy corrects metabolic and myeloid abnormalities in glycogen storage disease type Ib mice

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Wai Han; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Allamarvdasht, Mohammad; Kim, So Youn; Chou, Janice Y.

    2008-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed. GSD-Ib patients suffer from disturbed glucose homeostasis and myeloid dysfunctions. To evaluate the feasibility of gene replacement therapy for GSD-Ib, we have infused adenoviral (Ad) vector containing human G6PT (Ad-hG6PT) into G6PT-deficient (G6PT-/-) mice that manifest symptoms characteristics of the human disorder. Ad-hG6PT-infusion restores significant levels of G6PT mRNA expression in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen and corrects metabolic as well as myeloid abnormalities in G6PT-/- mice. The G6PT-/- mice receiving gene therapy exhibit improved growth; normalized serum profiles for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and lactic acid; and reduced hepatic glycogen deposition. The therapy also corrects neutropenia and lowers the elevated serum levels of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. The development of bone and spleen in the infused G6PT-/- mice is improved and accompanied by increased cellularity and normalized myeloid progenitor cell frequencies in both tissues. This effective use of gene therapy to correct metabolic imbalances and myeloid dysfunctions in GSD-Ib mice holds promise for the future of gene therapy in humans. PMID:17006547

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.

  15. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-03-27

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  16. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here. PMID:23537118

  17. Catalysis of nitrite generation from nitroglycerin by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Seabra, Amedea B; Ouellet, Marc; Antonic, Marija; Chrétien, Michelle N; English, Ann M

    2013-11-30

    Vascular relaxation to nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN) requires its bioactivation by mechanisms that remain controversial. We report here that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the release of nitrite from GTN. In assays containing dithiothreitol (DTT) and NAD(+), the GTN reductase activity of purified GAPDH produces nitrite and 1,2-GDN as the major products. A vmax of 2.6nmolmin(-)(1)mg(-)(1) was measured for nitrite production by GAPDH from rabbit muscle and a GTN KM of 1.2mM. Reductive denitration of GTN in the absence of DTT results in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity. Disulfiram, a thiol-modifying drug, inhibits both the dehydrogenase and GTN reductase activity of GAPDH, while DTT or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine reverse the GTN-induced inhibition. Incubation of intact human erythrocytes or hemolysates with 2mM GTN for 60min results in 50% inhibition of GAPDH's dehydrogenase activity, indicating that GTN is taken up by these cells and that the dehydrogenase is a target of GTN. Thus, erythrocyte GAPDH may contribute to GTN bioactivation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain glucose metabolism in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Detka, J; Kurek, A; Kucharczyk, M; Głombik, K; Basta-Kaim, A; Kubera, M; Lasoń, W; Budziszewska, B

    2015-06-04

    An increasing number of data support the involvement of disturbances in glucose metabolism in the pathogenesis of depression. We previously reported that glucose and glycogen concentrations in brain structures important for depression are higher in a prenatal stress model of depression when compared with control animals. A marked rise in the concentrations of these carbohydrates and glucose transporters were evident in prenatally stressed animals subjected to acute stress and glucose loading in adulthood. To determine whether elevated levels of brain glucose are associated with a change in its metabolism in this model, we assessed key glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase), products of glycolysis, i.e., pyruvate and lactate, and two selected enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Additionally, we assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Prenatal stress increased the levels of phosphofructokinase, an important glycolytic enzyme, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. However, prenatal stress had no effect on hexokinase or pyruvate kinase levels. The lactate concentration was elevated in prenatally stressed rats in the frontal cortex, and pyruvate levels remained unchanged. Among the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, prenatal stress decreased the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the hippocampus, but it had no effect on α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Like in the case of glucose and its transporters, also in the present study, differences in markers of glucose metabolism between control animals and those subjected to prenatal stress were not observed under basal conditions but in rats subjected to acute stress and glucose load in adulthood. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was not reduced by prenatal stress but was found to be even higher in animals exposed to

  19. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway restores cardiac progenitor cell availability in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Katare, Rajesh; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio P; Avolio, Elisa; Muthukrishnan, Deepti; Munasinghe, Pujika Emani; Angelini, Gianni; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes impinges upon mechanisms of cardiovascular repair. However, the biochemical adaptation of cardiac stem cells to sustained hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular targets of high glucose-induced damage in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from murine and human hearts and attempt safeguarding CPC viability and function through reactivation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Type-1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. CPC abundance was determined by flow cytometry. Proliferating CPCs were identified in situ by immunostaining for the proliferation marker Ki67. Diabetic hearts showed marked reduction in CPC abundance and proliferation when compared with controls. Moreover, Sca-1(pos) CPCs isolated from hearts of diabetic mice displayed reduced activity of key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and transketolase, increased levels of superoxide and advanced glucose end-products (AGE), and inhibition of the Akt/Pim-1/Bcl-2 signalling pathway. Similarly, culture of murine CPCs or human CD105(pos) progenitor cells in high glucose inhibits the pentose phosphate and pro-survival signalling pathways, leading to the activation of apoptosis. In vivo and in vitro supplementation with benfotiamine reactivates the pentose phosphate pathway and rescues CPC availability and function. This benefit is abrogated by either G6PD silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or Akt inhibition by dominant-negative Akt. We provide new evidence of the negative impact of diabetes and high glucose on mechanisms controlling CPC redox state and survival. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway might represent a novel mechanistic target for protection of CPC integrity.

  20. Cloning, sequence, and disruption of the Saccharomyces diastaticus DAR1 gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Rahaim, P; Robbins, P; Yocum, R R

    1994-11-01

    The Saccharomyces diastaticus DAR1 gene was cloned by complementation in an Escherichia coli strain auxogrophic for glycerol-3-phosphate. DAR1 encodes an NADH-dependent dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase (sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [G3PDase; EC 1.1.1.8]) homologous to several other eukaryotic G3PDases. DAR1 is distinct from GUT2, which encodes a glucose-repressed mitochondrial G3PDase, but is identical to GPD1 from S. cerevisiae, a close relative of S. diastaticus. The level of DAR1-encoded G3PDase was increased about threefold in a medium of high osmolarity. Disruption of DAR1 in a haploid S. cerevisiae was not lethal but led to a decrease in cytoplasmic NADH-dependent G3PDase activity, an increase in osmotic sensitivity, and a 25% reduction in glycerol secretion from cells grown anaerobically on glucose.

  1. Electron-transfer mediator for a NAD-glucose dehydrogenase-based glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Min-yeong; Reddy, Sanapalli S; Cho, Jaegeol; Cho, Chul-ho; Jung, Suntae; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2013-12-03

    A new electron-transfer mediator, 5-[2,5-di (thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-1,10-phenanthroline iron(III) chloride (FePhenTPy) oriented to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent-glucose dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) system was synthesized through a Paal-Knorr condensation reaction. The structure of the mediator was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon nucler magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy, and its electron-transfer characteristic for a glucose sensor was investigated using voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. A disposable amperometric glucose sensor with NAD-GDH was constructed with FePhenTPy as an electron-transfer mediator on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and its performance was evaluated, where the addition of reduces graphene oxide (RGO) to the mediator showed the enhanced sensor performance. The experimental parameters to affect the analytical performance and the stability of the proposed glucose sensor were optimized, and the sensor exhibited a dynamic range between 30 mg/dL and 600 mg/dL with the detection limit of 12.02 ± 0.6 mg/dL. In the real sample experiments, the interference effects by acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, caffeine, and other monosaccharides (fructose, lactose, mannose, and xylose) were completely avoided through coating the sensor surface with the Nafion film containing lead(IV) acetate. The reliability of proposed glucose sensor was evaluated by the determination of glucose in artificial blood and human whole blood samples.

  2. Enzymes of Glucose Catabolism in a Member of the Psittacosis Group

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, James W.; Grisso, Dorothy L.; Brubaker, Robert R.

    1965-01-01

    Moulder, James W. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), Dorothy L. Grisso, and Robert R. Brubaker. Enzymes of glucose catabolism in a member of the psittacosis group. J. Bacteriol. 89:810–812. 1965.—Extracts of preparations of the agent of meningopneumonitis made from infected chick-embryo allantoic fluid contained three enzymes of the pentose pathway of glucose degradation: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucose isomerase. Vertical starch-gel electrophoresis showed that the two dehydrogenases were qualitatively different from the corresponding enzymes of the host. Enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways were not found. Images PMID:14273665

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient homozygous for the L487F mutation in the human GPI gene. Int J Hematol. 2012 Aug;96(2):263- ... PubMed Xu W, Beutler E. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic ...

  4. In vitro metabolic engineering of bioelectricity generation by the complete oxidation of glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-01-01

    The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis. The faraday efficiency from glucose to electrons via this pathway was as high as 98.8%, suggesting the generation of nearly 24 electrons per molecule of glucose. The generated current density was greatly increased from 2.8 to 6.9mAcm -2 by replacing a low-activity G6PDH with a high-activity G6PDH and introducing a new enzyme, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, between G6PDH and 6PGDH. These results suggest the great potential of high-yield bioelectricity generation through in vitro metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-02-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-alpha-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 A from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 A. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 3.64 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 66%.

  6. Cloning, sequence, and disruption of the Saccharomyces diastaticus DAR1 gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H T; Rahaim, P; Robbins, P; Yocum, R R

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces diastaticus DAR1 gene was cloned by complementation in an Escherichia coli strain auxogrophic for glycerol-3-phosphate. DAR1 encodes an NADH-dependent dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase (sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [G3PDase; EC 1.1.1.8]) homologous to several other eukaryotic G3PDases. DAR1 is distinct from GUT2, which encodes a glucose-repressed mitochondrial G3PDase, but is identical to GPD1 from S. cerevisiae, a close relative of S. diastaticus. The level of DAR1-encoded G3PDase was increased about threefold in a medium of high osmolarity. Disruption of DAR1 in a haploid S. cerevisiae was not lethal but led to a decrease in cytoplasmic NADH-dependent G3PDase activity, an increase in osmotic sensitivity, and a 25% reduction in glycerol secretion from cells grown anaerobically on glucose. PMID:7961476

  7. Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone-induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H; Wagner, Brett A; Doskey, Claire M; Buettner, Garry R; Domann, Frederick E; Goswami, Prabhat C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that are known to have adverse health effects. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ), a quinone metabolite of 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3, present in the environment and human blood) is toxic to human skin keratinocytes, and breast and prostate epithelial cells. This study investigates the hypothesis that 4-ClBQ-induced metabolic oxidative stress regulates toxicity in human keratinocytes. Results from Seahorse XF96 Analyzer showed that the 4-ClBQ treatment increased extracellular acidification rate, proton production rate, oxygen consumption rate and ATP content, indicative of metabolic oxidative stress. Results from a q-RT-PCR assay showed significant increases in the mRNA levels of hexokinase 2 (hk2), pyruvate kinase M2 (pkm2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and decreases in the mRNA levels of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) subunit C and D (sdhc and sdhd). Pharmacological inhibition of G6PD-activity enhanced the toxicity of 4-ClBQ, suggesting that the protective function of the pentose phosphate pathway is functional in 4-ClBQ-treated cells. The decrease in sdhc and sdhd expression was associated with a significant decrease in complex II activity and increase in mitochondrial levels of ROS. Overexpression of sdhc and sdhd suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced inhibition of complex II activity, increase in mitochondrial levels of ROS, and toxicity. These results suggest that the 4-ClBQ treatment induces metabolic oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, and while the protective function of the pentose phosphate pathway is active, inhibition of complex II activity sensitizes HaCaT cells to 4-ClBQ-induced toxicity.

  8. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway restores cardiac progenitor cell availability in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Katare, Rajesh; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio P.; Avolio, Elisa; Muthukrishnan, Deepti; Munasinghe, Pujika Emani; Angelini, Gianni; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Aims Diabetes impinges upon mechanisms of cardiovascular repair. However, the biochemical adaptation of cardiac stem cells to sustained hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular targets of high glucose-induced damage in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from murine and human hearts and attempt safeguarding CPC viability and function through reactivation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Methods and results Type-1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. CPC abundance was determined by flow cytometry. Proliferating CPCs were identified in situ by immunostaining for the proliferation marker Ki67. Diabetic hearts showed marked reduction in CPC abundance and proliferation when compared with controls. Moreover, Sca-1pos CPCs isolated from hearts of diabetic mice displayed reduced activity of key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and transketolase, increased levels of superoxide and advanced glucose end-products (AGE), and inhibition of the Akt/Pim-1/Bcl-2 signalling pathway. Similarly, culture of murine CPCs or human CD105pos progenitor cells in high glucose inhibits the pentose phosphate and pro-survival signalling pathways, leading to the activation of apoptosis. In vivo and in vitro supplementation with benfotiamine reactivates the pentose phosphate pathway and rescues CPC availability and function. This benefit is abrogated by either G6PD silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or Akt inhibition by dominant-negative Akt. Conclusion We provide new evidence of the negative impact of diabetes and high glucose on mechanisms controlling CPC redox state and survival. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway might represent a novel mechanistic target for protection of CPC integrity. PMID:22997160

  9. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate shunt by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Lachant, N A; Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1983-07-01

    Pentose phosphate shunt activity was studied by the release of 14CO2 from 14C-1-glucose and 14C-2-glucose in the red cells of five patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency and found to be significantly decreased after new methylene blue stimulation when compared to high reticulocyte controls. Incubated Heinz body formation was increased and the ascorbate cyanide test was positive in blood from these patients. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) as well as that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) was inhibited to 20% of baseline in normal red cell haemolysate by 4 mM 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at pH 7.1. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was a competitive inhibitor with 6-phosphogluconate (Ki=1.05 mM) and a noncompetitive inhibitor with NADP (Ki=3.3 mM) for 6PGD. Since the intracellular concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate and NADP are below their Kms for G6PD and 6PGD, the kinetic data suggest that increased concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in pyruvate kinase deficient red cells are sufficiently high to suppress pentose phosphate shunt activity. This suppression may be an additional factor contributing to the haemolytic anaemia of pyruvate kinase deficiency, particularly during periods of infection or metabolic stress.

  10. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or

  11. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nick; Pamba, Allan; Duparc, Stephan; Waitumbi, John N

    2011-08-17

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or adjusted log mean baseline

  12. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a new risk gene for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alcina, Antonio; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Fernández, Óscar; Catalá-Rabasa, Antonio; Fedetz, María; Ndagire, Dorothy; Leyva, Laura; Arnal, Carmen; Delgado, Concepción; Lucas, Miguel; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Ebers, George C; Matesanz, Fuencisla

    2010-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed by the The Wellcome Trust Case–Control Consortium based on 12 374 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provided evidence for several genes involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. In this study, we aimed at verifying the association of 19 SNPs with MS, with P-values ≤0.005, in an independent cohort of 732 patients and 974 controls, all Caucasian from the South of Spain. We observed an association of the rs17368528 polymorphism with MS (P=0.04, odds ratio (OR)=0.801, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.648–0.990). The association of this polymorphism with MS was further validated in an independent set of 1318 patients from the Canadian Collaborative Project (P=0.04, OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.716–0.964). This marker is located on chromosome 1p36.22, which is 1 Mb away from the MS-associated kinesin motor protein KIF1B, although linkage disequilibrium was not observed between these two markers. The rs17368528 SNP results in an amino-acid substitution (proline to leucine) in the fifth exon of the hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) gene, in which some variants have been reported to attenuate or abolish H6PD activity, in individuals with cortisone reductase deficiency. This study corroborates the association of one locus determined by GWAS and points to H6PD as a new candidate gene for MS. PMID:19935835

  13. Metabolic engineering of mannitol production in Lactococcus lactis: influence of overexpression of mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase in different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wisselink, H Wouter; Mars, Astrid E; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2004-07-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that small amounts (<1%) of mannitol were formed by growing cells of mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient and phosphofructokinase-reduced strains, whereas resting cells of the LDH-deficient transformant converted 25% of glucose into mannitol. Moreover, the formed mannitol was not reutilized upon glucose depletion. Of the metabolic-engineering strategies investigated in this work, mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient L. lactis seemed to be the most promising strain for mannitol production.

  14. Co-inheritance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency mutations and hemoglobin E in a Kachin population in a malaria-endemic region of Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijun; Li, Qing; Wu, Yanrui; Luo, Lan; Li, Hong; Ma, Limei; Yang, Zhaoqing; He, Yongshu; Cui, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area. G6PD enzyme activity ranged from 0.4 to 24.7 U/g Hb, and six males had severe G6PD deficiency (<0.12–1.2 U/g Hb), while six males and 12 females had mild G6PD deficiency (>1.2–4.5 U/g Hb). Among the 24 G6PD-deficient subjects, 22 (92%) had the Mahidol 487G>A mutation (12 male hemizygotes, one female homozygote, and nine female heterozygotes), while the G6PD genotypes in two female subjects were unknown. HbE was identified in 39 subjects (20 males and 19 females), including 15 HbEE (seven males and eight females) and 24 HbAE (13 males and 11 females). Twenty-three subjects co-inherited both G6PD deficiency and HbE (22 with HbAE and one with HbEE). Whereas mean Hb levels were not significantly different between the HbA and HbE groups, G6PD-deficient males had significantly lower Hb levels than G6PD-normal males (P < 0.05, t-test). However, it is noteworthy that two G6PD-deficient hemizygous males with HbAE were severely anemic with Hb levels below 50 g/L. This study revealed high prevalence of co-inheritance of G6PD deficiency with HbAE in the Kachin ethnicity, and a potential interaction of the G6PD Mahidol 487G>A and HbAE in males leading to severe

  15. Co-inheritance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency mutations and hemoglobin E in a Kachin population in a malaria-endemic region of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeshuai; Yang, Fang; Bai, Yao; He, Lijun; Li, Qing; Wu, Yanrui; Luo, Lan; Li, Hong; Ma, Limei; Yang, Zhaoqing; He, Yongshu; Cui, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area. G6PD enzyme activity ranged from 0.4 to 24.7 U/g Hb, and six males had severe G6PD deficiency (<0.12-1.2 U/g Hb), while six males and 12 females had mild G6PD deficiency (>1.2-4.5 U/g Hb). Among the 24 G6PD-deficient subjects, 22 (92%) had the Mahidol 487G>A mutation (12 male hemizygotes, one female homozygote, and nine female heterozygotes), while the G6PD genotypes in two female subjects were unknown. HbE was identified in 39 subjects (20 males and 19 females), including 15 HbEE (seven males and eight females) and 24 HbAE (13 males and 11 females). Twenty-three subjects co-inherited both G6PD deficiency and HbE (22 with HbAE and one with HbEE). Whereas mean Hb levels were not significantly different between the HbA and HbE groups, G6PD-deficient males had significantly lower Hb levels than G6PD-normal males (P < 0.05, t-test). However, it is noteworthy that two G6PD-deficient hemizygous males with HbAE were severely anemic with Hb levels below 50 g/L. This study revealed high prevalence of co-inheritance of G6PD deficiency with HbAE in the Kachin ethnicity, and a potential interaction of the G6PD Mahidol 487G>A and HbAE in males leading to severe

  16. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  17. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-­ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-­phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M) of 3.64 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 66%. PMID:16511285

  18. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... In rare cases, G6PD deficiency leads to chronic anemia . With the right precautions, a child with G6PD deficiency can lead a healthy and ... to rule out other possible causes of the anemia. If you feel that your child may be at risk because of either a ...

  19. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobinophaties in Resident of Arso PIR, Irian Jaya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    persistence in Haematology 10 (1) : 785- of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). A variety 799. of inherited conditions can result in 4. Panich, V. 91981) Glucose-6-phos...overlap bet- Haematology 10(3): 800-813. ween the malarious areas of the world 5. Clyde, D.F. (1981) Clinical.problems and where the highest incidences of G...to infection by Hematology, ed. W.J. Williams, malaria parasite. Science 164 E. Beutler, A.J. Erslev and M.A. 839-842. Lichtman. McGraw Hil11 Book 17

  20. [Intensity of pentose phosphate metabolism of carbohydrates in various brain areas in normal and starved animals].

    PubMed

    Kerimov, B F

    2002-01-01

    The activities of key enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), were studied in cytoplasmatic fractions of brain cortical (limbic, orbital, sensorimotor cortex) and subcortical (myelencefalon, mesencefalon, hypothalamus) structures of rats subjected to starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days. Short-term starvation (1-3 days) caused activation of 6-GPD and 6-PGD both in cortical and subcortical structures. Long-term starvation for 5-7 days caused a decrease of activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in all studied structures. It is suggested that enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway in nervous tissues are functionally and metabolically related to glutathione system and during starvation they indirectly participate in the regulation lipid peroxidation processes.

  1. Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Hu, Fangyuan; Wu, Jihong; Zhang, Shenghai

    2017-04-01

    Deficient bioenergetics and diminished redox conservation have been implicated in the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic compound derived from Cannabis sativa with FDA-approved antiepilepsy properties, were studied in vitro using an oxygen-glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line. CBD supplementation during reperfusion rescued OGD/R-induced cell death, attenuated intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation, and simultaneously reversed the abnormal changes in antioxidant biomarkers. Using the Seahorse XF e 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer, we found that CBD significantly improved basal respiration, ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate, and the spare respiratory capacity, and augmented glucose consumption in OGD/R-injured neurons. The activation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the preservation of the NADPH/NADP + ratio implies that the pentose-phosphate pathway is stimulated by CBD, thus protecting hippocampal neurons from OGD/R injury. This study is the first to document the neuroprotective effects of CBD against OGD/R insult, which depend in part on attenuating oxidative stress, enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, and modulating glucose metabolism via the pentose-phosphate pathway, thus preserving both energy and the redox balance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphoglucoisomerase-catalyzed interconversion of hexose phosphates. Study by 13C NMR of proton and deuteron exchange.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, W J; Liemans, V; Malaisse-Lagae, F; Ottinger, R; Willem, R

    1991-05-15

    The exchange of protons and deuterons by phosphoglucoisomerase during the single passage conversion of D-[2-13C,1-2H]fructose 6-phosphate in H2O or D-[2-13C]fructose 6-phosphate in D2O to D-[2-13C]glucose 6-phosphate, as coupled with the further generation of 6-phospho-D-[2-13C]gluconate in the presence of excess glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy of the latter metabolite. In H2O, the intramolecular deuteron transfer from the C1 of D-fructose 6-phosphate to the C2 of D-glucose 6-phosphate amounted to 65%, a value only slightly lower than the 72% intramolecular proton transfer in D2O. Both percentages, especially the latter one, were lower than those previously recorded during the single passage conversion of D-[1-13C,2-2H]glucose 6-phosphate in H2O or D-[1-13C]glucose 6-phosphate in D2O to D-fructose 6-phosphate and then to D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. These differences indicate that the sequence of interactions between the hexose esters and the binding sites of phosphoglucoisomerase is not strictly in mirror image during, respectively, the conversion of the aldose phosphate to ketose phosphate and the opposite process.

  3. Do tribal communities show an inverse relationship between sickle cell disorders and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria endemic areas of Central-Eastern India?

    PubMed

    Balgir, R S

    2006-01-01

    Tribal communities in India constitute the largest tribal population in the world. There are about 635 biological isolates (tribes and subtribes), which constituted 8.08% (about 84.3 million) of the total population of India as per the 2001 census. Out of 635 scheduled tribes (aborigines), 62 live in the state of Orissa alone forming about 10.8% of the tribal population of India. Orissa state occupies an important place, being the 3rd in rank for the highest concentration of tribal population in the country. In India, tribal communities are highly vulnerable to hereditary diseases and have a high degree of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. The sickle cell haemoglobinopathy and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency are important genetic and public health problems in Central-Eastern part of India. In order to map out these genetic disorders among the tribal people, a cross-section of 15 major tribal communities from different parts of Orissa was randomly screened for haemoglobin variants and G6PD deficiency. The high frequency of sickle cell haemoglobinopathy (0-22.4%) and G6PD deficiency (4.3-17.4%), with beta-thalassemia trait (0-8.5%) taking almost an intermediate position, was observed. For G6PD deficiency, hemizygous males as well as female heterozygotes and female homozygotes were detected. Twelve cases showed compound heterozygosity for sickle cell haemoglobinopathy and G6PD deficiency. There seems to be a trend towards an inverse relationship between the sickle cell allele and G6PD deficiency, and sickle cell and beta-thalassemia allele in a cross-section of malaria endemic (Plasmodium falciparum) tribal communities in Orissa. When the frequency of sickle cell allele decreases in a cross-section of malaria endemic tribal population, the frequency of G6PD enzyme deficiency and beta-thalassemia allele increases and vice versa. Natural selection had played a major role in favour of sickle cell, beta-thalassemia and G6PD mutation alleles

  4. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  5. Trehalose biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus RQ-1: biochemical properties of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Silva, Zélia; Alarico, Susana; da Costa, Milton S

    2005-02-01

    The genes for trehalose synthesis in Thermus thermophilus RQ-1, namely otsA [trehalose-phosphate synthase (TPS)], otsB [trehalose-phosphate phosphatase (TPP)], and treS [trehalose synthase (maltose converting) (TreS)] genes are structurally linked. The TPS/TPP pathway plays a role in osmoadaptation, since mutants unable to synthesize trehalose via this pathway were less osmotolerant, in trehalose-deprived medium, than the wild-type strain. The otsA and otsB genes have now been individually cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the corresponding recombinant enzymes purified. The apparent molecular masses of TPS and TPP were 52 and 26 kDa, respectively. The recombinant TPS utilized UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, ADP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, in this order as glucosyl donors, and glucose-6-phosphate as the glucosyl acceptor to produce trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P). The recombinant TPP catalyzed the dephosphorylation of T6P to trehalose. This enzyme also dephosphorylated G6P, and this activity was enhanced by NDP-glucose. TPS had an optimal activity at about 98 degrees C and pH near 6.0; TPP had a maximal activity near 70 degrees C and at pH 7.0. The enzymes were extremely thermostable: at 100 degrees C, TPS had a half-life of 31 min, and TPP had a half-life of 40 min. The enzymes did not require the presence of divalent cations for activity; however, the presence of Co2+ and Mg2+ stimulates both TPS and TPP. This is the first report of the characterization of TPS and TPP from a thermophilic organism.

  6. OXIDATIVE STRESS, INFLAMMATION AND CARCINOGENESIS ARE CONTROLLED THROUGH THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY BY TRANSALDOLASE

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Andras; Hanczko, Robert; Telarico, Tiffany; Oaks, Zachary; Landas, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) influences the development of diverse pathologies. Hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of PPP enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the most common genetic disease in humans. Recently, inactivation of another PPP enzyme, transaldolase (TAL), has been implicated in male infertility and fatty liver progressing to steatohepatitis and cancer. Hepatocarcinogenesis was associated with activation of aldose reductase and redox-sensitive transcription factors and prevented by N-acetylcysteine. Here, we discuss how alternative formulations of the PPP with and without TAL reflect cell type-specific metabolic control of oxidative stress, a critical source of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ongoing studies of TAL deficiency will identify new molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. PMID:21376665

  7. A Conserved UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Encoded outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jason N.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Nizet, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing and to in vivo pathogenicity. Capsule biosynthesis has been exclusively attributed to the ubiquitous hasABC hyaluronan synthase operon, which is highly conserved across GAS serotypes. Previous reports indicate that hasA, encoding hyaluronan synthase, and hasB, encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, are essential for capsule production in GAS. Here, we report that precise allelic exchange mutagenesis of hasB in GAS strain 5448, a representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 serotype, did not abolish HA capsule synthesis. In silico whole-genome screening identified a putative HasB paralog, designated HasB2, with 45% amino acid identity to HasB at a distant location in the GAS chromosome. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated that recombinant HasB2 is a functional UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase enzyme. Mutagenesis of hasB2 alone slightly decreased capsule abundance; however, a ΔhasB ΔhasB2 double mutant became completely acapsular. We conclude that HasB is not essential for M1T1 GAS capsule biogenesis due to the presence of a newly identified HasB paralog, HasB2, which most likely resulted from gene duplication. The identification of redundant UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenases underscores the importance of HA capsule expression for M1T1 GAS pathogenicity and survival in the human host. PMID:22961854

  8. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  9. Fully Enzymatic Membraneless Glucose|Oxygen Fuel Cell That Provides 0.275 mA cm(-2) in 5 mM Glucose, Operates in Human Physiological Solutions, and Powers Transmission of Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Ó Conghaile, Peter; Falk, Magnus; MacAodha, Domhnall; Yakovleva, Maria E; Gonaus, Christoph; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey; Leech, Dónal

    2016-02-16

    Coimmobilization of pyranose dehydrogenase as an enzyme catalyst, osmium redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) or [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) as mediators, and carbon nanotube conductive scaffolds in films on graphite electrodes provides enzyme electrodes for glucose oxidation. The recombinant enzyme and a deglycosylated form, both expressed in Pichia pastoris, are investigated and compared as biocatalysts for glucose oxidation using flow injection amperometry and voltammetry. In the presence of 5 mM glucose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (50 mM phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4, with 150 mM NaCl), higher glucose oxidation current densities, 0.41 mA cm(-2), are obtained from enzyme electrodes containing the deglycosylated form of the enzyme. The optimized glucose-oxidizing anode, prepared using deglycosylated enzyme coimmobilized with [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) and carbon nanotubes, was coupled with an oxygen-reducing bilirubin oxidase on gold nanoparticle dispersed on gold electrode as a biocathode to provide a membraneless fully enzymatic fuel cell. A maximum power density of 275 μW cm(-2) is obtained in 5 mM glucose in PBS, the highest to date under these conditions, providing sufficient power to enable wireless transmission of a signal to a data logger. When tested in whole human blood and unstimulated human saliva maximum power densities of 73 and 6 μW cm(-2) are obtained for the same fuel cell configuration, respectively.

  10. Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: effect of glucose on activities of various glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, R L; Lewis, D F

    1984-01-01

    Catabolism of carbohydrates has been implicated in the regulation of aflatoxin synthesis. To characterize this effect further, the activities of various enzymes associated with glucose catabolism were determined in Aspergillus parasiticus organisms that were initially cultured in peptone-mineral salts medium and then transferred to glucose-mineral salts and peptone-mineral salts media. After an initial increase in activity, the levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, mannitol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase were lowered in the presence of glucose. Phosphofructokinase activity was greater in the peptone-grown mycelium, but fructose diphosphatase was largely unaffected by carbon source. Likewise, carbon source had relatively little effect on the activities of pyruvate kinase, malic enzyme, isocitrate-NADP dehydrogenase, and isocitrate-NAD dehydrogenase. The results suggest that glucose may, in part, regulate aflatoxin synthesis via a carbon catabolite repression of NADPH-generating and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. PMID:6091545

  11. Characterization of human DHRS6, an orphan short chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme: a novel, cytosolic type 2 R-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunde; Lukacik, Petra; Papagrigoriou, Evangelos; Meier, Marc; Lee, Wen Hwa; Adamski, Jerzy; Oppermann, Udo

    2006-04-14

    Human DHRS6 is a previously uncharacterized member of the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and displays significant homologies to bacterial hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenases. Substrate screening reveals sole NAD(+)-dependent conversion of (R)-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate with K(m) values of about 10 mm, consistent with plasma levels of circulating ketone bodies in situations of starvation or ketoacidosis. The structure of human DHRS6 was determined at a resolution of 1.8 A in complex with NAD(H) and reveals a tetrameric organization with a short chain dehydrogenases/reductase-typical folding pattern. A highly conserved triad of Arg residues ("triple R" motif consisting of Arg(144), Arg(188), and Arg(205)) was found to bind a sulfate molecule at the active site. Docking analysis of R-beta-hydroxybutyrate into the active site reveals an experimentally consistent model of substrate carboxylate binding and catalytically competent orientation. GFP reporter gene analysis reveals a cytosolic localization upon transfection into mammalian cells. These data establish DHRS6 as a novel, cytosolic type 2 (R)-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, distinct from its well characterized mitochondrial type 1 counterpart. The properties determined for DHRS6 suggest a possible physiological role in cytosolic ketone body utilization, either as a secondary system for energy supply in starvation or to generate precursors for lipid and sterol synthesis.

  12. Occurrence of a multimeric high-molecular-weight glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kunjithapatham, Rani; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Devine, Lauren; Boronina, Tatiana N; O'Meally, Robert N; Cole, Robert N; Torbenson, Michael S; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-04-03

    Cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a phylogenetically conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that plays an indispensable role in energy metabolism. Although a wealth of information is available on cellular GAPDH, there is a clear paucity of data on its extracellular counterpart (i.e., the secreted or extracellular GAPDH). Here, we show that the extracellular GAPDH in human serum is a multimeric, high-molecular-weight, yet glycolytically active enzyme. The high-molecular-weight multimers of serum GAPDH were identified by immunodetection on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using multiple antibodies specific for various epitopes of GAPDH. Partial purification of serum GAPDH by DEAE Affigel affinity/ion exchange chromatography further established the multimeric composition of serum GAPDH. In vitro data demonstrated that human cell lines secrete a multimeric, high-molecular-weight enzyme similar to that of serum GAPDH. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis of extracellular GAPDH from human cell lines confirmed the presence of unique peptides of GAPDH in the high-molecular-weight subunits. Furthermore, data from pulse-chase experiments established the presence of high-molecular-weight subunits in the secreted, extracellular GAPDH. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the presence of a high-molecular-weight, enzymatically active secretory GAPDH in human serum that may have a hitherto unknown function in humans.

  13. Structure of Insoluble Rat Sperm Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) via Heterotetramer Formation with Escherichia coli GAPDH Reveals Target for Contraceptive Design*

    PubMed Central

    Frayne, Jan; Taylor, Abby; Cameron, Gus; Hadfield, Andrea T.

    2009-01-01

    Sperm glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase has been shown to be a successful target for a non-hormonal contraceptive approach, but the agents tested to date have had unacceptable side effects. Obtaining the structure of the sperm-specific isoform to allow rational inhibitor design has therefore been a goal for a number of years but has proved intractable because of the insoluble nature of both native and recombinant protein. We have obtained soluble recombinant sperm glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a heterotetramer with the Escherichia coli glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a ratio of 1:3 and have solved the structure of the heterotetramer which we believe represents a novel strategy for structure determination of an insoluble protein. A structure was also obtained where glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate binds in the Ps pocket in the active site of the sperm enzyme subunit in the presence of NAD. Modeling and comparison of the structures of human somatic and sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase revealed few differences at the active site and hence rebut the long presumed structural specificity of 3-chlorolactaldehyde for the sperm isoform. The contraceptive activity of α-chlorohydrin and its apparent specificity for the sperm isoform in vivo are likely to be due to differences in metabolism to 3-chlorolactaldehyde in spermatozoa and somatic cells. However, further detailed analysis of the sperm glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structure revealed sites in the enzyme that do show significant difference compared with published somatic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structures that could be exploited by structure-based drug design to identify leads for novel male contraceptives. PMID:19542219

  14. Risks of Hemolysis in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Infants Exposed to Chlorproguanil-Dapsone, Mefloquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Part of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment of Malaria in Infants.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Eugenie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ishengoma, Deus; Alifrangis, Michael; Carneiro, Ilona; Hashim, Ramadhan; Baraka, Vito; Mosha, Jacklin; Gesase, Samwel; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gosling, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) has been linked to hemolysis in symptomatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) children. Few studies have explored the effects of G6PD status on hemolysis in children treated with Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi) antimalarial regimens. We sought to examine the joint effects of G6PD status and IPTi antimalarial treatment on incidence of hemolysis in asymptomatic children treated with CD, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and mefloquine (MQ). A secondary analysis of data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPTi was conducted. Hemoglobin (Hb) measurements were made at IPTi doses, regular follow-up and emergency visits. G6PD genotype was determined at 9 months looking for SNPs for the A- genotype at coding position 202. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine hemolysis among children with valid G6PD genotyping results. Hemolysis was defined as the absolute change in Hb or as any post-dose Hb <8 g/dL. These outcomes were assessed using either a single follow-up Hb on day 7 after an IPTi dose or Hb obtained 1 to 14 or 28 days after each IPTi dose. Relative to placebo, CD reduced Hb by approximately 0.5 g/dL at day 7 and within 14 days of an IPTi dose, and by 0.2 g/dL within 28 days. Adjusted declines in the CD group were larger than in the MQ and SP groups. At day 7, homo-/hemizygous genotype was associated with higher odds of Hb <8 g/dL (adjusted odds ratio = 6.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 27.0) and greater absolute reductions in Hb (-0.6 g/dL, 95% CI -1.1 to 0.003). There was no evidence to suggest increased reductions in Hb among homo-/hemizygous children treated with CD compared to placebo, SP or MQ. While treatment with CD demonstrated greater reductions in Hb at 7 and 14 days after an IPTi dose compared to both SP and MQ, there was no evidence that G6PD deficiency exacerbated the adverse effects of CD, despite evidence for higher hemolysis risk among G6PDd infants.

  15. Cytosolic NADPH Homeostasis in Glucose-starved Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei Relies on Malic Enzyme and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Fed by Gluconeogenic Flux*

    PubMed Central

    Allmann, Stefan; Morand, Pauline; Ebikeme, Charles; Gales, Lara; Biran, Marc; Hubert, Jane; Brennand, Ana; Mazet, Muriel; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Michels, Paul A. M.; Portais, Jean-Charles; Boshart, Michael; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms depend on NADPH production to feed essential biosyntheses and for oxidative stress defense. Protozoan parasites such as the sleeping sickness pathogen Trypanosoma brucei adapt to different host environments, carbon sources, and oxidative stresses during their infectious life cycle. The procyclic stage develops in the midgut of the tsetse insect vector, where they rely on proline as carbon source, although they prefer glucose when grown in rich media. Here, we investigate the flexible and carbon source-dependent use of NADPH synthesis pathways in the cytosol of the procyclic stage. The T. brucei genome encodes two cytosolic NADPH-producing pathways, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the NADP-dependent malic enzyme (MEc). Reverse genetic blocking of those pathways and a specific inhibitor (dehydroepiandrosterone) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase together established redundancy with respect to H2O2 stress management and parasite growth. Blocking both pathways resulted in ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress and cell death. Unexpectedly, the same pathway redundancy was observed in glucose-rich and glucose-depleted conditions, suggesting that gluconeogenesis can feed the PPP to provide NADPH. This was confirmed by (i) a lethal phenotype of RNAi-mediated depletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) in the glucose-depleted Δmec/Δmec null background, (ii) an ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress observed for the Δmec/Δmec/RNAiPGI double mutant when compared with the single mutants, and (iii) the 13C enrichment of glycolytic and PPP intermediates from cells incubated with [U-13C]proline, in the absence of glucose. Gluconeogenesis-supported NADPH supply may also be important for nucleotide and glycoconjugate syntheses in the insect host. PMID:23665470

  16. Steroid Biomarkers and Genetic Studies Reveal Inactivating Mutations in Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Patients with Cortisone Reductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Gareth G.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Tiganescu, Ana; Ride, Jon P.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Connell, John M. C.; Ray, David W.; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD) is characterized by a failure to regenerate cortisol from cortisone via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), resulting in increased cortisol clearance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) and ACTH-mediated adrenal androgen excess. 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity requires the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the endoplasmic reticulum. CRD manifests with hyperandrogenism resulting in hirsutism, oligo-amenorrhea, and infertility in females and premature pseudopuberty in males. Recent association studies have failed to corroborate findings that polymorphisms in the genes encoding H6PDH (R453Q) and 11β-HSD1 (Intron 3 inserted adenine) interact to cause CRD. Objective: Our objective was to reevaluate the genetics and steroid biochemistry of patients with CRD. Design: We analyzed 24-h urine collection for steroid biomarkers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and sequenced the HSD11B1 and H6PD genes in our CRD cohort. Patients: Patients included four cases presenting with hyperandrogenism and biochemical features clearly indicative of CRD. Results: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified steroid biomarkers that correlated with CRD in each case. Three cases were identified as homozygous (R109AfsX3, Y316X, and G359D) and one case identified as compound heterozygous (c.960G→A and D620fsX3) for mutations in H6PD. No mutations affecting enzyme activity were identified in the HSD11B1 gene. Expression and activity assays demonstrate loss of function for all reported H6PDH mutations. Conclusions: CRD is caused by inactivating mutations in the H6PD gene, rendering the 11β-HSD1 enzyme unable to operate as an oxoreductase, preventing local glucocorticoid regeneration. These data highlight the importance of the redox control of cortisol metabolism and the 11β-HSD1-H6PDH pathway in regulating hypothalamic

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency induced haemolysis in a woman with newly diagnosed diabetes after normalisation of hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    ALjishi, F; ALDarwish, M

    2017-09-01

    The association between diabetes and G6PD deficiency is still a matter of debate. Hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency in people with diabetes has been reported, but is uncommon. To date, twenty-three cases have been reported from 12 different countries. We reported a 19-year-old Saudi women newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in whom hemolytic crises occurred soon after normalization of hyperglycemia and revealed a G6PD deficiency. We reviewed the pertinent literature of this phenomenon and discussed the relevant theories. We conclude that in order to reduce the risk of hemolysis, in an area with high incidence of G6PD deficiency, screening of the enzyme activity should be considered in newly diagnosed people with diabetes. In case of G6PD deficiency, it is advisable to correct plasma glucose level gradually in order to avoid the rapid decline in glucose availability. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  18. Dephosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate and 2-deoxyglucose export from cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, R J; Bartlett, K; Eyre, J

    1996-03-01

    Neurotransmitter-stimulated mobilization of astrocyte glycogen has been proposed as a basis for local energy homeostasis in brain. However, uncertainty remains over the fate of astrocyte glycogen. Upon transfer of cultured astrocytes pre-loaded with [2-3H]2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate at non-tracer concentrations to a glucose-free, 2-deoxyglucose-free medium, rapid dephosphorylation of a proportion of the intracellular 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate pool and export of 2-deoxyglucose to the extracellular fluid occurs. Astrocytes show very low, basal rates of gluconeogenesis from pyruvate (approx. 1 nmol mg protein-1 h-1). Astrocytes in vivo may be capable of physiologically significant glucose export from glucose-6-phosphate. The low gluconeogenic activity in astrocytes suggests that the most likely source of glucose-6-phosphate may be glycogen. These findings support the hypothesis that export, as glucose, to adjacent neurons may be one of the possible fate(s) of astrocytic glycogen. Such export of glycogen as glucose occurring in response to increases in neuronal activity could contribute to energy homeostasis on a paracrine scale within brain.

  19. Cloning and expression studies of the Dunaliella salina UDP-glucose dehydrogenase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Qinghua, He; Dairong, Qiao; Qinglian, Zhang; Shunji, He; Yin, Li; Linhan, Bai; Zhirong, Yang; Yi, Cao

    2005-06-01

    The enzyme UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.22) converts UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronate. Plant UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) is an important enzyme in the formation of hemicellulose and pectin, the components of primary cell walls. A cDNA, named DsUGDH, (GeneBank accession number: AY795899) corresponding to UGDH was cloned by RT-PCR approach from Dunaliella salina. The cDNA is 1941-bp long and has an open reading frame encoded a protein of 483 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 53 kDa. The derived amino acids sequence shows high homology with reported plants UGDHs, and has highly conserved amino acids motifs believed to be NAD binding site and catalytic site. Although UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is a comparatively well characterized enzyme, the cloning and characterization of the green alga Dunaliella salina UDP-glucose dehydrogenase gene is very important to understand the salt tolerance mechanism of Dunaliella salina. Northern analyses indicate that NaCl can induce the expression the DsUGDH.

  20. Silencing trehalose-6