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Sample records for human hepg2 cells

  1. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E

    2015-06-01

    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Antitumor effects of polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sairong; Zhang, Junfeng; Nie, Wenjian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Jin, Liqin; Chen, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setchel, a kind of brown algae, has been applied as a therapeutic for thousands of years. This study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects of the polysaccharide (SFPS) from S. fusiform in liver cancer. The mice inoculated with HepG2 cells were orally administrated with SFPS at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The products from peritoneal macrophages and serum in HepG2-bearing mice were measured. The effect of SFPS-induced cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 were detected. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of SFPS was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Results showed that SFPS significantly inhibited growth of human HepG2 cell-transplanted tumor in nude mice, and remarkably increased serum TNF-α, IL-1, NO and IgM levels in HepG2-bearing mice. SFPS also promoted the cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α) secreted by peritoneal macrophages in HepG2-bearing mice. SFPS exerted a stimulatory effect on apoptosis of HepG2 cells, increased the expression of Bax, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The results indicated that SFPS has anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities at the high concentration, and it could be used as a potential chemopreventative and/or adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in liver cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro-apoptotic effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Hui; Shi, Da-Hua; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Er-Guang; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. METHODS: Tectorigenin, one of the main components of rhizome of Iris tectorum, was prepared by simple methods, such as extraction, filtration, concentration, precipitation and recrystallization. HepG2 cells were incubated with tectorigenin at different concentrations, and their viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observation of nuclear change, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA ladder, and flow cytometry with Hoechst 33342, Annexin V-EGFP and propidium iodide staining. Generation of reactive oxygen species was quantified using DCFH-DA. Intracellular Ca2+ was monitored by Fura 2-AM. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using Rhodamine 123. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol was detected by Western blotting. Activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were investigated by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. RESULTS: The viability of HepG2 cells treated by tectorigenin decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The concentration that reduced the number of viable HepG2 cells by 50% (IC50) after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation was 35.72 mg/L, 21.19 mg/L and 11.06 mg/L, respectively. However, treatment with tectorigenin at 20 mg/L resulted in a very slight cytotoxicity to L02 cells after incubation for 12, 24 or 48 h. Tectorigenin at a concentration of 20 mg/L greatly inhibited the viability of HepG2 cells and induced the condensation of chromatin and fragmentation of nuclei. Tectorigenin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared with the viability rate, induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of the anti-proliferation effect of tectorigenin in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, tectorigenin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, increased intracellular [Ca2+]i

  4. Comparative analysis of 3D culture methods on human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luckert, Claudia; Schulz, Christina; Lehmann, Nadja; Thomas, Maria; Hofmann, Ute; Hammad, Seddik; Hengstler, Jan G; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Hessel, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Human primary hepatocytes represent a gold standard in in vitro liver research. Due to their low availability and high costs alternative liver cell models with comparable morphological and biochemical characteristics have come into focus. The human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 is often used as a liver model for toxicity studies. However, under two-dimensional (2D) cultivation conditions the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and typical liver markers such as albumin is very low. Cultivation for 21 days in a three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel culture system has been reported to strongly increase the metabolic competence of HepG2 cells. In our present study we further compared HepG2 cell cultivation in three different 3D systems: collagen, Matrigel and Alvetex culture. Cell morphology, albumin secretion, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzyme activities, as well as gene expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing and liver-specific enzymes were analyzed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of cultivation. Our results show that the previously reported increase of metabolic competence of HepG2 cells is not primarily the result of 3D culture but a consequence of the duration of cultivation. HepG2 cells grown for 21 days in 2D monolayer exhibit comparable biochemical characteristics, CYP activities and gene expression patterns as all 3D culture systems used in our study. However, CYP activities did not reach the level of HepaRG cells. In conclusion, the increase of metabolic competence of the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 is not due to 3D cultivation but rather a result of prolonged cultivation time.

  5. High permissivity of human HepG2 hepatoma cells for influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses.

  6. High Permissivity of Human HepG2 Hepatoma Cells for Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses. PMID:15583326

  7. TGF-β1 promotes human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells invasion by upregulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ma, C-L; Qiao, S; Li, Y-C; Wang, X-F; Sun, R-J; Zhang, X; Qian, R-K; Song, S-D

    2017-06-01

    To study the role of TGF-β1 in autophagy and invasion ability of human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cultured HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 24 h. The protein expression levels of autophagy relative marker LC3 and Beclin1 were detected by Western blot. The effect of TGF-β1 on invasion ability of HepG2 cells was detected with transwell method. The results demonstrated that TGF-β1 was able to activate autophagy of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) could reverse TGF-β1 induced autophagy process. Also, TGF-β1 significantly promotes the invasion ability of HepG2 cells; however, this process could effectively reverse by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. TGF-β1 enhances HepG2 cells invasion by upregulating autophagy.

  8. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of resveratrol nanoethosomes against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res) has been widely investigated with its strong anti-tumor activity. However, its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this study, we prepared resveratrol nanoethosomes (ResN) via ethanol injection method. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of ResN relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 cells. ResN were spherical vesicles and its particle diameter, zeta potential were (115.8 +/- 1.3) nm and (-12.8 +/- 1.9) mV, respectively. ResN exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 cells by MTT assay, and the IC50 value was 49.2 μg/ml (105.4 μg/ml of Res bulk solution). By flow cytometry assay, there was an increase in G2/M phase cells treated with ResN. The results demonstrated ResN could effectively block the G2/M phase of HepG2 cells, which can also enhance the inhibitory effect of Res against HepG2 cells.

  9. Differential genomic effects of six different TiO2 nanomaterials on human liver HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanoparticles are reported to cause liver toxicity in vivo. To better assess the mechanism of the in vivo liver toxicity, we used the human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) as a model system. Human HepG2 cells were exposed to 6 TiO2 nanomaterials (with dry primary partic...

  10. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake.

  11. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by cocoa phenolic extract.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado Serrano, Ana Belén; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2008-09-10

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavanols and procyanidin oligomers with antioxidative properties, providing protection against oxidation and nitration. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from cocoa on cell viability and antioxidant defenses of cultured human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Pretreatment of cells with 0.05-50 microg/mL of cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) for 2 or 20 h completely prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by a treatment with t-BOOH. Moreover, lower levels of GSH caused by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells were partly recovered by a pretreatment with CPE. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by t-BOOH was dose-dependently prevented when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with CPE. These results show that treatment of HepG2 in culture with CPE (within the physiological range of concentrations) confers a significant protection against oxidation to the cells.

  12. Verbesina encelioides: cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and oxidative DNA damage in human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai M; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam S; Saquib, Quaiser; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Farshori, Nida N

    2016-05-10

    Cancer is a major health problem and exploiting natural products have been one of the most successful methods to combat this disease. Verbesina encelioides is a notorious weed with various pharmacological properties. The aim of the present investigation was to screen the anticancer potential of V. encelioides extract against human lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. A-549, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of (10-1000 μg/ml) of V. encelioides for 24 h. Further, cytotoxic concentrations (250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml) of V. encelioides induced oxidative stress (GSH and LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage in HepG2 cells were studied. The exposure of cells to 10-1000 μg/ml of extract for 24 h, revealed the concentrations 250-1000 μg/ml was cytotoxic against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, but not against A-549 cells. Moreover, the extract showed higher decrease in the cell viability against HepG2 cells than MCF-7 cells. Therefore, HepG2 cells were selected for further studies viz. oxidative stress (GSH and LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage. The results revealed differential anticancer activity of V. encelioides against A-549, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. A significant induction of oxidative stress, ROS generation, and MMP levels was observed in HepG2 cells. The cell cycle analysis and comet assay showed that V. encelioides significantly induced G2/M arrests and DNA damage. These results indicate that V. encelioides possess substantial cytotoxic potential and may warrant further investigation to develop potential anticancer agent.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of methylmercury-induced cell death in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Susana; Goya, Luis; Madrid, Yolanda; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, Maria; Bravo, Laura; Cámara, Carmen; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been suggested to exert cytotoxicity through multiple mechanisms, but the precise biochemical machinery has not been fully defined. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course (0-24h) effect of 2mg/L MeHg on cell death in human HepG2 cells. MeHg decreased cell viability in a time-dependent manner, which was concomitant with increased LDH leakage, reduced GSH levels, CAT activity and altered activity of the antioxidant enzymes GPx and GR at the longest times of incubation (16 and 24h). Activity of the detoxifying enzyme GST was also early enhanced (2h). Caspase-3 activity reached a maximum value at 8h and continued increased up to 24h. This feature was preceded by an enhancement in the caspase-9 activity (2h), whereas caspase-8 activity remained unchanged. MeHg early diminished Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) ratio and increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad. Moreover, MeHg-induced cytotoxicity was completely inhibited by the antioxidants (GSH and NAC) and notably by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone, but not by the NADH oxidase inhibitor DPI. In summary, MeHg induced an oxidative stress responsible for apoptosis in HepG2 cells through direct activation of the caspase cascade and altered the cellular antioxidant and detoxificant enzymatic system to later provoke necrosis at later stages. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Downregulation of human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) by organophosphate pesticides in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Ponce-Ruiz, Néstor; Ramírez-Chávez, Bryana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Elizondo, Guillermo; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-02-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent esterase synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the plasma where it is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). PON1 hydrolyzes and detoxifies some toxic metabolites of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) such as methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos. Thus, PON1 activity and expression levels are important for determining susceptibility against OPs poisoning. Some studies have demonstrated that OPs can modulate gene expression through interactions with nuclear receptors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the modulation of PON1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) cells by real-time PCR, PON1 activity assay, and western blot. The results showed that the treatments with methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos decreased PON1 mRNA and immunoreactive protein and increased inflammatory cytokines in HepG2 cells. The effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the downregulation of PON1 gene expression in HepG2 cells may provide evidence of OPs cytotoxicity related to oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. A decrease in the expression of the PON1 gene may increase the susceptibility to OPs intoxication and the risk of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 490-500, 2017.

  15. Effects of usnic acid exposure on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Amankwa-Sakyi, Margaret; O'Donnell, Michael W; Sprando, Robert L

    2012-09-01

    Usnic acid, a natural botanical product, is a constituent of some dietary supplements used for weight loss. It has been associated with clinical hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in humans. The present study was undertaken for metabolism and toxicity evaluations of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture. The cells were treated with the vehicle control and usnic acid at concentrations of 0-100 µm for 24 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2 . Following the treatment period, the cells were evaluated by biochemical and toxicogenomic endpoints of toxicity that included cytochrome P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in pathway focused gene expression profiles. Usnic acid exposure resulted in increased P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. The pathway-focused gene expression analysis resulted in significantly altered expression of six genes out of a total of 84 genes examined. Of the six altered genes, three genes were up-regulated and three genes down-regulated. A marked up-regulation of one gene CCL21 associated with inflammation, one gene CCNC associated with proliferation and carcinogenesis and one gene UGT1A4 associated with metabolism as well as DNA damage and repair were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the vehicle control. Also a marked down-regulation of one gene CSF2 associated with inflammation and two genes (CYP7A1 and CYP2E1) associated with oxidative metabolic stress were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the control. The biomarkers used in this study demonstrate the toxicity of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells, suggesting an oxidative mechanism of action. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. DNA damage and metallothionein synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Fatur, T; Tusek, M; Falnoga, I; Scancar, J; Lah, T T; Filipic, M

    2002-08-01

    Cadmium is an important heavy metal environmental toxicant, which is classified as a human carcinogen. The comet assay was used to evaluate the levels of DNA damage in a metabolically competent HepG2 cell line after treatment with low, non-cytotoxic and physiologically relevant concentrations of cadmium, alone and in combination with the dietary mutagen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and with the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P). After exposure of the cells to 10, 100 and 1000 nM CdCl(2), a dose- and time-dependent increase of DNA damage was detected. Maximal damage was found after 12 h of treatment, but declined with further incubation with CdCl(2). The increased synthesis of metallothioneins on exposure to CdCl(2) up to 12 h suggests that they are responsible for the adaptation of HepG2 cells to the DNA damaging effects of CdCl(2). Co-treatment of the cells with CdCl(2) (10-1000 nM) and IQ (300 microM) induced a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage compared to cells treated with IQ alone. Co-genotoxic activity was also observed by increased formation of micronuclei in cells exposed to IQ and 1000 nM CdCl(2); at this concentration, CdCl(2) alone also induced micronuclei in HepG2 cells. Our results support the hypothesis that direct and indirect mechanisms are involved in cadmium-induced DNA damage.

  17. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by the flavonoid epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-04-01

    Flavanols, such as epicatechin (EC), constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in green tea, grapes and cocoa and possess different biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic. This study investigated the potential chemo-protective effect of EC against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human HepG2 cells. Cell viability by lactate dehydrogenase assay and markers of oxidative status: reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h prevented the enhanced cell damage and GPx and GR activities as well as the decrease in GSH induced by t-BOOH. The increased ROS generation induced by t-BOOH was also partly prevented by a pretreatment for 20 h with EC. In addition, pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h recovered the t-BOOH-induced MDA concentration to control values. A pretreatment for 2 h with EC did not reduce cell damage but partly recovered GSH, reduced ROS levels and muffled the increase of GPx and GR after exposure to t-BOOH. Treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of EC in the micromolar range confers a significant protection against oxidative stress.

  18. Cytotoxic effect of oxaloacetate on HepG2-human hepatic carcinoma cells via apoptosis and ROS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Y; Ji, L; Kuang, Y; Yang, Q

    2017-01-01

    Oxaloacetate (OA) is one of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle. In addition to its role in energy production, OA may have other effects on the cell. We report here that OA could have a cell type dependent cytotoxic effect on the human hepatic carcinoma cell line HepG2 through induction of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In our study, OA decreased the viability and colony formation of HepG2 cells and induced cell death. Caspase-3 activity was increased, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated in OA-treated HepG2 cells indicating that apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway was involved in the cell death. The ROS level in OA-treated HepG2 cells was increased. The anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) prevented the OA-induced decrease in cell but did not alter the enhanced apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio. These results suggest that the OA-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cell is not driven by oxidative damage and at least two distinct mechanisms, one mediated by ROS and one involving apoptosis, result in the cytotoxic effects of OA on HepG2 cells. These studies expand the biological functional repertoire of OA and provide a mechanism by which hepatocellular carcinoma may be targeted by OA.

  19. Decorin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation via modulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wenbo; Li, Shubo; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) condition. HepG2 cells were cultured under OGD condition. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the cell survival, and flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis. Protein expression levels were detected with Western blot analysis. Transfection was performed with liposome, and cells were screened with G418. The cell survival rates were significantly decreased in the OGD groups. When treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, the survival rates were further declined in these cells. Moreover, flow cytometry indicated that apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells under OGD condition, and the apoptosis rates were significantly increased by the 3-MA treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, the expression levels of DCN were significantly elevated in OGD-preconditioned HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, the expression level of Beclin1 and the LC3BI/LC3BII ratio were significantly increased, while the expression level of P62 was significantly decreased, in HepG2 cells under OGD condition. Over-expression of DCN significantly increased the expression level of Beclin1 and the LC3BI/LC3BII ratio, while no significant changes were observed in the P62 expression level, in HepG2 cells. Under the OGD condition, the apoptosis rate was also significantly decreased in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. DCN protects HepG2 cells against OGD-induced injury, via regulating autophagy. These results might contribute to a better understanding of the roles of DCN and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the potential treatment for the disease.

  20. Induction of phenolsulfotransferase expression by phenolic acids in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-06-15

    Phenolic acids are antioxidant phenolic compounds, widespread in plant foods, which contribute significant biological and pharmacological properties; some have demonstrated a remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of antioxidant phenolic acids on phenolsulfotransferase activity have not yet been described. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was used as a model to investigate the effect of antioxidant phenolic acids on enzymatic activity and expression of one of the major phase II sulfate conjugation enzymes, P-form phenolsulfotransferase (PST-P). The results showed that gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid increased PST-P activity, in a dose-dependent manner. A maximum of 4- and 5-fold induction of PST-P activity was observed for both gallic acid and gentisic acid; however, they showed an adverse effect on cell growth at higher concentrations. A 2- or 2.5-fold increase of PST-P activity was found with either p-coumaric or p-hydroxybenzoic acid treatment, whereas no significant effect was found for ferulic acid treatment. PST-P induction, by gallic acid, was further confirmed, using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting techniques to measure mRNA expression and protein translation. A significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.01) between the expressions of PST-P mRNA and the corresponding PST-P activity was observed. Thus, gallic acid increased PST-P protein expression in HepG2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that certain antioxidant phenolic acids could induce PST-P activity in HepG2 cells, by promoting PST-P mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a novel mechanism by which phenolic acids may be implicated in phase II sulfate conjugation.

  1. Chromate Reductase YieF from Escherichia coli Enhances Hexavalent Chromium Resistance of Human HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Dan; Li, Xiangkai; Liu, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a serious environmental pollutant and human toxicant. Mammalian cells are very sensitive to chromate as they lack efficient chromate detoxifying strategy, e.g., chromate-reducing genes that are widely present in prokaryotes. To test whether introduction of prokaryotic chromate-reducing gene into mammalian cells could render higher chromate resistance, an Escherichia coli chromate-reducing gene yieF was transfected into human HepG2 cells. The expression of yieF was measured in stably transfected cells HepG2-YieF by quantitative RT-PCR and found up-regulated by 3.89-fold upon Cr(VI) induction. In chromate-reducing ability test, HepG2-YieF cells that harbored the reductase showed significantly higher reducing ability of Cr(VI) than HepG2 control cells. This result was further supported by the evidence of increased Cr(VI)-removing ability of crude cell extract of HepG2-YieF. Moreover, HepG2-YieF demonstrated 10% higher viability and decreased expression of GSH synthesizing enzymes under Cr(VI) stress. Subcellular localization of YieF was determined by tracing GFP-YieF fusion protein that was detected in both nucleus and cytoplasm by laser confocal microscopy. Altogether, this study successfully demonstrated that the expression of a prokaryotic Cr(VI)-reducing gene yieF endowed mammalian cell HepG2 with enhanced chromate resistance, which brought new insight of Cr(VI) detoxification in mammalian cells. PMID:26016500

  2. Chromate Reductase YieF from Escherichia coli Enhances Hexavalent Chromium Resistance of Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Dan; Li, Xiangkai; Liu, Pu

    2015-05-26

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a serious environmental pollutant and human toxicant. Mammalian cells are very sensitive to chromate as they lack efficient chromate detoxifying strategy, e.g., chromate-reducing genes that are widely present in prokaryotes. To test whether introduction of prokaryotic chromate-reducing gene into mammalian cells could render higher chromate resistance, an Escherichia coli chromate-reducing gene yieF was transfected into human HepG2 cells. The expression of yieF was measured in stably transfected cells HepG2-YieF by quantitative RT-PCR and found up-regulated by 3.89-fold upon Cr(VI) induction. In chromate-reducing ability test, HepG2-YieF cells that harbored the reductase showed significantly higher reducing ability of Cr(VI) than HepG2 control cells. This result was further supported by the evidence of increased Cr(VI)-removing ability of crude cell extract of HepG2-YieF. Moreover, HepG2-YieF demonstrated 10% higher viability and decreased expression of GSH synthesizing enzymes under Cr(VI) stress. Subcellular localization of YieF was determined by tracing GFP-YieF fusion protein that was detected in both nucleus and cytoplasm by laser confocal microscopy. Altogether, this study successfully demonstrated that the expression of a prokaryotic Cr(VI)-reducing gene yieF endowed mammalian cell HepG2 with enhanced chromate resistance, which brought new insight of Cr(VI) detoxification in mammalian cells.

  3. HCMV Activates the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 Axis in HepG2 Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Tripathy, Manoj K.; Herbein, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There has been increased interest in the possible role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in carcinogenesis during the last decade. HCMV seroprevalence was enhanced in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but a possible relationship between HCC and HCMV infection remained to be assessed. The aim of this work was to investigate the pro-tumor influence of HCMV on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HepG2 cells. Methods Following infection of PHH and HepG2 cells by two different strains of HCMV, we measured the production of IL-6 in culture supernatants by ELISA and the protein levels of STAT3, pSTAT3, JAK, cyclin D1, survivin, p53, p21, and Mdm2 by western Blotting in infected and uninfected cells. Cell proliferation and transformation were investigated using Ki67Ag expression measurement and soft-agar colony formation assay respectively. Results Infection of HepG2 cells and PHH by HCMV resulted in the production of IL-6 and the subsequent activation of the IL-6R-JAK-STAT3 pathway. HCMV increased the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin. Cell proliferation was enhanced in HepG2 and PHH infected with HCMV, despite a paradoxical overexpression of p53 and p21. More importantly, we observed the formation of colonies in soft agar seeded with PHH infected with HCMV and when we challenged the HepG2 cultures to form tumorspheres, we found that the HCMV-infected cultures formed 2.5-fold more tumorspheres than uninfected cultures. Conclusion HCMV activated the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway in PHH and HepG2 cells, favored cellular proliferation, induced PHH transformation and enhanced HepG2 tumorsphere formation. Our observations raise the possibility that HCMV infection might be involved in the genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23555719

  4. Condition medium of HepG-2 cells induces the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cancerous mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Miao, Yinglei; Chang, Yefei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs) after incubation with condition medium (CM) from liver cancer HepG-2 cells, and the biobehaviors (proliferation and migration) of these CA-MSCs were further evaluated. The supernatant of HepG-2 cells was collected and mixed with equal volume of low glucose DMEM. The resultant medium was used to treat hUCMSCs for 48 h. The expression of CA-MSCs related proteins and miR-221 was detected in cells. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was mixed with equal volume of high glucose DMEM, and the resultant medium was used treat HepG-2 cells for 48 h and the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were evaluated. Moreover, HepG-2 cells were co-cultured with hUCMSCs and then the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were assessed. After incubation with the supernatant from HepG-2 cells, hUCMSCs showed significantly elevated expression of vimentin, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and miR-221. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was able to significantly increase the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. Following co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells increased dramatically. These findings suggest that the supernatant of HepG-2 cells is able to induce the phenotype of CA-MSCs and the supernatant of CA-MSCs may promote the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. These findings provide experimental evidence for the cellular remodeling in tumor microenvironment and the safety of clinical use of hUCMSCs. PMID:27648133

  5. Basic apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 ) cells induced by synthetic azamacrocycle.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Saeed, Musabbir A; Hossain, Md Alamgir; Dorsey, Waneene; Yu, Hongtao; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of diseases with synthetic materials has been an aspiration of mankind since the dawn of human development. In this research, three complex compounds of azamacrocycle (TD1, TD2, and TD3) were synthesized, and experiments were conducted to determine whether their toxicity to human liver carcinoma (HepG2 ) cells is associated with apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death. Cell survival was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were measured by annexin V FITC/PI assay using the flow cytometry and by propidium iodide (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of azamacrocycles for 48 h. Results from MTT assay indicated that all the three azamacrocycles significantly (p < 0.05) reduce cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, showing 48 h-LD50 values of about 37.97, 33.60, and 19.29 μM, for TD3, TD1 and TD2, respectively. Among the three compounds tested, TD2 showed the most pronounced cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells, being about twofold more potent than TD3. The order of toxicity was TD2 > TD1 > TD3. Because TD2 exerted the most cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells, it was used in the subsequent apoptosis and necrosis-related experiments. The flow cytometry assessment showed a strong dose-response relationship with regard to TD2 exposure and annexin V/PI positive cells. PI assay data indicated that TD2 exposure increased the proportion of fluorescence positive cells. Overall, our results indicate that azamacrocycle toxicity to HepG2 cells is associated with apoptotic and necrotic cell death resulting from phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of membrane integrity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Study of the efficacy of photofrin®-Mediated PDT on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Suleman, R.

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin® using human liver cancer cells (HepG2) as an experimental model. We optimized the different PDT parameters, e.g. (time of incubation, optimal dose of light and drug concentration), cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, and cellular viability of the HepG2 cells has also been investigated in this experimental work. The effect of light on the viability of cells without the photosensitizer was examined firstly, HepG2 cell line was irradiated with red light (a diode laser, λ = 635 nm). The toxicity of the photosensitizer in the absence of light in current cell line was investigated secondly, Photofrin® has been used as photosensitizing agent. Optimal dose of light along with suitable concentration of Photofrin® were traced into HepG2 cell line, by means of spectrophotometric measurement. Cells viability was determined by means of neutral red assay (NRA). Finally, it was observed that no toxic effects with the absence of light, and no significant photodamage effect on the cells without the presence of photosensitizer were found, when studied independently. Our results showed that light doses of 100 J/cm2 gives effective PDT outcome for HepG2 cell line at photosensitizer concentration of 100 μg/ml.

  7. The role of alkaline phosphatase in intracellular lipid accumulation in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, George M; van Niekerk, Chantal; Crowther, Nigel J

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes and the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Therefore, the current study was performed to determine if TNALP is required for intracellular lipid deposition in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Intracellular lipid accumulation, TNALP activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene expression were measured in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of the TNALP inhibitors levamisole and histidine. Sub-cellular TNALP activity was localized using cytochemical analysis. Both PPARγ gene expression and TNALP activity increased during intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Inhibition of TNALP blocked intracellular lipid accumulation but did not alter expression of the PPARγ gene. In HepG2 cells, TNALP co-localized with adipophilin on the lipid droplet membrane. These data suggest a role for TNALP in lipid droplet formation, possibly downstream from PPARγ, within HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa; Horváthová, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods - flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in cell

  9. Silencing clusterin gene transcription on effects of multidrug resistance reversing of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Sai, Wenli; Yao, Min; Gu, Hongbin; Yao, Yao; Qian, Qi; Yao, Dengfu

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal clusterin (CLU) expression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the CLU expression was analyzed in human hepatoma cells and chemoresistant counterpart HepG2/ADM cells. Compared with L02 cells, the overexpression of cellular CLU was identified in HepG2, HepG2/ADM, SMMC7721, Hep3B ,and PLC cells and relatively lower expression in Bel-7404, SNU-739, and MHCC97H cells. Specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to silence CLU gene transcription were designed, and the most effective sequences were screened. After the HepG2/ADM cells transfected with shRNA-1, the inhibition of CLU expression was 73.68 % at messenger RNA (mRNA) level by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with obvious enhancement in cell chemosensitivity, increasing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin using fluorescence kit, and Rh-123 retention qualified with flow cytometry. Knockdown CLU also significantly decreased the drug efflux pump activity through the depression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (q = 11.739, P < 0.001). Moreover, silencing CLU led to downregulation of β-catenin (q = 13.544, P = 0.001), suggesting that downregulation of CLU might be a key point to reverse multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADM cells.

  10. Effects of nitric oxide on the biological behavior of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Heng; Wu, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have found the function of nitric oxide (NO) in cancer as a pro-neoplastic vs. an anti-neoplastic effector, but the role of NO in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the biological behavior of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. HepG2 cell was cultured in vitro and treated with or without sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of NO in cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion by MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay and Matrigel invasion assay. We demonstrate that NO significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing G0/G1 phase arrest in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared to the control group, cells treated with SNP showed obviously higher apoptosis ratios in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we revealed that NO effectively inhibited the ability of migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. Taken together, our results suggested that NO has an important role in the regulation of biological behavior in HepG2 cells and the potential for use in the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates sulforaphane-induced apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Qu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Yueni; Shi, Xin; Ji, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, which effectively inhibits proliferation of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via mitochondria‑mediated apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is considered the most important cause of cell apoptosis; therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the endoplasmic reticulum pathway was involved in SFN-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. An MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effects of SFN on HepG2 cells. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes in apoptotic cells, and western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), X‑box binding protein‑1 (XBP‑1) and BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid). Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells, and the protein expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/growth arrest‑ and DNA damage‑inducible gene 153 (GADD153) and caspase-12 in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that SFN significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells; the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were 32.03±0.96, 20.90±1.96 and 13.87±0.44 µmol/l, following treatment with SFN for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Following 48 h of SFN treatment (10, 20 and 40 µmol/l), the apoptotic rates of HepG2 cells were 31.8, 61.3 and 77.1%, respectively. Furthermore, after 48 h of exposure to SFN, the cells presented typical morphological alterations of apoptosis, as detected under fluorescence microscopy. Treatment with SFN for 48 h also significantly upregulated the protein expression levels of Bip/GRP78, XBP‑1, caspase‑12, CHOP/GADD153 and Bid in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, endoplasmic reticulum stress may be considered the most important mechanism underlying SFN-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  12. Dietary catechins and procyanidins modulate zinc homeostasis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Isabel M; Bustos, Mario; Blay, Mayte; Pujadas, Gerard; Ardèvol, Anna; Salvadó, M Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Fernández-Larrea, Juan

    2011-02-01

    Catechins and their polymers procyanidins are health-promoting flavonoids found in edible vegetables and fruits. They act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species and by chelating the redox-active metals iron and copper. They also behave as signaling molecules, modulating multiple cell signalling pathways and gene expression, including that of antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed at determining whether catechins and procyanidins interact with the redox-inactive metal zinc and at assessing their effect on cellular zinc homeostasis. We found that a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) and the green tea flavonoid (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) bind zinc cations in solution with higher affinity than the zinc-specific chelator Zinquin, and dose-dependently prevent zinc-induced toxicity in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase test. GSPE and EGCG hinder intracellular accumulation of total zinc, measured by atomic flame absorption spectrometry, concomitantly increasing the level of cytoplasmic labile zinc detectable by Zinquin fluorescence. Concurrently, GSPE and EGCG inhibit the expression, evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of zinc-binding metallothioneins and of plasma membrane zinc exporter ZnT1 (SLC30A1), while enhancing the expression of cellular zinc importers ZIP1 (SLC39A1) and ZIP4 (SLC39A4). GSPE and EGCG also produce all these effects when HepG2 cells are stimulated to import zinc by treatment with supplemental zinc or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We suggest that extracellular complexation of zinc cations and the elevation of cytoplasmic labile zinc may be relevant mechanisms underlying the modulation of diverse cell signaling and metabolic pathways by catechins and procyanidins.

  13. Effect of taurine on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiali; Luo, Daya; Liu, Zhuoqi; Yang, Xiaohong; Wan, Huifang; Yu, Lehan; Li, Hua; Wan, Fusheng

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect and molecular mechanism of taurine (Tau) on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHCC) HepG2 cells. HHCC HepG2 cells were used as target cells, and the cell survival rate was assessed using a multi-time-step method. The p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene was transiently transfected by lipofection and subsequently silenced with specific small interfering (si)RNA. The cell apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were analyzed with western blotting. Addition of 20-160 mM Tau was shown to have a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, while promoting the induction of HHCC HepG2 cell apoptosis (P<0.05). Transfection of the PUMA gene significantly enhanced the ability of Tau to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In addition, transfection of the PUMA gene increased the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and reduced the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (P<0.05). Silencing the PUMA gene with specific siRNA was demonstrated to significantly reduce the ability of Tau to inhibit proliferation and induce the apoptosis of HHCC HepG2 cells (P<0.01). Therefore, the PUMA gene was shown to have an important role in mechanism underlying the effect that Tau exerts on cell proliferation and apoptosis in HHCC HepG2 cells.

  14. Role of metabolism by the human intestinal microflora in arbutin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Kong, Min Jeong; Kang, Mi Jeong; Yeo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-23

    A possible role for metabolism by the human intestinal microflora in arbutin-induced cytotoxicity was investigated using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. When the cytotoxic effects of arbutin and hydroquinone (HQ), a deglycosylated metabolite of arbutin, were compared, HQ was more toxic than arbutin. Incubation of arbutin with a human fecal preparation could produce HQ. Following incubation of arbutin with a human fecal preparation for metabolic activation, the reaction mixture was filter-sterilized to test its toxic effects on HepG2 cells. The mixture induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the mixture considerably inhibited expression of Bcl-2 together with an increase in Bax expression. Likewise, activation stimulated cleavage of caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cell cultures. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis by the intestinal microflora reaction mixture was confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that the human intestinal microflora is capable of metabolizing arbutin to HQ, which can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of copper overload on the survival of HepG2 and A-549 human-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Arnal, N; de Alaniz, M J T; Marra, C A

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effect of copper (Cu) overload (20-160 µM/24 h) in two cell lines of human hepatic (HepG2) and pulmonary (A-549) origin by determining lipid and protein damage and the response of the antioxidant defence system. A-549 cells were more sensitive to Cu overload than HepG2 cells. A marked increase was observed in both the cell lines in the nitrate plus nitrite concentration, protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The TBARS increase was consistent with an increment in saturated fatty acids at the expense of polyunsaturated acids in a Cu concentration-dependent fashion. Antioxidant enzymes were stimulated by Cu overload. Superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly in both the cell lines, with greater increases in HepG2 than in A-549 cells. A marked increase in ceruloplasmin and metallothionein content in both the cell types was also observed. Dose-dependent decreases in α-tocopherol and ferric reducing ability were observed. Total glutathione content was lower in A-549 cells and higher in HepG2. Calpain and caspase-3 were differentially activated in a dose-dependent manner under copper-induced reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that Cu exposure of human lung- and liver-derived cells should be considered a reliable experimental system for detailed study of mechanism/mechanisms by which Cu overload exerts its deleterious effects.

  16. Synergistic complex from plants Solanaceae exhibits cytotoxicity for the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Schwarzlin, Romina; Pušenjak, Nika; Makuc, Damjan; Križman, Mitja; Vovk, Irena; Plavec, Janez; Švajger, Urban

    2016-10-18

    It had been demonstrated that sugars from various plants can act as potent agents, which induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Using HPLC, we fractionated a mixture of two plant extracts from the plant family Solanaceae, namely Capsicum chinense and the plant family Amaryllidaceae namely Allium sativum. We evaluated the effect of different fractions on apoptosis of HepG2 cell line. The most effective fraction was further studied to determine its molecular composition using mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR. We further evaluated the effect of determined molecular composition found in the selected fraction by using a mixture of commercially available substances, which were found in the fraction and tested its pro-apoptotic effect on HepG2 cells. To get some insight into potential apoptotic mechanisms we studied caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial integrity in treated cells. Out of 93 fractions obtained by HPLC from the plant extract we found HPLC fraction 10 (10 min elution) was the most effective. MS and NMR studies revealed high presence of cellobiose together with vitamin C, sulphur (S) and trace amounts of selenium (Se). HPLC fraction 10 triggered apoptosis of HepG2 within 3 h in the 0.01-1.0 mg/mL concentration range. Furthermore, a mixture of pure cellobiose, vitamin C, S and Se (complex cellobiose/C/S/Se) had a very similar capacity in inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells compared to HPLC fraction 10. Complex cellobiose/C/S/Se was capable of inducing caspase-3 activity and led to loss of mitochondrial integrity. The capacity of cellobiose alone to induce apoptosis of HepG2 was approximately 1000-fold lower compared to complex cellobiose/C/S/Se. In this study we present the highly synergistic effect of a unique complex consisting of cellobiose, vitamin C, sulphur and selenium on triggering the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

  17. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of geraniol in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, T B; Santos, G F; Ventura, S C; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Gaivão, I O M; Maistro, E L

    2017-09-27

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol present in the essential oil of many aromatic plants and is one of the most frequently used molecules by the flavor and fragrance industries. The literature also reports its therapeutic potential, highlighting itself especially as a likely molecule for the development of drugs against cancer. In view of these considerations, this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of geraniol, in an in vitro protocol, using two types of human cells: one without the ability to metabolize (peripheral blood mononuclear cells - PBMC), and the other with this capability (human hepatoma cell line - HepG2) through the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Four concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were selected for the genotoxic assessment for PBMC and three (1.25, 2.5, and 5 µg/mL) for HepG2 cells based on cytotoxicity tests (MTT assay). Results showed that geraniol did not present genotoxic or clastogenic/aneugenic effects on both cell types under the conditions studied. However, caution is advised in the use of this substance by humans, since a significant reduction in viability of HepG2 and a marked decrease in cell viability on normal PBMC were verified.

  18. Chemically induced hepatotoxicity in human stem cell-induced hepatocytes compared with primary hepatocytes and HepG2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Lee, Hyuk-Mi; Park, Young-Il; Yi, Hee; Lee, Hunjoo; So, ByungJae; Song, Jae-Young; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2016-10-01

    Stem cell-induced hepatocytes (SC-iHeps) have been suggested as a valuable model for evaluating drug toxicology. Here, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (QIA7) and embryonic stem cells (WA01) were differentiated into hepatocytes, and the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen (AAP) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were compared with primary hepatocytes (p-Heps) and HepG2. In a cytotoxicity assay, the IC50 of SC-iHeps was similar to that in p-Heps and HepG2 in the AAP groups but different from that in p-Heps of the AFB1 groups. In a multi-parameter assay, phenotypic changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium influx and oxidative stress were similar between QIA7-iHeps and p-Heps following AAP and AFB1 treatment but relatively low in WA01-iHeps and HepG2. Most hepatic functional markers (hepatocyte-specific genes, albumin/urea secretion, and the CYP450 enzyme activity) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner following AAP and AFB1 treatment in SC-iHeps and p-Heps but not in HepG2. Regarding CYP450 inhibition, the cell viability of SC-iHeps and p-Heps was increased by ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Collectively, SC-iHeps and p-Heps showed similar cytotoxicity and hepatocyte functional effects for AAP and AFB1 compared with HepG2. Therefore, SC-iHeps have phenotypic characteristics and sensitivity to cytotoxic chemicals that are more similar to p-Heps than to HepG2 cells.

  19. Comparison of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line Hepg2 with regard to their biotransformation properties.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Stahl, Frank; Bader, Augustinus

    2003-08-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line HepG2 are frequently used in in vitro models for human biotransformation studies. In this study, we characterized and compared the capacity of these model systems to indicate the presence of different classes of promutagens. Genotoxic sensitivity, enzyme activity, and gene expression were monitored in response to treatment with food promutagens benzo[a]pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). DNA damage could be detected reliably with the comet assay in primary human hepatocytes, which were maintained in sandwich culture. All three promutagens caused DNA damage in primary cells, but in HepG2 no genotoxic effects of DMN and PhIP could be detected. We supposed that the lack of specific enzymes accounts for their inability to process these promutagens. Therefore, we quantified the expression of a broad range of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes code for cytochromes p450 and, in addition, for a series of important phase II enzymes. The expression level of these genes in human hepatocytes was similar to those previously reported for human liver samples. On the other hand, expression levels in HepG2 differed significantly from that in human. Activity and expression, especially of phase I enzymes, were demonstrated to be extremely low in HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of specific genes by test substances was similar in both cell types. In conclusion, human hepatocytes are the preferred model for biotransformation in human liver, whereas HepG2 cells may be useful to study regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  20. Flavonoids of Korean Citrus aurantium L. Induce Apoptosis via Intrinsic Pathway in Human Hepatoblastoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Yumnam, Silvia; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Raha, Suchismita; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Lee, Ho Jeong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-12-01

    Korean Citrus aurantium L. has long been used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. The present study investigates the anticancer role of flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium on human hepatoblastoma cell, HepG2. The Citrus flavonoids inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This result was consistent with the in vivo xenograft results. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphology, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblot. Flavonoids decreased the level of pAkt and other downstream targets of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway - P-4EBP1 and P-p70S6K. The expressions of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and Bak were increased, while those of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were decreased with an increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in treated cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in flavonoid-treated HepG2 cells. It was also observed that the P-p38 protein level was increased both dose and time dependently in flavonoid-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggest that flavonoid extracted from Citrus inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via an intrinsic pathway. These findings suggest that flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium L. are potential chemotherapeutic agents against liver cancer.

  1. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XUE-QIN; ZHANG, WEI; ZHANG, FENG; YIN, SHENG-YONG; XIE, HAI-YANG; ZHOU, LIN; ZHENG, SHU-SEN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (P<0.05). Superoxide anion specific probes dihydroethidium and MitoSOX™ demonstrated that there were no significant alterations in the HepG2 cells following solanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.0001) in the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (P<0.05). Overall, the study indicated that solanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH− and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression

  2. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Sheng-Yong; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (P<0.05). Superoxide anion specific probes dihydroethidium and MitoSOX™ demonstrated that there were no significant alterations in the HepG2 cells following solanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.0001) in the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (P<0.05). Overall, the study indicated that solanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH(-) and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression of

  3. Citreoviridin Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis in Human Liver HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liping; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2015-08-06

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin derived from fungal species in moldy cereals. In our previous study, we reported that CIT stimulated autophagosome formation in human liver HepG2 cells. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship of autophagy with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis in CIT-treated cells. Our data showed that CIT increased the expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome biomarker, from the early stage of treatment (6 h). After treatment with CIT for 12 h, lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred, followed by the release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation with siRNA against Atg5 attenuated CIT-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In addition, CIT induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential as assessed by JC-1 staining. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity assay showed that CIT induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation attenuated CIT-induced apoptosis, indicating that CIT-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent. Cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin A, relieved CIT-induced apoptosis as well, suggesting the involvement of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in CIT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIT induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HepG2 cells. The study thus provides essential mechanistic insight, and suggests clues for the effective management and treatment of CIT-related diseases.

  4. Citreoviridin Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis in Human Liver HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexia; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liping; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin derived from fungal species in moldy cereals. In our previous study, we reported that CIT stimulated autophagosome formation in human liver HepG2 cells. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship of autophagy with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis in CIT-treated cells. Our data showed that CIT increased the expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome biomarker, from the early stage of treatment (6 h). After treatment with CIT for 12 h, lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred, followed by the release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation with siRNA against Atg5 attenuated CIT-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In addition, CIT induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential as assessed by JC-1 staining. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity assay showed that CIT induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation attenuated CIT-induced apoptosis, indicating that CIT-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent. Cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin A, relieved CIT-induced apoptosis as well, suggesting the involvement of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in CIT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIT induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HepG2 cells. The study thus provides essential mechanistic insight, and suggests clues for the effective management and treatment of CIT-related diseases. PMID:26258792

  5. Recombinant production of native human α-1-antitrypsin protein in the liver HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jaberie, Hajar; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin

    2016-10-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is associated with emphysema and liver disease. Only plasma-derived A1AT protein is available for augmentation therapy. Recombinant A1AT (recA1AT) protein expressed in various types of available hosts are either non-glycosylated or aberrantly glycosylated resulting into reduced stability and biological activity. To overcome these limitations, we have used the human liver HepG2 cell line to produce recA1AT protein. HepG2 cells were transfected by A1AT cDNA and cell populations were generated that stably overexpressed A1AT protein. Real-time RT-PCR and rocket immunoelectrophoresis of cell culture supernatants indicated that the transfection resulted more than two-fold increase in A1AT production compared to that of control parental cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that both plasma and HepG2-produced A1AT proteins have identical molecular weight in either glycosylated or deglycosylated form. Partial digestion with PNGase F indicated that the three N-glycosylation sites of recA1AT, like the native A1AT protein in plasma, are occupied. Recombinant A1AT also like the native A1AT was thermostable and could efficiently inhibit trypsin proteolytic activity against BSA and BAPNA chromogenic substrate. The recombinant HepG2 cells cultured in media containing B27 serum free supplement released recA1AT at the same level as in the serum containing media. RecA1AT production in HepG2 cells grown under serum free condition at a large scale could provide a reliable source of the native protein suitable for therapeutic use in human.

  6. Cytotoxicity assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with 5-500 μg/ml of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with 100 μg/ml and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with 50 μg/ml and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  7. Cytotoxicity evaluation of symmetrically branched glycerol trimer in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Licht; Watanabe, Masashi; Kono, Mai; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Hatsuhiko; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Nemoto, Hisao; Tsuchiya, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity is necessary for pharmaceuticals to achieve fine Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) properties including absorption and distribution, in particular. We have designed and proposed symmetrically branched oligoglycerols (BGL) as an alternative approach to improve the lipophilic-hydrophilic balance. We have previously shown that stability in circulation and water-solubility of such molecules as proteins, liposomes and hydrophobic compounds are much improved by conjugation to BGL. Albeit these successful applications of BGL, little was known whether BGL could be used in safety. Thus we conducted evaluation of the cytotoxicity of a representative BGL, symmetrically branched glycerol trimer (BGL003) in the cultured cells to clarify its biological safeness. Here we demonstrate that water-solubility of an extremely hydrophobic agent, fenofibrate was more than 2,000-fold improved just by conjugated with BGL003. BGL003 did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Thus BGL003 should be safe and suitable strategy to endow hydrophobic molecules with much hydrophilicity.

  8. Evaluation of anti-hepatocarcinoma capacity of puerarin nanosuspensions against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Puerarin (Pue), a major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Gegen, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Pue nanosuspension (Pue-NS) composed of Pue and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Pue-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Pue were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Pue-NS were 218.5 nm and -18.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Pue-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values of Pue-NS and bulk Pue were 3.39 and 5.73 μg/ml. These results suggest that the delivery of Pue-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  9. HMGB1 release by human liver L02 and HepG2 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ze-Bing; Dai, Xia-Hong; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhao, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Bao-Xin; Yi, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ruo-Chan; Li, Wen-Ting; Yaser, Ai-Madhagi; Huang, Yan; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2013-07-01

    Liver cells release the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein when exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). However, the timing and levels of protein released remain unclear. The present study aimed to characterize the secretion of the late pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver L02 and HepG2 cells. The human mononuclear macrophage cell line U937 was used as a control. Various concentrations of LPS were added to human U937, L02 and HepG2 cells for different durations, and the cells were analyzed at different time-points following this addition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure cellular HMGB1 mRNA levels, western blotting was performed to detect HMGB1 in cellular supernatants and the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol was examined using immunofluorescence staining. L02 and HepG2 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the control U937 cells 20 and 24 h following continuous exposure to LPS. U937 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the corresponding L02 and HepG2 cells 16 h following LPS exposure. The phase of HMGB1 protein detected in the cellular supernatants of L02 and HepG2 cells (16 h) was later than that of U937 cells (8 h). For the three cell lines, HMGB1 levels demonstrated a time dependency; however, the protein level was the highest in U937 cells. In the three cell lines, translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred; however, the phases of HMGB1 translocation in L02 and HepG2 cells occurred later than in U937 cells. LPS-induced secretion of the late pro‑inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver cells is characterized by a late phase of release and smaller quantity, and the process of HMGB1 secretion appears to be associated with HMGB1 translocation.

  10. Effect of sevoflurane on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells under conditions of high glucose and insulin.

    PubMed

    Nishiwada, Tadashi; Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Uemura, Keiko; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with morbidity and progression of some cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been reported that sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic agent commonly used in cancer surgery, can lead to lower overall survival rates than those observed when propofol is used to treat cancer patients, and sevoflurane increases cancer cell proliferation in in vitro studies. It has been also reported that glucose levels in rats anesthetized with sevoflurane were higher than those in rats anesthetized with propofol. We investigated the effect of sevoflurane, under conditions of high glucose and insulin, on cell proliferation in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. First, we exposed HepG2 cells to sevoflurane at 1 or 2 % concentration for 6 h in various glucose concentrations and then evaluated cell proliferation using the MTT assay. Subsequently, to mimic diabetic conditions observed during surgery, HepG2 cells were exposed to sevoflurane at 1 or 2 % concentration in high glucose concentrations at various concentrations of insulin for 6 h. One-percent sevoflurane exposure enhanced cell proliferation under conditions of high glucose, treated with 0.05 mg/l insulin. Our study implies that sevoflurane may affect cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a physiological situation mimicking that of diabetes.

  11. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2012-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 μg/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ► We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ► Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ► ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  12. Oroxylin A induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was involved in its antitumor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yang; Yang Yong; You Qidong . E-mail: qdyou@cpu.edu.cn; Liu Wei; Gu Hongyan; Zhao Li; Zhang Kun; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaotang; Guo Qinglong . E-mail: qinglongguo@hotmail.com

    2006-12-15

    We previously reported that wogonin, a flavonoid compound, was a potent apoptosis inducer of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and murine sarcoma S180 cells. In the present study, the effect of oroxylin A, one wogonin structurally related flavonoid isolated from Scutellariae radix, on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was examined and molecular mechanisms were also investigated. Oroxylin A inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner measured by MTT-assay. Treatment with an apoptosis-inducing concentration of oroxylin A caused typical morphological changes and apoptotic blebbing in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation assay was used to examine later apoptosis induced by oroxylin A. FACScan analysis revealed a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic and G{sub 2}/M phase arrest cells after oroxylin A treatment. The pro-apoptotic activity of oroxylin A was attributed to its ability to modulate the concerted expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and pro-caspase-3 proteins. The expression of Bcl-2 protein and pro-caspase-3 protein was dramatically decreased after treatment with oroxylin A. These results demonstrated that oroxylin A could effectively induce programmed cell death and suggested that it could be a promising antitumor drug.

  13. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  14. Comparative cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles in human larynx HEp2 and liver HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Khan, Shams T; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2015-06-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial and commercial importance. With the advent of nanotechnology, natural minerals including dolomite in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) are being utilized in various applications to improve the quality of products. However, safety or toxicity information of dolomite NPs is largely lacking. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in two widely used in vitro cell culture models: human airway epithelial (HEp2) and human liver (HepG2) cells. Concentration-dependent decreased cell viability and damaged cell membrane integrity revealed the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs. We further observed that dolomite NPs induce oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner, as indicated by depletion of glutathione and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that the mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were up-regulated whereas the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in HEp2 and HepG2 cells exposed to dolomite NPs. Moreover, the activity of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) was also higher in both kinds of cells treated with dolomite NPs. It is also worth mentioning that HEp2 cells seem to be marginally more susceptible to dolomite NPs exposure than HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by dolomite NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine treatment, which suggests that oxidative stress is primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in both HEp2 and HepG2 cells. Toxicity mechanisms of dolomite NPs warrant further investigations at the in vivo level.

  15. Peganum harmala L. differentially modulates cytochrome P450 gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    El Gendy, Mohamed A M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is a common plant in Middle East and it is still used traditionally to treat several diseases. The effect of P. harmala extract on the expression of different cytochrome P450's (CYP) involved in drug metabolism was examined in human HepG2 cells. Therefore, HepG2 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of plant extract and the CYP gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Our results showed that P. harmala extract significantly increased the expression of CYP1A2, 2C19, and 3A4 whereas; CYP 2B6, 2D6 and 2E1 was significantly decreased. We concluded that care should be taken when P. harmala is co-administered with other drugs.

  16. A polysaccharide from Andrographis paniculata induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanisms of a purified polysaccharide (APWP) from Andrographis paniculata, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The results showed that APWP was able to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that dose-dependent increase in proapoptotic Bax protein and no change in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in APWP-treated cells. Furthermore, exposure of tumor cells to APWP resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Besides, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated while caspase-8 was not affected in HepG2 cells followed by APWP treatment. All these results point clearly to the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in APWP-induced apoptosis and strongly suggest that APWP seems to be safe and effective in the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  17. PLTP secreted by HepG2 cells resembles the high-activity PLTP form in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Sarah; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Tenhunen, Jukka; Ehnholm, Christian

    2003-09-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important regulator of plasma HDL levels and HDL particle distribution. PLTP is present in plasma in two forms, one with high and the other with low phospholipid transfer activity. We have used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to study PLTP secreted from hepatic cells. PLTP activity was secreted by the cells into serum-free culture medium as a function of time. However, modification of a previously established ELISA assay to include a denaturing sample pretreatment with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate was required for the detection of the secreted PLTP protein. The HepG2 PLTP could be enriched by Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and eluted in size-exclusion chromatography at a position corresponding to the size of 160 kDa. PLTP coeluted with apolipoprotein E (apoE) but not with apoB-100 or apoA-I. A portion of PLTP was retained by an anti-apoE immunoaffinity column together with apoE, suggesting an interaction between these two proteins. Furthermore, antibodies against apoE but not those against apoB-100 or apoA-I were capable of inhibiting PLTP activity. These results show that the HepG2-derived PLTP resembles in several aspects the high-activity form of PLTP found in human plasma.

  18. [PCR analysis of the absolute number of copies of human chromosome 18 transcripts in liver and HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, Y Y; Ptitsyn, K G; Tikhonova, O V; Radko, S P; Kurbatov, L K; Vakhrushev, I V; Zgoda, V G; Ponomarenko, E A; Lisitsa, A V; Archakov, A I

    2017-03-01

    Using reverse transcription in conjunction with the quantitative real-time PCR or digital droplet PCR, the transcriptome profiling of human chromosome 18 has been carried out in liver hepatocytes and hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 cell line) in terms of the absolute number of each transcript per cell. The transcript abundance varies within the range of 0.006 to 9635 and 0.011 to 4819 copies per cell for HepG2 cell line and hepatocytes, respectively. The expression profiles for genes of chromosome 18 in hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were found to significantly correlate: the Spearman's correlation coefficient was equal to 0.81. The distribution of frequency of transcripts over their abundance was bimodal for HepG2 cells and unimodal for liver hepatocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the differential gene expression has revealed that genes of chromosome 18, overexpressed in HepG2 cells compared to hepatocytes, are associated with cell division and cell adhesion processes. It is assumed that the enhanced expression of those genes in HepG2 cells is related to the proliferation activity of cultured cells. The differences in transcriptome profiles have to be taken into account when modelling liver hepatocytes with cultured HepG2 cells.

  19. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell death induced by rhein.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiong; Bian, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Xiao-Le; Zhu, Bin; Yu, Bo; Zhai, Qing

    2013-12-01

    Rhein, a compound found as a glucoside in the root of rhubarb, is currently a subject of interest for its antitumor properties. The apoptosis of tumor cell lines induced by rhein was observed, and the involvement of mitochondria was established; however, the role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) remains unknown. Here we report that MPT plays an important role in the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cells induced by rhein. After adding rhein to the isolated hepatic mitochondria, swelling effects and the leakage of Ca(2+) were observed. These alterations were suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA), an MPT inhibitor. Furthermore, in Hep-G2 cells, the decrease of ATP production, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), the release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), and the activation of caspase 3 were also observed. These toxic effects of rhein can also be attenuated by CsA as well. Moreover, TUNEL assay confirmed that in the presence of CsA, rhein-induced apoptosis was largely inhibited. These results suggest that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Hep-G2 cell injury induced by rhein, and imply that MPT may contribute to the anti-cancer activity of rhein. © 2013.

  20. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells. PMID:22645629

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  2. The role of oxidative stress in citreoviridin-induced DNA damage in human liver-derived HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuntao; Jiang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Dong; Yang, Guang; Geng, Cheng-Yan; Li, Qiujuan; Zhong, Lai-Fu; Sun, Qinghua; Chen, Min

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that citreoviridin (CIT) induces DNA damage in human liver-derived HepG2 cells through an oxidative stress mechanism and that N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) protects against CIT-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. CIT-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells was evaluated by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. To elucidate the genotoxicity mechanisms, the level of oxidative DNA damage was tested by immunoperoxidase staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined; mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal membranes' permeability were detected; furthermore, protective effects of NAC on CIT-induced ROS formation and CIT-induced DNA damage were evaluated in HepG2 cells. A significant dose-dependent increment in DNA migration was observed at tested concentrations (2.50-10.00 µM) of CIT. The levels of ROS, 8-OHdG formation were increased by CIT, and significant depletion of GSH in HepG2 cells was induced by CIT. Destabilization of lysosome and mitochondria was also observed in cells treated with CIT. In addition, NAC significantly decreased CIT-induced ROS formation and CIT-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The data indicate that CIT induces DNA damage in HepG2 cells, most likely through oxidative stress mechanisms; that NAC protects against DNA damage induced by CIT in HepG2 cells; and that depolarization of mitochondria and lysosomal protease leakage may play a role in CIT-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. A bioassay using the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for detecting phototoxicity of furocoumarins.

    PubMed

    Colombain, M; Goll, V; Muyard, F; Girard, C; Bévalot, F; Richert, L

    2001-10-01

    We successfully evaluated the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 as a model to assess phototoxicity of coumarins. Five natural furocoumarins were tested and their phototoxic activities, obtained by measuring cell viability in the presence of UV using the MTT test, were as follows: xanthotoxin (8-MOP) > heraclenol = trichoclin = imperatorin > peucedanin, both in growing and confluent cell cultures. This easy-to-perform, miniaturised, quantitative and sensitive method could therefore be used as a primary screening test for phototoxicity of a large number of compounds and plant extracts.

  4. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments.

  5. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D.; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments. PMID:27738496

  6. Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Dwayne J.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis arises from the active initiation and propagation of a series of highly orchestrated specific biochemical events leading to the demise of the cell. It is a normal physiological process, which occurs during embryonic development as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Diverse groups of molecules are involved in the apoptosis pathway and it functions as a mechanism to eliminate unwanted or irreparably damaged cells. However, inappropriate induction of apoptosis by environmental agents has broad ranging pathologic implications and has been associated with several diseases including cancer. The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity results in our laboratory indicating an LD50 of 3.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL for mercury in HepG2 cells. The study data indicated a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and the degree of early and late-stage apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.03 ± 0.03%, 5.19 ± 0.04%, 6.36 ± 0.04%, and 8.84 ± 0.02% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively, indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells undergoing late apoptosis were 3.58 ± 0.03%, 17.06 ± 0.05%, 23.32 ± 0.03%, and 34.51 ± 0.01% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively

  7. Antitumor activities of extracts from selected desert plants against HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Thoppil, Roslin J; Harlev, Eli; Mandal, Animesh; Nevo, Eviatar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are produced by desert plants to protect themselves against stressful environments. They have been shown to be useful in preventing and fighting adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases, including cancer. Although many desert plants have been investigated for their antitumor properties, a large number of them still remain to be explored for possible therapeutic applications in oncologic diseases. To screen the antitumor effects of selected desert plants, namely Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. (Compositae), Ochradenus baccatus Delile (Resedaceae), Origanum dayi Post (Lamiaceae), Phlomis platystegia Post (Lamiaceae) and Varthemia iphionoides Boiss (Compositae), against an in vitro tumor model utilizing HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The aqueous extracts of aerial parts of the aforementioned plants were prepared and used for the in vitro experiments. The HepG2 cells were exposed to varying concentrations (0-4 mg/mL) of each plant extract for 24 or 48 h and the cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT assay. Following 24 h exposure, O. dayi extract exhibited a substantial antiproliferative effect in HepG2 cells (IC50 = 1.0 mg/mL) followed by O. baccatus (IC50 = 1.5 mg/mL). All plant extracts displayed cytotoxicity following 48 h exposure. Nevertheless, a substantial effect was observed with O. dayi (IC50 = 0.35 mg/mL) or O. baccatus (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL). The aqueous extracts from aerial parts of O. dayi and O. baccatus possess antitumor effects against human liver cancer cells. These desert plants represent valuable resources for the development of potential anticancer agents.

  8. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  9. The effects of garlic-derived sulfur compounds on cell proliferation, caspase 3 activity, thiol levels and anaerobic sulfur metabolism in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iciek, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Inga; Chwatko, Grażyna; Sokołowska-Jeżewicz, Maria; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Rokita, Hanna

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present studies was to determine whether the mechanism of biological action of garlic-derived sulfur compounds in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells can be dependent on the presence of labile sulfane sulfur in their molecules. We investigated the effect of allyl sulfides from garlic: monosulfide, disulfide and trisulfide on cell proliferation and viability, caspase 3 activity and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in HepG2 cells. In parallel, we also examined the influence of the previously mentioned compounds on the levels of thiols, glutathione, cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine, and on the level of sulfane sulfur and the activity of its metabolic enzymes: rhodanese, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and cystathionase. Among the compounds under study, diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a sulfane sulfur-containing compound, showed the highest biological activity in HepG2 cells. This compound increased the H(2)O(2) formation, lowered the thiol level and produced the strongest inhibition of cell proliferation and the greatest induction of caspase 3 activity in HepG2 cells. DATS did not affect the activity of sulfurtransferases and lowered sulfane sulfur level in HepG2 cells. It appears that sulfane sulfur containing DATS can be bioreduced in cancer cells to hydroperthiol that leads to H(2)O(2) generation, thereby influencing transmission of signals regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Comparative cytotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Zheng, Jiwen; Graham, Lesley; Chen, Lynn; Ihrie, John; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics has increased significantly owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. As a consequence, the need for validated rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity is necessary to ensure consumer safety. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential cytotoxicity of food- and cosmetic-related nanoparticles. The two cell culture models were utilized to compare the potential cytotoxicity of 20-nm silver. The average size of the silver nanoparticle determined by our transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was 20.4 nm. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The concentration of the 20-nm silver solution determined by our inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml(-1) . Our ICP-MS and TEM analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Cytotoxicity, determined by the Alamar Blue reduction assay, was evaluated in the nanosilver concentration range of 0.1 to 20 µg ml(-1) . Significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the nanosilver in HepG2 cells was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 20 µg ml(-1) and at a higher concentration range of 10 to 20 µg ml(-1) in Caco2 cells compared with the vehicle control. A concentration-dependent decrease in dsDNA content was observed in both cell types exposed to nanosilver but not controls, suggesting an increase in DNA damage. The DNA damage was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 20 µg ml(-1) . Nanosilver-exposed HepG2 and Caco2 cells showed no cellular oxidative stress, determined by the dichlorofluorescein assay, compared with the vehicle control in the concentration range used in this study. A concentration-dependent decrease in

  11. Induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) on human hepatoma cell line HepG2: influence of cytokines and hepatitis B virus-DNA transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Volpes, R; van den Oord, J J; Desmet, V J; Yap, S H

    1992-01-01

    Human hepatocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (CD54) was studied in vitro by exposing the well differentiated human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 to various cytokines. In addition, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA transfected HepG2 cells were also analysed. Expression of ICAM-1 on HepG2 cells was then revealed with an immunohistochemical procedure. Untreated HepG2 cells were unreactive, but showed strong cytoplasmic ICAM-1 immunoreactivity after treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This induction was completely inhibited by addition of a neutralizing antibody directed to IFN-gamma. IL-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IFN-alpha, used alone or in combination, did not induce ICAM-1 expression, neither did they inhibit the IFN-gamma-induced expression of this adhesion molecule on HepG2 cells. Untreated hepatitis B virus-DNA transfected HepG2 cells expressed membranous ICAM-1. These results indicate that IFN-gamma is the main cytokine trigger for ICAM-1 expression on HepG2 cells, suggesting that in areas of liver inflammation this adhesion molecule is up-regulated on hepatocytes by locally released IFN-gamma. In addition, expression of ICAM-1 by hepatitis B virus-DNA transfected HepG2 cells suggests other, still unknown, triggering mechanisms in the induction of such adhesion molecules, for instance gene activation by viral genome, or autocrine virus-induced hepatocellular cytokine production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1346374

  12. Selenium methylselenocysteine protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Susana; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Martín, M Angeles; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Selenium methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys) is a common selenocompound in the diet with a tested chemopreventive effect. This study investigated the potential protective effect of Se-MeSeCys against a chemical oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Speciation of selenium derivatives by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry depicts Se-MeSeCys as the only selenocompound in the cell culture. Cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase) and markers of oxidative status--concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)--were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with Se-MeSeCys for 20 h completely prevented the enhanced cell damage, MDA concentration and GR and GPx activity and the decreased GSH induced by t-BOOH but did not prevent increased ROS generation. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of Se-MeSeCys in the nanomolar to micromolar range confers a significant protection against an oxidative insult.

  13. The effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on the apoptosis of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Zhang, Bing-Yuan; Dong, Qian; Wang, Bao-Lei; Sun, Xi-Bao

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) on the apoptosis of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 were examined. The underlying mechanism was investigated by determining the effect of SJAMP on the expression of Bcl-2 and nm23-H1 genes in HepG2 cells. In vitro cultured HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of SJAMP. The dimethylthiazol (MTT) assay was used to determine the inhibition of cell proliferation. Expression of Bcl-2 and nm23-H1 genes was determined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that SJAMP inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, SJAMP induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, and SJAMP decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of nm23-H1. We conclude that SJAMP inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis. These results provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of SJAMP as a potential antitumor component for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Differential Genomic Effects of Six Different TiO2 Nanomaterials on Human Liver HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Thai, Sheau-Fung; Wallace, Kathleen A; Jones, Carlton P; Ren, Hongzu; Grulke, Eric; Castellon, Benjamin T; Crooks, James; Kitchin, Kirk T

    2016-07-01

    Human HepG2 cells were exposed to six TiO2 nanomaterials (with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 22 to 214 nm, either 0.3, 3, or 30 μg/mL) for 3 days. Some of these canonical pathways changed by nano-TiO2 in vitro treatments have been already reported in the literature, such as NRF2-mediated stress response, fatty acid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis, immune response, cholesterol biosynthesis, and glycolysis. But this genomic study also revealed some novel effects such as protein synthesis, protein ubiquitination, hepatic fibrosis, and cancer-related signaling pathways. More importantly, this genomic analysis of nano-TiO2 treated HepG2 cells linked some of the in vitro canonical pathways to in vivo adverse outcomes: NRF2-mediated response pathways to oxidative stress, acute phase response to inflammation, cholesterol biosynthesis to steroid hormones alteration, fatty acid metabolism changes to lipid homeostasis alteration, G2/M cell checkpoint regulation to apoptosis, and hepatic fibrosis/stellate cell activation to liver fibrosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of human mesenchymal stem cells on the growth of HepG2 and Hela cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaohui; Matsumoto, Rena; Yang, Pengyuan; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) accumulate at carcinomas and have a great impact on cancer cell's behavior. Here we demonstrated that hMSCs could display both the promotional and inhibitive effects on growth of HepG2 and Hela cells by using the conditioned media, indirect co-culture, and cell-to-cell co-culture. Cell growth was increased following the addition of lower proportion of hMSCs while decreased by treatment of higher proportion of hMSCs. We also established a novel noninvasive label way by using internalizing quantum dots (i-QDs) for study of cell-cell contact in the co-culture, which was effective and sensitive for both tracking and distinguishing different cells population without the disturbance of cells. Furthermore, we investigated the role of hMSCs in regulation of cell growth and showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways were involved in hMSC-mediated cell inhibition and proliferation. Our findings suggested that hMSCs regulated cancer cell function by providing a suitable environment, and the discovery from the study would provide some clues for development of effective strategy for hMSC-based cancer therapies.

  16. Inhibition of Aurora A Kinase by Alisertib Induces Autophagy and Cell Cycle Arrest and Increases Chemosensitivity in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiaohua; Yu, Xinfa; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Chengyu; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Aurora A kinase represent a feasible target in cancer therapy. To evaluate the proteomic response of human liver carcinoma cells to alisertib (ALS) and identify the molecular targets of ALS, we examined the effects of ALS on the proliferation, cell cycle, autophagy, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity in HepG2 cells. The stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based quantitative proteomic study was performed to evaluate the proteomic response to ALS. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed using flow cytometry and autophagy was determined using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our SILAC proteomic study showed that ALS regulated the expression of 914 proteins, with 407 molecules being up-regulated and 507 molecules being down-regulated in HepG2 cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and KEGG pathway analysis identified 146 and 32 signaling pathways were regulated by ALS, respectively, which were associated with cell survival, programmed cell death, and nutrition-energy metabolism. Subsequently, the verification experiments showed that ALS remarkably arrested HepG2 cells in G2/M phase and led to an accumulation of aneuploidy via regulating the expression of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced a marked autophagy in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Autophagy inhibition promoted the pro-apoptotic effect of ALS, indicating a cyto-protective role of ALS-induced autophagy. ALS increased the chemosensitivity of HepG2 cells to cisplatin and doxorubicin. Taken together, ALS induces autophagy and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells via PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated pathway. Autophagy inhibition may promote the anticancer effect of ALS and sensitize the chemotherapy in HepG2 cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Effects of barley β-glucan on radiation damage in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Laleh; Goliaei, Bahram; Taghizadeh, Bita; Nikoofar, Alireza

    2014-12-01

    Damage to normal tissue is an obstacle to radiotherapy of cancer. We have tested whether barley β-glucan can enhance radioprotection in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxicity of β-glucan was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A clonogenic assay was used to study the sensitivity of cells to β-glucan, ionizing radiation (2-8Gy), and the combination of both treatments. Acridine Orange/ethidium bromide staining was used to examine induction of apoptosis by β-glucan, radiation (6Gy), and the combination. DNA strand breaks were assessed by the comet assay. The MTT assay showed that treatment with β-glucan was not cytotoxic. Indeed, a slight increase in cell viability was observed. Pre-treatment with β-glucan, 1μg/ml, for 72h protected HepG2 cells against radiation, as indicated by increased surviving fraction, reduced apoptosis, and fewer DNA strand breaks. These results show that barley β-glucan is a radioprotective agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell-derived Exosome on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Interaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Sun, Zhao; Han, Qin; Xue, Chunling; Bai, Chunmei

    2017-06-20

    Objective To investigate the effect of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell-derived Exosome on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSC)into cancer-associated myofibroblasts(CAF)and the impacts of CAF on liver cancer cell proliferation,migration,and invasion. Methods The protein expression of HepG2 cell-derived Exosome was detected by Western blotting. MSCs were separated from human adipose tissue and cultured with HepG2 cell-derived Exosome(100 ng/nl)to initiate differentiation. The expressions of mesenchymal markers and several interleukins were also detected by Western blotting. HepG2 cells were co-cultured with the conditioned media(CM),in which HepG2 Exosome induced the differentiation of MSC into CAF. The expressions of epithelial and mesenchymal markers were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR)and Western blotting. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay. Transwell chambers were used in the in vitro migration and invasion assay. Results HepG2 cell-derived particles expressed CD63,70 kilodalton heat shock proteins,and 90 kilodalton heat shock proteins. With the treatment of HepG2 cell-derived Exosome,the expressions of mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin,fibroblast activation protein α,interleukin(IL)-6,IL-8,and IL-1β were up-regulated,while vascular endothelial growth factor had no significant change. The conditioned media which HepG2 Exosome induced MSC differentiation CAF(CAF-CM)could significantly promote HepG2 cells proliferation(1.075±0.104),compared to BSA control(0.874±0.066,P=0.023)and MSC-CM(0.649±0.034,P=0.0005). CAF-CM could significantly enhance cell migration [(42.5±9.1) cells vs.(18.5±3.1) cells,P=0.001] and invasion [(29.0±3.5) cells vs.(13.1±3.7) cells,P=0.009] compared to its control group. Moreover the conditioned medium which HepG2 Exosome induced MSC to differentiate into CAF could also promote the expressions of mesenchyme-related genes Smad interacting protein 1(P=0.040),

  19. Bis(hydroxyphenyl)methane-bisphenol F-metabolism by the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Coralie; Perdu, Elisabeth; de Sousa, Georges; Debrauwer, Laurent; Rahmani, Roger; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2011-10-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) is present in the environment and as a contaminant of food. Humans may, therefore, be exposed to BPF, and an assessment of this risk is required. BPF has been shown to have genotoxic and endocrine-disruptor properties in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), which is a model system for studies of xenobiotic toxicity. In this study, we investigated the ability of HepG2 cells to biotransform BPF, because metabolism may affect the observed effects of BPF, and we compared this metabolic capacity with that of human hepatocytes. Cells were incubated for 24 hours with [(3)H]-BPF. The culture medium was then concentrated and its metabolites were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. BPF was largely metabolized into the corresponding sulfate by the HepG2 cell line. BPF was metabolized into both sulfate and glucuronide by human hepatocytes, but with differences between individuals. The metabolism of BPF in both HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes suggests the existence of a detoxification pathway. Thus, these two cell models differ in metabolic capacity. It is, therefore, very important, when assessing the toxic effects of substances in vitro, to determine, in parallel, the biotransformation capacities of the model used to extrapolate in vivo.

  20. Chemical characterization of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide and its tumor-inhibitory effects against human hepatoblastoma HepG-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Daoyuan; Wang, Ning; Guo, Jianjun; Yuan, Li; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-03-15

    This study was designed to investigate the chemical characterization and antitumor effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (PEP). The crude PEP was fractionated into two fractions, namely PEP-1 and PEP-2. HPLC analysis showed that PEP-1 and PEP-2 were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose with the average molecular weights of 2.54×10(4)Da (PEP-1) and 4.63×10(5)Da (PEP-2), respectively. High molecular mass PEP-2 was shown to exhibit stronger growth inhibition against human hepatoblastoma HepG-2 cells in comparison with PEP-1. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PEP-2 exerted a stimulatory effect on apoptosis of HepG-2 cells, and induced the cell-cycle arrest at the S-phase, with the observation of intracellular ROS production. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially PEP-2, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for the anticancer health benefits of P. eryngii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. C-Phycocyanin inhibits cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Basha, Osama M; Hafez, Raghda A; El-Ayouty, Yassin M; Mahrous, Karima F; Bareedy, Mohammed H; Salama, Ahmed M

    2008-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc) is one of the major biliprotein pigments of unicellular cyanbacterium of Spirulina platenesis, it has nutritional, medicinal, and hepatoprotectant application. The growth and multiplication of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) under the effect of different concentrations of C-PC (0.8, 1.75, 3.5 and 7.0 microg/ml) against untreated cells as control for 24h were investigated. The results showed that the proliferating cells in presence of C-PC reached 70, 51, 44, and 39%, respectively. The results revealed that the greatest reduction in proliferation of cells was recorded at 7.0 microg/ml and LC50 at 1.75 microg/ml of C-PC. In parallel, to the previous results HCl-denatured MG-P revealed that in mass of cells there is a pattern of apoptosis because the expanded cytoplasmic area (bluish-green) reduced and appeared faintly red as C-PC concentration increased. Moreover, the cells lost all the nuclear entities then, become fragmented and having no nuclear remnants. The C-PC may be a new potential anti-cancer drug for therapy of human hepatoma cells.

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates high glucose-induced insulin signaling blockade in human hepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-08-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes which as a result of insulin signaling defects. It has been suggested that the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) displays some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanism for EGCG insulin-enhancing effects is incompletely understood. In the present study, the investigations of EGCG on insulin signaling are performed in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells cotreated with high glucose. We found that the high glucose condition causes significant increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), leading to reduce insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. As the results, the insulin metabolic effects of glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake are inhibited by high glucose. However, the treatment of EGCG improves insulin-stimulated downsignaling by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we also demonstrated these EGCG effects are essential depends on the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Together, our data suggest a putative link between high glucose and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells, and the EGCG treatment attenuates insulin signaling blockade by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation through the AMPK activation pathway.

  3. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

  4. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    DOE PAGES

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; ...

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than thosemore » in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.« less

  5. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. These findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures. PMID:26323570

  6. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.

  7. The roles of p38MAPK and caspase-3 in DADS-induced apoptosis in human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To explore the function of p38MAPK and caspase-3 in DADS-induced apoptosis in human HepG2 cells, and discuss the signal transduetion mechanism of HepG2 cells in the apoptosis process induced by DADS by using the inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580) and caspase-3 (Z-DEVD-FMK). Methods After the human HepG2 cells had been treated with the DADS and inhibitors for 24 h, cell viability was determined by the MTT method, apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) and the expressions of p38MAPK and caspase-3 were measured by western-blot. Results Our results indicated that DADS activities the p38MAPK and caspase-3, but the inhibitors, SB203580 and Z-DEVD-FMK (for p38MAPKand for caspase-3, respectively), both have the effect of inhibitory activity on P38MAPK and caspase-3. Furthermore, a combination treatment with both DADS and inhibitor (SB203580 or Z-DEVD-FMK) decreases the inhibitory and apoptotic activity of HepG2 cells increased compared with DADS-treated. Conclusions Our data indicate that p38MAPK and caspase-3 are involved in the process of DADS-induced apoptosis in human HepG2 cells and interact with each other. PMID:20478073

  8. 2-methoxyjuglone induces apoptosis in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits in vivo antitumor activity in a H22 mouse hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heng-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Qiong; Li, Xue-; Zeng, Fan-Bo; Ruan, Han-Li

    2013-05-24

    In order to discover anticancer agents from natural sources, an ethanol-soluble extract of the root bark of Juglans cathayensis was investigated and showed cytotoxic effects against various human cancer cell lines. A subsequent phytochemical study on the EtOAc-soluble fraction determined 2-methoxyjuglone (1) as one of the main active constituents. Compound 1 was shown to be cytotoxic against HepG2 cells. Morphological features of apoptosis were observed in 1-treated HepG2 cells, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis with propidium iodide staining showed that 1 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometric analysis with annexin V and propidium iodide staining demonstrated that 1 induced HepG2 cell apoptotic events in a dose-dependent manner (0-8 μg/mL). Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that 1 induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway (intrinsic pathway). An in vivo experiment using tumor-bearing mice showed that treatment with 1 at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg per day decreased the tumor mass by 56% and 67%, respectively.

  9. A cell-based, multiparametric sensor approach characterises drug-induced cytotoxicity in human liver HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Swen; Török, Michael; Kettiger, Helene; Treiber, Alexander; Hafner, Mathias; Huwyler, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is of considerable concern in drug discovery and development, placing emphasis on the need for predictive in vitro technologies that identify potential cytotoxic side effects of drugs. A label-free, real-time, multiparametric cytosensor system has therefore been established for in vitro assessment of drug-induced toxicity. The system is based on monitoring cellular oxygen consumption, acidification and impedance of human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells. The read-out derived from the multiparametric cytosensor system has been optimised and permits sensitive, reliable, and simultaneous recording of cell physiological signals, such as metabolic activity, cellular respiration and morphological changes and cell adhesion upon exposure to a drug. Analysis of eight prototypic reference drugs revealed distinct patterns of drug-induced physiological signals. Effects proved to be rigidly concentration-dependent. Based on signal patterns and reversibility of the observed effects, compounds could be classified based as triggering mechanisms of respiratory or metabolic stress or conditions leading to cell death (necrosis-like and apoptosis-like). A test-flag-risk mitigation strategy is proposed to address potential risks for drug-induced cytotoxicity.

  10. β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Ya-jie; Zhai, Ping-ping; Su, Xi; Li, Xiang; Li, Yan; Hou, Li; Cui, Xiao-nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells. Methods. After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks. Results. β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration. Conclusion. β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα. PMID:26221582

  11. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs) have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR) on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments. PMID:21711951

  12. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Shi, Lixin; Selke, Matthias; Wang, Xuemei

    2011-06-13

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs) have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR) on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  13. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines.

  14. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells.

  15. [Inhibitory Effect of the Excretory/Scretory Proteins of Trichinella spiralis on Proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell line].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-jie; Xu, Jing; Huang, Hong-ying; Xu, Guo-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 Cell line were cultured with different concentrations of excretory/secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis, and MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell inhibition rate. After co-cultured with 300 µg/ml excretory/secretory proteins for 24 h, the HepG2 cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope with AO and EB staining. When co-cultured with 75 µg/ml excretory/secretory proteins for 24 h, the HepG2 cells were quantified by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC/PI stain, and the expression of cleaved-caspase 9 was detected by immunofluorescence assay. The proliferation of HepG2 cells was inhibited significantly by excretory/secretory proteins in a dosage dependant manner. Under fluorescence microscope, some HepG2 cells presented typical apoptotic morphologic changes and the cleaved-caspase 9 protein expression was higher than that of the control. The early and late apoptotic cells and necrotic ones occupied 17.9%, 7.3%, and 6.6%, respectively.

  16. Ionic mechanisms of regulatory volume increase (RVI) in the human hepatoma cell-line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Frank; Lawonn, Peter; Tinel, Hanna

    2002-03-01

    We studied the effects of hypertonic stress on ion transport and cell volume regulation (regulatory volume increase; RVI) in the human tumor cell-line HepG2. Ion conductances were monitored in intracellular current-clamp measurements with rapid ion-substitutions and in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings; intracellular pH buffering capacity and activation of Na(+)/H(+) antiport were determined fluorometrically; the rates of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were quantified on the basis of time-dependent and furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake, respectively; changes in cell volume were recorded by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy. It was found that hypertonic conditions led to the activation of a cation conductance that was inhibited by Gd(3+), flufenamate as well as amiloride, but not by benzamil or ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA). Most likely, this cation conductance was non-selective for Na(+) over K(+). Hypertonic stress did not change K(+) conductance, whereas possible changes in Cl(-) conductance remain ambiguous. The contribution of Na(+)/H(+)antiport to the RVI process appeared to be minor. Under hypertonic conditions an approximately 3.5-fold stimulation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)symport was observed but this transporter did not significantly contribute to the overall RVI process. Hypertonic stress did not increase the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which even under isotonic conditions appeared to be working at its limit. It is concluded that the main mechanism in the RVI of HepG2 cells is the activation of a novel non-selective cation conductance. In contrast, there is little if any contribution of K(+) conductance, Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to this process.

  17. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  18. Inhibition of HBV Replication in HepG2.2.15 Cells by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Song, Hong-Li; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HBV therapy is essential for patients awaiting liver transplantation. This study aimed to explore the effects of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from the peripheral blood of hepatitis B patients on the replication of HBV in vivo and to evaluate the biosafety of DCs in clinical therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from HBV-infected patients and maturation-promoting factors and both HBsAg and HBcAg were used to induce DC maturation. Mature DCs and lymphocytes were co-cultured with human hepatocyte cell HL-7702 or HBV-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell HepG2.2.15. We found that mature lymphocytes exposed to DCs in vitro did not influence morphology or activities of HL-7702 and HepG2.2.15 cells. Liver function indexes and endotoxin levels in the cell supernatants did not change in these co-cultures. Additionally, supernatant and intracellular HBV DNA levels were reduced when HepG2.2.15 cells were co-cultured with mature lymphocytes that had been cultured with DCs, and HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) levels in HepG2.2.15 cells also decreased. Importantly, DC-mediated immunotherapy had no mutagenic effect on HBV genomic DNA by gene sequencing of the P, S, X, and C regions of HBV genomic DNA. We conclude that PBMC-derived DCs from HBV-infected patients act on autologous lymphocytes to suppress HBV replication and these DC clusters showed favorable biosafety.

  19. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (p<0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and flow cytometry analysis. It also upregulated the expression of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3; and downregulated Bcl-2 expression. The bamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  20. Ornithine transcarbamylase and arginase I deficiency are responsible for diminished urea cycle function in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Eaton, Simon; Damelin, Leonard H; Rees, Myrddin; Hodgson, Humphrey J F; Selden, Clare

    2007-01-01

    A possible cell source for a bio-artificial liver is the human hepatblastoma-derived cell line HepG2 as it confers many hepatocyte functions, however, the urea cycle is not maintained resulting in the lack of ammonia detoxification via this cycle. We investigated urea cycle activity in HepG2 cells at both a molecular and biochemical level to determine the causes for the lack of urea cycle expression, and subsequently addressed reinstatement of the cycle by gene transfer. Metabolic labelling studies showed that urea production from 15N-ammonium chloride was not detectable in HepG2 conditioned medium, nor could 14C-labelled urea cycle intermediates be detected. Gene expression data from HepG2 cells revealed that although expression of three urea cycle genes Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I, Arginosuccinate Synthetase and Arginosuccinate Lyase was evident, Ornithine Transcarbamylase and Arginase I expression were completely absent. These results were confirmed by Western blot for arginase I, where no protein was detected. Radiolabelled enzyme assays showed that Ornithine Transcarbamylase functional activity was missing but that Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I, Arginosuccinate Synthetase and Arginosuccinate Lyase were functionally expressed at levels comparable to cultured primary human hepatocytes. To restore the urea cycle, HepG2 cells were transfected with full length Ornithine Transcarbamylase and Arginase I cDNA constructs under a CMV promoter. Co-transfected HepG2 cells displayed complete urea cycle activity, producing both labelled urea and urea cycle intermediates. This strategy could provide a cell source capable of urea synthesis, and hence ammonia detoxificatory function, which would be useful in a bio-artificial liver.

  1. Evaluation of three-dimensional cultured HepG2 cells in a nano culture plate system: an in vitro human model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aritomi, Kohei; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Abe, Nazuki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Kai, Hirofumi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-01-01

    Overdoses of acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) cause severe liver injury, yet there is no common or high throughput in vitro human APAP model. This study examined the characteristics and usefulness of HepG2 cells grown in a nano culture plate (NCP) system, a three-dimensional culture method, as an in vitro human model for APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The NCP-cultured HepG2 cells showed higher expression of mRNA and protein levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, which metabolizes APAP to a toxic metabolite, APAP-cysteine adduct formation, and higher sensitivity against APAP-induced cell injury compared with conventionally cultured cells. We demonstrated that treatment of APAP in NCP-cultured HepG2 cells shows key mechanistic features of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, such as decreases in intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of JNK, and cellular injury; and pharmacological agents, such as Cyclosporine A (a mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), prevented cell injury induced by APAP exposure. In addition, the antidote of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, could attenuate cellular injury induced by APAP in NCP-cultured HepG2 cells. We suggest that cellular injury induced by APAP treatment using an NCP-HepG2 system is a useful human model to study mechanisms and screen drug candidates of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Cytotoxic effects induced by unmodified and organically modified nanoclays in the human hepatic HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Lordan, Sinéad; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2011-01-01

    The term 'nanoclay' generically refers to the natural clay mineral, montmorillonite, with silica and alumina as the dominant constituents. The incorporation of nanoclays into polymeric systems dramatically enhances their barrier properties as well as their thermal and mechanical resistance. Consequently, nanoclays are employed in a wide range of industrial applications with recent studies reporting potential use in the modulation of drug release. With the increase in manufacturing of nanoclay-containing products, information on the toxicological and health effects of nanoclay exposure is warranted. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two different nanoclays: the unmodified nanoclay, Cloisite Na+ ®, and the organically modified nanoclay, Cloisite 93A®, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Following 24 h exposure the nanoclays significantly decreased cell viability. Cloisite Na+ induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation which coincided with increased cell membrane damage, whilst ROS generation did not play a role in Cloisite 93A-induced cell death. Neither of the nanoclays induced caspase-3/7 activation. Moreover, in the cell culture medium the nanoclays aggregated differently and this appeared to have an effect on their mechanisms of toxicity. Taken together, our data demonstrate that nanoclays are highly cytotoxic and as a result pose a possible risk to human health. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) induced micronucleus formation and DNA damage in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Evelyn; Kassie, Fekadu; Gminski, Richard; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2004-01-15

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), identified in diesel exhaust and in airborne particulate matter, is a potent mutagen in Salmonella, induces micronuclei formation in mice and in human cells and DNA adducts in rats. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxic potency of 3-NBA in human HepG2 cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). 3-NBA caused a genotoxic effect at concentrations > or =12 nM in both assays. In the micronucleus assay, we found 98.7+/-10.3 MN/1000 BNC at a concentration of 100 nM 3-NBA in comparison to 27.3+/-0.6 MN/1000 BNC with the negative control. At the same concentration, the DNA-migration (SCGE) showed an Olive tail moment (OTM) of 2.7+/-0.45 and %DNA in the tail of 8.28+/-0.76; OTM and %DNA in the tail of cells treated with the negative control were 0.73+/-0.08 and 2.81+/-0.30, respectively. The results are discussed under consideration of former studies.

  4. Human hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: Role of BH3 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.W.; Chen, W.N. . E-mail: WNChen@ntu.edu.sg

    2005-12-23

    The smallest protein of hepatitis B virus, HBX, has been implicated in the development of liver diseases by interfering with normal cellular processes. Its role in cell proliferation has been unclear as both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic activities have been reported. We showed molecular evidence that HBX induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. A Bcl-2 Homology Domain 3 was identified in HBX, which interacted with anti-apoptotic but not pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. HBX induced apoptosis when transfected into HepG2 cells, as demonstrated by both flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity. However, HBX protein may not be stable in apoptotic cells triggered by its own expression as only its mRNA or the fusion protein with the glutathione-S-transferase was detected in transfected cells. Our results suggested that HBX behaved as a pro-apoptotic protein and was able to induce apoptosis.

  5. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by a flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, and flow cytometry techniques were evaluated as tools for rapid screening of potential genotoxicity of food-related nanosilver. Comparative genotoxic potential of 20 nm silver was evaluated in HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures by a flow cytometric-based in vitro micronucleus assay. The nanosilver, characterized by the dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis, showed no agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20 nm silver by both cell types. The 20 nm silver exposure of HepG2 cells increased the concentration-dependent micronucleus formation sevenfold at 10 µg ml(-1) concentration in attached cell conditions and 1.3-fold in cell suspension conditions compared to the vehicle controls. However, compared to the vehicle controls, the 20 nm silver exposure of Caco2 cells increased the micronucleus formation 1.2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg ml(-1) both in the attached cell conditions as well as in the cell suspension conditions. Our results of flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay appear to suggest that the HepG2 cells are more susceptible to the nanosilver-induced micronucleus formation than the Caco2 cells compared to the vehicle controls. However, our results also suggest that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells and the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay are valuable tools for the rapid screening of genotoxic potential of nanosilver and deserve more careful evaluation.

  6. Simultaneous induction of apoptosis and necroptosis by Tanshinone IIA in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, T-W; Hsieh, W-H; Hung, M-C; Lin, I-H; Lai, S-C; Tzeng, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a constituent of the traditional medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in many cancer cells. Surprisingly, the present study finds that Tan IIA simultaneously causes apoptosis and necroptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We further find that apoptosis can be converted to necroptosis by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and the two death modes can be blocked by necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1. The underlying mechanisms are revealed by analysis of the signaling molecules using western blotting. In control cells, FLICE inhibitory protein in short form (FLIPS) is expressed in relatively high levels and binds to caspase 8 in ripoptosome, which supposedly sustains cell survival. However, in Tan IIA-treated cells, FLIPS is down-regulated and may thus cause homodimer formation of cleaved caspase 8, cleavage of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinases 1, 3 (RIP1, RIP3), and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), in turn leads to cell apoptosis. In parallel, Tan IIA causes necroptosis by forming a suggested necrosomal complex composed of RIP1/RIP3. Regarding the inhibitors, z-VAD-fmk diminishes the cleaved caspase 8, RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL induced by Tan IIA, and reconstructs the ripoptosome complex, which marks cells moving from apoptosis to necroptosis. Nec-1 recovers the Tan IIA down-regulated FLIPS, consequently causes FLIPS to form heterodimer with caspase 8 and thus block apoptosis. Meanwhile, cleaved forms of RIP1 and RIP3 were observed preventing necroptosis. Intriguingly, the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to HepG2 cells is enhanced by Tan IIA in a pilot study, which may be attributed to low FLIPS levels induced by Tan IIA. In short, Tan IIA simultaneously induces both Nec-1 inhibition and FLIPS regulation-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis, which has not been previously documented

  7. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUE-YONG; HUANG, HONG-YAN; WU, YIN-LIAN

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose-dependent, as well as time-dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose-dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  8. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Yong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Yin-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose‑dependent, as well as time‑dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub‑G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose‑dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose‑dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC.

  9. Imatinib induces up-regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, in human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Pakseresht, Behta; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Baghbani-arani, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the anti-tumor activity of Imatinib mesylate through modulation of NM23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Down regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, has been associated with several types of malignant cancer. Recently, effects of Imatinib mesylate, a first member of tyrosine kinases inhibitors, were indicated in research and treatment of different malignant tumors. Methods: Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after HepG2 cells exposure to Imatinib mesylate at various concentrations of 0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25,50μM for 24 hours. Also, quantitative real time PCR technique was applied for the detection of NM23 gene expression in HepG2 cell line. Results: There was a dose dependent increase in the cytotoxicity effect of imatinib. The real time PCR results demonstrated that inhibitory effect of Imatinib mesylate on viability via up regulation of NM23 gene expression compared to GAPDH gene (internal control gene) in cancer cells. Conclusion: According to our findings, imatinib can modulate metastasis by enhancing Nm23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

  10. Quercetin Induces Antiproliferative Activity Against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells by Suppressing Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ra Ham; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeon, Young-Joo; Bang, Woong; Cho, Jung-Jae; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical Research Quercetin, found in red onions and red apple skin can induce apoptosis insome malignant cells. However, the apoptotic effect of quercetin in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells via regulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) has not been studied. Here, we demonstrated that quercetin decreased cell growth and induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via suppression of Sp1 using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V, and Western blot analysis, an effect that was dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of HepG2 cells with quercetin reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis, followed by regulation of Sp1 and Sp1 regulatory protein. Taken together, the results suggest that quercetin can induce apoptotic cell death by regulating cell cycle and suppressing antiapoptotic proteins. Therefore, quercetin may be useful for cancer prevention. Drug Dev Res 76 : 9-16, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of coffee melanoidin on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Protection against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Goya, Luis; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Bravo, Laura; Morales, Francisco J

    2007-05-01

    Soluble high-molecular weight fraction (named melanoidin) from coffee brew was isolated by ultrafiltration, subsequently digested by simulating a gastric plus pancreatic digestive condition and partly characterized by CZE, gel-filtration and browning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of the coffee melanoidin submitted to gastrointestinal digestion on cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase leakage) and redox status of cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GR) were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of cultured HepG2 cells with 0.5-10 microg/mL digested coffee melanoidin (DCM) for 2 or 20 h completely prevented the increase in cell damage and GR and partly prevented the decrease of GSH and the increase of MDA and GPx evoked by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells. In contrast, increased ROS generation induced by t-BOOH was not prevented when cells were pretreated with DCM. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of DCM within the expected physiological range confers the cells a significant protection against an oxidative insult.

  12. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP—induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems. PMID:26714183

  13. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  14. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by fluorescent microscopy of cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus formation.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Roy, Shambhu; Zheng, Jiwen; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics to prevent fungal and bacterial growth, there is a need for validated rapid screening methods to assess the safety of nanoparticle exposure. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential genotoxicity of 20-nm nanosilver. The average silver nanoparticle size as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was 20.4 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The silver concentration in a 20-nm nanosilver solution determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml(-1) . Analysis by ICP-MS and TEM demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Genotoxicity was determined by the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay with acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei induced by the nanosilver was observed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 15 µg ml(-1) in both HepG2 and Caco2 cells compared with the control. Our results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Caco2 cells in terms of micronuclei formation induced by nanosilver exposure. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells in culture, represent potential screening models for prediction of genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles by in vitro micronucleus assay.

  15. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  16. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiao-pei; Ma, Yan-xia; Quan, Dan-ni; Zhang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2. PMID:28286534

  17. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Pei; Ma, Yan-Xia; Quan, Dan-Ni; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Miao; Fan, Xin-Rong

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2.

  18. [Inhibitory effect of lentivirus-mediated hTERTp-TK combined with hTERTp-tumstatin on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu-Xi; Niu, Xin; Deng, Zhi-Hua

    2015-11-01

    of apoptosis of the HepG2 cells. Cell morphology of major organs such as liver, spleen and kidney were similar to the control group. The combination also produced the most significant effect on tumor microvascular density (P less than 0.05) and the highest apoptosis index (P less than 0.05). The HTERT promoter can induce targeted expression of TK and tumstatin in HepG2 cells. Lv-hTERTp-TK combined with Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin can significantly inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo, which may be related to down-regulation ofbcl-2 and VEGF.

  19. Sodium cantharidinate induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through LC3 autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ran; Sun, Wen-Yi; Yu, De-Hai; Qiu, Wei; Yan, Wei-Qun; Ding, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guang-Yi; Li, Hai-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The function of sodium cantharidinate on inducing hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis was investigated for the first time. Sodium cantharidinate inhibits HepG2 cell growth mainly by LC3 autophagy pathway. MTT results show that sodium cantharidinate effectively inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induce cell apoptosis by caspase-3 activity. The further western blotting and FACS detection show that sodium cantharidinate initiates HepG2 cell autophagy program by LC3 pathway. Autophagy-specific inhibitor 3-MA reduce sodium cantharidinate-induced caspase-3 activity and HepG2 cell apoptosis. Silence of the LC3 gene in HepG2 cell lines also reduce sodium cantharidinate-induced cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data indicate that sodium cantharidinate induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through LC3 autophagy pathway. Sodium cantharidinate has potential for development as a new drug for treatment of human HCC.

  20. Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kap-Rang; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Park, Joon-Hong; Chang, Eun-Young; Baek, Eun-Jung; Chang, Jong-Sun; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-05-19

    As part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of Solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. Evaluations were carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomatine, and their common aglycon tomatidine; the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine. All compounds were active in the assay, with the glycoalkaloids being the most active and the hydrolysis products less so. The effectiveness against the liver cells was greater than against the colon cells. Potencies of alpha-tomatine and alpha-chaconine at a concentration of 1 microg/mL against the liver carcinoma cells were higher than those observed with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin. Because alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, and alpha-tomatine also inhibited normal human liver HeLa (Chang) cells, safety considerations should guide the use of these compounds as preventative or therapeutic treatments against carcinomas.

  1. Cytoskeleton interruption in human hepatoma HepG2 cells induced by ketamine occurs possibly through suppression of calcium mobilization and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huai-Chia; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent often used for inducing and maintaining anesthesia. Cytoskeletons contribute to the regulation of hepatocyte activity of drug biotransformation. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on F-actin and microtubular cytoskeletons in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and its possible molecular mechanisms. Exposure of HepG2 cells to ketamine at cell viability. Meanwhile, administration of therapeutic concentrations of ketamine obviously interrupted F-actin and microtubular cytoskeletons. In parallel, levels of intracellular calcium concentration- and time-dependently decreased after ketamine administration. Analysis by confocal microscopy further revealed that ketamine suppressed calcium mobilization from an extracellular buffer into HepG2 cells. Exposure to ketamine decreased cellular ATP levels. The mitochondrial membrane potential and complex I NADH dehydrogenase activity were both reduced after ketamine administration. Ketamine did not change the production of actin or microtubulin mRNA in HepG2 cells. Consequently, ketamine-caused cytoskeletal interruption led to suppression of CYP3A4 expression and its metabolizing activity. Therefore, this study shows that therapeutic concentrations of ketamine can disrupt F-actin and microtubular cytoskeletons possibly through suppression of intracellular calcium mobilization and cellular ATP synthesis due to down-regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and complex I enzyme activity. Such disruption of the cytoskeleton may lead to reductions in CYP3A4 activity in HepG2 cells.

  2. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A.; da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J.; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, adequate, and supraphysiological conditions) that induced a range of steady-state cellular concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate. Total cellular lipid content was greatest in the deficient (10 nM pyridoxal) medium. The percentage of arachidonic acid and the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid in the total lipid fraction were ∼15% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells, which suggests that vitamin B-6 restriction affects n-6 fatty acid interconversions. Metabolic flux studies indicated significantly lower fractional synthesis rate of oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 10, 20, and 50 nM pyridoxal, whereas that of eicosapentaenoic acid was lower in the cells cultured in 10 nM pyridoxal. Additionally, relative mRNA expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases were 40–50% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells. Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin B-6 restriction alters unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk. PMID:23211517

  3. Comparison of three methods for mitochondria isolation from the human liver cell line (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Tarban, Peyman; Akhondi, Mohammad Mahdi; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare three available methods for mitochondrial isolation from a human cell line to predict the best method for each probable application. Background: Organelle isolation is gaining importance in experimental laboratory settings. Mitochondrial dysfunction may affect tumorgenesis process. There are some evidences that transplantation of healthy, intact and active mitochondria into cells containing defective mitochondria may reduce the proliferation. Therefore, isolated mitochondria could be considered as an effective tool for assessment and management of mitochondrial related disorders. Patients and methods: Mitochondrial isolation from the human liver cell line (HepG2) was performed using two commercially available kits, including Qproteome (Qiagen) and MITOISO2 (Sigma-Aldrich), as well as a manual method. Integrity of inner membrane of mitochondria was assessed by JC-1 staining. Activity of isolated mitochondria was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining, and total yield of isolated mitochondria determined by micro-Lowry method. Finally, relative quantification using Real-time PCR was conducted to compare the mtDNA copy number of mitochondria isolated by three different methods. Results: Compared to other methods, manual kit resulted in higher yields of total amount of mitochondrial protein and mtDNA copy numbers. Isolated mitochondria by Qproteome kit, showed a higher activity. Finally, the integrity of inner-membrane of isolated mitochondria was significantly higher in Qproteome when compared with the other two methods. Conclusion: Due to differences in quality, quantity and activity of isolated mitochondria using three techniques discussed here, the method in which best-suited to each research project should be selected according to the distinct features of isolated mitochondria. PMID:27099670

  4. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  5. Transfer of Free Polymannose-type Oligosaccharides from the Cytosol to Lysosomes in Cultured Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HEPG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Pol, Agnès; Bauvy, Chantal; Codogno, Patrice; Moore, Stuart E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Large, free polymannose oligosaccharides generated during glycoprotein biosynthesis rapidly appear in the cytosol of HepG2 cells where they undergo processing by a cytosolic endo H–like enzyme and a mannosidase to yield the linear isomer of Man5GlcNAc (Man[α1-2]Man[α1-2]Man[α1-3][Man α1-6]Man[β14]GlcNAc). Here we have examined the fate of these partially trimmed oligosaccharides in intact HepG2 cells. Subsequent to pulse–chase incubations with d-[2- 3H]mannose followed by permeabilization of cells with streptolysin O free oligosaccharides were isolated from the resulting cytosolic and membrane-bound compartments. Control pulse–chase experiments revealed that total cellular free oligosaccharides are lost from HepG2 cells with a half-life of 3–4 h. In contrast use of the vacuolar H+/ATPase inhibitor, concanamycin A, stabilized total cellular free oligosaccharides and enabled us to demonstrate a translocation of partially trimmed oligosaccharides from the cytosol into a membrane-bound compartment. This translocation process was unaffected by inhibitors of autophagy but inhibited if cells were treated with either 100 μM swainsonine, which provokes a cytosolic accumulation of large free oligosaccharides bearing 8-9 residues of mannose, or agents known to reduce cellular ATP levels which lead to the accumulation of the linear isomer of Man5GlcNAc in the cytosol. Subcellular fractionation studies on Percoll density gradients revealed that the cytosol-generated linear isomer of Man5GlcNAc is degraded in a membrane-bound compartment that cosediments with lysosomes. PMID:9008702

  6. A study of the mechanism of in vitro cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles using catfish primary hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Aker, Winfred G.; Hwang, Huey-min; Yedjou, Clement G.; Yu, Hongtao; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), including nano metal oxides, are being used in diverse applications such as medicine, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of nanotechnology, it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within it after ingestion, inhalation or absorption. The toxicity of nano-ZnO, TiO2, CuO and Co3O4 was investigated using a primary culture of channel catfish hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells as in vitro model systems for assessing the impact of metal oxide NPs on human and environmental health. Some mechanisms of nanotoxicity were determined by using phase contrast inverted microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and flow cytometric assays. Nano-CuO and ZnO showed significant toxicity in both HepG2 cells and catfish primary hepatocytes. The results demonstrate that HepG2 cells are more sensitive than catfish primary hepatocytes to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs. The overall ranking of the toxicity of metal oxides to the test cells is as follows: TiO2 < Co3O4< ZnO < CuO. The toxicity is due not only to ROS-induced cell death, but also damages to cell and mitochondrial membranes. PMID:21851965

  7. Optimization of Albumin Secretion and Metabolic Activity of Cytochrome P450 1A1 of Human Hepatoblastoma HepG2 Cells in Multicellular Spheroids by Controlling Spheroid Size.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yutaro; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ogino, Yuka; Kusamori, Kosuke; Mizuno, Narumi; Mizukami, Yuya; Shimizu, Kazunori; Konishi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Multicellular spheroids are useful as three-dimensional cell culture systems and for cell-based therapies. Their successful application requires an understanding of the consequences of spheroid size for cellular functions. In the present study, we prepared multicellular spheroids of different sizes using the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells, as hepatocytes are frequently used for in vitro drug screening and cell-based therapy. Precise polydimethylsiloxane-based microwells with widths of 360, 450, 560, and 770 µm were fabricated using a micromolding technique. Incubation of HepG2 cells in cell culture plates containing the microwells resulted in the formation of HepG2 spheroids with average diameters of 195, 320, 493, and 548 µm. The cell number per spheroid positively correlated with its diameter, and the viability of HepG2 cells was 94% or above for all samples. The smallest HepG2 spheroids showed the highest albumin secretion. On the other hand, the metabolic activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin, a fluorometric substrate for CYP1A1, increased with increasing spheroid size. These results indicate that controlling spheroid size is important when preparing HepG2 spheroids and that the size of HepG2 spheroids greatly influences the cellular function of HepG2 cells in the spheroids.

  8. Flow cytometric evaluation of the contribution of ionic silver to genotoxic potential of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Zheng, Jiwen; Ihrie, John

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to nanosilver found in food- and cosmetics-related consumer products is of public concern because of the lack of information about its safety. In this study, two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells, and the flow cytometric micronucleus (FCMN) assay were evaluated as tools for rapid predictive screening of the potential genotoxicity of nanosilver. Recently, we reported the genotoxicity of 20 nm nanosilver using these systems. In the current study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that the nanoparticle size and cell types were critical determinants of its genotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we used the FCMN assay to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 50 nm nanosilver of the same shape, composition, surface charge and obtained from the same commercial source using the same experimental conditions and in vitro models (HepG2 and Caco2) as previously tested for the 20 nm silver. Results of our study show that up to the concentrations tested in these cultured cell test systems, the smaller (20 nm) nanoparticle is genotoxic to both the cell types by inducing micronucleus (MN). However, the larger (50 nm) nanosilver induces MN only in HepG2 cells, but not in Caco2 cells. Also in this study, we evaluated the contribution of ionic silver to the genotoxic potential of nanosilver using silver acetate as the representative ionic silver. The MN frequencies in HepG2 and Caco2 cells exposed to the ionic silver in the concentration range tested are not statistically significant from the control values except at the top concentrations for both the cell types. Therefore, our results indicate that the ionic silver may not contribute to the MN-forming ability of nanosilver in HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Also our results suggest that the HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures and the FCMN assay are useful tools for rapid predictive screening of a genotoxic potential of food- and cosmetics-related chemicals including nanosilver.

  9. Saponins isolated from Asparagus induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Y.; Ji, C.; Yue, L.; Xu, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Many scientific studies have shown that Asparagus officinalis has an antitumour effect and enhances human immunity, but the active components and the antitumour mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the effects of saponins isolated from Asparagus on proliferation and apoptosis in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations of Asparagus saponins at various times. Using mtt and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the effects of Asparagus saponins on the growth and apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of cell apoptosis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mptp), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mmp). Spectrophotometry was applied to quantify the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the levels of reactive oxygen species (ros) and pH, and the expressions of Bcl2, Bax, CytC, and caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Results Asparagus saponins inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 101.15 mg/L at 72 hours. The apoptosis morphology at 72 hours of treatment was obvious, showing cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasm, and apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic rates at 72 hours were 30.9%, 51.7%, and 62.1% (for saponin concentrations of 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L). Treatment with Asparagus saponins for 24 hours increased the intracellular level of ros and Ca2+, lowered the pH, activated intracellular mptp, and decreased mmp in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment also increased the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3, downregulated the expression of Bcl2, upregulated the expression of Bax, and induced release of CytC and activation of caspase-3. Conclusions Asparagus saponins induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated and caspase

  10. Theaflavins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating AMPK in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2007-11-01

    Black tea is one of the world's most popular beverages, and its health-promoting effects have been intensively investigated. The antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of black tea have attracted increasing interest, but the mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unclear. In the present study, the black tea major component theaflavins were assessed for their hepatic lipid-lowering potential when administered in fatty acid overload conditions both in cell culture and in an animal experimental model. We found that theaflavins significantly reduced lipid accumulation, suppressed fatty acid synthesis, and stimulated fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, theaflavins also inhibited acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activities by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 and reactive oxygen species pathways. These observations support the idea that AMPK is a critical component of decreased hepatic lipid accumulation by theaflavin treatments. Our results show that theaflavins are bioavailable both in vitro and in vivo and may be active in the prevention of fatty liver and obesity.

  11. Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Atienzar, Franck A.; Novik, Eric I.; Gerets, Helga H.; Parekh, Amit; Delatour, Claude; Cardenas, Alvaro; MacDonald, James; Yarmush, Martin L.; Dhalluin, Stéphane

    2014-02-15

    Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a major cause of attrition during early and late stage drug development. Consequently, there is a need to develop better in vitro primary hepatocyte models from different species for predicting hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans early in drug development. Dog is often chosen as the non-rodent species for toxicology studies. Unfortunately, dog in vitro models allowing long term cultures are not available. The objective of the present manuscript is to describe the development of a co-culture dog model for predicting hepatotoxic drugs in humans and to compare the predictivity of the canine model along with primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. After rigorous optimization, the dog co-culture model displayed metabolic capacities that were maintained up to 2 weeks which indicates that such model could be also used for long term metabolism studies. Most of the human hepatotoxic drugs were detected with a sensitivity of approximately 80% (n = 40) for the three cellular models. Nevertheless, the specificity was low approximately 40% for the HepG2 cells and hepatocytes compared to 72.7% for the canine model (n = 11). Furthermore, the dog co-culture model showed a higher superiority for the classification of 5 pairs of close structural analogs with different DILI concerns in comparison to both human cellular models. Finally, the reproducibility of the canine system was also satisfactory with a coefficient of correlation of 75.2% (n = 14). Overall, the present manuscript indicates that the dog co-culture model may represent a relevant tool to perform chronic hepatotoxicity and metabolism studies. - Highlights: • Importance of species differences in drug development. • Relevance of dog co-culture model for metabolism and toxicology studies. • Hepatotoxicity: higher predictivity of dog co-culture vs HepG2 and human hepatocytes.

  12. Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Methyl Parathion and Parathion-Induced Toxicity and Genotoxicity to Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Falicia L.; Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl parathion (C8H10NO5PS) and parathion (C10H14NO5PS) are both organophosphate insecticides (OPI) widely used for household and agricultural applications. They are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase which often leads to a profound effect on the nervous system of exposed organisms. Many recently published studies have indicated that human exposure to OPI may be associated with neurologic, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and reproductive adverse effects. Studies have also linked OPI exposure to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Also, oxidative stress (OS) has been reported as a possible mechanism of OPI toxicity in humans. Hence, the aim of the present investigation was to use human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a test model to evaluate the role of OS in methyl parathion- and parathion-induced toxicity. To achieve this goal, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability, lipid peroxidation assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and Comet assay for DNA damage, respectively. Results from MTT assay indicated that methyl parathion and parathion gradually reduce the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing 48 h-LD50 values of 26.20 mM and 23.58 mM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) of MDA level in methyl parathion- and parathion-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls, suggesting that OS plays a key role in OPI-induced toxicity. Comet assay indicated a significant increase in genotoxicity at higher concentrations of OPI exposure. Overall, we found that methyl-parathion is slightly less toxic than parathion to HepG2 cells. The cytotoxic effect of these OPI was found to be associated, at least in part, with oxidative cell/tissue damage. PMID:21544925

  13. Comparative effects of food-derived polyphenols on the viability and apoptosis of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sonia; Alía, Mario; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-02-23

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in polyphenols, has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. Dietary polyphenols have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties that might explain their beneficial effect on cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different pure polyphenols [quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and (-)-epicatechin] and natural fruit extracts (strawberry and plum) on viability or apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin and fruit extracts reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; however, chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts, rather than chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin, induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, quercetin and fruit extracts arrested the G1 phase in the cell cycle progression prior to apoptosis. Quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts may induce apoptosis and contribute to a reduced cell viability in HepG2 cells.

  14. TNF-α produced by SEC2 mutant (SAM-3)-activated human T cells induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojun; Xu, Mingkai; Song, Yubo; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins C2 (SEC2) is a classical model of superantigens (SAg), which has the powerful ability to activate T cells as well as induce massive cytokine production. This property makes SEC2 and its mutants well concerned as a potential new immune-regulatory agent for cancer therapy. We previously constructed a SEC2 mutant named SAM-3, which had prominently antitumor activity in BALB/c mice model. But, the underlying molecular mechanism for stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and antitumor effect on human tumor cells induced by SAM-3 is not clear. Here, we showed that SAM-3 could activate human TCR Vβ 12, 13A, 14, 15, 17, and 20 CD8(+) subgroup T cells, which secreted the cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, and exhibit stimulation activity in a dose-dependent manner. TNF-α secreted from activated T cells could induce apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and lead to the antitumor effect in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, SAM-3 upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) mRNA and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8. We also found that the antitumor activity and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 were decreased when the neutralizing TNF-α monoclonal antibody presented. These data suggest that TNF-α secreted by SAM-3-activated T cells is an important factor in inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  15. Orexin A affects HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells glucose metabolism via HIF-1α-dependent and -independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yuyan; Sun, Xiaoqi; Fan, Dongxiao; Guo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate feeding, reward, wakefulness and energy homeostasis. The present study sought to characterize the involvement of orexin A in glucose metabolism in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the response. HepG2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of orexin A (10-9 to 10-7 M) in vitro, without or with the orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) inhibitor (SB334867), HIF-1α inhibitor (YC-1) or a combination of both inhibitors. Subsequently, OX1R, HIF-1α expression and localization, glucose uptake, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and ATP content were measured. We further investigated the intracellular fate of glucose by measuring the gene expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) and pyruvate dehydrogenase B (PDHB), as well as metabolite levels including lactate generation and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. The activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was also assessed. Our results showed that the expression of OX1R was predominantly located in the nucleus in HepG2 cells. Orexin A oxygen-independently promoted the mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1α as well as its nuclear accumulation in HepG2 cells and the elevated HIF-1α protein was associated, at least partly, with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Orexin A stimulated GLUT1 expression, glucose uptake as well as ATP generation in HepG2 cells via OX1R acting through the HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, orexin A inhibited LDHA, PDK1 expression and lactate production, stimulated PDHB expression and PDH enzyme activity independent of HIF-1α. Our results indicated that orexin signaling facilitated the glucose flux into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism rather than glycolysis in HepG2 cells. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of glucose metabolism

  16. Orexin A affects HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells glucose metabolism via HIF-1α-dependent and -independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuyan; Sun, Xiaoqi; Fan, Dongxiao

    2017-01-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate feeding, reward, wakefulness and energy homeostasis. The present study sought to characterize the involvement of orexin A in glucose metabolism in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the response. HepG2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of orexin A (10−9 to 10−7 M) in vitro, without or with the orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) inhibitor (SB334867), HIF-1α inhibitor (YC-1) or a combination of both inhibitors. Subsequently, OX1R, HIF-1α expression and localization, glucose uptake, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and ATP content were measured. We further investigated the intracellular fate of glucose by measuring the gene expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) and pyruvate dehydrogenase B (PDHB), as well as metabolite levels including lactate generation and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. The activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was also assessed. Our results showed that the expression of OX1R was predominantly located in the nucleus in HepG2 cells. Orexin A oxygen-independently promoted the mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1α as well as its nuclear accumulation in HepG2 cells and the elevated HIF-1α protein was associated, at least partly, with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Orexin A stimulated GLUT1 expression, glucose uptake as well as ATP generation in HepG2 cells via OX1R acting through the HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, orexin A inhibited LDHA, PDK1 expression and lactate production, stimulated PDHB expression and PDH enzyme activity independent of HIF-1α. Our results indicated that orexin signaling facilitated the glucose flux into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism rather than glycolysis in HepG2 cells. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of glucose

  17. Differential action of 13-HPODE on PPARalpha downstream genes in rat Fao and human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    König, Bettina; Eder, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    In rats, oxidized fats activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), leading to reduced triglyceride concentrations in liver, plasma and very low density lipoproteins. Oxidation products of linoleic acid constitute an important portion of oxidized dietary fats. This study was conducted to check whether the primary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), might be involved in the PPARalpha-activating effect of oxidized fats. Therefore, we examined the effect of 13-HPODE on the expression of PPARalpha target genes in the rat Fao and the human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. In Fao cells, 13-HPODE increased the mRNA concentration of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Furthermore, the concentration of cellular and secreted triglycerides was reduced in Fao cells treated with 13-HPODE. Because PPARalpha mRNA was not influenced, we conclude that these effects are due to an activation of PPARalpha by 13-HPODE. In contrast, HepG2 cells seemed to be resistant to PPARalpha activation by 13-HPODE because no remarkable induction of the PPARalpha target genes ACO, CPT1A, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and delta9-desaturase was observed. Consequently, cellular and secreted triglyceride levels were not changed after incubation of HepG2 cells with 13-HPODE. In conclusion, this study shows that 13-HPODE activates PPARalpha in rat Fao but not in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

  18. Chemical constituents from aerial parts of Caryopteris incana and cytoprotective effects in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmi; Son, Min Jeong; Yook, Chang-Soo; Jin, Changbae; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Hyoung Ja

    2014-05-01

    An ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Caryopteris incana (Verbenaceae) showed potent cytoprotective effects against damage to HepG2 cells induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). To search for hepatoprotective components of C. incana, various chromatographic separations of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. incana led to isolation of three phenylpropanoid glycosides, 6‴-O-feruloylincanoside D, 6‴-O-sinapoylincanoside D and caryopteroside, and two iridoid glycosides, incanides A and B, together with 17 known compounds. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute stereochemistry of the caryopteroside was established with the help of circular dichroism data and in comparison with literature data. All isolated substances were determined for their cytoprotective effects against t-BHP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. Among the tested compounds, 6'-O-caffeoylacteoside exhibited the most potent cytoprotective activity with an IC50 value of 0.8±0.1 μM against t-BHP-induced toxicity. Structure-activity relationships of the assay results indicated an important role of the catechol moiety in phenylpropanoid, iridoid and flavonoid derivatives in eliciting cytoprotective effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta caused apoptosis in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Machana, Sasipawan; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Barusrux, Sahapat; Thumanu, Kanjana; Tanthanuch, Waraporn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anticancer activity of the extract fraction of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet & Gagnep and the synergistic anticancer effect of the extracts from P. evecta by using the ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Methods The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) was prepared and was further fractionated to isolate various fractions. The anticancer activity was investigated from cytotoxicity against HepG2 using a neutral red assay and apoptosis induction by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Synergistic anticancer effects of the extracts from P. evecta were performed using the ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Results The result showed that the EW-L showed higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells than its fractionated extracts. The hexane extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction than the water extracts, but less than the EW-L. The combined water and hexane extracts apparently increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction. The %apoptotic cells induced by the extract mixture were increased about 2-fold compared to the single hexane extract. Conclusions The polar extract fraction is necessary for the anticancer activity of the non-polar extract fraction. The ATR/FT-IR spectra illustrates the physical interaction among the constituents in the extract mixture and reveals the presence of polyphenolic constituents in the EW-L, which might play a role for the synergistic anticancer effect. PMID:23569977

  20. Modulation of lipid metabolism by deep-sea water in cultured human liver (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Hao, Jiejie; Peng, Weibing; Qiu, Peiju; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2014-04-01

    It has been found that deep-sea water was associated with lower serum lipid in animal model studies. Herein, we investigated whether DSW exerted a hypolipidemic activity and further elucidated how DSW modulated lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Preliminary animal studies showed that DSW exhibited potency to decrease serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and increase HDL cholesterol, and the hepatic lipid contents were also significantly lower in the DSW group. When DSW was added to HepG2 cells, it decreased the lipid contents of hepatocyte through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, thus inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acid. Besides, LDL receptor was upregulated by activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. In addition, the levels of apolipoprotein AI and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase were also raised. Our investigation provided mechanisms by which DSW modulated lipid metabolism and indicated that DSW was worthy of further investigation and could be developed as functional drinking water in the prevention and treatment of hypolipidemic and other lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  2. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells through p-AKT and DR5.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zakir; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Biofunctional marine compounds have recently received substantial attention for their nutraceutical characteristics. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effects of sphingoid bases prepared from sea cucumber using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Apoptotic effects were determined by cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation assay, caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities. The expression levels of apoptosis-inducing death receptor-5 (DR5) and p-AKT were assayed by western blot analysis, and mRNA expression of bax, GADD45 and PPARγ was assayed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber markedly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of the apoptosis inducer protein Bax were increased by the sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. GADD45, which plays an important role in apoptosis-inducing pathways, was markedly upregulated by sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. Upregulation of PPARγ mRNA was also observed during apoptosis induced by the sphingoid bases. The expression levels of DR5 and p-AKT proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, as a result of the effects of sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. The results indicate that sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through upregulation of DR5, Bax, GADD45 and PPARγ and downregulation of p-AKT. Our results show for the first time the functional properties of marine sphingoid bases as inducers of apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  3. Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaf in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Jung; Huang, Shang-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ching; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Hsu, Hsue-Yin

    2012-08-03

    Corchorus olitorius L.,is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo settings. Recently, C. olitorius has been approved for its antitumor activity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of C. olitorius (ECO) on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and gain some insights into the underlying mechanisms of its action. We found that HepG2 cells, treated with ECO for 24 h at a concentration higher than 12.5 μg/mL, displayed a strong reduction in cell viability, whereas normal FL83B hepatocytes were not affected. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation were evidenced by the increased subG1 population of ECO-treated HepG2 cells. ECO triggered the activation of procaspases-3 and -9 and caused the cleavage of downstream substrate, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), followed by down-regulation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) signaling. Moreover, the increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with decreased membrane potential demonstrated the apoptosis induced through the caspases cascade. Our findings indicated that ECO might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  4. The Nitric Oxide Prodrug JS-K Induces Ca(2+)-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and deadly forms of human malignancies. JS-K, O(2)-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate, has the ability to induce apoptosis of tumor cell lines. In the present study, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and significantly induced apoptosis. JS-K enhanced the ratio of Bax-to-Bcl-2, released of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria and the activated caspase-9/3. JS-K caused an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Carboxy-PTIO (a NO scavenger) and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) significantly blocked an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) in JS-K-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis, especially Carboxy-PTIO. Meanwhile, Carboxy-PTIO and BAPTA-AM treatment both attenuate JS-K-induced apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2, downregulation of Bax, reduction of Cyt c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and inactivation of caspase-9/3. In summary, JS-K induced HepG2 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Zinc inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Lv, Yangjun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has strong carcinogenicity. Consumption of AFB1-contaminated agricultural products and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma have received widespread attention. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplementation could inhibit AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of this inhibition. Our data suggest that zinc sources can relieve a certain degree of AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by protecting against apoptotic body formation and DNA strand breaks, affecting S phase cell cycle arrest, reducing 8-OHdG formation, inhibiting global DNA hypomethylation and regulating gene expression in antioxidation, zinc-association and apoptosis processes. Consequently, zinc stabilizes the integrity of DNA and improves cell survival. These data provides new insights into the protective role of zinc in alleviating AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and mediating epigenetic changes in hepatocytes, demonstrating that zinc sources have detoxification properties in mycotoxin-induced toxicity.

  6. Augmentation of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced bioactivation in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 by the calcium channel blocker nicardipine.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takuomi; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2010-03-01

    The abilities of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nicardipine (Nic) to induce cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYP1s) and to enhance the 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-mediated induction of CYP1s and formation of MC-DNA adduct were examined in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The results from real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Nic could induce CYP1 mRNAs and enhance the MC-mediated induction of the CYP1 mRNAs. The luciferase-reporter gene assay using the HepG2-A10 cell line, which has been previously established for the screening of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators, also indicated the augmentation of MC-mediated activation of AhR (induction of luciferase) by Nic, although Nic showed limited capacity for the activation of AhR. Furthermore, the results from the Western blot analysis of CYP1s, the enzyme activity assay, and the assay for MC-DNA adduct formation indicated that Nic could enhance the MC-mediated induction of CYP1s, especially CYP1A1. Furthermore, the intracellular accumulation level of [(3)H]MC after treatment of HepG2 cells with [(3)H]MC significantly increased in the presence of Nic. The present findings demonstrate that Nic can enhance the MC-mediated induction of CYP1s, especially CYP1A1, and the formation of MC-DNA adduct in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the augmentation of the MC-mediated bioactivation by Nic is demonstrated to occur mainly through an increase in intracellular accumulation of MC.

  7. Molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of selenocystine against methylmercury-induced cell death in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Cuello, Susana; Goya, Luis; Madrid, Yolanda; Bravo, Laura; Cámara, Carmen; Ramos, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been recognized as a very toxic contaminant present in certain foodstuffs that adversely affects health and impairs the normal function of different organs. Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxificant and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study examined the potential preventive activities of organic selenocompounds, focused on selenocystine (SeCys), against MeHg-induced toxicity in human HepG2 cells. Combined treatment of SeCys and MeHg protected HepG2 cells against MeHg-induced cell damage, showing this selenocompound a more relevant effect than those of selenium methylselenocysteine and selenium methionine. Co-treatment with SeCys exerted a protective effect against MeHg by restraining ROS generation and glutathione decrease, and through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, SeCys delayed MeHg-induced apoptosis and prevented extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) deactivation, as well as p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) stimulations in comparison to MeHg-treated cells. ERK, JNK and p38 involvement on the protective effect of SeCys against MeHg-induced cell damage was confirmed by using selective inhibitors. All these results indicate that SeCys protects against MeHg-induced cell damage by modulating the redox status and key proteins related to cell stress and survival/proliferation pathways.

  8. Comparison of in vitro assays of cellular toxicity in the human hepatic cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Miret, Silvia; De Groene, Els M; Klaffke, Werner

    2006-03-01

    Cytotoxicity testing allows determining whether a compound or extract contains significant quantities of biologically harmful chemicals. Cytotoxicity test methods are useful for screening because they serve to separate toxic from nontoxic materials, providing predictive evidence of compound safety. However, a wide range of assays measuring different aspects of cell death is available in the market, but it is difficult to determine which one(s) to use when evaluating a selection of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare different commercially available in vitro assays for cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells according to its sensitivity, reproducibility, simplicity, cost, and speed. The assays evaluated included Alamar Blue for the measurement of mitochondrial activity, ATPlite and ViaLight for the determination of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ToxiLight as an indicator of cellular necrosis, and Caspase-3 Fluorometric Assay, Apo-ONE Caspase-3/7 Homogeneous Assay, and Caspase-Glo for the determination of caspase-3/7 activity. All assays were performed using 4 compounds of previously reported cytotoxic activity: DMSO, butyric acid, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), and camptothecine. Overall, it was concluded that the best way to evaluate the potential cytotoxicity of a compound is to employ a battery of assays that focus on different aspects of cell death. In this case, the focus has been on ATP levels, cell necrosis, and capsase-3/7 activation. Many other kits are commercially available in the market for these and other aspects of necrosis and/or apoptosis. However, the use of ViaLight Plus, ToxiLight, and Caspase-3 Fluorometric Assay resulted in the most useful combination when working with HepG2 cells.

  9. Structure of Sphingolipids From Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and Structure-Specific Cytotoxicity Against Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zicai; Song, Yu; Tao, Suyuan; Cong, Peixu; Wang, Xiaoxu; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0). The results of cell experiment indicated that all of three glucocerebroside series, CF-Cer and CF-LCB exhibited an inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in three glucocerebrosides to HepG-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was the strongest, and the inhibition effect of CF-Cer was much stronger than glucocerebrosides.

  10. Comparison of basal gene expression profiles and effects of hepatocarcinogens on gene expression in cultured primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela J; Dial, Stacey L; Casciano, Daniel A

    2004-05-18

    Toxicogenomics is a relatively new discipline of toxicology. Microarrays and bioinformatics tools are being used successfully to understand the effects of toxicants on in vivo and in vitro model systems, and to gain a better understanding of the relevance of in vitro models commonly used in toxicological studies. In this study, cDNA filter arrays were used to determine the basal expression patterns of human cultured primary hepatocytes from different male donors; compare the gene expression profile of HepG2 to that of primary hepatocytes; and analyze the effects of three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens; aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF), and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), as well as one non-gentoxic hepatotoxin, acetaminophen (APAP) on gene expression in both in vitro systems. Real-time PCR was used to verify differential gene expression for selected genes. Of the approximately 31,000 genes screened, 3-6% were expressed in primary hepatocytes cultured on matrigel for 16 h. Of these genes, 867 were expressed in cultured hepatocytes from all donors. HepG2 cells expressed about 98% of the genes detectable in cultured primary hepatocytes, however, 31% of the HepG2 transcriptome was unique to the cell line. A number of these genes are expressed in human liver but expression is apparently lost during culture. There was considerable variability in the response to chemical carcinogen exposure in primary hepatocytes from different donors. The transcription factors, E2F1 and ID1 mRNA were increased three-fold and six-fold (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), respectively, in AFB(1) treated primary human hepatocytes but were not altered in HepG2. ID1 expression was also increased by dimethylnitrosamine, acetylaminofluorene and acetaminophen in both primary hepatocytes and HepG2. Identification of genes that are expressed in primary hepatocytes from most donors, as well as those genes with variable expression, will aid in understanding the variability in human reactions to drugs

  11. Metabolism of ebracteolata compound B studied in vitro with human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Yao, Yan; Lou, Yan; Jiang, Huidi; Wang, Xiaowen; Chai, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Su

    2010-12-01

    Ebracteolata compound B (ECB) is one major active component of both Euphorbia ebracteolata and Euphorbia fischeriana, which have been extensively used as a tuberculocide in the Asian countries. The aim of our present study was to characterize ECB metabolism in human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes. One monohydroxylation metabolite, determined by mass spectrometry to be 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyethanone, and one monoglucuronide, isolated and determined by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR to be 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-acetophenone-4-O-β-glucuronide, were observed in human liver microsomal incubates in the presence of NADPH or UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA), respectively. However, the mixed incubation of ECB with human liver microsomes in the presence of both NADPH and UDPGA showed the monoglucuronide to be the most major metabolite, indicating that glucuronidation was probably the major clearance pathway of ECB in humans. No glucuronide and only trace monohydroxylation metabolite were observed in HepG2 cells. The cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes were identified by using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. The results indicated that CYP3A4 was probably involved in ECB oxidative metabolism and UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 were important catalytic enzymes in ECB glucuronidation. The results from enzymatic kinetic analysis showed the oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes; the glucuronidation in human liver microsomes and recombinant UGT1A6 exhibited a typical Michaelis-Menten pattern, but the glucuronidation in UGT1A9 exhibited a substrate inhibition pattern. UGT1A6 had the highest affinity compared with human liver microsomes and UGT1A9, indicating its important role in ECB glucuronidation.

  12. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  13. Microarray data and pathway analyses for primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Borradaile, Nica M

    2017-02-01

    As nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to end-stage diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrotic activated hepatic stellate cells and cancerous epithelial cells can become abundant, changing the cellular composition of this organ. Despite potentially residing within the same diseased tissue, direct comparisons of global gene expression between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells are lacking. Here we provide data collected using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify differential gene expression in cultured primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells. The dataset includes many genes involved in intermediary metabolism which were investigated in greater depth in our associated article (A.M. Hetherington, C.G. Sawyez, E. Zilberman, A.M. Stoianov, D.L. Robson, J.M. Hughes-Large, et al., 2016) [1]. Pathway analyses of known protein coding genes down-regulated or up-regulated by greater than 2.0-fold are also provided.

  14. Uridine uptake inhibition as a cytotoxicity test for a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells): comparison with the neutral red assay.

    PubMed

    Valentin, I; Philippe, M; Lhuguenot, J; Chagnon, M

    2001-02-14

    This study describes a sensitive microassay for measuring cytotoxicity based on the degree of inhibition of RNA synthesis in HepG2 cells. RNA synthesis is measured by the kinetic uptake of radiolabeled uridine. A large number of compounds were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The concentration required to induce 50% inhibition of HepG2 uridine uptake rates (IC(50)) was determined for each compound and used to rank its potency. These IC(50)s were compared with IC(50)s measured with the neutral red assay. 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene and methylnitrosourea were not cytotoxic in the neutral red assay. Uridine uptake was always inhibited at lower concentrations than those required in the neutral red assay, suggesting that the uridine uptake assay is a more sensitive indicator of toxic action than the neutral red inclusion. Uridine uptake assay provides a rapid and quantitative method for assessing toxicity in a human cell line. Application of this method to bottled spring waters are described. Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, this method provides a suitable tool for screening a great number of samples and will be a helpful test for evaluating food safety and controlling the recycling process of wrapping materials.

  15. Biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction yields increased lactate production and cytotoxicity of aerobically-poised HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Dykens, James A. Jamieson, Joseph; Marroquin, Lisa; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Billis, Puja A.; Will, Yvonne

    2008-12-01

    As a class, the biguanides induce lactic acidosis, a hallmark of mitochondrial impairment. To assess potential mitochondrial impairment, we evaluated the effects of metformin, buformin and phenformin on: 1) viability of HepG2 cells grown in galactose, 2) respiration by isolated mitochondria, 3) metabolic poise of HepG2 and primary human hepatocytes, 4) activities of immunocaptured respiratory complexes, and 5) mitochondrial membrane potential and redox status in primary human hepatocytes. Phenformin was the most cytotoxic of the three with buformin showing moderate toxicity, and metformin toxicity only at mM concentrations. Importantly, HepG2 cells grown in galactose are markedly more susceptible to biguanide toxicity compared to cells grown in glucose, indicating mitochondrial toxicity as a primary mode of action. The same rank order of potency was observed for isolated mitochondrial respiration where preincubation (40 min) exacerbated respiratory impairment, and was required to reveal inhibition by metformin, suggesting intramitochondrial bio-accumulation. Metabolic profiling of intact cells corroborated respiratory inhibition, but also revealed compensatory increases in lactate production from accelerated glycolysis. High (mM) concentrations of the drugs were needed to inhibit immunocaptured respiratory complexes, supporting the contention that bioaccumulation is involved. The same rank order was found when monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, and glutathione levels in primary human hepatocytes. In toto, these data indicate that biguanide-induced lactic acidosis can be attributed to acceleration of glycolysis in response to mitochondrial impairment. Indeed, the desired clinical outcome, viz., decreased blood glucose, could be due to increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in response to drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Biomolecules Loaded Metallic Silver Nanoparticles Against Human Liver (HepG2) and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Ravikumar, Samandham; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments to the anticancer activities to determine the effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three medicinal plants on human liver (HepG2) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. The synthesis of AgNPs using Plumbago zeylanica (Pz), Semecarpus anacardium (Sa) and Terminalia arjuna (Ta) plant extracts in the reaction mixture was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. FTIR results clearly illustrated that the plant extracts containing prominent peaks of functional groups and biomolecules viz., tannins, phenols, flavonoids and triterpenoids those act as capping agents and involved in the stabilization of the synthesised silver nanoparticles. Synthesized AgNPs were spherical and cuboid in shape which is determined by SEM. Average size of the AgNPs were between 80-98, 60-95 and 34-70 nm for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs, respectively. Further, the synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XRD, EDX, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human liver and prostate cancer cell lines. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HepG2, PC3 and Vero cells were found to be 70.97, 58.61, 96.41; 10.04, 42.77, 83.86; and 28.42, 41.78, 69.48 μg/ml for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs at 48 h incubation. An induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, Hoechst, Rhodamine and AO/EtBr staining. The present results strongly suggested that the AgNPs synthesized using P. zeylanica, S. anacardium and T. arjuna extracts showed potential anticancer activity of HepG2 and PC3 cell lines.

  17. Identification of MicroRNAs Involved in Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xinyu; Wang, Ling; Gao, Jing; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Pengjun; Lu, Chengrong

    2016-01-01

    Although both oxidative stress and microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in physiological and pathological processes, little is known about the interactions between them. In this study, we first described the regulation of H2O2 in cell viability, proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Then, miRNAs expression was profiled after H2O2 treatment. The results showed that high concentration of H2O2 (600 μM) could decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest, and finally promote cell apoptosis. Conversely, no significant effects could be found under treatment with low concentration (30 μM). miRNAs array analysis identified 131 differentially expressed miRNAs (125 were upregulated and 6 were downregulated) and predicted 13504 putative target genes of the deregulated miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the putative target genes were associated with H2O2-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The subsequent bioinformatics analysis indicated that H2O2-response pathways, including MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, and pathways in cancer and cell cycle, were significantly affected. Overall, these results provided comprehensive information on the biological function of H2O2 treatment in HepG2 cells. The identification of miRNAs and their putative targets may offer new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for liver cancer. PMID:27597883

  18. Hydrophobicity of Antifungal β-Peptides Is Associated with Their Cytotoxic Effect on In Vitro Human Colon Caco-2 and Liver HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Méndez-Vega, Janet; Caraballo-León, Jean; Lee, Myung-ryul; Palecek, Sean; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Ortiz-Bermúdez, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of fungal infections, with their high morbidity and mortality rate, is a global public health problem. The increase in the population of immunocompromised patients combined with the selectivity of currents treatments and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal strains are among the most imperative reasons to develop novel antifungal formulations. Antimicrobial β-peptides are peptidomimetics of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been proposed as developmental platforms to enhance the AMPs selectivity and biostability. Their tunability allows the design of sequences with remarkable activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms such as the human pathogenic Candida spp., both in planktonic and biofilm morphology. However, the β-peptide’s effect on surrounding host cells remains greatly understudied. Assessments have mainly relied on the extent of hemolysis that a candidate peptide is able to cause. This work investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of various β-peptides in the Caco-2 and HepG2 mammalian cell lines. Results indicated that the cytotoxic effect of the β-peptides was influenced by cell type and was also correlated to structural features of the peptide such as hydrophobicity. We found that the selectivity of the most hydrophobic β-peptide was 2–3 times higher than that of the least hydrophobic one, for both cell types according to the selectivity index parameter (IC50/MIC). The IC50 of Caco-2 and HepG2 increased with hydrophobicity, which indicates the importance of testing putative therapeutics on different cell types. We report evidence of peptide-cell membrane interactions in Caco-2 and HepG2 using a widely studied β-peptide against C. albicans. PMID:26992117

  19. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution.

  20. Photodynamic therapy mediated antiproliferative activity of some metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles in human liver adenocarcinoma HepG2 cells under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Ali, Mamdouh M; Ismail, Laila F M

    2014-09-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, human liver adenocarcinoma cells HepG2 were treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), metal-doped-ZnO-NPs: Fe-ZnO-NPs Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs, Silica-coated ZnO-NPs, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), titanium dioxide nano-tubes (TiO2-NTs) and ZnO-NPs/TiO2-NTs nanocomposite under UV irradiation. Doxorubicin was used as a standard drug. The results demonstrated that the ZnO-NPs, Fe-ZnO-NPs, Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs showed cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with the median growth inhibitory concentrations (IC50) 42.60, 37.20, 45.10, 77.20 and 56.50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to doxorubicin (IC50: 20.10 μg/ml). Treatment of the cancer cells with ZnO-NPs, Fe-ZnO-NPs, Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs resulted in a significant increase in the activity of SOD and the levels of H2O2 and NO than those of control, accompanied with a significant decrease in the activity of CAT and GSH-Px. Also, depletion of reduced GSH, total protein and nucleic acids levels was observed. In conclusion, metal-doped ZnO-NPs may induce antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells under UV-irradiation due to generation of ROS. Therefore, they could be included in modern clinical trials after in vivo more investigations, using photodynamic therapy technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring and modeling of binary mixture effects of pharmaceuticals and nickel on cell viability/cytotoxicity in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Rudzok, S.; Schlink, U.; Herbarth, O.; Bauer, M.

    2010-05-01

    The interaction of drugs and non-therapeutic xenobiotics constitutes a central role in human health risk assessment. Still, available data are rare. Two different models have been established to predict mixture toxicity from single dose data, namely, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. However, chemicals can also act synergistic or antagonistic or in dose level deviation, or in a dose ratio dependent deviation. In the present study we used the MIXTOX model (EU project ENV4-CT97-0507), which incorporates these algorithms, to assess effects of the binary mixtures in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. These cells possess a liver-like enzyme pattern and a variety of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (phases I and II). We tested binary mixtures of the metal nickel, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and the antibiotic agent irgasan and compared the experimental data to the mathematical models. Cell viability was determined by three different methods the MTT-, AlamarBlue (registered) and NRU assay. The compounds were tested separately and in combinations. We could show that the metal nickel is the dominant component in the mixture, affecting an antagonism at low-dose levels and a synergism at high-dose levels in combination with diclofenac or irgasan, when using the NRU and the AlamarBlue assay. The dose-response surface of irgasan and diclofenac indicated a concentration addition. The experimental data could be described by the algorithms with a regression of up to 90%, revealing the HepG2 cell line and the MIXTOX model as valuable tool for risk assessment of binary mixtures for cytotoxic endpoints. However the model failed to predict a specific mode of action, the CYP1A1 enzyme activity.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C.; Ayorinde, Folahan O.; Dutta, Sisir K.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70μM of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 μM of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC50 values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 minutes to 48 hours, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane: acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 μM, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 minutes, and it reached its highest concentration at 6 hours (60 μM), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5μM). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3 hours. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6 hours respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced

  3. The interleukin-6-type cytokine oncostatin M induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Stobbe-Maicherski, Natalie; Wolff, Sandra; Wolff, Christian; Abel, Josef; Sydlik, Ulrich; Frauenstein, Katrin; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related environmental pollutants. Besides drug metabolism, several studies have provided evidence that the AHR and its downstream targets trigger important developmental, physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, in contrast to the molecular mechanisms of AHR-dependent signaling pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the AHR gene itself is as yet only marginally understood. We found that the pleiotropic interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) is an inducer of AHR mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Analyses of the human AHR promoter revealed the existence of a putative signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-binding element 5'-upstream of the transcription start site. By means of site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that this STAT motif is recognized by STAT3 to regulate basal and cytokine-inducible AHR expression in HepG2 cells. The identification of the AHR as a downstream target of IL-6-type cytokine-stimulated STAT3 signaling may contribute to a better understanding of the multiple facets of AHR during development, physiology and disease. © 2013 FEBS.

  4. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy.

  5. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. PMID:27555772

  6. Cocoa flavonoids attenuate high glucose-induced insulin signalling blockade and modulate glucose uptake and production in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2014-02-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Cocoa and its main flavanol, (-)-epicatechin (EC), display some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanisms for their preventive activities related to glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in the liver remain largely unknown. In the present work, the preventive effect of EC and a cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) on insulin signalling and on both glucose production and uptake are studied in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells treated with high glucose. Pre-treatment of cells with EC or CPE reverted decreased tyrosine-phosphorylated and total levels of IR, IRS-1 and -2 triggered by high glucose. EC and CPE pre-treatment also prevented the inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and AMPK, as well as the diminution of GLUT-2 levels induced by high glucose. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cells with EC and CPE avoided the increase in PEPCK levels and the diminished glucose uptake provoked by high glucose, returning enhanced levels of glucose production and decreased glycogen content to control values. These findings suggest that EC and CPE improved insulin sensitivity of HepG2 treated with high glucose, preventing or delaying a potential hepatic dysfunction through the attenuation of the insulin signalling blockade and the modulation of glucose uptake and production.

  7. Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-J.; Wang, C.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.; Chou, F.-P.; Jean, L.-F.; Tseng, T.-H. . E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-03-01

    Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents. Herein, we present an investigation regarding the anticancer potential of luteolin, a natural flavonoid, and the mechanism of its action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear staining assay, it showed that luteolin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Luteolin induced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activated CPP32. We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h. In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h. Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin. Finally, the apoptosis induced by luteolin was suppressed by a pretreatment with SP600125 via evaluating annexin V-FITC binding assay. These data suggest that luteolin induced apoptosis via mechanisms involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK.

  8. Dual effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Aneta; Krasulová, Kristýna; Bartoňková, Iveta; Korhoňová, Martina; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal drug ketoconazole causes severe drug-drug interactions by influencing gene expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. Ketoconazole is administered in the form of racemic mixture of two cis-enantiomers, i.e. (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole. Many enantiopure drugs were introduced to human pharmacotherapy in last two decades. In the current paper, we have examined the effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells and on catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. We show that both ketoconazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Gene reporter assays revealed partial agonist activity of ketoconazole enantiomers towards pregnane X receptor PXR. Catalytic activity of CYP3A4/5 towards two prototypic substrates of CYP3A enzymes, testosterone and midazolam, was determined in presence of both (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole in human liver microsomes. Overall, both ketoconazole cis-enantiomers induced CYP3A4 in human cells and inhibited CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. While interaction of ketoconazole with PXR and induction of CYP3A4 did not display enantiospecific pattern, inhibition of CYP3A4 catalytic activity by ketoconazole differed for ketoconazole cis-enantiomers ((+)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 1.69 µM, Ki 0.92 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.46 µM, Ki 2.52 µM for midazolam; (-)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 0.90 µM, Ki 0.17 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.04 µM, Ki 1.51 µM for midazolam).

  9. The protective effects of carvacrol and thymol against paracetamol-induced toxicity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Palabiyik, S S; Karakus, E; Halici, Z; Cadirci, E; Bayir, Y; Ayaz, G; Cinar, I

    2016-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose could induce liver damage and lead to acute liver failure. The treatment of APAP overdoses could be improved by new therapeutic strategies. Thymus spp., which has many beneficial effects and has been used in folk medicine, is one such potential strategy. In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of the main constituents of Thymus spp., carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated in light of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We hoped to understand the hepatoprotective mechanism of these agents on the antioxidant system and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Dose-dependent effects of thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, and 100 µM) were tested on cultured HepG2 cells. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was tested as positive control. We showed that APAP inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Incubating APAP-exposed HepG2 cells with carvacrol and thymol for 24 h ameliorated this inflammation and oxidative stress. We also evaluated alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels of HepG2 cells. We found that thymol and carvacrol protected against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells by increasing antioxidant activity and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β. Taking together high-dose thymol and carvacrol treatment has an effect close to NAC treatment in APAP toxicity, but thymol has better treatment effect than carvacrol. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Glibenclamide induces apoptosis through inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Kang, Y S; Lee, S H; Lee, E H; Yoo, B H; Lee, Y S

    1999-08-11

    Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels, induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. Glibenclamide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was significantly inhibited by Ca(2+) release blockers dantrolene and TMB-8. BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and the Ca(2+) release blockers significantly inhibited glibenclamide-induced apoptosis. Glibanclamide also increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration, which was significantly blocked by CFTR Cl(-) channel activators levamisole and bromotetramisole. These activators also significantly inhibited both intracellular Ca(2+) release and apoptosis induced by glibenclamide. The expression of CFTR protein in the cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results suggest that glibenclamide induced apoptosis through inhibition of CFTR Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release and that this protein may be a good target for treatment of human hepatomas.

  11. Altered gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to low-level 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and potassium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Lalita; Dhami, Karan; Schneberger, David; Stevens, Marianne; Renaud, Condé; Ali, Adnan

    2005-08-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and nitrate are agricultural contaminants found in rural ground water. It is not known whether levels found in groundwater pose a human or environmental health risk, nor is the mechanism of toxicity at the molecular/cellular level understood. This study focused on determining whether 2,4-D or nitrate at environmentally realistic levels elicit gene expression changes in exposed cells. cDNA microarray technology was used to determine the impact of 2,4-D and nitrate in an in vitro model of exposure. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were incubated with 2,4-D or nitrate alone for 24 h. Cell viability (neutral red assay) and proliferation (BrdU incorporation) were assessed following exposure. Total RNA from treated and control cells were isolated, reverse transcribed and reciprocal labelled with Cy3 or Cy5 dyes, and hybridized to a human cDNA microarray. The hybridized microarray chips were scanned, quantified and analyzed to identify genes affected by 2,4-D or nitrate exposure based on a two-fold increase or decrease in gene expression and reproducibility (affected in three or more treatments). Following filtering, normalization and hierarchical clustering initial data indicate that numerous genes were found to be commonly expressed in at least three or more treatments of 2,4-D or nitrate tested. The affected genes indicate that HepG2 cells respond to environmental, low-level exposure and produce a cellular response that is associated with alterations in the expression of many genes. The affected genes were characterized as stress response, cell cycle control, immunological and DNA repair genes. These findings serve to highlight new pathway(s) in which to further probe the effects of environmental levels of 2,4-D and nitrate.

  12. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of a two photon absorbing fluorescence compound on human HepG2 cells and its application to tracking human hepatic cancer cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, X M; Yan, Y; Bai, Z L; Zhang, J P; Wang, Z; Liu, L L; Feng, L J

    2010-04-01

    Small organic dyes have been applied widely in fluorescence imaging techniques for biomedical research. We investigated the cytotoxicity of a novel fluorescent dye, trans-4-(N-2-hydroxyethyl-N-ethyl amino)-4'-(dimethyl amino) stilbene (DMAHAS), on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT), a neutral red assay, a Coomassie brilliant blue assay, and flow cytometric analysis. Our results showed that DMAHAS had live cell permeability, stable cytosolic localization and no significant cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. We explored its application further for tumor cell tracking in a human liver tumor xenograft mouse model. Tumor xenografts were examined by fluorescence imaging and conventional histological methods. In addition, a method based on DMAHAS release was developed for tumor-specific cytotoxicity analysis. Our study indicated that DMAHAS is a reliable probe for tumor tracking and fluorescence imaging.

  13. Regulation of the Lactobacillus Strains on HMGCoA Reductase Gene Transcription in Human HepG2 Cells via Nuclear Factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Li, Shaocong; Chen, Fang; Li, Jun; Luo, Xuegang

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been identified to be effective in reducing cholesterol levels. Most of the mechanistic studies were focused on the bile salt deconjugation ability of bile salt hydrolase in lactic acid bacteria. However, the mechanism by which Lactobacillus decreases cholesterol levels has not been thoroughly studied in intact primate cells. 3-Hydroxy-3- methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is the vital enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. To confirm the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on HMGCR level, in the present study, human hepatoma HepG2 cells were treated with Lactobacillus strains, and then the HMGCR level was illustrated by luciferase reporter assay and RT-PCR. The results showed that the level of HMGCR was suppressed after being treated with the live Lactobacillus strains. These works might set a foundation for the following study of the antihyperlipidemic effects of L. acidophilus, and contribute to the development of functional foods or drugs that benefit patients suffering from hyperlipidemia diseases.

  14. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  15. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and regulate the apoptotic genes through ROS in human liver cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Khan, M A Majeed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (CIO NPs) have been one of the most widely explored magnetic NPs because of their excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and heat generating potential. However, there is limited information concerning the interaction of CIO NPs with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic response of CIO NPs in human liver cells (HepG2). Diameter of crystalline CIO NPs was found to be 23nm with a band gap of 1.97eV. CIO NPs induced cell viability reduction and membrane damage, and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. CIO NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress revealed by induction of ROS, depletion of glutathione and lower activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. Real-time PCR data has shown that mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were higher, while the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was lower in cells following exposure to CIO NPs. Activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes was also higher in CIO NPs exposed cells. Furthermore, co-exposure of N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) efficiently abrogated the modulation of apoptotic genes along with the prevention of cytotoxicity caused by CIO NPs. Overall, we observed that CIO NPs induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS via p53 pathway. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of CIO NPs should be further investigated in animal models.

  16. Houttuynia cordata Thunb Promotes Activation of HIF-1A-FOXO3 and MEF2A Pathways to Induce Apoptosis in Human HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Min; Hwang, In-Hu; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Min; Bang, In Seok; Park, Soo Jung; Chung, Yun-Jo; Joo, Jong-Cheon; Lee, Min-Goo

    2017-09-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb ( H cordata), a medicinal plant, has anticancer activity, as it inhibits cell growth and induces cell apoptosis in cancer. However, the potential anti-cancer activity and mechanism of H cordata for human liver cancer cells is not well understood. Recently, we identified hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1A, Forkhead box (FOX)O3, and MEF2A as proapoptotic factors induced by H cordata, suggesting that HIF-1A, FOXO3, and MEF2A contribute to the apoptosis of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. FOXO3 transcription factors regulate target genes involved in apoptosis. H cordata significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1A and FOXO3 and stimulated MEF2A expression in addition to increased apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 24 hours. Therefore, we determined the potential role of FOXO3 on apoptosis and on H cordata-induced MEF2A in HepG2 cells. HIF-1A silencing by siRNA attenuated MEF2A and H cordata-mediated FOXO3 upregulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, H cordata-mediated MEF2A expression enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-7, which were abolished on silencing FOXO3 with siRNA. In addition, H cordata inhibited growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H cordata enhances HIF-1A/FOXO3 signaling, leading to MEF2A upregulation in HepG2 cells, and in parallel, it disturbs the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL), which results in apoptosis. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that H cordata promotes the activation of HIF-1A-FOXO3 and MEF2A pathways to induce apoptosis in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and is, therefore, a promising candidate for antitumor drug development.

  17. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  18. Ruthenium Complexes Induce HepG2 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibit Cell Migration and Invasion through Regulation of the Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yiyu; Shen, Ting; Yang, Hua; Gu, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) complexes are currently the focus of substantial interest because of their potential application as chemotherapeutic agents with broad anticancer activities. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities and mechanisms of two Ru complexes—2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru1) and 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru2)—against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. These Ru complexes effectively inhibited the cellular growth of three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, with IC50 values ranging from 2.7–7.3 μM. In contrast, the complexes exhibited lower toxicity towards L02 human liver normal cells with IC50 values of 20.4 and 24.8 μM, respectively. Moreover, Ru2 significantly inhibited HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and these effects were dose-dependent. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that Ru2 induced HCC cell apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation, which was predominately triggered via caspase family member activation. Furthermore, HCC cell treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream effectors, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1). Ru2 also exhibited potent in vivo anticancer efficacy in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model, as demonstrated by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition on tumor growth. The results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Ru complexes against HCC via Nrf2 pathway regulation. PMID:27213353

  19. Role and mechanisms of microRNA‑503 in drug resistance reversal in HepG2/ADM human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Nan; Ye, Yintao; Qian, Junqiang; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. In order to investigate the effects and mechanisms of microRNA‑503 (miR‑503) in the reversal of Adriamycin® (ADM) resistance in the drug‑resistant HepG2/ADM hepatocellular cancer cell line, an ADM‑resistant HepG2/ADM cell line was established using continuous drug exposure. HepG2/ADM cells overexpressing miR‑503 were further established. HepG2/ADM cells overexpressing miR‑503 demonstrated an enhanced sensitivity to ADM. Furthermore, miR‑503 overexpression was found to increase intracellular rhodamine‑123 levels and the rate of apoptosis, block the cell cycle at G0/G1‑phase and significantly decrease intracellular superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. The expression of a number drug resistance‑related proteins, including multidrug resistance 1, multi drug resistance‑associated protein 1, DNA excision repair protein ERCC‑1, survivin and B‑cell lymphoma 2, was significantly downregulated by miR‑503 overexpression, as indicated by western blotting and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. By contrast, levels of RhoE were increased. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt was decreased and expression of cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 was decreased by miR‑503 overexpression. Furthermore, the secretion of transforming growth factor‑β, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑8 was downregulated, and the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells and activating protein‑1 were significantly reduced. In conclusion, miR‑503 was observed to reverse ADM resistance in HepG2/ADM cells by inhibiting drug efflux, downregulating the expression of drug resistance‑related proteins, blocking the cell cycle and promoting cell apoptosis.

  20. Mancozeb, a fungicide routinely used in agriculture, worsens nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the human HepG2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Anna Virginia Adriana; Stellavato, Antonietta; La Gatta, Annalisa; Lamberti, Monica; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-05-13

    Mancozeb, a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate, is a fungicide routinely used in pest control programs. However, it has been found to have deleterious effects on human health and on the environment. Indeed, its massive use has raised the issue of possible health risks for agrarian communities; the molecule can also reach human cells via the food chain and alter metabolism, endocrine activity and cell survival. In particular, mancozeb induces many toxic effects on hepatic cell metabolism. For this reason, we investigated its effect in an in vitro model of hepatic damage, namely fatty acid-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the HepG2 cell line. We found that the hepatic toxicity of the fungicide exacerbated fatty acid-induced steatosis, as manifested by an increase in intracellular lipid droplet accumulation. Furthermore, mancozeb altered cell metabolism and induced cell death through upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c, respectively, in dose-dependent manners. Therefore, mancozeb may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic disease in humans and represents a danger for human health in high doses.

  1. A Novel Polysaccharide Conjugate from Bullacta exarata Induces G1-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ningbo; Sun, Liang; Chen, Jiang; Zhong, Jianjun; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    Bullacta exarata has been consumed in Asia, not only as a part of the normal diet, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with liver- and kidney-benefitting functions. Several scientific investigations involving extraction of biomolecules from this mollusk and pharmacological studies on their biological activities have been carried out. However, little is known regarding the antitumor properties of polysaccharides from B. exarata, hence the polysaccharides from B. exarata have been investigated here. One polysaccharide conjugate BEPS-IA was isolated and purified from B. exarata. It mainly consisted of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1:2, with an average molecular weight of 127 kDa. Thirteen general amino acids were identified to be components of the protein-bound polysaccharide. Methylation and NMR studies revealed that BEPS-IA is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of 1,4-linked-α-d-Glc, 1,6-linked-α-d-Man, 1,3,6-linked-α-d-Man, and 1-linked-α-d-Man residue, in a molar ratio of 6:1:1:1. In order to test the antitumor activity of BEPS-IA, we investigated its effect against the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 in vitro. The result showed that BEPS-IA dose-dependently exhibited an effective HepG2 cells growth inhibition with an IC50 of 112.4 μg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that BEPS-IA increased the populations of both apoptotic sub-G1 and G1 phase. The result obtained from TUNEL assay corroborated apoptosis which was shown in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis suggested that BEPS-IA induced apoptosis and growth inhibition were associated with up-regulation of p53, p21 and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that BEPS-IA may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Critical role of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation in troglitazone-induced apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ae; Song, Byoung J

    2003-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist troglitazone (TRO) was used for treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes until its removal from the market because of its severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism for its hepatotoxicity is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether TRO caused cell death by altering signaling pathways associated with cell damage and survival in human hepatoma cells. Our data reveal that TRO caused time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis of HepG2 and Chang liver human hepatoma cells, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and staining with Hoechst 33342. In contrast, 50 or 100 microM rosiglitazone, a structural analog of TRO, did not cause apoptosis in these hepatoma cells. TRO activated both c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase about 5-fold between 0.5 and 8 h before they returned to control levels at 16 h in HepG2 cells. In contrast, TRO failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, TRO increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bad, Bax, release of cytochrome c, and cleavage of Bid in a time-dependent manner. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level decreased in hepatoma cells treated with TRO. Pretreatment of hepatoma cells with a selective JNK inhibitor, anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one (SP600125), significantly reduced the rate of TRO-induced cell death, whereas 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB203580), an inhibitor of p38 kinase, had little effect on apoptosis. Pretreatment with SP600125 also prevented JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. In addition, rosiglitazone, which is not as toxic to hepatoma cells as TRO, did not stimulate JNK activity. Transfection of cDNA for the dominant-negative mutant JNK-KR (Lys-->Arg) or SEK1-KR (Lys-->Arg), an immediate upstream kinase of JNK, significantly reduced TRO-induced JNK activation and cell death rate. Furthermore, SP600125 pretreatment effectively prevented the

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  4. Developmental Stage-Specific Embryonic Induction of HepG2 Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Zong, Yanhong; Xiao, Zhigang; Zhu, Mengxuan; Xiao, Hui; Qi, Jinsheng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Although hepatocellular carcinoma cells can sometimes undergo differentiation in an embryonic microenvironment, the mechanism is poorly understood. The developmental stage-specific embryonic induction of tumor cell differentiation was investigated. Both chick and mouse liver extracts and hepatoblast-enriched cells at different developmental stages were used to treat human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and the effects on the induction of differentiation were evaluated. The nuclear factors controlling differentiation, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α, HNF-1α, HNF-6 and upstream stimulatory factor-1 (USF-1), and the oncogene Myc and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured. HNF-4α RNA interference was used to verify the role of HNF-4α. Embryonic induction effects were further tested in vivo by injecting HepG2 tumor cells into immunodeficient nude mice. The 9-11-days chick liver extracts and 13.5-14.5-days mouse hepatoblast-enriched cells could inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of HepG2 cells, leading to either death or maturation to hepatocytes. The maturation of surviving HepG2 cells was confirmed by increases in the expressions of HNF-4α, HNF-1α, HNF-6, and USF-1, and decreases in Myc and AFP. The embryonic induction of HepG2 cell maturation could be attenuated by HNF-4α RNA interference. Furthermore, the 13.5-days mouse hepatoblast culture completely eliminated HepG2 tumors with inhibited Myc and induced HNF-4α, confirming this embryonic induction effect in vivo. This study demonstrated that developmental stage-specific embryonic induction of HepG2 cell differentiation might help in understanding embryonic differentiation and oncogenesis.

  5. In vitro inhibitory activities of six gypenosides on human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and possible role of HIF-1α pathway in them.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Pi, Yuzhen; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Chunhong; Tan, Dehong; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-08-05

    During our phytochemical investigation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, six gypenosides (compounds 1-6) were isolated and determined, including two with a 21,23-epoxy group (1, 2), two with a 21,23-lacton skeleton (3, 4), and two with usual side-chain (5, 6). In this research, we studied their possible in vitro inhibitory activities on cancer cell line HepG2 under hypoxic conditions, explored the role of HIF-1α pathway in them and discussed the potential antitumor gradients and conduct analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR). They and gensenoside-Rg3 were tested for different assays. Compounds 1-4 showed moderate antitumor activities against HepG2 by MTT assay, inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression, as well as disturbing HepG2 migration and invasion, superior to Rg3. Correlations were found for gypenosides with different side chain on inhibiting HepG2 proliferation activity, the ones have epoxy structure showed the highest effect. These results supported the potential application of G. pentaphyllum as a functional food for hepatoprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic effects of etephon and maleic hydrazide in Vero, Hep2, HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Begum; Baydan, Emine; Okur, Hamza; Gurcan, Ismayil Safa

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of etephon and maleic hydrazide, used as plant growth regulators in agriculture, were reported as low in mammals in previous studies. However, in vitro cytotoxicity studies in mammalian cells are currently missing to understand their toxicity at molecular level. In the current study, the cytotoxicity of these compounds, were studied in Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelium), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), Hep2 (human epidermoid cancer) cells by MTT ((3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromure) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. Maleic hydrazide had lower IC50 values for all cell lines compared to ethephon. Least cytotoxic effect treated by ethephon were observed in Vero, followed by HepG2 and Hep2. Similarly maleic hydrazide also showed least cytotoxicity on Vero cells, followed by Hep2 and HepG2 cells (p < 0.05). IC50 values in general were found to be highest in Vero cells, followed by HepG2 and Hep2 cells (p < 0.05). LDH and MTT assays showed correllation and had close relation except HepG2-maleic hydrazide application with the correlation coefficient for all >0.868 (p < 0.05). This study is expected to be a basis to understand the cytotoxic effects of ethephon and maleic hydrazide in mammal cells to be supplemented by further studies.

  7. Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shengguo; Shi, Lizheng; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Hui; Qin, Yanyan; Pan, Weisong; Hartley, William; Cui, Mengqian

    2017-07-01

    A mining district in south China shows significant metal(loid) contamination in paddy fields. In the soils, average Pb, Cd and As concentrations were 460.1, 11.7 and 35.1mgkg(-1) respectively, which were higher than the environmental quality standard for agricultural soils in China (GB15618-1995) and UK Clea Soil Guideline Value. The average contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice were 5.24, 1.1 and 0.7mgkg(-1) respectively, which were about 25, 4.5 or 2.5 times greater than the limit values of the maximum safe contaminant concentration standard in food of China (GB 2762-2012), and about 25, 10 or 1 times greater than the limit values of FAO/WHO standard. The elevated contents of Pb, Cd and As detected in soils around the factories, indicated that their spatial distribution was influenced by anthropogenic activity, while greater concentrations of Cd in rice appeared in the northwest region of the factories, indicating that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also affected by natural factors. As human exposure around mining districts is mainly through oral intake of food and dermal contact, the effects of these metals on the viability and MT protein of HepG2 and KERTr cells were investigated. The cell viability decreased with increasing metal concentrations. Co-exposure to heavy metals (Pb+Cd) increased the metals (Pb or Cd)-mediated MT protein induction in both human HepG2 and KERTr cells. Increased levels of MT protein will lead to greater risk of carcinogenic manifestations, and it is likely that chronic exposure to metals may increase the risk to human health. Nevertheless, when co-exposure to two or more metals occur (such as As+Pb), they may have an antagonistic effect thus reducing the toxic effects of each other. Metal contaminations in paddy soils and rice were influenced by anthropogenic activity; metal co-exposure induced MT protein in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro exposure to 0.57-MHz electric currents exerts cytostatic effects in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Trillo, María Angeles; Cid, María Antonia; Leal, Jocelyne; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2007-03-01

    Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) therapy is a non-invasive technique currently applied to the treatment of skin, muscle and tendon injuries that uses 0.45-0.6 MHz electric currents to transdermically and focally increase the internal temperature of targeted tissues. Because CRET electrothermal treatment has been reported to be more effective than other thermal therapies, it has been proposed that the electric stimulus could induce responses in exposed tissues that are cooperative or synergic with the thermal effects of the treatment. Previous studies by our group, investigating the nature of the alleged electric response, have shown that short, repeated stimuli with 0.57-MHz currents at subthermal levels could provoke partial, cytotoxic effects on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response from another human cell type, the human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 line, during and after the exposure to 0.57-MHz CRET currents at subthermal densities. The electric stimuli provoked a decrease in the proliferation rate of the cultures, possibly due to an electrically-induced blocking of the cell cycle in a fraction of the cellular population.

  9. Altered cellular metabolism of HepG2 cells caused by microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Feng, Yiyi; Jiang, Siyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure on the metabolism and drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. For this purpose, we first conducted an experiment to make sure that MC-LR could penetrate the HepG2 cell membrane effectively. The transcriptional levels of phase I (such as CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP26B1) and phase II (such as EPHX1, SULTs, and GSTM) enzymes and export pump genes (such as MRP1 and MDR1) were altered by MC-LR-exposure for 24 h, indicating that MC-LR treatment may destabilize the metabolism of HepG2 cells. Further research showed that the CYP inducers omeprazole, ethanol, and rifampicin inhibited cell viability, in particular, ethanol, a CYP2E1 inducer, induced ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with MC-LR. The CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole inhibited ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase-3 activity, and cytotoxicity caused by MC-LR. Meanwhile, the results also showed that co-incubation with the ROS scavenger l-ascorbic acid and MC-LR decreased ROS levels and effectively prevented apoptosis. These findings provide an interesting mechanistic explanation of cellular metabolism associated with MC-LR, i.e., MC-LR-exposure exerted toxicity on HepG2 cells and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells via promoting CYP2E1 expression and inducing excessive ROS in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECTS OF THE ANTIMUTAGENS VANILLIN AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON SPONTANEOUS MUTATION IN E. COLI LACL STRAINS AND ON GLOBAL GENE EXPRESSION IN SALMONELLA TA104 AND HUMAN HEPG2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of the Antimutagens Vanillin and Cinnamaldehyde on Spontaneous Mutation in E. coli lacI Strains and on Global Gene Epression in Salmonella TAlO4 and Human HepG2 Cells

    In previous work we have shown that vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutag...

  11. EFFECTS OF THE ANTIMUTAGENS VANILLIN AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON SPONTANEOUS MUTATION IN E. COLI LACL STRAINS AND ON GLOBAL GENE EXPRESSION IN SALMONELLA TA104 AND HUMAN HEPG2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of the Antimutagens Vanillin and Cinnamaldehyde on Spontaneous Mutation in E. coli lacI Strains and on Global Gene Epression in Salmonella TAlO4 and Human HepG2 Cells

    In previous work we have shown that vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutag...

  12. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-02

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant, and a liver tumor promoter in rodents. Depending on the particular cell lines studied, exposure to these compounds may lead to cell proliferation, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. AhR can also modulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes that can affect cell proliferation and cell fate determination. The mechanisms by which AhR ligands, both exogenous and endogenous, affect these processes involve multiple interactions between AhR and other signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCB on cell proliferation and AhR expression, using an initiation-promotion hepatocarcinogenesis protocol in rat liver and in the human-derived hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Female Wistar rats were initiated with a single dose of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at the start of the experiment. Two weeks later, daily dosing of 100 mg/kg HCB was maintained for 10 weeks. Partial hepatectomy was performed 3 weeks after initiation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P)-positive foci, in the rat liver were used as biomarkers of liver precancerous lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, along with enhanced AhR protein expression in hepatocytes within GST-P-positive foci of (DEN HCB) group, when compared to DEN. In a similar manner, Western blot analysis demonstrated that HCB induced PCNA and AhR protein expression in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry assay indicated that the cells were accumulated at S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. HCB increased cyclin D1 protein levels and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with a selective MEK1 inhibitor, prevented HCB-stimulatory effect on PCNA and cyclinD1, indicating that these effects

  13. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) (CF) has been used for treatment of fever, cough, and peptic ulcer. Previously, a 50% ethanol-water extract from twigs of CF was shown highly selective in cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis-inducing effect of CF. Methods The cytotoxicity of CF was evaluated in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line in comparison with a non-cancerous African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) by a neutral red assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential alterations, and caspase enzyme activities. Results CF selectively induced HepG2 cell death compared with non-cancerous Vero cells. A 1.5-fold higher apoptotic effect compared with melphalan was induced by 120 μg/mL of the 50% ethanol-water extract of CF. The apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells occurred via extrinsic and intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways in dose- and time-dependent manners by significantly increasing the activities of caspase 3/7, 8, and 9, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions CF extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:24708784

  14. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against human HepG2, Huh7, and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Fan, Hua; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 +/- 3.7 nm and -19.3 +/- 1.4 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 9.1 μg/ml, 4.4 μg/ml, and 6.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  15. Retinoic acid represses CYP7A1 expression in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by FXR/RXR-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shi-Ying; He, Hongwei; Nguyen, Trong; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L

    2010-08-01

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) plays a key role in maintaining lipid and bile salt homeostasis as it is the rate-limiting enzyme converting cholesterol to bile acids. Deficiency of CYP7A1 leads to hyperlipidemia in man and mouse. Hyperlipidemia is often seen in patients when treated with high-dose retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Our present study revealed that CYP7A1 mRNA expression is greatly repressed by RA in both human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells where increased fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) expressions were also observed, suggesting farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) were activated. Promoter reporter assays demonstrate that all-trans RA (atRA) specifically activated FXR/RXR. However, detailed molecular analyses indicate that this activation is through RXR, whose ligand is 9-cis RA. Knocking down of FXR or RXRalpha by small interference RNA (siRNA) in human hepatocytes increased CYP7A1 basal expression, but the repressive effect of atRA persisted, suggesting there are also FXR/RXR-independent mechanisms mediating atRA repression of CYP7A1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and cell transfection results indicate that PGC-1alpha plays a role in the FXR/RXR-independent mechanism. Our findings may provide a potential explanation for hyperlipidemic side effects observed in some patients treated with high-dose RA.

  16. In vitro antitumor efficacy of berberine: solid lipid nanoparticles against human HepG2, Huh7 and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huai-ling; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ber-SLN) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-SLN relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-SLN were 154.3 ± 4.1 nm and -11.7 ± 1.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-SLN effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 10.6 μg/ml, 5.1 μg/ml, and 7.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-SLN is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  17. Effect of polyphenols on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Saori; Kojima, Yuko; Sekino, Koichi; Yamato, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    When carbohydrate metabolism is impaired, fatty acid metabolism is activated. Excess acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is generated from fatty acids by β-oxidation and is used for the formation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and subsequently for acetoacetate. High levels of secreted ketone bodies (acetoacetate and 3β-hydroxybutyrate) lower the pH of blood and urine, resulting in ketoacidosis. HMG-CoA lyase in hepatic cells is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the cleavage of HMG-CoA to acetoacetate, and thus inhibition of this enzyme results in reduced acetoacetate production, in other words, impaired ketoacidosis. Inhibition of HMG-CoA lyase activity possibly prevents ketoacidosis and should be the therapeutic target. Polyphenols are common and abundant dietary constituents with beneficial effects on human health. We examined the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols on HMG-CoA lyase activity in cellular extracts of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Of the nine representative dietary polyphenols tested, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid (GA) effectively inhibited HMG-CoA lyase activity. Lineweaver-Burk analysis revealed that EGC and EGCG are likely to be mixed-type noncompetitive inhibitors. Pyrogallol with the gallyl structure also inhibited HMG-CoA lyase activity, suggesting that the gallyl moiety of polyphenols is important for the inhibition of HMG-CoA lyase activity.

  18. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  19. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka; Jos, Ángeles; Zegura, Bojana

    2016-03-05

    Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite(®)Na(+) (CNa(+)), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa(+) arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa(+) (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa(+) on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa(+) increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa(+) is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa(+) are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  20. Pharmacological induction of leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase suppresses the oncogenic transformation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Jie; Le, X Chris; Han, Yifan; Tong, Yao; Lau, Allan S Y; Rong, Jianhui

    2011-09-01

    Leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) is characterized as a chemopreventive and tumor suppressor gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH and potential anticancer activity. Using HepG2 cells as a cellular detector, we successfully isolated the active compounds from the herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Paeoniae Rubra through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. Using various analytical techniques including electronic spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gallic acid (GA) was identified as the active compound from Radix Paeoniae Rubra whereas the active compound from Radix Astragali, designated as RA-C, was also purified to the extent that it is now suitable for further identifi-cation. We found that the active compounds from these two different herbs synergistically induced LTB4DH expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A key finding was that commercial GA in combination with purified RA-C attenuated the focus formation and anchorage-independent growth, two indexes of in vitro oncogenic transformation, of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Moreover, the combination of GA and purified RA-C significantly induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Our results demon-strated for the first time that GA and purified RA-C suppress the in vitro oncogenic transformation of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Importantly, pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH represents a potential alternative strategy for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection and replication in a new cell culture system established by fusing HepG2 cells with primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sai, Lin-Tao; Yao, Yong-Yuan; Guan, Yan-Yan; Shao, Li-Hua; Ma, Rui-Ping; Ma, Li-Xian

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strictly species and tissue specific, therefore none of the cell models established previously can reproduce the natural infection process of HBV in vitro. The aim of this study was to establish a new cell line that is susceptible to HBV and can support the replication of HBV. A hybrid cell line was established by fusing primary human hepatocytes with HepG2 cells. The hybrid cells were incubated with HBV-positive serum for 12 hours. HBV DNA was detected by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR). HBsAg (surface antigen) and HBeAg (extracellular form of core antigen) were observed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL). HBcAg (core antigen) was detected by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was analyzed by Southern blot hybridization and quantified using real-time PCR. A new cell line was established and named HepCHLine-7. The extracellular HBV DNA was observed from Day 2 and the levels ranged from 9.80 (± 0.32) × 10(2) copies/mL to 3.12 (± 0.03) × 10(4) copies/mL. Intracellular HBV DNA was detected at Day 2 after infection and the levels ranged from 7.92 (± 1.08) × 10(3) copies/mL to 5.63 (± 0.11) × 10(5) copies/mL. HBsAg in the culture medium was detected from Day 4 to Day 20. HBeAg secretion was positive from Day 5 to Day 20. HBcAg constantly showed positive signals in approximately 20% (± 0.82%) of hybrid cells. Intracellular HBV cccDNA could be detected as early as 2 days postinfection and the highest level was 15.76 (± 0.26) copies/cell. HepCHLine-7 cells were susceptible to HBV and supported the replication of HBV. They are therefore suitable for studying the complete life cycle of HBV. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Involvement of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 in phenolic acid-induced P-form phenol sulfotransferase expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-05-01

    Phenolic acids have significant biological and pharmacological properties and some have demonstrated remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of phenolic acids on phenol sulfotransferase expression have not been described. In the present study, we investigated the effects of phenolic acids on the expression of the Phase II P-form of phenol sulfotransferase (PST-P) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and western blot data revealed that gallic acid induced increase in PST-P expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. This induction was also marked by an increase in PST-P activity. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide inhibited gallic acid-responsive PST-P mRNA expression, indicating that gallic acid is a requirement for transcription and de novo protein synthesis. Transient transfection of HepG2 cells with a reporter plasmid of the upstream region of the human PST gene caused a significant increase in reporter gene activity after gallic acid exposure. Moreover, gallic acid increased the nuclear levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor governing antioxidant response element (ARE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed increased binding of nuclear proteins to ARE consensus sequence after treatment with gallic acid. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for PST-P induction, we observed that gallic acid activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished gallic acid-induced PST-P protein expression. Similarly, gallic acid also caused an accumulation of Nrf2. Moreover, the protective effects of gallic acid on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity was partially blocked by p38 MAPK and PST-P inhibitors, further demonstrating that gallic acid attenuates oxidative stress through a pathway that involves p38 MAPK and PST-P. These results indicate that gallic acid is a potent inducer of PST-P and that PST-P induction is responsible

  3. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Sukeno, Akiko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Whiley, Robert A; Jafar, Syed I; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Ohkura, Kazuto; Maeda, Takuya; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S. intermedius and deep-seated abscesses, we constructed ily knockout mutant UNS38 B3 and complementation strain UNS38 B3R1 in order to investigate the role of ILY in deep-seated infections. Strain UNS38 reduced the viability of human liver cell line HepG2 at infection but not of rat liver cell line BRL3A. Isogenic mutant strain UNS38 B3 was not cytotoxic in either cell line. Quantification of S. intermedius revealed that in infected HepG2 cells UNS38 but not UNS38 B3 increased intracellularly concomitantly with increasing cell damage. This difference between UNS38 and UNS38 B3 was not observed with UNS38 B3R1. Invasion and proliferation in BRL3A cells was not observed. Masking UNS38 or UNS38 B3R1 with ILY antibody drastically decreased adherence and invasion of HepG2. Moreover, coating strain UNS38 B3 with ILY partially restored adherence to HepG2 but without subsequent bacterial growth. At 1 day post-infection, many intact UNS38 were detected in the damaged phagosomes of HepG2 with bacterial proliferation observed in the cytoplasm of dead HepG2 after an additional 2 day incubation. These results indicate that surface-bound ILY on S. intermedius is an important factor for invasion of human cells by this bacterium and that secretion of ILY within host cells is essential for subsequent host cell death. These data strongly implicate ILY as an important factor in the pathogenesis of abscesses in vivo by this streptococcus.

  4. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Qiang; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  5. Selective cytotoxicity of goniothalamin against hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Rozita, Rosli; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Omar, Abdul-Rahman; Ali, Abdul-Manaf; Alitheen, Noorjahan B

    2011-04-06

    Liver cancer has become one of the major types of cancer with high mortality and liver cancer is not responsive to the current cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells and normal liver Chang cells. The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin against HepG2 and liver Chang cell was tested using MTT cell viability assay, LDH leakage assay, cell cycle flow cytometry PI analysis, BrdU proliferation ELISA assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Goniothalamin selectively inhibited HepG2 cells [IC₅₀ = 4.6 (±0.23) µM in the MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 5.20 (±0.01) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours], with less sensitivity in Chang cells [IC₅₀ = 35.0 (±0.09) µM for MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 32.5 (±0.04) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours]. In the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, the Viability Indexes were 52 ± 1.73% for HepG2 cells and 62 ± 4.36% for Chang cells at IC₅₀ after 72 hours. Cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was related to inhibition of DNA synthesis, as revealed by the reduction of BrdU incorporation. At 72 hours, the lowest concentration of goniothalamin (2.3 µL) retained 97.6% of normal liver Chang cells proliferation while it reduced HepG2 cell proliferation to 19.8% as compared to control. Besides, goniothalamin caused accumulation of hypodiploid apoptosis and different degree of G2/M arrested as shown in cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Goniothalamin selectively killed liver cancer cell through suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that goniothalamin shows potential cytotoxicity against hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.

  6. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2h and 48h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC+Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br+Cl, PFC+Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment.

  7. Butyrylcholinesterase expression is regulated by fatty acids in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gok, Muslum; Zeybek, N Dilara; Bodur, Ebru

    2016-11-25

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is mostly associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics. In this study to analyze the involvement of BChE in lipid metabolism, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) were applied to HepG2 cells along with expression of wild type human BChE. After 48 h of these treatments WST-1 cell proliferation assay, FACS analysis, RT-PCR, Oil Red O staining and activity assays were performed. Application of high concentrations of LA to HepG2 cells without BChE transfection lead to detachment of the cells. The IC50 value LA was found as 149.3 μM whereas the IC50 value for ALA could not be calculated. Hence, in order to display minimal effects on cell viability, 5 μM was chosen as appropriate concentration for LA and ALA application to HepG2 cells. Transfection of wild-type BChE plasmid to HepG2 cells yielded increased BChE expression. Application of 5 μM ALA after BChE transfection to HepG2 cells resulted in increased expression of BChE. Although with this low concentration the number of apoptotic cells was decreased with ALA treatments, LA application did not cause a similar result with the same dose. Moreover ghost cell like property was observed in LA-treated cells. Application of ALA, on the other hand, led to an overall increase in cell numbers, BChE expression and activity. Our results indicate that BChE expression might be regulated by ALA in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  9. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine nanosuspension against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NS relative to effcacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 +/- 3.7 nm and 6.99 +/- 0.17 mV, respectively. Ber-NS exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 8.1 and 4.7 μg/ml (18.3 and 6.5 μg/ml of Ber solution). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 63.7% (41.4 % of Ber solution) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  10. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  11. The effect of oleuropein from olive leaf (Olea europaea) extract on Ca²⁺ homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Sun, Wei-Chih; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound found in the olive leaf (Olea europaea), has been shown to have biological activities in different models. However, the effects of oleuropein on Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in liver cells have not been analyzed. Oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises only in HepG2 cells but not in AML12, HA22T or HA59T cells due to the different status of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression. In HepG2 cells, this Ca(2+) signaling response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+), and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers 2-APB and SKF96365. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the ER Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished oleuropein-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Oleuropein induced cell cycle arrest which was associated with the regulation of p53, p21, CDK1 and cyclin B1 levels. Furthermore, oleuropein elevated intracellular ROS levels but reduced GSH levels. Treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM or the antioxidant NAC partially reversed oleuropein-induced cytotoxicity. Together, in HepG2 cells, oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, oleuropein induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity that involved ROS signaling and cell cycle arrest. This compound may offer a potential therapy for treatment of human hepatoma.

  12. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-04-11

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  13. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α−/− cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α−/− cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α−/− cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration). PMID:27065079

  14. Genotoxicity and induction of DNA damage responsive genes by food-borne heterocyclic aromatic amines in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Marko; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka

    2013-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potential human carcinogens formed in well-done meats and fish. The most abundant are 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-Amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). HAAs exert genotoxic activity after metabolic transformation by CYP1A enzymes, that is well characterized, however the genomic and intervening responses are not well explored. We have examined cellular and genomic responses of human hepatoma HepG2 cells after 24h exposure to HAAs. Comet assay revealed increase in formation of DNA strand breaks by PhIP, MeIQx and IQ but not 4,8-DiMeIQx, whereas increased formation of micronuclei was not observed. The four HAAs up-regulated expression of genes encoding metabolic enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and UGT1A1 and expression of TP53 and its downstream regulated genes CDKN1A, GADD45α and BAX. Consistent with the up-regulation of CDKN1A and GADD45α the cell-cycle analysis showed arrest in S-phase by PhIP and IQ, and in G1-phase by 4,8-DiMeIQx and MeIQx. The results indicate that upon exposure to HAAs the cells respond with the cell-cycle arrest, which enables cells to repair the damage or eliminate them by apoptosis. However, elevated expression of BCL2 and down-regulation of BAX may indicate that HAAs could suppress apoptosis meaning higher probability of damaged cells to survive and mutate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance. The present study was conducted to evaluate hypolipidemic effects of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDA), anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the Myristica fragrans HOUTT., by oil red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. MDA significantly inhibited insulin-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. The lipid-lowering effect of MDA was accompanied by increased expression of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation and decreased expression of lipid synthetic proteins. In addition, MDA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as determined by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK. The effects of MDA on lipogenic protein expression were suppressed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Taken together, these findings show that MDA inhibits insulin-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 cells by suppressing expression of lipogenic proteins through AMPK signaling, suggesting a potent lipid-lowering agent.

  16. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mechanism by Which Amentoflavone Improves Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoke; Ke, Yingying; Feng, Aozi; Yuan, Peipei; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Yang; Wang, Xiaolan; Feng, Weisheng

    2016-05-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism by which amentoflavone (AME) improves insulin resistance in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). A model of insulin resistant cells was established in HepG2 by treatment with high glucose and insulin. The glucose oxidase method was used to detect the glucose consumption in each group. To determine the mechanism by which AME improves insulin resistance in HepG2 cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting were used to detect the expression of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and pAkt; the activity of the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism; and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Insulin resistance was successfully induced in HepG2 cells. After treatment with AME, the glucose consumption increased significantly in HepG2 cells compared with the model group (MG). The expression of PI3K, Akt, and pAkt and the activity of 6-phosphofructokinas (PFK-1), glucokinase (GCK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) increased, while the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) as well as the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C reactive protein (CRP) decreased. The mechanism by which treatment with AME improves insulin resistance in HepG2 cells may involve the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the processes of glucose oxygenolysis, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and inflammatory cytokine expression.

  18. Nanoceria Attenuated High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Abdi, Hakimeh; Asadollah-Pour, Azin; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycemia, a common metabolic disorder in diabetes, can lead to oxidative damage. The use of antioxidants can benefit the control and prevention of diabetes side effects. This study aims to evaluate the effect of nanoceria particles, as an antioxidant, on glucose induced cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell line. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided HepG2 cells into these groups: i. Cells treated with 5 mM D-glucose (control), ii. Cells treated with 45 mM D- mannitol+5 mM D-glucose (osmotic control), iii. Cells treated with 50 mM D-glucose (high glucose), and iv. Cells treated with 50 mM D-glucose+nanoceria. Cell viability, ROS formation, LPO and GSH were measured and analyzed statistically. Results High glucose (50 mM) treatment caused significant cell death and increased oxidative stress markers in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, nanoceria at a concentration of 50 mM significantly decreased the high glucose-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and LPO. This concentration of nanoceria increased the GSH content in HepG2 cells (P<0.05). Conclusion The antioxidant feature of nanoceria particles makes it an attractive candidate for attenuation of hyperglycemia oxidative damage in different organs. PMID:27054124

  19. Effects of PRELI in Oxidative-Stressed HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yong; Cho, Min Ho; Kim, Kyung Joo; Cho, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jung, Woon-Won; Lee, Boo Hyung; Lee, Bong Hee; Lee, Seung Gwan

    2015-01-01

    Protein of relevant evolutionary and lymphoid interest (PRELI) is known for preventing apoptosis by mediating intramitochondrial transport of phosphatidic acid. However, the role of PRELI remains unclear. This study has demonstrated functions of PRELI through PRELI-knockdown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells exposed to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide. Results show that PRELI has three functions in HepG2 cells with regard to oxidative stress. First, PRELI affects expressional regulation of SOD-1 and caspase-3 genes in HepG2 cells. PRELI knockdown HepG2 cells have shown up-regulation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of SOD-1. Second, PRELI suppresses mitochondrial apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Fluorescence intensity related to mitochondrial apoptosis in PRELI-knockdown HepG2 cells increased more than two-fold compared to normal HepG2 cells. Third, PRELI suppresses senescence of HepG2 cells with oxidative stress. PRELI knockdown HepG2 cells showed higher levels of senescence than normal HepG2 cells. These results suggest that PRELI is a crucial protein in the suppression of apoptosis in HepG2 cells in response to oxidative stress. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. Induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 by tanshinones in human HepG2 hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rong; Sun Jianguo; Ma Liping; Wu Xiaolan; Pan Guoyu; Hao Haiping; Zhou Fang; Jiye, A; Liu Changhui; Ai Hua; Shang Lili; Gao Haiyan; Peng Ying; Wan Ping; Wu Hui; Wang Guangji

    2011-04-01

    Diterpenoid tanshinones including tanshinone IIA (TIIA), cryptotanshinone (CTS), tanshinone I (TI) and dihydrotanshinone I (DHTI) are the major bioactive components from Danshen. The major aim of our present study was to investigate the induction potential of these four main components of tanshinones (TIIA, CTS, TI, and DHTI) on the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that all of these four tanshinones caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. These induction effects were further characterized through transcriptional regulation: the induction of CYP1A1/2 mRNA level by tanshinones was completely blocked by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D; the expression of CYP1A1/2 heterogeneous nuclear RNA was induced by tanshinone treatment; and CYP1A1 mRNA stability was not influenced by these tanshinones. Interestingly, tanshinones plus B[a]P produced additive/synergistic effect on CYP1A1/2 induction. In addition, the tanshinone-induced CYP1A1/2 expression was abolished by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist resveratrol, suggesting an AhR dependent transcription mechanism. In the reporter gene assay, while TI and DHTI significantly induced AhR-dependent luciferase activity, TIIA and CTS failed to induce this activity. Collectively, the tanshinones could induce CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through transcriptional activation mechanism and exert differential effects on activating AhR in HepG2 cells. Our findings suggest that rational administration of tanshinones should be considered with respect to their effect on AhR and CYP1A1/2 expression.

  1. Glutathione and thioredoxin type 1 cooperatively denitrosate HepG2 cells-derived cytosolic S-nitrosoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanovsky, Detcho A.; Scott, Melanie J.; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence that glutathione acts in concert with human thioredoxin type 1 in the denitrosation of cytosolic S-nitrosoproteins (PSNOs) from HepG2 cells. PMID:23743503

  2. Influence of different chemical agents (H2O2, t-BHP and MMS) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human HepG2 and hamster V79 cells; relationship to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Slamenova, D; Kozics, K; Melusova, M; Horvathova, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated activities of antioxidant enzymes (AEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in human HepG2 and hamster V79 cells treated with a scale of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of these substances were evaluated simultaneously. We have found out that H2O2, t-BHP and MMS predictably induce significant concentration-dependent increase of DNA lesions in both cell lines. Cytotoxicity detected in V79 cells with help of PE test was in a good conformity with the level of DNA damage. MTT test has proved unsuitable, except for MMS-treated V79 cells. Compared with human cells HepG2, hamster cells V79 manifested approximately similar levels of SOD and CAT but ten times higher activity of GPx. Across all concentrations tested the most significant increase of activity of the enzyme CAT was found in H2O2- and t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells, of the enzyme SOD in t-BHP- and MMS-treated V79 cells, and of the enzyme GPx in H2O2-treated V79 cells. We suggest that stimulation of enzyme activity by the relevant chemical compounds may result from transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of the genes CAT, SOD and GPx. Several authors suggest that moderate levels of toxic reactants can induce increase of AEs activities, while very high levels of reactants can induce their decrease, as a consequence of damage of the molecular machinery required to induce AEs. Based on a great amount of experiments, which were done and described within this paper, we can say that the above mentioned principle does not apply in general. Only the reactions of t-BHP affected HepG2 cells were consistent with this idea.

  3. Inferring Toxicological Responses of HepG2 Cells from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding the dynamic perturbation of cell states by chemicals can aid in for predicting their adverse effects. High-content imaging (HCI) was used to measure the state of HepG2 cells over three time points (1, 24, and 72 h) in response to 976 ToxCast chemicals for 10 different concentrations (0.39-200µM). Cell state was characterized by p53 activation (p53), c-Jun activation (SK), phospho-Histone H2A.x (OS), phospho-Histone H3 (MA), alpha tubulin (Mt), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial mass (MM), cell cycle arrest (CCA), nuclear size (NS) and cell number (CN). Dynamic cell state perturbations due to each chemical concentration were utilized to infer coarse-grained dependencies between cellular functions as Boolean networks (BNs). BNs were inferred from data in two steps. First, the data for each state variable were discretized into changed/active (> 1 standard deviation), and unchanged/inactive values. Second, the discretized data were used to learn Boolean relationships between variables. In our case, a BN is a wiring diagram between nodes that represent 10 previously described observable phenotypes. Functional relationships between nodes were represented as Boolean functions. We found that inferred BN show that HepG2 cell response is chemical and concentration specific. We observed presence of both point and cycle BN attractors. In addition, there are instances where Boolean functions were not found. We believe that this may be either

  4. Phloroglucinol: antioxidant properties and effects on cellular oxidative markers in human HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Quéguineur, Benoît; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Martín, Maria Angeles; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Phloroglucinol is an ubiquitous secondary metabolite encountered in a free state or polymerised as phlorotannins in brown macroalgae, and present in higher plants. FRAP and TEAC assays measured the antioxidant properties of phloroglucinol in non-biological conditions. Additionally, the biological effects of phloroglucinol (4-400 μM) were scrutinised using cellular oxidative stress markers, such as the generation of ROS, antioxidant defences (concentration of GSH and activities of GPx, GR and GST), and levels of MDA as a marker for lipid peroxidation. The direct effect was assessed immediately after an incubation period, whereas for the protective effect, the incubation period was followed by 3-h treatment with the pro-oxidant t-BOOH. The results indicated that despite having a higher radical scavenging capacity than Trolox after 30 min, phloroglucinol was not a suitable antioxidant standard for phlorotannins. Regarding the biological effects, phloroglucinol had no impact on cell viability, reduced levels of ROS and increased antioxidant defences in the direct treatment for most concentrations. The results of the protective effect were mitigated as phloroglucinol failed to protect from ROS generation but evoked a significant recovery of the stress-altered cellular antioxidant defences to restful conditions. Additionally, MDA levels were greatly reduced, preventing a radical chain oxidation.

  5. Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiale; Zhou, Ping; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yang; Tang, Li; Tian, Shuangming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3), and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells. To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs), a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV). Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL-staining assay. CMBs

  6. Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiale; Zhou, Ping; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yang; Tang, Li; Tian, Shuangming

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3), and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells. Methods To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs), a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV). Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL

  7. Effects of silymarin and silymarin-doxorubicin applications on telomerase activity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Yurtcu, Erkan; Darcansoy Iseri, Ozlem; Iffet Sahin, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin. Milk thistle extract, or its active constituent silymarin has been used by cancer patients as an alternative and complementary agent. Telomerase activation is one of the initial events of HCC. In this study, we applied doxorubicin and silymarin for 72 hrs in order to test individual and combined effect of the agents on telomerase activity. The effects of doxorubicin, silymarin, and their combination on the proliferation of HepG2 cell line were tested by MTT assay, and Checkerboard micro plate method was applied to define the nature of doxorubicin and silymarin interactions on the cells. Lipid peroxidations were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level. Telomerase activity was determined according to the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). Untreated cells were used as control group. Doxorubicin-silymarin combination had indifferent antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells. Telomerase activity of the cells incubated with IC50 of doxorubicin and silymarin decreased to 72% (p<0.05). IC50 combinations of doxorubicin and silymarin caused 70% (p<0.05) reduction. All treatments except for the 1/2IC50 of silymarin caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels when compared to controls. TBARS levels did not significantly increase when doxorubicin and silymarin were applied in combination, which is in concordance with the indifferent drug interaction. IC50 of both doxorubicin and silymarin alone and in combination inhibited telomerase activity. Mechanism of inhibition may be elucidated by further molecular studies.

  8. Curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuate acrylamide-induced proliferation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yuan; Meng, Xulian; Wang, Pengqi; Jiang, Pan; Feng, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures. It can be metabolized into glycidamide mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The fact that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen to human-beings draws public attention recently. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of acrylamide at low doses on proliferation of HepG2 cells, and to test whether the two well-studied chemopreventive agents, curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), would have antagonistic effects against acrylamide. The results showed that lower concentration of acrylamide (⩽100μM) significantly increased the proliferation of HepG2 cells, but not of the other cancer cells (MDA-231, HeLa, A549, and PC-3). Only in HepG2 cells, low concentration of acrylamide was able to induce CYP2E1 expression significantly. Knockdown of CYP2E1 restrained acrylamide to increase viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, acrylamide raised expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which contributed to cell proliferation. Both curcumin and EGCG effectively reduced acrylamide-induced proliferation, as well as protein expression of CYP2E1, EGFR, cyclin D1 and NF-κB. All these results suggest that low concentration of acrylamide may contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Curcumin or EGCG could prevent acrylamide triggering this effect.

  9. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying

    2015-06-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered.

  10. [Observation of radiobiological characteristics in a HepG2 cell line with mitochondrial DNA deletion].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hengwen; Pan, Yi; Zeng, Zijun; Fang, Liangyi; Zhang, Hongdan; Xie, Songxi; Li, Weixiong; Xu, Jiabin

    2015-06-01

    To study the radiobiological characteristics of a HepG2 cell line with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion. HepG2 cells were cultured in a medium containing ethidium bromide, acetylformic acid and uracil. The HepG2 cell line with mtDNA deletion (ρ(0)HepG2 cells) were acquired after 30 subcultures by limited dilution cloning. The cell survival was then observed in the absence of acetylformic acid and uracil, and the total mtDNA deletion in the cells was confirmed by PCR. The radiosensitivity of HepG2 and ρ(0)HepG2 cells was evaluated by exposure to gradient doses of 6 MV X ray irradiation. The cell apoptosis was assessed following a 2 Gy X-ray exposure with Hochest33342 staining, and the invasiveness of ρ(0)HepG2 cells was measured by Transwell assay. HepG2 cells could survive 30 subcultures in the presence of ethidium bromide, and massive cell death occurred after removal of acetylformic acid and uracil from the medium. PCR confirmed total mtDNA deletion from ρ(0)HepG2 cells, whose α/β value was significantly lower than that of HepG2 cells. ρ(0)Hep-G2 cells showed an obviously lowered cell apoptosis rate following X-ray exposure with enhanced cell invasiveness. HepG2 cells can be induced by ethidium bromide into ρ(0)HepG2 cells with an increased radiation resistance, anti-apoptosis ability and cell invasiveness.

  11. The growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, is induced by a change in fatty acid metabolism, but not the facilitation of lipid peroxidation in the cells.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, M; Miyazawa, T

    2001-02-26

    We investigated the growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on HepG2 (human hepatoma cell line), exploring whether the inhibitory action occurs via lipid peroxidation in the cells. When the cells were incubated up to 72 h with 5-40 microM of CLA (a mixture of 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2), cell proliferation was clearly inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner but such an inhibition was not confirmed with linoleic acid (LA). In order to evaluate the possible contribution of lipid peroxidation exerted by CLA to cell growth inhibition, alpha-tocopherol (5-20 microM) and BHT (1-10 microM) as potent antioxidants were added to the medium with CLA (20 microM), which did not restore cell growth at all. Furthermore, after 72 h incubation, the membranous phospholipid hydroperoxide formation in the CLA-supplemented cells was suppressed respectively to 25% and 50% of that in LA-supplemented cells and control cells. No difference was observed by a conventional lipid peroxide assay, the TBA test, between CLA-supplemented cells and LA-supplemented cells. Although the cellular lipid peroxidation was not stimulated, lipid contents (triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and free cholesterol) and fatty acid contents (palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid) markedly increased in CLA-supplemented cells compared with LA-supplemented and control cells. Moreover, supplementation with 20 microM LA and 20 microM arachidonic acid profoundly interfered with the inhibitory effect of CLA in HepG2. These results suggest that the growth inhibitory effect of CLA on HepG2 is due to changes in fatty acid metabolism but not to lipid peroxidation.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  13. Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jin; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Fu-An; Lee, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects.

  14. Effect of the militarily-relevant heavy metals, depleted uranium and heavy metal tungsten-alloy on gene expression in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexandra C; Brooks, Kia; Smith, Jan; Page, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) and heavy-metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) are dense heavy-metals used primarily in military applications. Chemically similar to natural uranium, but depleted of the higher activity 235U and 234U isotopes, DU is a low specific activity, high-density heavy metal. In contrast, the non-radioactive HMTAs are composed of a mixture of tungsten (91-93%), nickel (3-5%), and cobalt (2-4%) particles. The use of DU and HMTAs in military munitions could result in their internalization in humans. Limited data exist however, regarding the long-term health effects of internalized DU and HMTAs in humans. Both DU and HMTAs possess a tumorigenic transforming potential and are genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro. Using insoluble DU-UO2 and a reconstituted mixture of tungsten, nickel, cobalt (rWNiCo), we tested their ability to induce stress genes in thirteen different recombinant cell lines generated from human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2). The commercially available CAT-Tox (L) cellular assay consists of a panel of cell lines stably transfected with reporter genes consisting of a coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under transcriptional control by mammalian stress gene regulatory sequences. DU, (5-50 microg/ml) produced a complex profile of activity demonstrating significant dose-dependent induction of the hMTIIA FOS, p53RE, Gadd153, Gadd45, NFkappaBRE, CRE, HSP70, RARE, and GRP78 promoters. The rWNiCo mixture (5-50 microg/ml) showed dose-related induction of the GSTYA, hMTIIA, p53RE, FOS, NFkappaBRE, HSP70, and CRE promoters. An examination of the pure metals, tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co), comprising the rWNiCo mixture, demonstrated that each metal exhibited a similar pattern of gene induction, but at a significantly decreased magnitude than that of the rWNiCo mixture. These data showed a synergistic activation of gene expression by the metals in the rWNiCo mixture. Our data show for the first time that DU and rWNiCo can

  15. Quercetin induces apoptosis via caspase activation, regulation of Bcl-2, and inhibition of PI-3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner; however, a shorter treatment (4 h) had no effect on cell viability. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin for 18 h induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8. Moreover, this flavonoid decreased the Bcl-xL:Bcl-xS ratio and increased translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signals, Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), also occurred in quercetin-treated cells. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2.

  16. Cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of Cratoxy formosum extract against HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buranrat, Benjaporn; Mairuae, Nootchanat; Kanchanarach, Watchara

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Cratoxylum formosum (CF) Dyer-induced cancer cell death and antimigratory effects in HepG2 liver cancer cells. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of CF leaf extract on human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B, colony formation, and wound healing assays. In addition, apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) disruption. Gene expression and apoptosis-associated protein levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. CF induced HepG2 cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 219.03±9.96 and 124.90±6.86 µg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with CF caused a significant and dose-dependent decrease in colony forming ability and cell migration. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that CF induced ROS formation, increased caspase 3 activities, decreased the ΔΨm, and caused HepG2 apoptosis. CF marginally decreased the expression level of the cell cycle regulatory protein, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) and the downstream protein, cyclin dependent kinase 6. Additionally, CF significantly enhanced p21 levels, reduced cyclin D1 protein levels and triggered cancer cell death. CF leaf extracts induced cell death, stimulated apoptosis and inhibited migration in HepG2 cells. Thus, CF may be useful for developing an anticancer drug candidate for the treatment of liver cancer.

  17. Human Sulfatase-1 Improves the Effectiveness of Cytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Therapy with 5-Fluorocytosine Treatment on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2 In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ling; Wang, Ping; Ma, Sheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human sulfatase-1 (Hsulf-1) is an endosulfatase that selectively removes sulfate groups from heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), altering the binding of several growth factors and cytokines to HSPG to regulate cell proliferation, cell motility, and apoptosis. We investigated the role of combined cancer gene therapy with Hsulf-1 and cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) suicide gene on a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line, HepG2, in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of Hsulf-1 in HCC. Cell apoptosis was observed through flow cytometry instrument and mechanism of Hsulf-1 to enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-FC against HCC was analyzed in HCC by confocal microscopy. We also establish a nude mice model of HCC to address the effect of Hsulf-1 expression on the CD/5-FC suicide gene therapy in vivo. Results: A significant decrease in HepG2 cell proliferation and an increase in HepG2 cell apoptosis were observed when Hsulf-1 expression was combined with the CD/5-FC gene suicide system. A noticeable bystander effect was observed when the Hsulf-1 and CD genes were co-expressed. Intracellular calcium was also increased after HepG2 cells were infected with the Hsulf-1 gene. In vivo studies showed that the suppression of tumor growth was more pronounced in animals treated with the Hsulf-1 plus CD than those treated with either gene therapy alone, and the combined treatment resulted in a significant increase in survival. Conclusions: Hsulf-1 expression combined with the CD/5-FC gene suicide system could be an effective treatment approach for HCC. PMID:25963362

  18. Gene Network Analysis of Glucose Linked Signaling Pathways and Their Role in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth and Survival in HuH7 and HepG2 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Emmanuelle; Vega, Nathalie; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Géloën, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression may be affected by metabolism. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of glucose on the proliferation and/or survival of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Human gene datasets regulated by glucose were compared to gene datasets either dysregulated in HCC or regulated by other signaling pathways. Significant numbers of common genes suggested putative involvement in transcriptional regulations by glucose. Real-time proliferation assays using high (4.5 g/L) versus low (1 g/L) glucose on two human HCC cell lines and specific inhibitors of selected pathways were used for experimental validations. High glucose promoted HuH7 cell proliferation but not that of HepG2 cell line. Gene network analyses suggest that gene transcription by glucose could be mediated at 92% through ChREBP in HepG2 cells, compared to 40% in either other human cells or rodent healthy liver, with alteration of LKB1 (serine/threonine kinase 11) and NOX (NADPH oxidases) signaling pathways and loss of transcriptional regulation of PPARGC1A (peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors gamma coactivator 1) target genes by high glucose. Both PPARA and PPARGC1A regulate transcription of genes commonly regulated by glycolysis, by the antidiabetic agent metformin and by NOX, suggesting their major interplay in the control of HCC progression. PMID:26380295

  19. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-12

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.

  20. Inhibition of energy-producing pathways of HepG2 cells by 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Kyaw, Nattascha; dos Santos, Reinaldo Sousa; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Almeida, Fabio C L; Da Poian, Andrea T; Galina, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    3-BrPA (3-bromopyruvate) is an alkylating agent with anti-tumoral activity on hepatocellular carcinoma. This compound inhibits cellular ATP production owing to its action on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation; however, the specific metabolic steps and mechanisms of 3-BrPA action in human hepatocellular carcinomas, particularly its effects on mitochondrial energetics, are poorly understood. In the present study it was found that incubation of HepG2 cells with a low concentration of 3-BrPA for a short period (150 microM for 30 min) significantly affected both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiratory functions. The activity of mitochondrial hexokinase was not inhibited by 150 microM 3-BrPA, but this concentration caused more than 70% inhibition of GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase activities. Additionally, 3-BrPA treatment significantly impaired lactate production by HepG2 cells, even when glucose was withdrawn from the incubation medium. Oxygen consumption of HepG2 cells supported by either pyruvate/malate or succinate was inhibited when cells were pre-incubated with 3-BrPA in glucose-free medium. On the other hand, when cells were pre-incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, oxygen consumption was affected only when succinate was used as the oxidizable substrate. An increase in oligomycin-independent respiration was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 3-BrPA only when incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, indicating that 3-BrPA induces mitochondrial proton leakage as well as blocking the electron transport system. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase was inhibited by 70% by 3-BrPA treatment. These results suggest that the combined action of 3-BrPA on succinate dehydrogenase and on glycolysis, inhibiting steps downstream of the phosphorylation of glucose, play an important role in HepG2 cell death.

  1. Acquisition of susceptibility to hepatitis C virus replication in HepG2 cells by fusion with primary human hepatocytes: establishment of a quantitative assay for hepatitis C virus infectivity in a cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Yasui, K; Mukaigawa, J; Katsume, A; Kohara, M; Mitamura, K

    2001-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in human and chimpanzee hepatocytes. To characterize the nature of HCV and evaluate antiviral agents, the development of an HCV replication system in a cell culture is essential. We developed a cell line derived from human hepatocytes by fusing them with a hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, and obtained several clones. When we tested the clones for their ability to support HCV replication by nested RT-PCR, we found 1 clone (IMY-N9) that was more susceptible to HCV replication than HepG2. The negative-strand HCV RNA was detected in IMY-N9 by strand-specific RT-PCR, and viral RNA was identified in culture supernatant during the culture. Then we monitored HCV RNA titers in IMY-N9 and HepG2, respectively, by real-time detection PCR throughout the culture. A significant increase in the HCV RNA titer was observed only in IMY-N9. Serial passages of HCV culture supernatant were shown in the culture system. Furthermore, we tested several infectious materials for viral infectivity by monitoring HCV RNA titers and/or 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of HCV on IMY-N9. In each material, HCV showed various growth patterns and a different TCID50 even though the PCR titer in each material was identical. The results showed that HCV in each material served various growth patterns and different TCID50 even though PCR titer in each material was identical. This cell line is useful for estimating viral activity and for studying cellular factors that may be necessary to HCV replication in human hepatocytes.

  2. In vitro transfection of the hepatitis B virus PreS2 gene into the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 induces upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hua; Luan Fang; Ju Ying; Shen Hongyu; Gao Lifen; Wang Xiaoyan; Liu Suxia; Zhang Lining; Sun Wensheng; Ma Chunhong . E-mail: machunhong@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-04-06

    The preS2 domain is the minimal functional unit of transcription activators that is encoded by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface (S) gene. It is present in more than one-third of the HBV-integrates in HBV induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC). To further understand the functional role of PreS2 in hepatocytes, a PreS2 expression plasmid, pcS2, was constructed and stably transfected into HepG2 cells. We conducted growth curve and colony-forming assays to study the impact of PreS2 expression on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with PreS2 proliferated more rapidly and formed colonies in soft agar. PreS2 expressing cells also induced upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase activation by RT-PCR and the modified TRAP assay. Blocking expression of hTERT with antisense oligonuleotide reversed the growth rate in cells stably transfected with PreS2. Our data suggest that PreS2 may increase the malignant transformation of human HCC cell line HepG2 by upregulating hTERT and inducing telomerase activation.

  3. The Inhibitory Effect of C-phycocyanin Containing Protein Extract (C-PC Extract) on Human Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Kunte, Mugdha; Desai, Krutika

    2017-03-30

    Spirulina platensis :have been studied for several biological activities. In the current study C-phycocyanin containing protein extract (C-PC extract) of Spirulina platensis have been studied for its effect on human matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). In the present study, breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB 231) and hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) were examined for inhibition of MMPs at different levels of expression after C-PC extract treatment. Herein, we have demonstrated that C-PC extract significantly reduced activity of MMP-2 by 55.13% and MMP-9 by 57.9% in HepG2 cells at 15 μg concentration. Additionally, the treatment has reduced mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 20 μg concentration by 1.65-folds and 1.66-folds respectively. The C-PC extract treatment have also downregulated a mRNA expression of TIMP-2 by 1.12 folds at 20 μg concentration in HepG2 cells. Together, these results indicate that C-PC, extract successfully inhibited MMP-2 and -9 at different levels of expression and TIMP-2 at a mRNA expression level; however, extract did not have any effect on MMP-1 expressed in MDA-MB231 and TIMP-1 expressed in HepG2 cells as well as the exact mechanism of inhibition of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 remained unclear.

  4. Red wine polyphenolics increase LDL receptor expression and activity and suppress the secretion of ApoB100 from human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ho, Nerissa; Santos, Carlos; Dubois, Paul; Mamo, John; Croft, Kevin; Allister, Emma

    2003-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that the consumption of red wine may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cardioprotective effect of red wine has been attributed to the polyphenols present in red wine, particularly resveratrol (a stilbene, with estrogen-like activity), and the flavonoids, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and phenolic acids such as gallic acid. At present, very little is known about the mechanisms by which red wine phenolic compounds benefit the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether red wine polyphenolics reduce lipoprotein production and clearance by the liver. Cultured HepG2 cells were incubated in the presence of dealcoholized red wine, alcohol-containing red wine and atorvastatin for 24 h. The apolipoprotien B100 (apoB100) protein (marker of hepatic lipoproteins) was quantified on Western blots with an anti-apoB100 antibody and the enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Apolipoprotein B100 levels in the cells and that secreted into the media were significantly reduced by 50% in liver cells incubated with alcohol-stripped red wine compared with control cells. This effect of dealcoholized red wine on apoB100 production in HepG2 cells was similar to the effect of atorvastatin. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 30% in cells incubated with alcoholized red wine, suggesting that the alcohol was masking the effect of red wine polyphenolics. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 45% with the polyphenolic compounds resveratrol and quercertin. In addition, dealcoholized and alcoholized red wine and atorvastatin significantly increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA and LDL receptor binding activity relative to controls. Dealcoholized red wine also increased LDL receptor gene expression. Collectively, this study suggests that red wine polyphenolics regulate major pathways involved in lipoprotein metabolism.

  5. Interleukin-18 Down-Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Expression through Farnesoid X Receptor Associated with Nuclear Factor Kappa B and Yin Yang 1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1.

  6. Monoterpene indole alkaloid hydrazone derivatives with apoptosis inducing activity in human HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paterna, Angela; Borralho, Pedro M; Gomes, Sofia E; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2015-09-01

    The derivatization of dregamine (1) and tabernaemontanine (2), two epimeric monoterpene indole alkaloids isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Tabernaemontana elegans, with several hydrazines and hydroxylamine gave rise to ten new derivatives (3-12). Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of all compounds (1-12) was evaluated in both cell lines by the MTS assay. The most active compounds (6, 9, 10) along with 1 and 2 were further investigated for their apoptosis induction capability by Guava ViaCount flow cytometry assays, nuclear morphology evaluation by Hoechst staining, and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Compounds 9 and 10 showed promising apoptosis induction profile, displaying higher activities than 5-fluorouracil, the mainstay in colon cancer treatment.

  7. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Junguo; Wang, Jianji

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in order to elucidate the biochemical and molecular mechanism of [C8mim]Br-cytotoxicity. For this purpose, cell viability, oxidative stress, apoptosis, caspase activity, and apoptosis-related gene expression in HepG2 cells following [C8mim]Br-exposure were evaluated. The results showed that viability of HepG2 cells was decreased by [C8mim]Br-exposure in a concentration-dependent pattern. Moreover, biochemical assays reveal that [C8mim]Br-exposure can induce apoptosis, cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit superoxide dismutase and catalase, reduce glutathione content, and increase the cellular malondialdehyde level of HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of p53 and bax were markedly up-regulated while bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated in HepG2 cells after [C8mim]Br-exposure, suggesting that p53 and bcl-2 family may be involved in the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of HepG2 cells caused by [C8mim]Br. In addition, we also found that caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were significantly activated in HepG2 cells following [C8mim]Br-exposure. Our results suggest that ROS may be a key early signal of [C8mim]Br-induced apoptosis and caspases play a key role in the initiation and execution of apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RNA-Seq gene expression profiling of HepG2 cells: the influence of experimental factors and comparison with liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Tyakht, Alexander V; Ilina, Elena N; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Gorbachev, Alexey Y; Semashko, Tatiana A; Larin, Andrei K; Selezneva, Oksana V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Karalkin, Pavel A; Vakhrushev, Igor V; Kurbatov, Leonid K; Archakov, Alexander I; Govorun, Vadim M

    2014-12-15

    Human hepatoma HepG2 cells are used as an in vitro model of the human liver. High-throughput transcriptomic sequencing is an advanced approach for assessing the functional state of a tissue or cell type. However, the influence of experimental factors, such as the sample preparation method and inter-laboratory variation, on the transcriptomic profile has not been evaluated. The whole-transcriptome sequencing of HepG2 cells was performed using the SOLiD platform and validated using droplet digital PCR. The gene expression profile was compared to the results obtained with the same sequencing method in another laboratory and using another sample preparation method. We also compared the transcriptomic profile HepG2 cells with that of liver tissue. Comparison of the gene expression profiles between the HepG2 cell line and liver tissue revealed the highest variation, followed by HepG2 cells submitted to two different sample preparation protocols. The lowest variation was observed between HepG2 cells prepared by two different laboratories using the same protocol. The enrichment analysis of the genes that were differentially expressed between HepG2 cells and liver tissue mainly revealed the cancer-associated gene signature of HepG2 cells and the activation of the response to chemical stimuli in the liver tissue. The HepG2 transcriptome obtained with the SOLiD platform was highly correlated with the published transcriptome obtained with the Illumina and Helicos platforms, with moderate correspondence to microarrays. In the present study, we assessed the influence of experimental factors on the HepG2 transcriptome and identified differences in gene expression between the HepG2 cell line and liver cells. These findings will facilitate robust experimental design in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology. Our results were supported by a comparative analysis with previous HepG2 gene expression studies.

  9. Galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seed and its sulfated derivatives impair metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cunha de Padua, Monique Meyenberg; Suter Correia Cadena, Silvia Maria; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rodrigues Noleto, Guilhermina

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of native galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seeds and its sulfated forms on certain metabolic parameters of HepG2 cells. Aqueous extraction from S. amazonicum seeds furnished galactomannan with 3.2:1 Man:Gal ratio (SAGM) and molar mass of 4.34×10(5)g/mol. The SAGM fraction was subjected to sulfation using chlorosulfonic acid to obtain SAGMS1 and SAGMS2 with DS of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Cytotoxicity of SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 was evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). After 72h, SAGM decreased the viability of HepG2 cells by 50% at 250μg/mL, while SAGMS1 reduced it by 30% at the same concentration. SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 promoted a reduction in oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in non-permeabilized HepG2 cells after 72h of treatment. These results suggest that SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 could be recognized by HepG2 cells and might trigger alterations that impair its survival. These effects could be implicated in the modification of the oxidative phosphorylation process in HepG2 cells and activation of the glycolytic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Desquiret, Valérie; Loiseau, Dominique; Jacques, Caroline; Douay, Olivier; Malthièry, Yves; Ritz, Patrick; Roussel, Damien

    2006-01-01

    Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells.

  11. [Study on transient absorption spectrum of tungsten nanoparticle with HepG2 tumor cell].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin; Shu, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Dong; Wang, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Significance of this study lies in tungsten nano materials can be used as a preliminary innovative medicines applied basic research. This paper investigated the inhibition of tungsten nanoparticles which effected on human hepatoma HepG2 cells by MTT. The authors use transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) technology absorption and emission spectra characterization of charge transfer between nanoparticles and tumor cell. The authors discussed the role of the tungsten nanoparticles in the tumor early detection of the disease and its anti-tumor properties. In the HepG2 experiments system, 100-150 microg x mL(-1) is the best drug concentration of anti-tumor activity which recact violently within 6 hours and basically completed in 24 hours. The results showed that transient absorption spectroscopy can be used as tumor detection methods and characterization of charge transfer between nano-biosensors and tumor cells. Tungsten nanoparticles have potential applications as anticancer drugs.

  12. Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akiko; Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Kawahata, Keiko; Koga, Jinichiro

    2011-02-23

    Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols, such as catechins and procyanidins, and has been shown to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherogenesis in a variety of models. Human studies have also shown daily intake of cocoa increases plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreases LDL levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of cocoa on cholesterol metabolism have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines. The cultured HepG2 cells or Caco2 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of cacao polyphenols such as (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2. The concentration of apolipoproteins in the cell culture media was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR. Cacao polyphenols increased apolipoprotein A1 protein levels and mRNA expression, even though apolipoprotein B protein and the mRNA expression were slightly decreased in both HepG2 cells and Caco2 cells. In addition, cacao polyphenols increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and activated LDL receptors in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols may increase the production of mature form SREBPs and LDL receptor activity, thereby increasing ApoA1 and decreasing ApoB levels. These results elucidate a novel mechanism by which HDL cholesterol levels become elevated with daily cocoa intake.

  13. Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, Sudhakar R.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-15

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 {mu}M) esculetin for 8 h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 {mu}M esculetin for 8 h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxic compounds in different organs of the sea bream Sarpa salpa as related to phytoplankton consumption: an in vitro study in human liver cell lines HepG2 and WRL68.

    PubMed

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems. In addition, we studied the cytotoxicity of extracts of epiphytes found in the stomach content of S. salpa collected in summer and of epiphytes collected from the sea in the Sfax area at the end of spring. We tested these fractions in two human hepatic cell lines: HepG2 and WRL68. We observed a significant loss of viable cells when HepG2 cells were exposed for 72 h to acetone extracts of livers of S. salpa at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml protein. Proteins extracted from brain or muscle did not significantly induce cell death at the studied concentrations (≤10 mg/ml). There was a significant loss of viable cells when treated with liver extract of S. salpa dissolved in DMSO. Extracts of epiphytes collected in late spring showed a cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we observed a significantly decreased cell viability of HepG2 at a dilution (1/40) of epiphyte extracts from stomach contents of two fish we had collected. The cytotoxic effect of the observed epiphyte extracts confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates which live in epiphyte on the Posidonia oceanica leaves to fish organs by grazing. Hence, the liver of this fish can cause a threat to human health and consumption should for this reason be dissuaded.

  15. Bilobol inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and distribution of RhoA in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIN; LI, YUEYING; YANG, XIAOMING; LIU, YALI; CHEN, YONGCHANG; CHEN, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the localization of RhoA protein in the cell nucleus, in addition to its distribution in the cytosol and cell membrane. The results of previous studies by our group indicated that nuclear RhoA expression is increased, or RhoA is transported into the nucleus, when cells become cancerous or damaged. Furthermore, application of the anticancer agent Taxol appeared to reduce nuclear RhoA localization, indicating an association between the nuclear translocation of RhoA and tumor progression. Bilobol is a traditional Chinese medicine ingredient, however, its anticancer effect has remained unclear. The present study aimed to demonstrate the anticarcinogenic action of bilobol against hepatocellular carcinoma, in order to lay the foundations for subsequent research into the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects. In the present study, HepG2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce inflammation, and/or bilobol. By performing an ELISA, it was observed that bilobol was able to suppress the inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses indicated that bilobol may reduce the expression of RhoA, suppress translocation of RhoA into the nucleus and inhibit the RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study revealed the potential anticancer effects of bilobol. PMID:26622605

  16. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins exposure on the viability and metabolism of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ningbo; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Baoqin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Feidi; Yu, Zhengkun; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-03

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have attracted considerable attention for their characteristic of persistent organic pollutants. However, very limited information is available for their toxic effects at environmentally relevant doses, limiting the evaluation of their health risks. In this study, cell viability assay and targeted metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the environmental dose (<100 μg/L) effect of SCCPs on HepG2 cells. Cell viability was found to be decreased with increases in exposure dose of SCCPs. Exposure for 48 h to C10-CPs resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability compared with 24 h, even at 1 μg/L. SCCPs exposure altered the intracellular redox status and caused significant metabolic disruptions. As a kind of peroxisome proliferator, SCCPs specifically stimulated the β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids. Meanwhile, SCCPs exposure disturbed glycolysis and amino acid metabolism, and led to the up-regulation of glutamate metabolism and urea cycle. The toxic effects of SCCPs might mainly involve the perturbation of energy production, protein biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and ammonia recycling.

  17. Selectivity of biopolymer membranes using HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Dongyuan; Gao, Yuxin; Luo, Chunhua; Lü, Shouqian; Wang, Qian; Xu, Xianghong; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Chengzhi; Long, Mian

    2015-03-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system has emerged as an alternative treatment to bridge acute liver failure to either liver transplantation or liver regeneration. One of the main reasons that the efficacy of the current BAL systems was not convincing in clinical trials is attributed to the lack of friendly interface between the membrane and the hepatocytes in liver bioreactor, the core unit of BAL system. Here, we systematically compared the biological responses of hepatosarcoma HepG2 cells seeded on eight, commercially available biocompatible membranes made of acetyl cellulose-nitrocellulose mixed cellulose (CA-NC), acetyl cellulose (CA), nylon (JN), polypropylene (PP), nitrocellulose (NC), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polycarbonate (PC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Physicochemical analysis and mechanical tests indicated that CA, JN and PP membranes yield high adhesivity and reasonable compressive and/or tensile features with friendly surface topography for cell seeding. Cells prefer to adhere on CA, JN, PP or PTFE membranes with high proliferation rate in spheriod-like shape. Actin, albumin and cytokeratin 18 expressions are favorable for cells on CA or PP membrane, whereas protein filtration is consistent among all the eight membranes. These results further the understandings of cell growth, morphology and spreading, as well as protein filtration on distinct membranes in designing a liver bioreactor.

  18. Upgrading HepG2 cells with adenoviral vectors that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes: application for drug hepatotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, M José; Tolosa, Laia; Donato, M Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Drug attrition rates due to hepatotoxicity are an important safety issue considered in drug development. The HepG2 hepatoma cell line is currently being used for drug-induced hepatotoxicity evaluations, but its expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is poor compared with hepatocytes. Different approaches have been proposed to upgrade HepG2 cells for more reliable drug-induced liver injury predictions. Areas covered: We describe the advantages and limitations of HepG2 cells transduced with adenoviral vectors that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes for safety risk assessments of bioactivable compounds. Adenoviral transduction facilitates efficient and controlled delivery of multiple drug-metabolizing activities to HepG2 cells at comparable levels to primary human hepatocytes by generating an 'artificial hepatocyte'. Furthermore, adenoviral transduction enables the design of tailored cells expressing particular metabolic capacities. Expert opinion: Upgraded HepG2 cells that recreate known inter-individual variations in hepatic CYP and conjugating activities due to both genetic (e.g., polymorphisms) or environmental (e.g., induction, inhibition) factors seems a suitable model to identify bioactivable drug and conduct hepatotoxicity risk assessments. This strategy should enable the generation of customized cells by reproducing human pheno- and genotypic CYP variability to represent a valuable human hepatic cell model to develop new safer drugs and to improve existing predictive toxicity assays.

  19. Phosphoramidate protides of five flavones and their antiproliferative activity against HepG2 and L-O2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Qing; Yang, Fei; Wang, Liu; Cao, Zhi; Han, Tian-Jiao; Duan, Zhe-Ang; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Jie

    2016-04-13

    A series of flavone-7-phosphoramidate derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antiproliferative activity in vitro against human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and human normal hepatic cell line L-O2. Compound 8d, 16d and 17d, incorporating the amino acid alanine, exhibited high inhibitory activity on HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 9.0 μmol/L, 5.5 μmol/L and 6.6 μmol/L. The introduction of acyl groups played a pivotal role in the selective inhibition toward human hepatoma HepG2 cells, except for compound 8a, 9a and 16b. Compound 8d, 16d and 17d could significantly induce G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells. Specially, Compound 16d could lead early apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chang, Chi-Huang; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2014-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill) (S. chinensis) (SC) fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2) was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w). In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  1. Schisandra chinensis Peptidoglycan-Assisted Transmembrane Transport of Lignans Uniquely Altered the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms in Human HepG2 Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chang, Chi-Huang; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill) (S. chinensis) (SC) fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2) was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w). In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a “Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism”. PMID:24475039

  2. Protective Effects of Vitamin C and NAC on the Toxicity of Rifampin on Hepg2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Jafari, Mahmoud Reza; Sharghi, Nasim; Sanati, Toktam

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin, an antibiotic widely used for the treatment of mycobacterial infections, produces hepatic, renal and bone marrow toxicity in human and animals. In this study, the protective effects of vitamin C and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the toxicity of rifampin on HepG2 cells were investigated. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in 96-well M of rifampin in the presence of microplate and exposed to 10, 20, 50 and 100 vitamin C (0.1 mg/mL) and NAC (0.2 mg/mL). Protective effect of the two drugs against rifampin toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. Results show that both vitamin C and NAC significantly inhibited HepG2 cellular damage due to rifampin, and vitamin C was relatively more potent than NAC. Rifampin is metabolized by the liver and its toxic metabolites are responsible for the drug›s hepatic toxicity. Based on our results, it seems that reactive metabolites are the main agents responsible for rifampin hepatotoxicity. The importance of this finding is that if vitamin C or NAC do not affect the antibacterial activity of rifampin, they could be used as preventive agents in rifampin users.

  3. Protective Effects of Vitamin C and NAC on the Toxicity of Rifampin on Hepg2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Jafari, Mahmoud Reza; Sharghi, Nasim; Sanati, Toktam

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin, an antibiotic widely used for the treatment of mycobacterial infections, produces hepatic, renal and bone marrow toxicity in human and animals. In this study, the protective effects of vitamin C and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the toxicity of rifampin on HepG2 cells were investigated. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in 96-well M of rifampin in the presence of microplate and exposed to 10, 20, 50 and 100 vitamin C (0.1 mg/mL) and NAC (0.2 mg/mL). Protective effect of the two drugs against rifampin toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. Results show that both vitamin C and NAC significantly inhibited HepG2 cellular damage due to rifampin, and vitamin C was relatively more potent than NAC. Rifampin is metabolized by the liver and its toxic metabolites are responsible for the drug›s hepatic toxicity. Based on our results, it seems that reactive metabolites are the main agents responsible for rifampin hepatotoxicity. The importance of this finding is that if vitamin C or NAC do not affect the antibacterial activity of rifampin, they could be used as preventive agents in rifampin users. PMID:24250582

  4. mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their coactivators are affected by glucose deprivation and oleate in human hepatoma hepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Katerina; Uherkova, Lenka; Poczatkova, Hana; Rypka, Miroslav; Vesely, Jaroslav

    2007-12-01

    Very modest changes in mRNA stability can affect critical points in cellular energy pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of energy abundant substrates on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR-gamma coactivators (PGCs) mRNA's steady-state levels. Quantitative RT-PCR study was performed to assess the effect of zero or normal (5 mmol/l) glucose and/or oleic acid (0.3 mmol/l) on mRNA levels of (PPARs) (PGCs) in HepG2 cells. PGC-1alpha mRNA was significantly upregulated in glucose deprived cells (123 % of the control level; p < 0.05), while PGC-1beta mRNA was significantly enhanced in oleate-fed cells (134 % and 160 % of control levels for zero glucose plus oleate and normal glucose plus oleate, respectively; p < 0.05) during the 0.5 h incubation. Upon the 4 h incubation, PPAR-gamma1 and PGC-1alpha mRNAs were significantly elevated in cells lacking glucose (142 % and 163 % of control levels, respectively; p < 0.05). Oleate significantly suppressed PPAR-alpha and PGC-1beta mRNA levels in glucose-deprived cells (58 % and 49 % of control levels, respectively; p < 0.05). PPAR-gamma1 and -gamma2 mRNAs were significantly superinduced when the cells were treated with cycloheximide, whereas PPAR-alpha and PGC-1alpha and-1beta mRNAs were destabilized. Upon actinomycin D treatment, glucose shortage significantly stabilized PPAR-alpha mRNA, while PGC-1alpha mRNA was destabilized by oleate in glucose-deprived cells. Our findings provide evidence that transcriptional processes that are under the control of energetic substrates are interconnected with concurrent translational processes that can change stability of mRNAs.

  5. Selenoprotein Genes Exhibit Differential Expression Patterns Between Hepatoma HepG2 and Normal Hepatocytes LO2 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Tang, Jiayong; Xu, Jingyang; Cao, Lei; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Kangning

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of selenoprotein genes between hepatoma HepG2 and normal hepatocytes LO2 cell lines. Liver HepG2 and LO2 cells were cultured in 12-well plates under the same condition until cells grew to complete confluence, and then cells were harvested for total RNA and protein extraction. The qPCRs were performed to compare gene expression of 14 selenoprotein genes and 5 cancer signaling-related genes. Enzyme activities were also assayed. The results showed that human hepatoma HepG2 cells grew faster than normal hepatocytes LO2 cells. Among the genes investigated, 10 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selx, Sepp, Sepw1, Sepn1, Selt, Seli, Selh) and 3 cancer signaling-related genes (Bcl-2A, caspase-3, and P38) were upregulated (P < 0.05), while Selo and Bcl-2B were downregulated (P < 0.05) in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to LO2 cells. Significant correlations were found between selenoprotein genes and the cancer signaling-related genes Caspase3, P53, Bc1-2A, and Bc1-2B. Our results revealed that selenoprotein genes were aberrantly expressed in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to normal liver LO2 cells, which indicated that those selenoprotein genes may play important roles in the occurrence and development of liver carcinogenesis.

  6. Novel CAR-mediated mechanism for synergistic activation of two distinct elements within the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Kakizaki, Satoru; Yamamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-02-04

    The constitutive active receptor (CAR) regulates the induction of the cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) gene by phenobarbital-type inducers, such as 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) via the distal phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM, at -1732/-1685 bp). Activation of the PBREM by TCPOBOP generated a 10-fold induction of CYP2B6 mRNA in HepG2 cells stably expressing mouse CAR (Ym17). Co-treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) synergistically increased this induction over 100-fold without directly activating CAR or the PBREM. Although OA synergy required the presence of PBREM, deletion assays delineated the OA-responsive activity to a proximal 24-bp (-256/-233) sequence (OARE) in the CYP2B6 promoter. CAR did not directly bind to the OARE in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, both DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a significant increase in CAR association with the OARE after co-treatment with TCPOBOP and OA, indicating the indirect binding of CAR to the OARE. The two cis-acting elements, the distal PBREM and the proximal OARE, within the chromatin structure are both regulated by CAR in response to TCPOBOP and OA, respectively, to maximally induce the CYP2B6 promoter. This functional interaction between the two sites expands the current understanding of the mechanism of CAR-mediated inducible transcription.

  7. Metformin induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by activating an AMPK/p53/miR-23a/FOXA1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yunpeng; Tao, Chonglin; Huang, Xiaming; He, Han; Shi, Hongqi; Zhang, Qiyu; Wu, Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    The antidiabetic drug metformin has been shown to possess antitumor functions in many types of cancers. Although studies have revealed its beneficial effects on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this event remains largely unknown. In this work, we showed that miR-23a was significantly induced upon metformin treatment; inhibition of miR-23a abrogated the proapoptotic effect of metformin in HepG2 cells. We next established forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) as the functional target of miR-23a, and silencing FOXA1 mimicked the effect of metformin. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the expression of p53 were increased upon metformin treatment, and the inhibition of p53 abrogated the induction of miR-23a by metformin, suggesting that AMPK/p53 signaling axis is responsible for the induction of miR-23a by metformin. In summary, we unraveled a novel AMPK/p53/miR-23a/FOXA1 axis in the regulation of apoptosis in HCC, and the application of metformin could, therefore, be effective in the treatment of HCC. PMID:27274280

  8. Insulin-Mediated Downregulation of Apolipoprotein A-I Gene in Human Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2: The Role of Interaction Between FOXO1 and LXRβ Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a key component of high density lipoproteins which possess anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Insulin is a crucial mediator of the glucose and lipid metabolism that has been implicated in atherosclerotic and inflammatory processes. Important mediators of insulin signaling such as Liver X Receptors (LXRs) and Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) are known to regulate apoA-I expression in liver. Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1) is a well-known target of insulin signaling and a key mediator of oxidative stress response. Low doses of insulin were shown to activate apoA-I expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the detailed mechanisms for these processes are still unknown. We studied the possible involvement of FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRα, and LXRβ transcription factors in the insulin-mediated regulation of apoA-I expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with high doses of insulin (48 h, 100 nM) suppresses apoA-I gene expression. siRNAs against FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRβ, or LXRα abrogated this effect. FOXO1 forms a complex with LXRβ and insulin treatment impairs FOXO1/LXRβ complex binding to hepatic enhancer and triggers its nuclear export. Insulin as well as LXR ligand TO901317 enhance the interaction between FOXA2, LXRα, and hepatic enhancer. These data suggest that high doses of insulin downregulate apoA-I gene expression in HepG2 cells through redistribution of FOXO1/LXRβ complex, FOXA2, and LXRα on hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 382-396, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) and rat hepatoma cells are defective in important enzyme activities in the oxidation of the C27 steroid side chain in bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Farrants, A K; Nilsson, A; Pedersen, J I

    1993-12-01

    We have examined the ability of HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells and 7800 C1 Morris rat hepatoma cells to convert 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) and 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (DHCA) to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively. Cell extracts from both these cell lines could neither form cholic acid from THCA nor from the activated form, THCA-CoA. This suggests that both cell lines are defective in two enzyme activities involved in the pathway, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent enzymes are active in the conversion to bile acids, because the product of the THCA-CoA oxidase, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoyl-coenzyme A (delta 24-THCA-CoA) or delta 24-THCA in the presence of THCA-CoA ligase, are converted to cholic acid by both cell lines. HepG2 cells were able to slowly form chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid from 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, respectively, in 24- and 96-h incubations. The rate of cholic acid formation was lower than the rate for chenodeoxycholic acid and there was a clear accumulation of THCA. 7800 C1 Morris cells had no ability to form cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid after 96 h incubation. We conclude that these two cell lines have defects in two enzyme activities involved in the peroxisomal oxidation in bile acid formation, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the comprehensive antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: toxicological effect on the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadipe, VO; Mongalo, NI; Opoku, AR

    2015-01-01

    Curtisia dentata is used in African traditional medicine to treat variety of infections. C. dentata leaves were collected from Buffelskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using micro dilution assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Candida albicans and some clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV patient. Acetone extract exhibited lowest MIC of 0.01 mg/ml against Candida albicans compared to other extracts. Besides lupeol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, β-sitosterol was isolated for the first time from C. dentata leaves and exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.20 to 6.25 mg/ml. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and the four isolated compounds revealed microbicidal effect, with MIC index of less than 4. Ethanol extract revealed the best total activity of 2400 ml/g against Mycoplasma hominis. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was further investigated against the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the MTT assay. Ursolic acid exhibited the lowest LD50 of 122.4 µg/ml against HEK293 cell line while lupeol exhibited LD50 of 278.8 and 289.4 µg/ml against HEK293 and HepG2 respectively. Lupeol exhibited low selectivity index. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were further investigated for antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The acetone extract exhibited potent inhibition of DPPH compared to ethyl acetate extract. The findings of the current work validate the use of the plant species in the treatment of various human infections. PMID:27065768

  11. In vitro evaluation of the comprehensive antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: toxicological effect on the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fadipe, V O; Mongalo, N I; Opoku, A R

    2015-01-01

    Curtisia dentata is used in African traditional medicine to treat variety of infections. C. dentata leaves were collected from Buffelskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using micro dilution assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Candida albicans and some clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV patient. Acetone extract exhibited lowest MIC of 0.01 mg/ml against Candida albicans compared to other extracts. Besides lupeol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid, β-sitosterol was isolated for the first time from C. dentata leaves and exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.20 to 6.25 mg/ml. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and the four isolated compounds revealed microbicidal effect, with MIC index of less than 4. Ethanol extract revealed the best total activity of 2400 ml/g against Mycoplasma hominis. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was further investigated against the Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the MTT assay. Ursolic acid exhibited the lowest LD50 of 122.4 µg/ml against HEK293 cell line while lupeol exhibited LD50 of 278.8 and 289.4 µg/ml against HEK293 and HepG2 respectively. Lupeol exhibited low selectivity index. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts were further investigated for antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The acetone extract exhibited potent inhibition of DPPH compared to ethyl acetate extract. The findings of the current work validate the use of the plant species in the treatment of various human infections.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone effects on the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their coactivators in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Poczatková, H; Bogdanová, K; Uherková, L; Cervenková, K; Riegrová, D; Rypka, M; Veselý, J

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on intracellular mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR-gamma coactivators (PGCs), we conducted a quantitative real-time RT-PCR study using HepG2 cells. Treatment with 100 micromol/l DHEA for 2-20 h caused a time-dependent elevation of mRNA levels in the cells. Upon 20 h, PPAR-alpha, -gamma1, and -gamma2 mRNAs and PGC-1alpha and -1beta mRNAs increased to 157, 161, 155, 656, and 475% of control levels, respectively (p < 0.05 each). Treatment with actinomycin D for 2.5-8 h revealed a significant stabilization effect of DHEA on PPAR-gamma1 and PGC-1alpha mRNAs at both 2.5 and 8 h incubation periods and a mild but significant stabilization effect on PGC-1beta mRNA at the 8 h incubation period suggesting that DHEA can modulate turnover of these mRNA transcripts. Basal mRNA levels of PPAR-alpha and PGC-1alpha were significantly suppressed upon 20 h treatment with cycloheximide, while those of PPAR-gamma1, -gamma2, and PGC-1beta were elevated. Cycloheximide also significantly reduced DHEA-induced accumulation of PPAR-alpha, -gamma1, -gamma2, and PGC-1alpha mRNAs, demonstrating the dependence of the DHEA action on de novo protein synthesis. The findings demonstrate that a supraphysiological concentration of DHEA can substantially influence gene expression of the PPAR signalling machinery at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  13. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  14. Irisin ameliorates hepatic glucose/lipid metabolism and enhances cell survival in insulin-resistant human HepG2 cells through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Yan; Leung, Po Sing

    2016-09-01

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine that promotes the browning of white adipose tissue, enhances glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and modulates hepatic metabolism. However, the signaling pathways involved in the effects on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism have not been resolved. This study aimed to examine the role of irisin in the regulation of hepatic glucose/lipid metabolism and cell survival, and whether adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic regulator in the liver, is involved in irisin's actions. Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured in normal glucose-normal insulin (NGNI) or high glucose-high insulin (HGHI/insulin-resistant) condition. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism was evaluated by glucose output and glycogen content or triglyceride accumulation assays, respectively. Our results showed that irisin stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) via liver kinase B1 (LKB1) rather than Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) in HepG2 cells. Irisin ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance induced by HGHI condition. Irisin reduced hepatic triglyceride content and glucose output, but increased glycogen content, with those effects reversed by dorsomorphin, an AMPK inhibitor. Furthermore, irisin also stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and promoted cell survival in an AMPK-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data indicate that irisin ameliorates dysregulation of hepatic glucose/lipid metabolism and cell death in insulin-resistant states via AMPK activation. These findings reveal a novel irisin-mediated protective mechanism in hepatic metabolism which provides a scientific basis for irisin as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Inhibition of MEK/ERK activation attenuates autophagy and potentiates pemetrexed-induced activity against HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yongxi; Huang, Haijun; Pan, Hongying

    2015-01-02

    Identification of efficient chemo-therapeutic/chemo-preventive agents for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important. In this study, we examined the activity of pemetrexed, an anti-folate chemotherapy drug, against HepG2 human HCC cells. Pemetrexed treatment in vitro exerted weak but significant cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells. When analyzing the possible pemetrexed-resistance factors, we indentified that pemetrexed treatment in HepG2 cells induced cyto-protective autophagy activation, evidenced by GFP-light chain 3B (LC3B) puncta formation, p62 downregulation and Beclin-1/LC3B-II upregulation. Correspondingly, autophagy inhibitors, including bafliomycin A1, 3-methyladenine and chloroquine, enhanced pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Further, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Beclin-1 in HepG2 cells also increased pemetrexed sensitivity. Pemetrexed activated MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling in HepG2 cells, which was required for autophagy induction. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK/ERK activation attenuated pemetrexed-induced autophagy, enhanced HepG2 cell death and apoptosis. In summary, pemetrexed activates MEK/ERK-dependent cyto-protective autophagy, and inhibition of this pathway potentiates pemetrexed's activity in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative 4-amino‑2‑trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and ASPP1 and downregulation of iASPP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Feihu; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shuyu; Wang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    4-Amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative, was reported to function as a tumor inhibitor in various types of cancer cells in vitro. However, little is known concerning its antitumor effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of ATPR on the proliferation of HepG2 cells and to explore the probable mechanisms. A series of experiments were performed following the treatment of HepG2 cells with ATRA and ATPR. MTT and plate colony formation assays were used to measure the cell viability. To confirm the influence on proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect the distribution of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. In addition, to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms, immunofluorescence was applied to observe the distribution of p53. The transcription and translation levels of p53 were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The expression levels of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP), cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by western blotting. After HepG2 cells were incubated with ATRA and ATPR, the viability of the HepG2 cells was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. As well, ATPR significantly suppressed HepG2 cell colony formation and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, while ATRA had no obvious effects. Both Hoechst staining and flow cytometry unveiled the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Moreover, the fluorescent density of p53 was higher in the nuclei after exposure to ATPR than that in the ATRA group. HepG2 cells treated with ATPR showed elevated mRNA and protein levels of p53 when compared with these levels in the ATRA-treated cells. Western blotting showed that ATPR increased ASPP1, p21 and Bax expression and decreased MDM2, iASPP, cyclin D and E, cyclin

  17. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture and HepG2 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Faedmaleki, Firouz; H Shirazi, Farshad; Salarian, Amir-Ahmad; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Rastegar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Nano-silver (AgNP) has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging). For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles are largely used in various commercially available products. Thus, the use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine. In this study we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on liver primary cells of mice, as well as the human liver HepG2 cell. Cell viability was examined with MTT assay after HepG2 cells exposure to AgNPs at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10 ppm compared to mice primary liver cells at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability in both cells. IC50 value of 2.764 ppm (µg/mL) was calculated in HepG2 cell line and IC50 value of 121.7 ppm (µg/mL) was calculated in primary liver cells of mice. The results of this experiment indicated that silver nanoparticles had cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cell line and primary liver cells of mice. The results illustrated that nano-silver had 44 times stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of cancerous cells (HepG2 cell line) compared to the normal cells (primary liver cells of mice). which might further justify AgNPs as a cytotoxic agents and a potential anticancer candidate which needs further studies in this regard.

  18. Oxidative Stress-responsive Transcription Factor NRF2 is Not Indispensable For The Human Hepatic Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase-3 (FMO3) Gene Expression in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rudraiah, Swetha; Gu, Xinsheng; Hines, Ronald N.; Manautou, José E.

    2015-01-01

    The flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are important for the oxidation of a variety of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The hepatic expression of FMO3 is highly variable and until recently, it was thought to be uninducible. In this study, human FMO3 gene regulation by the oxidative stress transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) was examined. Constitutive FMO3 gene expression is repressed in HepG2 cells, thus this cell can be a good model for FMO3 gene regulation studies. Over-expression of NRF2 in HepG2 cells increased NRF2 target gene expression, heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), but did not alter FMO3 gene expression. Co-transfection studies with NRF2 or its cytosolic regulatory protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), expression vectors, along with FMO3 promoter luciferase reporter constructs of various lengths (5Kb or 6Kb), did not change FMO3 reporter gene activity significantly. Furthermore, treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) did not alter FMO3 reporter construct activity. In summary, in vitro results suggest that the transcriptional regulation of FMO3 might not involve the NRF2-KEAP1 regulatory pathway. PMID:26616280

  19. MicroRNA-561 promotes acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes through downregulation of the nuclear receptor corepressor dosage-sensitive sex-reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Yang, Yinxue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Guo, Peixuan; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    One of the major mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity is hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α)-mediated activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-561 and its target gene DAX-1 encoding a corepressor of HNF4α in the process of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We used both human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells and primary human hepatocytes in this study and monitored the levels of reactive oxygen species, lactate dehydrogenase, and glutathione. Our bioinformatics study suggests an association between miR-561 and DAX-1, but not HNF4α. Treatment of HepG2 cells with APAP significantly reduced the expression of DAX-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. miR-561 was induced by APAP treatment in HepG2 cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with an miR-561 mimic exacerbated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. HNF4α is physically associated with DAX-1 in HepG2 cells. A decreased protein level of DAX-1 by APAP treatment was also enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. The basal and APAP-induced expression of PXR and CAR was enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection; however, transfection of HepG2 cells or primary human hepatocytes with a miR-561 inhibitor or DAX-1 small interfering RNA reversed these effects. Additionally, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that recruitment of DAX-1 onto the PXR promoter was inversely correlated with the recruitment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1α and HNF4α on APAP treatment. These results indicate that miR-561 worsens APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibition of DAX-1 and consequent transactivation of nuclear receptors.

  20. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Shafarin, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins. PMID:27441638

  1. Sesamin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signalling in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pengyi; Wang, Chen; Chen, Liulin; Wang, Cheng; Du, Yuhan; Yan, Xu; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Sesamin, one of the most abundant lignans in sesame seeds, has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether sesamin promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we found that sesamin inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, sesamin suppressed the constitutive and interleukin (IL)-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway in HepG2 cells, leading to regulate the downstream genes, including p53, p21, cyclin proteins and the Bcl-2 protein family. Our studies showed that STAT3 signalling played a key role in sesamin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These findings provided a molecular basis for understanding of the effects of sesamin in hepatocellular carcinoma tumour cell proliferation. Therefore, sesamin may thus be a potential chemotherapy drug for liver cancer.

  2. Transferrin-cisplatin specifically deliver cisplatin to HepG2 cells in vitro and enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lian-Zhong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Huang, He-Qing

    2012-12-21

    Cisplatin is a major broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, however, its dose-dependent side effects limit the administration of large doses. Presently, developing a drug targeted delivery system is suggested as one of the most promising approaches to minimize the side effects of cisplatin. Here, we found that each human serum transferrin (HTf) has the potential to bind with over 22 cisplatins, and the complex of apo-HTf-cisplatin can specifically deliver cisplatin to HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) in vitro, and facilitate HepG2 cells to apoptosis. Moreover, proteomics methods revealed that the abundances of 23 proteins in HepG2 cells were remarkably altered in response to cisplatin/apo-HTf-cisplatin exposure, and Realtime-PCR revealed that a number of important genes related to chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity and chemotherapeutic resistance are differentially transcribed between the HepG2 cells of cisplatin exposed and HTf-cisplatin exposed. The pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins and gene transcriptions indicated that those regulated proteins and gene transcriptions are involved in apoptosis regulation, transcription, cell cycle control, protein biosynthesis, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein binding and other functions. It indicated that the cisplatin toxicity in HepG2 cell is diverse, the transport process has an effect on the cisplatin cytotoxicity, and the mechanism of the apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by apo-HTf-cisplatin is different from that of cisplatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable overexpression of pregnane X receptor in HepG2 cells increases its potential for bioartificial liver application.

    PubMed

    Nibourg, Geert A A; Huisman, Maarten T; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2010-09-01

    To bridge patients with acute liver failure to transplantation or liver regeneration, a bioartificial liver (BAL) is urgently needed. A BAL consists of an extracorporeal bioreactor loaded with a bioactive mass that would preferably be of human origin and display high hepatic functionality, including detoxification. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 exhibits many hepatic functions, but its detoxification function is low. In this study, we investigated whether stable overexpression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), a master regulator of diverse detoxification functions in the liver [eg, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity], would increase the potential of HepG2 for BAL application. Stable overexpression was achieved by lentiviral expression of the human PXR gene, which yielded cell line cBAL119. In monolayer cultures of cBAL119 cells, PXR transcript levels increased 29-fold versus HepG2 cells. Upon activation of PXR by rifampicin, the messenger RNA levels of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 increased 49- to 213-fold versus HepG2 cells. According to reporter gene assays with different inducers, the highest increase in CYP3A4 promoter activity (131-fold) was observed upon induction with rifampicin. Inside BALs, the proliferation rates, as measured by the DNA content, were comparable between the 2 cell lines. The rate of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, a measure of CYP3A function inside BALs, increased 4-fold in cBAL119 BALs versus HepG2 BALs. Other functions, such as apolipoprotein A1 synthesis, urea synthesis, glucose consumption, and lactate production, remained unchanged or increased. Thus, stable PXR overexpression markedly increases the potential of HepG2 for BAL application. (c) 2010 AASLD.

  4. SC-III3, a novel scopoletin derivative, induces autophagy of human hepatoma HepG2 cells through AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway by acting on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Dou, Yannong; Chen, Li; Li, Linhu; Wei, Zhifeng; Yu, Juntao; Wu, Xin; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) acrylamide (SC-III3), a newly synthesized derivative of scopoletin, was previously shown to reduce the viability of HepG2 cells and tumor growth of HepG2 xenograft mouse model. It induces the death of HepG2 cells by a way irrelevant to apoptosis and necrosis. To shed light on the cytotoxic mechanisms of SC-III3, the present study addresses whether and how it can induce autophagic cell death. When HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of SC-III3, autophagic vacuoles could be observed by transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining. Increased expressions of LC3-II to LC3-I and Beclin-1, required for autophagosome formation, were accompanied. These characteristics integrally indicated that SC-III3 could initiate autophagy in HepG2 cells. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, could reverse SC-III3-caused ROS accumulation, but it did not affect SC-III3-induced autophagy, suggesting that ROS was not involved in SC-III3-mediated autophagy in HepG2 cells. SC-III3 significantly depressed mitochondrial function, as evidenced by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and loss of the mitochondrial cristae structure, as well as decrease of Cox-I, Cox-III, Cox-IV, and ATP levels. The autophagy and activation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-p70s6k pathways induced by SC-III3 in HepG2 cells could be efficiently blocked by pre-treatments of compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). Moreover, addition of extracellular ATP to the cell culture media could reverse SC-III3-caused activation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-p70s6k pathway, autophagy and cell viability decrease in HepG2 cells. Collectively, SC-III3 leads to autophagy through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, depleting ATP, and activating AMPK-mTOR pathway, which thus reflects the cytotoxic effect of SC-III3 in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. TMEM2 inhibits hepatitis B virus infection in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells by activating the JAK–STAT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X; Xie, C; Li, Y-m; Huang, Z-l; Zhao, Q-y; Hu, Z-x; Wang, P-p; Gu, Y-r; Gao, Z-l; Peng, L

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed the downregulation of TMEM2 in the liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV genomic DNA. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism of TMEM2 in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 during HBV infection HepG2 and HepG2.2.15. HepG2 shTMEM2 cells with stable TMEM2 knockdown and HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells with stable TMEM2 overexpression were established using lentivirus vectors. We observed reduced expression of TMEM2 in HBV-infected liver tissues and HepG2.2.15 cells. HBsAg, HBcAg, HBV DNA, and HBV cccDNA levels were significantly increased in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells but decreased in HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells compared with naive HepG2 cells. On the basis of the western blotting results, the JAK–STAT signaling pathway was inhibited in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells but activated in HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells. In addition, reduced and increased expression of the antiviral proteins MxA and OAS1 was observed in TMEM2-silenced cells (HepG2 shTMEM2 cells) and TMEM2-overexpressing cells (HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells), respectively. The expression of Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) was not affected by TMEM2. However, we found that overexpression and knockdown of TMEM2, respectively, promoted and inhibited importation of IRF9 into nuclei. The luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF9 nuclear translocation affected interferon-stimulated response element activities. In addition, the inhibitory effects of TMEM2 on HBV infection in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells was significantly enhanced by pre-treatment with interferon but significantly inhibited in HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells by pre-treatment with JAK1 inhibitor. TMEM2 inhibits HBV infection in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 by activating the JAK–STAT signaling pathway. PMID:27253403

  6. TMEM2 inhibits hepatitis B virus infection in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells by activating the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Xie, C; Li, Y-M; Huang, Z-L; Zhao, Q-Y; Hu, Z-X; Wang, P-P; Gu, Y-R; Gao, Z-L; Peng, L

    2016-06-02

    We have previously observed the downregulation of TMEM2 in the liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV genomic DNA. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism of TMEM2 in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 during HBV infection HepG2 and HepG2.2.15. HepG2 shTMEM2 cells with stable TMEM2 knockdown and HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells with stable TMEM2 overexpression were established using lentivirus vectors. We observed reduced expression of TMEM2 in HBV-infected liver tissues and HepG2.2.15 cells. HBsAg, HBcAg, HBV DNA, and HBV cccDNA levels were significantly increased in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells but decreased in HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells compared with naive HepG2 cells. On the basis of the western blotting results, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway was inhibited in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells but activated in HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells. In addition, reduced and increased expression of the antiviral proteins MxA and OAS1 was observed in TMEM2-silenced cells (HepG2 shTMEM2 cells) and TMEM2-overexpressing cells (HepG2 TMEM2 and HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells), respectively. The expression of Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) was not affected by TMEM2. However, we found that overexpression and knockdown of TMEM2, respectively, promoted and inhibited importation of IRF9 into nuclei. The luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF9 nuclear translocation affected interferon-stimulated response element activities. In addition, the inhibitory effects of TMEM2 on HBV infection in HepG2 shTMEM2 cells was significantly enhanced by pre-treatment with interferon but significantly inhibited in HepG2.2.15 TMEM2 cells by pre-treatment with JAK1 inhibitor. TMEM2 inhibits HBV infection in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 by activating the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

  7. Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Yusmazura; Rahmat, Asmah; Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah Lope; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Houghton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:19508737

  8. Comparison of DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) exposed to the fifteen drinking water disinfection byproducts using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Liang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Xie, Hong; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2012-01-24

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but generates disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. In this study, the effect of fifteen DBPs on DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) was investigated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. These fifteen DBPs are: four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acides (HAAs), three haloacetonitriles (HANs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), and chloral hydrate (CH). Based on the minimal effective concentration (MEC) at which DBPs induced significant increase in olive tail moment (OTM), the rank order of DNA-damaging potency is: bromodichloromethane (BDCM)>dibromochloromethane (DBCM)>tribromomethane (TBM)>trichloromethane (TCM) of the four THMs; iodoacetic acid (IA)>bromoacetic acid (BA)>dibromoacetic acid (DBA)>dichloracetic acid (DCA)>trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the five HAAs; dibromoacetonitrile (DBN)approximately dichloroacetonitrile (DCN)>trichloroacetonitrile (TCN) of the three HANs. The DNA damaging potency of MX and CH is similar to TCA and DCA, respectively. IA is the most genotoxic DBP in the fifteen DBPs, followed by BA. Chloroacetic acid (CA) is not genotoxic in this assay. Our findings indicated that HepG2/SCGE is a sensitive tool to evaluate the genotoxicity of DBPs and iodinated DBPs are more genotoxic than brominated DBPs, but chlorinated DBPs are less genotoxic than brominated DBPs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA fragmentation is not associated with apoptosis in zerumbone-induced HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Zerumbone is a cytotoxic compound isolated from the herbal plant, Zingiber zerumbet Smith, which exhibits antitumor activity [1-2], anti-inflammatory effects and possesses anti-proliferative potentials in a variety of cell lines [3-4]. DNA fragmentation indicates an early event of apoptosis leading to cell death due to the absence of new cellular proteins synthesizing for cell survival. Previous studies indicated that the cleavage of double-stranded DNA in apoptotic DNA degradation occurs via the activation of endogenous Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent endonuclease that specifically cleaves between nucleosomes to produce DNA fragments that are multiples of ~180 base pairs [5]. In order to investigate DNA fragmentation, we treated HepG2 cells with zerumbone (IC50: 3.45 ± 0.026 µg/mL) in both dose-dependent (2, 4, 6 and 8 µg/mL) and time-dependent manner (4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h). The assay was performed using the Suicide Track™ DNA Ladder Isolation Kit (Calbio-chem, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer's instructions. DNA was analyzed using 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis, observed under UV illumination and visualized using a gel documentation system (UVP Biospectrum HR410, USA). To furthur confirm the induction of apoptosis, the protein of zerumbone-induced HepG2 cells using Western-blotting indicated a low and high expression of Bcl2 and Bax proteins, respectively. In conclusion, these results indicate that no DNA fragmentation in the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells was observed even in the presence of caspase-3 during apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that not all compounds necessairly indicate fragmentation of condensed chromatin into several discrete mass in cell lines as in vitro condition.

  10. Silencing of Wnt10B reduces viability of heptocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guohui; Fan, Xiaoli; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt-mediated β-catenin signaling is associated with carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous studies showed that the Wnt10B gene, a member of Wnt gene family, over-activated in HCC tissues and cells. Here we demonstrate that stable silencing of Wnt10B reduces the viability of HCC cells in culture. HepG2, a human HCC cell line, was cultured in vitro and Wnt10B gene in the cells stably silenced, as showed in Western blotting analysis, by the shRNA interference with lentivirus plasmid transfection. Compared to the control (HepG2 cells without Wnt10B silencing), the Wnt10B-silencing cells showed significant reductions in proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, serum deprivation-induced apoptotic death, assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and fluorescent microscopy, increased significantly in the Wnt10B-silencing cells. FACScan analysis indicated an arrest of the cell cycle in the Wnt10B-silencing HCC cells, with significant increases in the number of cells in G0-G1 and S phases. Thus, we hypothesize that Wnt10B plays an oncogenic role in HCC and is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26269753

  11. Quercetin induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, PENG; MAO, JUN-MIN; ZHANG, SHU-YUN; ZHOU, ZE-QUAN; TAN, YANG; ZHANG, YU

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as a ‘chemopreventer’. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, as well as its antioxidant functions. Quercetin can also reduce adipogenesis. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FASN). In the present study, activity of quercetin was evaluated in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Intracellular FASN activity was calculated by measuring the absorption of NADPH via a spectrophotometer. MTT assay was used to test the cell viability, immunoblot analysis was performed to detect FASN expression levels and the apoptotic effect was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining. In the present study, it was found that quercetin could induce apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells with overexpression of FASN. This apoptosis was accompanied by the reduction of intracellular FASN activity and could be rescued by 25 or 50 μM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FASN-catalyzed synthesis. These results suggested that the apoptosis induced by quercetin was via the inhibition of FASN. These findings suggested that quercetin may be useful for preventing human liver cancer. PMID:25009654

  12. Quercetin induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Mao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Ze-Quan; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as a 'chemopreventer'. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, as well as its antioxidant functions. Quercetin can also reduce adipogenesis. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FASN). In the present study, activity of quercetin was evaluated in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Intracellular FASN activity was calculated by measuring the absorption of NADPH via a spectrophotometer. MTT assay was used to test the cell viability, immunoblot analysis was performed to detect FASN expression levels and the apoptotic effect was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining. In the present study, it was found that quercetin could induce apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells with overexpression of FASN. This apoptosis was accompanied by the reduction of intracellular FASN activity and could be rescued by 25 or 50 μM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FASN-catalyzed synthesis. These results suggested that the apoptosis induced by quercetin was via the inhibition of FASN. These findings suggested that quercetin may be useful for preventing human liver cancer.

  13. Dual-color bioluminescent assay using infected HepG2 cells sheds new light on Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus effects on human cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transcription.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Elisa; Donati, Manuela; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Zvi, Ido Ben; Cevenini, Monica; Montagnani, Marco; Marangoni, Antonella; Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are intracellular pathogens able to infect hepatocytes, causing an increase in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels due to the production of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated whether these pathogens could interfere with cholesterol metabolism by affecting activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) promoter. CYP7A1 is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, which represents the main route of cholesterol catabolism. A straightforward dual-reporter bioluminescent assay was developed to simultaneously monitor CYP7A1 transcriptional regulation and cell viability in infected human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. C. pneumoniae and HCMV infection significantly decreased CYP7A1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal inhibitions of 33±10% and 32±4%, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 1. To support in vitro experiments, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were also measured in Balb/c mice infected with C. pneumoniae. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides also increased in infected mice compared with controls. Although further investigation is required, this work presents the first experimental evidence that C. pneumoniae and HCMV inhibit CYP7A1 gene transcription in the cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line.

  14. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin – another DPP-4 inhibitor – induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans. PMID:27759084

  15. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-10-19

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin - another DPP-4 inhibitor - induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans.

  16. XPD Functions as a Tumor Suppressor and Dysregulates Autophagy in Cultured HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Feng; Li, Lin-Lin; Lu, Juan; Yan, Kun; Guo, Wu-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Xiang

    2015-05-29

    Recent clinical studies have linked polymorphisms in the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) gene, a key repair gene involved in nucleotide excision repair, to increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the cellular effects of XPD expression in cultured HCC cells remain largely uncharacterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro cellular effects of XPD expression on the HCC cell line HepG2. HepG2 cells were transfected as follows to create four experimental groups: pEGFP-N2/XPD plasmid (XPD) group, EGFP-N2 plasmid (N2) control group, lipofectamine™ 2000 (lipid) control group, and non-transfected (CON) control group. An MTT cell proliferation assay, Annexin V-APC apoptosis assay, colony formation assay, scratch wound migration assay, Transwell migration assay, and Western blotting of the autophagic proteins LC3 and p62 were conducted. XPD expression significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05), significantly promoted HepG2 cell apoptosis (p<0.05), significantly inhibited HepG2 colony formation (p<0.05), significantly decreased HepG2 cells' migratory ability (p<0.05), and significantly lowered HepG2 cells' invasive capacity (p<0.05). Western blotting showed that XPD expression significantly increased LC3 expression (p<0.05) and significantly reduced p62 expression (p<0.05). XPD expression serves as a tumor suppressor and dysregulates autophagic protein degradation in HepG2 cells in vitro. Further in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials are needed to validate XPD's potential as a tumor-suppressive gene therapy.

  17. Pooled human liver preparations, HepaRG, or HepG2 cell lines for metabolism studies of new psychoactive substances? A study using MDMA, MDBD, butylone, MDPPP, MDPV, MDPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-API as examples.

    PubMed

    Richter, Lilian H J; Flockerzi, Veit; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2017-09-05

    Metabolism studies play an important role in clinical and forensic toxicology. Because of potential species differences in metabolism, human samples are best suitable for elucidating metabolism. However, in the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS), human samples of controlled studies are not available. Primary human hepatocytes have been described as gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies, but there are some disadvantages such as high costs, limited availability, and variability of metabolic enzymes. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate and compare the metabolism of six methylenedioxy derivatives (MDMA, MDBD, butylone, MDPPP, MDPV, MDPB) and two bioisosteric analogues (5-MAPB, 5-API) using pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) combined with cytosol (pHLC) or pooled human liver S9 fraction (pS9) all after addition of co-substrates for six phase I and II reactions. In addition, HepaRG and HepG2 cell lines were used. Results of the different in vitro tools were compared to each other, to corresponding published data, and to metabolites identified in human urine after consumption of MDMA, MDPV, or 5-MAPB. Incubations with pHLM plus pHLC showed similar results as pS9. A more cost efficient model for prediction of targets for toxicological screening procedures in human urine should be identified. As expected, the incubations with HepaRG provided better results than those with HepG2 concerning number and signal abundance of the metabolites. Due to easy handling without special equipment, incubations with pooled liver preparations should be the most suitable alternative to find targets for toxicological screening procedures for methylenedioxy derivatives and bioisosteric analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×10(4) ml(-1) in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Quinone Metabolite Promotes p53-Dependent DNA Damage Checkpoint Activation, S-Phase Cycle Arrest and Extrinsic Apoptosis in Human Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufang; Li, Lingrui; Shi, Qiong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-11-16

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. The toxic behavior and mechanism of PCBs individuals and congeners have been extensively investigated. However, there is only limited information on their metabolites. Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic PCB metabolite, PCB29-pQ, causes oxidative damage with the evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mitochondrial-derived intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we investigate the effects of PCB29-pQ on DNA damage checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and death receptor-related extrinsic apoptosis in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our results illustrate that PCB29-pQ increases the S-phase cell population by down-regulating cyclins A/D1/E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK 2/4/6), and cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) and up-regulating p21/p27 protein expressions. PCB29-pQ also induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of Fas/FasL and the activation of caspase 8/3. Moreover, p53 plays a pivotal role in PCB29-pQ-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the activation of ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 checkpoints. Cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death were attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCB29-pQ induces oxidative stress and promotes p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation, S-phase cycle arrest, and extrinsic apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  20. IRE1α links Nck1 deficiency to attenuated PTP1B expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Bing; Larose, Louise

    2017-08-01

    PTP1B, a prototype of the non-receptor subfamily of the protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily, plays a key role in regulating intracellular signaling from various receptor and non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that silencing Nck1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells enhances basal and growth factor-induced activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway through attenuating PTP1B expression. However, the underlying mechanism by which Nck1 depletion represses PTP1B expression remains unclear. In this study, we found that silencing Nck1 attenuates PTP1B expression in HepG2 cells through down-regulation of IRE1α. Indeed, we show that silencing Nck1 in HepG2 cells leads to decreased IRE1α expression and signaling. Accordingly, IRE1α depletion using siRNA in HepG2 cells enhances PI3K-dependent basal and growth factor-induced Akt activation, reproducing the effects of silencing Nck1 on activation of this pathway. In addition, depletion of IRE1α also leads to reduced PTP1B expression, which was rescued by ectopic expression of IRE1α in Nck1-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we found that silencing either Nck1 or IRE1α in HepG2 cells decreases PTP1B mRNA levels and stability. However, despite miR-122 levels, a miRNA targeting PTP1B 3' UTR and inducing PTP1B mRNA degradation in HepG2 cells, are increased in both Nck1- and IRE1α-depleted HepG2 cells, a miR-122 antagomir did not rescue PTP1B expression in these cells. Overall, this study highlights an important role for Nck1 in fine-tuning IRE1α expression and signaling that regulate PTP1B expression and subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of ionic silver to genotoxic potential of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Roy, Shambhu; Zheng, Jiwen; Ihrie, John

    2016-04-01

    Extensive human exposure to food- and cosmetics-related consumer products containing nanosilver is of public concern because of the lack of information about their safety. Genotoxicity is an important endpoint for the safety and health hazard assessment of regulated products including nanomaterials. The in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a very useful test for predictive genotoxicity testing. Recently, we have reported the genotoxicity of 20 nm nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated using the CBMN assay. The objective of our present study was three-fold: (i) to evaluate if HepG2 and Caco2 cells are valuable in vitro models for rapid genotoxicity screening of nanosilver; (ii) to test the hypothesis that the nanoparticle size and cell types are critical determinants of its genotoxicity; and (iii) to determine if ionic silver contributes to the nanosilver genotoxicity. With these objectives in mind, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of 50 nm nanosilver of the same shape, composition, surface charge, obtained from the same commercial source, under the same experimental conditions and the same genotoxic CBMN endpoint used for the previously tested 20 nm silver. The ionic silver (silver acetate) was also evaluated under the same conditions. Results of our study show that up to the concentrations tested in these cell types, the smaller (20 nm) nanosilver induces micronucleus formation in both the cell types but the larger (50 nm) nanosilver and the ionic silver provide a much weaker response compared with controls under the same conditions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Role of recombinant human erythropoietin loading chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles in busulfan-induced genotoxicity: Analysis of DNA fragmentation via comet assay in cultured HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi-Barghi, Nasrin; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Etebari, Mahmoud; Jafarian Dehkordi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Busulfan is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Busulfan is involved in secondary malignancy due to its genotoxic potential in normal tissues. As an alkylating agent busulfan can cause DNA damage by cross-linking DNAs and DNA and proteins, induces senescence in normal cells via transient depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and subsequently by a continuous increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Erythropoietin, a glycoprotein widely used against drug induced anemia in cancerous patients and regulates hematopoiesis, has been shown to exert an important cyto-protective effect in many tissues. Recombinant human erythropoietin has been demonstrated to directly limit cell injury and ROS generation during oxidative stress. Furthermore, rhEPO decreased levels of pro-apoptotic factor (Bax) and also increased expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2. According to EPO's short half-life and requirements for the frequently administration, finding the new strategies to attenuate its side effects is important. The aim of this study was to explore whether rhEPO loading chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles protects against busulfan-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cells. For this purpose cells were incubated with busulfan alone, regular rhEPO alone and regular rhEPO and CS-TPP-EPO nanoparticles along with busulfan in pre and co-treatment condition. Our results showed that busulfan induced a noticeable genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells (p<0.0001). Both regular rhEPO and CS-TPP-EPO nanoparticles reduced the effects of busulfan significantly (p<0.0001) by reduction of the level of DNA damage via blocking ROS generation, and enhancement intracellular glutathione levels. CS-TPP-EPO nanoparticles were more effective than regular rhEPO in both pre and co-treatment conditions. In conclusion, our results show that administration of rhEPO and CS-TPP-EPO nanoparticles especially in the pre

  3. Impairment of oxidative phosphorylation increases the toxicity of SYD-1 on hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anna Paula; Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Dos Santos Canuto, André Vinícius; Echevarria, Aurea; Di Pietro, Attilio; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2016-08-25

    Toxicity of the SYD-1 mesoionic compound (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) was evaluated on human liver cancer cells (HepG2) grown in either high glucose (HG) or galactose (GAL) medium, and also on suspended cells kept in HG medium. SYD-1 was able to decrease the viability of cultured HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by MTT, LDH release and dye with crystal violet assays, but no effect was observed on suspended cells after 1-40 min of treatment. Respiration analysis was performed after 2 min (suspended cells) or 24 h (cultured cells) of treatment: no change was observed in suspended cells, whereas SYD-1 inhibited as well basal, leak and uncoupled states of the respiration in cultured cells with HG medium. These inhibitions were consistent with the decrease in pyruvate level and increase in lactate level. Even more extended results were obtained with HepG2 cells grown in GAL medium where, additionally, the ATP amount was reduced. Furthermore, SYD-1 appears not to be transported by the main ABC multidrug transporters. These results show that SYD-1 is able to change the metabolism of HepG2 cells, and suggest that its cytotoxicity is related to impairment of mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we may propose that SYD-1 is a potential candidate for hepatocarcinoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  5. Polyphyllin I (PPI) increased the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenhao; Hou, Guoxin; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antitumor effects of polyphyllin I (PPI) were investigated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our data showed that PPI treatment exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells as previously reported. Furthermore, PPI could sensitize HepG2 cells to cisplastin treatment in concentration-dependent manner. The molecular mechanisms of PPI actions involved nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream gene products. PPI treatment dose-dependently could decrease the constitutive phosphorylation of NF-κB subunit p65 protein and its downstream target genes expression, such as Bcl-2, c-Myc and VEGF. PPI could also inhibit cisplatin-evoked increase of p65 protein phosphorylation and its downstream genes expression, which could be further decreased by combination with NF-κB specific inhibitor, PDTC. The cytotoxicity and chemosensitization effects of PPI on HepG2 cells were greatly potentiated by concomitant treatment with PDTC. Taken together, our data confirmed the cytotoxicity of PPI on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and provided new findings about PPI sensitizing HepG2 cells to chemotherapy. Moreover, our data also indicated the involvement of NF-κB signaling pathway in PPIactions for the first time. PMID:26884988

  6. Biochemical Effects of six Ti02 and four Ce02 Nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The potential mammalian hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials were explored in dose-response and structure-activity studies with human hepatic HepG2 cells exposed to between 10 and 1000 ug/ml of six different TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials for 3 days. Var...

  7. Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate genomic effects, human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were exposed for three days to two different forms of nanoparticles both composed of Ce02 (0.3, 3 and 30 µg/mL). The two Ce02 nanopartices had dry primary particle sizes of 8 nanometers {(M) ...

  8. Biochemical Effects of six Ti02 and four Ce02 Nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The potential mammalian hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials were explored in dose-response and structure-activity studies with human hepatic HepG2 cells exposed to between 10 and 1000 ug/ml of six different TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials for 3 days. Var...

  9. Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate genomic effects, human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were exposed for three days to two different forms of nanoparticles both composed of Ce02 (0.3, 3 and 30 µg/mL). The two Ce02 nanopartices had dry primary particle sizes of 8 nanometers {(M) ...

  10. Lipid rafts are essential for peroxisome biogenesis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Jannes; Rembacz, Krzysztof P; Hoekstra, Mark; Pellicoro, Antonella; van den Heuvel, Fiona A J; Heegsma, Janette; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Holzinger, Andreas; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes are particularly abundant in the liver and are involved in bile salt synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are required for peroxisome biogenesis [e.g., the interacting peroxisomal biogenesis factors Pex13p and Pex14p] and its metabolic function [e.g., the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) and PMP70]. Impaired function of PMPs is the underlying cause of Zellweger syndrome and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we studied for the first time the putative association of PMPs with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and their function in peroxisome biogenesis. Lipid rafts were isolated from Triton X-100-lysed or Lubrol WX-lysed HepG2 cells and analyzed for the presence of various PMPs by western blotting. Lovastatin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin were used to deplete cholesterol and disrupt lipid rafts in HepG2 cells, and this was followed by immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the subcellular location of catalase and PMPs. Cycloheximide was used to inhibit protein synthesis. Green fluorescent protein-tagged fragments of PMP70 and ALDP were analyzed for their lipid raft association. PMP70 and Pex14p were associated with Triton X-100-resistant rafts, ALDP was associated with Lubrol WX-resistant rafts, and Pex13p was not lipid raft-associated in HepG2 cells. The minimal peroxisomal targeting signals in ALDP and PMP70 were not sufficient for lipid raft association. Cholesterol depletion led to dissociation of PMPs from lipid rafts and impaired sorting of newly synthesized catalase and ALDP but not Pex14p and PMP70. Repletion of cholesterol to these cells efficiently reestablished the peroxisomal sorting of catalase but not ALDP. Human PMPs are differentially associated with lipid rafts independently of the protein homology and/or their functional interaction. Cholesterol is required for peroxisomal lipid raft assembly and peroxisome biogenesis.

  11. Comparison of TCDD and PCB CYP1A induction sensitivities in fresh hepatocytes from human donors, sprague-dawley rats, and rhesus monkeys and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, Jay B; Koganti, Aruna; Illouz, Kati; Possolo, Antonio; Zhao, Ming; Hamilton, Stephen B

    2005-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related chemicals induce cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) gene expression and, at sufficient exposures, cause toxicity. Human health risks from such exposures are typically estimated from animal studies. We tested whether animal models predict human sensitivity by characterizing CYP1A gene expression in cultures of fresh hepatocytes from human donors, rats, and rhesus monkeys and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. We exposed the cells to three aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands of current environmental interest and measured 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and concentrations of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA. We found that human cells are about 10-1000 times less sensitive to TCDD, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and Aroclor 1254 than rat and monkey cells, that relative potencies among these chemicals are different across species, and that gene expression thresholds exist for these chemicals. Newly calculated rat-human interspecies relative potency factors for PCB 126 were more than 100 times lower than the current rodent-derived value. We propose that human-derived values be used to improve the accuracy of estimates of human health risks.

  12. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction

    PubMed Central

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P.; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities. PMID:26225985

  13. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction.

    PubMed

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-07-27

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities.

  14. Effects of matrine on HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of tumor relevant proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xue-Gong; Hua, Zhang; Shuang, Wang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Cui, Yu-Dong

    2010-03-01

    Matrine, one of the main active components extracted from dry roots of Sophora flavescens Ait (Leguminosae), has been reported to have anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, but the anticancer mechanism of matrine remains elusive. This study shows that matrine also displays anticancer activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this work, the optimal cultivation condition for HepG2 cells was determined using the combinatorial orthogonal test design [L18 (21 x 37)]. Exposure of HepG2 cells to matrine resulted in inhibition of proliferation in both a time- and dose-dependent manner, as measured by morphology observation, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and MTT assay (p<0.05). Further immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the expression of alpha fetal protein (AFP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), C-myc and Bcl-2 was down-regulated significantly, but the expression of Bax was up-regulated higher than untreated cells. The results demonstrated that matrine inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation primarily via up-regulating or down-regulating expression of the tumor relevant proteins.

  15. Decorin inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by elevating the expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Zhaohui; Ju, Wenbo; Wang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway. A vector containing DCN was transfected into HepG2 cells with the use of Lipofectamine 2000. Cell proliferation was assessed with an MTT assay, and western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), phosphorylated TGF-βRI, p15 and TGF-βRII. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing was performed to knock down the target gene. The results indicated that, compared with the control group, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in HepG2 cells transfected with DCN. In addition, DCN transfection significantly increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI in HepG2 cells. The expression of the downstream factor p15 was also significantly elevated in the DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, DCN transfection significantly elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII in HepG2 cells. By contrast, the silencing of TGF-βRII significantly decreased the phosphorylation of TGF-βRI in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. In addition, TGF-βRII silencing abolished the effects of DCN on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, DCN elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII, increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI, enhanced the expression of p15, and finally inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of DCN in the pathogenesis of hepatic carcinoma and assist in the disease treatment.

  16. Role of ALA sensitivity in HepG2 cell in the presence of diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar-E-Alam, M.; Atif, M.; Alsalhi, M. S.; Siddique, M.; Kishwar, S.; Qadir, M. I.; Willander, M.

    2011-05-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) being an amazing second generation photosensitizer was studied as photodamaging drug on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The mentioned photosensitizer is converted to PpIX in HepG2 cells in vitro, inducing haem in the cell causing generation of singlet oxygen leading to cell apoptosis. Cell uptake of 5-ALA was evaluated with different concentrations (ranging from 0-800 μg/ml) for 0-49 h incubation period. ALA administered in HepG2 cells is converted into Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which has a short half life and constitute a good hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD). Cytotoxicity of ALA in dark and cellular viability without ALA in the presence of light was studied, showing minimal toxic effects in dark with no photodamaging effect on mentioned cells in absence of ALA were observed. The optimal uptake of photosensitizer (5-ALA) in HepG2 cells was investigated by means of spectrophotometeric measurements, cellular viability was determined by means of neutral red assay (NRA). It was observed that with different concentrations (0-800 μg/ml) of ALA or light doses (0-160 J/cm2), there were no significant effect on cellular viability when studied independently. The novel of photocytotoxic study indicates that light dose of 120 J/cm2 produces convincing Photodynamic therapy (PDT) results for HepG2 cells incubated with 262 μg/ml of 5-ALA deducting that HepG2 cell line is sensitive to ALA mediated PDT. Finally morphological changes in HePG2 cells were determined before and after ALA-mediated PDT by confocal microscopy.

  17. Zebularine upregulates expression of CYP genes through inhibition of DNMT1 and PKR in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuaki; Aizawa, Kazuko; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons cited for drug withdrawal. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to detect human hepatotoxic candidates as early as possible during the drug development process. In this study, we aimed to enhance hepatocyte functions such as CYP gene expression in HepG2 cells, one of the most extensively used cell lines in evaluating hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs. We found that zebularine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, remarkably upregulates the expression of CYP genes in HepG2 cells. In addition, we revealed that the upregulation of CYP gene expression by zebularine was mediated through the inhibition of both DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with zebularine were more sensitive than control cells to drug toxicity. Taken together, our results show that zebularine may make HepG2 cells high-functioning and thus could be useful for evaluating the hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs speedily and accurately in in-vitro systems. The finding that zebularine upregulates CYP gene expression through DNMT1 and PKR modulation sheds light on the mechanisms controlling hepatocyte function and thus may aid in the development of new in-vitro systems using high-functioning hepatocytes. PMID:28112215

  18. Inhibition of aldose reductase ameliorates ethanol‑induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Longxin; Cai, Chengchao; Zhao, Xiangqian; Fang, Yan; Tang, Weibiao; Guo, Chang

    2017-05-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) expression is increased in liver tissue of patients with ethanol‑induced liver disease. However, the exact role of AR in the development of ethanol‑induced liver disease has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an AR inhibitor on ethanol‑induced steatosis in HepG2 cells and to identify possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Steatosis was induced in HepG2 cells by stimulating cells with 100 mM absolute ethanol for 48 h. Oil Red O staining was used to detect the lipid droplet accumulation in cells. Western blot analyses were used to determine protein expression levels and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze mRNA expression levels. The results showed that AR protein expression was elevated in HepG2 cells stimulated with ethanol. HepG2 cells exhibited marked improvement of ethanol‑induced lipid accumulation following treatment with the AR inhibitor zopolrestat. Phosphorylation levels of 5' adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) were markedly higher, whereas the mRNA expression levels of sterol‑regulatory element‑binding protein (SREBP)‑1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly lower in zopolrestat‑treated and ethanol‑stimulated HepG2 cells compared with in untreated ethanol‑stimulated HepG2 cells. In addition, zopolrestat inhibited the ethanol‑induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α. These results suggested that zopolrestat attenuated ethanol‑induced steatosis by activating AMPK and subsequently inhibiting the expression of SREBP‑1c and FAS, and by suppressing the expression of TNF‑α in HepG2 cells.

  19. GRK2 negatively regulates IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengyu; Hurtt, Reginald; Gu, Tina; Bodzin, Adam S; Koch, Walter J; Doria, Cataldo

    2013-09-01

    G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a central role in the regulation of a variety of important signaling pathways. Alternation of GRK2 protein level and activity casts profound effects on cell physiological functions and causes diseases such as heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity. We have previously reported that overexpression of GRK2 has an inhibitory role in cancer cell growth. To further examine the role of GRK2 in cancer, in this study, we investigated the effects of reduced protein level of GRK2 on insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. We created a GRK2 knockdown cell line using a lentiviral vector mediated expression of GRK2 specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Under IGF-1 stimulation, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 showed elevated total IGF-1R protein expression as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of receptor. In addition, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 also demonstrated increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 at the residue 612 and increased phosphorylation of Akt, indicating a stronger activation of IGF-1R signaling pathway. However, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 did not display any growth advantage in culture as compared with the scramble control cells. We further detected that reduced level of GRK2 induced a small cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by enhancing the expression of cyclin A, B1, and E. Our results indicate that GRK2 has contrasting roles on HepG2 cell growth by negatively regulating the IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression.

  20. An autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Duarte, Filipe Valente; Varela, Ana Teresa Inácio Ferreira; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Palmeira, Carlos Manuel Marques; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2017-02-01

    To reduce flammability and meet regulatory requirements, Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are added to a wide variety of consumer products including furniture, textiles, electronics, and construction materials. Exposure to polybrominated phenyl ethers (PBDEs) adversely affects the human health. Bearing in mind that (i) PBDEs are potentially toxic, (ii) the mechanism of PBDE toxicity is unclear, and (iii) the importance of the autophagy to the field of toxicology is overlooked, this study investigates whether an autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells (human hepatoblastoma cell line) to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity. HepG2 cells were exposed with BDE-100 at three concentrations (0.1, 5, and 25μM), selected from preliminary toxicity tests, for 24 and 48h. To assess autophagy, immunocytochemistry was performed after exposure of HepG2 cells to BDE-100. Labeling of HepG2 cells with 100nM LysoTracker Red DND-99 aided examination of lysosome distribution. Proteins that are key to the autophagic process (p62 and LC3) were evaluated by western blotting. DNA was isolated and quantified to assess mitochondrial DNA copy number by qPCR on the basis of the number of DNA copies of a mitochondrial encoded gene normalized against a nuclear encoded gene. Conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II increased in HepG2 cells. Pre-addition of 100nM wortmannin decreased the amount of LC3 in the punctuate form and increased nuclear fragmentation (apoptotic feature). HepG2 cells exposed to BDE-100 presented increased staining with the lysosomal dye and had larger LC3 and p62 content after pre-treatment with ammonium chloride. The mitochondrial DNA copy number decreased, which probably constituted an attempt of the cell to manage mitochondrial damage by selective mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy). In conclusion, an autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  2. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-05-16

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation.

  3. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-05-16

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation.

  4. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson; Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Oh Hyeong; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL).

  5. Liver stage antigen 3 Plasmodium falciparum peptides specifically interacting with HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    García, Javier E; Curtidor, Hernando; López, Ramses; Rodríguez, Luis; Vera, Ricardo; Valbuena, John; Rosas, Jaiver; Ocampo, Marisol; Puentes, Alvaro; Forero, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-09-01

    Binding assays were carried out with 20 amino acid long peptides covering the complete 200-kDa Liver stage antigen (LSA) 3 protein sequence to identify its HepG2 cell binding regions. Seventeen HepG2 cell high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) were identified in the LSA-3 protein. Seven HABPs were found in the nonrepeat (NRA) region A; five of these formed a 100 amino acid long HepG2 cell binding region located between residues 21Ile and 120Thr. Six HABPs were found in the R2 region and another four in the NRB2 region. LSA-3 protein HABPS bound saturably to HepG2 cells having nanomolar affinity constants and bound specifically to 31, 44, and 70 kDa HepG2 cell membrane proteins. Some of them were located in antigenic and immunogenic LSA-3 protein regions. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays using goat sera immunized with LSA-3 protein peptides recognized P. falciparum (FCB-2 strain) erythrocyte stage proteins (58, 68, 72, 81, 86, 160, and 175 kDa). This reactivity was due mainly to the VEESVAEN motif present in some erythrocyte stage proteins. However, our results suggest that antibodies against LSA-3 regions had a crossed reaction with another 86-kDa protein, and that this crossed reaction was due to a motif present in the NRA region.

  6. [Hepatitis B virus X promotes HepG2 cell cycle progression and growth via downregulation expression of p16 protein].

    PubMed

    Mai, Li; Yang, Lin; Kuang, Jian-yu; Zhu, Jian-yun; Kang, Yan-hong; Zhang, Fu-cheng; Xie, Qi-feng; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects and related mechanisms of hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein on cell cycle and growth in hepatocellular carcinoma. A human hepatocyte HepG2 cell line stably expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HBx (HepG2/GFP-HBx cells) was used for the experiment, and HepG2 parental and HepG2/GFP cells was used as the controls. Effect of HBx on cell growth was evaluated by the MTT cell proliferation assay and on cell cycle progression by flow cytometry analysis of cells with or without treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR; 5 pmol/L). Effect of HBx expression on promoter methylation status of the p16INK4A tumor-suppressor gene was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and on p16 protein level was analyzed with western blotting. The HepG2/GFP-HBx cells showed significantly higher cell proliferation at 72 hrs of culture (3.225+/-0.038 A490) than either control (HepG2: 2.012+/-0.022 A490, t = -46.86, P less than 0.001; HepG2/GFP: 2.038+/-0.029 A490, t = 42.51, P less than 0.001). The HepG2/GFP-HBx cells also showed significantly lower proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase (16.45%+/-0.45%) than either control (HepG2: 44.81%+/-1.36%, t = -34.202, P less than 0.001; HepG2/GFP: 42.76%+/-1.58%, t = -28.88, P less than 0.001). However, 5-Aza-CdR treatment did lead to a significant amount of HepG2/GFP-HBx cells being arrested in the G0/G1 phase (33.25%+/-0.79%, t = 31.85, P less than 0.001). The p16INK4A promoter was methylated in the HepG2/GFP-HBx cells, and became demethylation after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR. However, no methylation of p16INK4A promoter was observed in both HepG2 and HepG2/GFP cells. The p16 protein level was significantly lower in the HepG2/GFP-HBx (vs. HepG2 and HepG2/GFP cells) and this level increased after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR. HBx protein promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell cycle progression and growth by shortening the G0/G1 phase, and the underlying mechanism may involve inducing p16

  7. The Antiapoptosis Effect of Glycyrrhizate on HepG2 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Su, Miao; Yu, Tengfei; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated that glycyrrhizate (GAS) could protect HEPG2 cells against damage and apoptosis induced by H2O2 (1600 μM, 4 h). Cell viability assay revealed that GAS was noncytotoxity at concentration 125 µg/mL, and GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. H2O2 induced the HepG2 cells apoptosis, obvious morphologic changes were observed after Hochest 33258 staining, and more apoptotic cells were counted in flow cytometry assay compared to that of the natural group. Pretreatment GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) prior to H2O2 reverses the morphologic changes and reduced the apoptotic cells in HepG2 cells. GAS reduced the release of MDA, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, and diminished the release of ALT and AST during oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. After Elisa kit detecting, GAS inhibited the caspase activity induced by H2O2, GAS decreased the level of caspase-3 and caspase-9 from mitochondria in dose-dependent manner. Western blot results showed that pretreatment GAS upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. These results reveal that GAS has the cytoprotection in HepG2 cells during ROS exposure by inhibiting the caspase activity in the mitochondria and influencing apoptogenic factors of the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. PMID:27891207

  8. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC.

  9. Altered gene expression in HepG2 cells exposed to a methanolic coal dust extract.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castilla, Angelica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to coal dust has been associated with different chronic diseases and mortality risk. This airborne pollutant is produced during coal mining and transport activities, generating environmental and human toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a coal dust methanolic extract on HepG2, a human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Cells were exposed to 5-100ppm methanolic coal extract for 12h, using DMSO as control. MTT and comet assays were used for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively. Real time PCR was utilized to quantify relative expression of genes related to oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism and DNA damage. Coal extract concentrations did not induce significant changes in HepG2 cell viability after 12h exposure; however, 50 and 100ppm of the coal extract produced a significant increase in genetic damage index with respect to negative control. Compared to vehicle control, mRNA CYP1A1 (up to 163-fold), NQO1 (up to 4.7-fold), and GADD45B (up to 4.7-fold) were up regulated, whereas PRDX1, SOD, CAT, GPX1, XPA, ERCC1 and APEX1 remained unaltered. This expression profile suggests that cells exposed to coal dust extract shows aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated alterations, changes in cellular oxidative status, and genotoxic effects. These findings share some similarities with those observed in liver of mice captured near coal mining areas, and add evidence that living around these industrial operations may be negatively impacting the biota and human health.

  10. The Human NADPH Oxidase, Nox4, Regulates Cytoskeletal Organization in Two Cancer Cell Lines, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Simon; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Geisberger, Roland; Aigner, Elmar; Cadamuro, Janne; Richter, Klaus; Sopjani, Mentor; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Breitenbach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase), where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide. Reducing this biochemical activity by downregulating Nox4 transcription leads to loss of F-actin stress fibers. This phenotype is reversible by adding hydrogen peroxide to the cells. The effect of the Nox4 silencer RNA is specific for this gene as it does not influence the expression of Nox2. In the case of the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line, Nox4 inhibition leads to loss of cell mobility as measured in scratch assays. We propose that inhibition of Nox4 (which is known to be strongly expressed in many tumors) could be studied as a new target for cancer treatment, in particular for inhibition of metastasis. PMID:28620580

  11. Demonstration of the presence of the "deleted" MIR122 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim A Y; Fei, Yue; Kalea, Anastasia Z; Yin, Dan; Smith, Andrew J P; Palmen, Jutta; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Walker, Ann P

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in the liver where it influences diverse biological processes and pathways, including hepatitis C virus replication and metabolism of iron and cholesterol. It is processed from a long non-coding primary transcript (~7.5 kb) and the gene has two evolutionarily-conserved regions containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 hairpin region. Several groups reported that the widely-used hepatocytic cell line HepG2 had deficient expression of miR-122, previously ascribed to deletion of the pre-mir-122 stem-loop region. We aimed to characterise this deletion by direct sequencing of 6078 bp containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 stem-loop region in HepG2 and Huh-7, a control hepatocytic cell line reported to express miR-122, supported by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA. In contrast to previous findings, the entire sequence was present in both cell lines. Ten SNPs were heterozygous in HepG2 indicating that DNA was present in two copies. Three validation isolates of HepG2 were sequenced, showing identical genotype to the original in two, whereas the third was different. Investigation of promoter chromatin status by FAIRE showed that Huh-7 cells had 6.2 ± 0.19- and 2.7 ± 0.01- fold more accessible chromatin at the proximal (HNF4α-binding) and distal DR1 transcription factor sites, compared to HepG2 cells (p=0.03 and 0.001, respectively). This was substantiated by ENCODE genome annotations, which showed a DNAse I hypersensitive site in the pri-mir-122 promoter in Huh-7 that was absent in HepG2 cells. While the origin of the reported deletion is unclear, cell lines should be obtained from a reputable source and used at low passage number to avoid discrepant results. Deficiency of miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells may be related to a relative deficiency of accessible promoter chromatin in HepG2 versus Huh-7 cells.

  12. Serum metabolites of proanthocyanidin-administered rats decrease lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ligia; Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Quiñones, Mar; Arola, Lluis; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2013-12-01

    The regular consumption of flavonoids has been associated with reduced mortality and a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The proanthocyanidins found in plasma are very different from the original flavonoids in food sources. The use of physiologically appropriate conjugates of proanthocyanidins is essential for the in vitro analysis of flavonoid bioactivity. In this study, the effect of different proanthocyanidin-rich extracts, which were obtained from cocoa (CCX), French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol extract, PYC) and grape seed (GSPE), on lipid homeostasis was evaluated. Hepatic human cells (HepG2 cells) were treated with 25 mg/L of CCX, PYC or GSPE. We also performed in vitro experiments to assess the effect on lipid synthesis that is induced by the bioactive GSPE proanthocyanidins using the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of GSPE-administered rats. For this, Wistar rats were administered 1 g/kg of GSPE, and serum was collected after 2 h. The semipurified serum of GSPE-administered rats was fully characterized by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS(2)). The lipids studied in the analyses were free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG). All three proanthocyanidin-rich extracts induced a remarkable decrease in the de novo lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, GSPE rat serum metabolites reduced the total percentage of CE, FC and particularly TG; this reduction was significantly higher than that observed in the cells directly treated with GSPE. In conclusion, the bioactivity of the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of rats after their ingestion of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract was demonstrated in Hep G2 cells. © 2013.

  13. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the albumin gene depends on the removal of histone methylation marks by the FAD-dependent monoamine oxidase lysine-specific demethylase 1 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-07-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) 1 is an FAD-dependent demethylase that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine-4 in histone H3, thereby mediating gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that riboflavin deficiency causes a loss of LSD1 activity in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, leading to an accumulation of lysine-4-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K4me2) marks in the albumin promoter and aberrant upregulation of albumin expression. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-defined media providing riboflavin at concentrations representing moderately deficient (3.1 nmol/L), sufficient (12.6 nmol/L), and supplemented (301 nmol/L) cells in humans for 7 d. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by assessing glutathione reductase activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione as markers of riboflavin status. LSD activity was 21% greater in riboflavin-supplemented cells compared with riboflavin-deficient and -sufficient cells. The loss of LSD activity was associated with a gain in the abundance of H3K4me2 marks in the albumin promoter; the abundance of H3K4me2 marks was ∼170% higher in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. The abundance of the repression mark, K9-trimethylated histone H3, was 38% lower in the albumin promoter of riboflavin-deficient cells compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of albumin mRNA was aberrantly increased by 200% in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency impairs gene regulation by epigenetic mechanisms, mediated by a loss of LSD1 activity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of the Albumin Gene Depends on the Removal of Histone Methylation Marks by the FAD-Dependent Monoamine Oxidase Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 in HepG2 Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dandan; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) 1 is an FAD-dependent demethylase that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine-4 in histone H3, thereby mediating gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that riboflavin deficiency causes a loss of LSD1 activity in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, leading to an accumulation of lysine-4-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K4me2) marks in the albumin promoter and aberrant upregulation of albumin expression. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-defined media providing riboflavin at concentrations representing moderately deficient (3.1 nmol/L), sufficient (12.6 nmol/L), and supplemented (301 nmol/L) cells in humans for 7 d. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by assessing glutathione reductase activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione as markers of riboflavin status. LSD activity was 21% greater in riboflavin-supplemented cells compared with riboflavin-deficient and -sufficient cells. The loss of LSD activity was associated with a gain in the abundance of H3K4me2 marks in the albumin promoter; the abundance of H3K4me2 marks was ∼170% higher in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. The abundance of the repression mark, K9-trimethylated histone H3, was 38% lower in the albumin promoter of riboflavin-deficient cells compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of albumin mRNA was aberrantly increased by 200% in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency impairs gene regulation by epigenetic mechanisms, mediated by a loss of LSD1 activity. PMID:24744315

  16. Influence of diquat on growth and death of HepG2 cells using quartz crystal and micro CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyen-Wook; Lee, Dong-Yun; Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2011-05-01

    Diquat is widely used agent which produces toxicity in human and implicated as an environmental toxicity. HepG2 cell was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified a collagen film. In this paper, we investigated the physical properties and the morphological change of the HepG2 cells cultured onto the ITO electrode of the quartz crystal sensor with micro CCD camera. The resonance responses of the quartz crystal and the morphological change were directly monitored. After seeding the cells and diquat injection into the chamber, the resonance frequency and the resonance resistance were obtained with real time morphologies. From the resonance characteristics and the series of morphologies, we could know the diquat to be death and weakening of the cells.

  17. Study of Viral Vectors in a Three-dimensional Liver Model Repopulated with the Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Thomas; Röhrs, Viola; Dehne, Eva-Maria; Wagner, Anke; Fechner, Henry; Lauster, Roland; Kurreck, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the generation of a three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo liver model and its application to the study and development of viral vector systems. The model is obtained by repopulating the extracellular matrix of a decellularized rat liver with a human hepatocyte cell line. The model permits studies in a vascularized 3D cell system, replacing potentially harmful experiments with living animals. Another advantage is the humanized nature of the model, which is closer to human physiology than animal models. In this study, we demonstrate the transduction of this liver model with a viral vector derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAV vector). The perfusion circuit that supplies the 3D liver model with media provides an easy means to apply the vector. The system permits monitoring of the major metabolic parameters of the liver. For final analysis, tissue samples can be taken to determine the extent of recellularization by histological techniques. Distribution of the virus vector and expression of the delivered transgene can be analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Numerous applications of the vector model in basic research and in the development of gene therapeutic applications can be envisioned, including the development of novel antiviral therapeutics, cancer research, and the study of viral vectors and their potential side effects. PMID:27805597

  18. Realgar quantum dots induce apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, YU; WANG, HUAN; LIU, ZHENG-YUN; LIU, JIE; WU, JIN-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Realgar (As4S4) has been used in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of malignancies. However, the poor water solubility of realgar limits its clinical application. To overcome this problem, realgar quantum dots (RQDs; 5.48±1.09 nm) were prepared by a photoluminescence method. The mean particle size was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our recent studies revealed that the RQDs were effective against tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice without producing apparent toxicity. The present study investigated their anticancer effects and mechanisms in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The HepG2 cells and human normal liver (L02) cells were used to determine the cytotoxicity of RQDs. The portion of apoptotic and dead cells were measured by flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. Apoptosis-related proteins and genes were examined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was assayed by confocal microscope with JC-1 as a probe. RQDs exhibited cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and HepG2 cells were more sensitive compared with normal L02 cells. At 15 µg/ml, 20% of the cells were apoptotic, while 60% of the cells were necrotic at 30 µg/ml. The anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was dose-dependently decreased, while pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased. There was a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of the stress genes C/EBP-homologous protein 10 and glucose-regulated protein 78 was increased by RQDs. RQDs were effective in the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation and this effect was due to induction of apoptosis and necrosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26405541

  19. Nile Red binding to HepG2 cells: an improved assay for in vitro studies of hepatosteatosis.

    PubMed

    McMillian, M K; Grant, E R; Zhong, Z; Parker, J B; Li, L; Zivin, R A; Burczynski, M E; Johnson, M D

    2001-01-01

    Nile Red is a fluorescent dye used extensively to study fat accumulation in many types of cells; unfortunately protocols that work well for most cells are not effective for studying drug-induced lipid accumulation in cultured liver cells and hepatocyte-derived cell lines. Using human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, we have developed a simple Nile Red binding assay as a screen for steatosis-inducing compounds. Increases in Nile Red binding in response to known hepatotoxic compounds were observed after incubating treated cells with 1 microM Nile Red for several hours, washing away free Nile Red, and then allowing redistribution, and/or clearance of the lipid-indicator dye. Several compounds known to cause hepatic fat accumulation in vivo were examined and most robustly increased Nile Red binding in HepG2 cells. These include estrogen and other steroids, ethionine, cyclosporin A, and valproic acid. Required concentrations for increased Nile Red binding were generally three-fold or more lower than the cytotoxic concentration determined by a resazurin reduction assay in the same cells. Qualitatively similar Nile Red binding results were obtained when primary canine or rat hepatocytes were used. Morphological differences in Nile Red staining were observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy in HepG2 cells after treatment with different compounds and likely reflect distinct toxicological mechanisms.

  20. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.

  1. Microarray Analysis of Mercury-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells: Importance in Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ayensu, Wellington K.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Mercury is widely distributed in the biosphere, and its toxic effects have been associated with human death and several ailments that include cardiovascular diseases, anemia, kidney and liver damage, developmental abnormalities, neurobehavioral disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancers in experimental animals. At the cellular level, mercury has been shown to interact with sulphydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, to damage DNA, and to modulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of mercury toxicity remain to be elucidated. Our laboratory has demonstrated that mercury exposure induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis, modulates cell cycle, and transcriptionally activates specific stress genes in human liver carcinoma cells. The liver is one of the few organs capable of regeneration from injury. Dormant genes in the liver are therefore capable of reactivation. In this research, we hypothesize that mercury-induced hepatotoxicity is associated with the modulation of specific gene expressions in liver cells that can lead to several disease states involving immune system dysfunctions. In testing this hypothesis, we used an Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray with probe sets complementary to more than 20,000 genes to determine whether patterns of gene expressions differ between controls and mercury (1–3μg/mL) treated cells. There was a clear separation in gene expression profiles between controls and mercury-treated cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 2,211 target genes that were affected. One hundred and thirty-eight of these genes were up-regulated, among which forty three were significantly over-expressed (p = 0.001) with greater than a two-fold change, and ninety five genes were moderately over-expressed with an increase of more than one fold (p = 0.004). Two thousand and twenty-three genes were down-regulated with only forty five of them reaching a statistically significant decline at p = 0.05 according

  2. Protective role of metabolism by intestinal microflora in butyl paraben-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Shim, Eol; Han, Hwa Jeong; Noh, Keumhan; Park, Sunkyoung; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Wonku; Yeo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-09-03

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (BA), including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben, propyl paraben (PP), and butyl paraben (BP). In the present study, possible role of metabolism by fecalase in BP-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in HepG2 cell cultures. As an intestinal bacterial metabolic system, a human fecalase prepared from human fecal specimen was employed. Among the parabens tested, cytotoxicity of BP was most severe. BA, the de-esterified metabolite, did not induce cytotoxicity when compared to other parabens. When BP was incubated with fecalase, it rapidly disappeared, in association with reduced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, BP incubated with fecalase significantly caused an increase in Bcl-2 expression together with a decrease in Bax expression and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, anti-apoptotic effect by the incubation of BP with fecalase was also confirmed by the TUNEL assay. Furthermore, BP induced a sustained activation of the phosphorylation of JNK only when it was treated alone. Meanwhile, BP-induced cell death was reversed by the pre-incubation of BP with either fecalase or SP600125. Taken together, the findings suggested that metabolism of BP by human fecalase might have protective effects against BP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  3. Anti-proliferative and cytoskeleton-disruptive effects of icariin on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Min; Song, Nan; Ren, Yan-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Several biological properties of icariin have been identified, including its anticancer effect. However, the potential mechanisms underlying the effect of icariin on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of icariin on the proliferation and cytoskeleton of HepG2 cells. A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the antiproliferative effects of icariin and to determine the optimal concentration and treatment schedule of icariin on the HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis was performed using fluorescence activated cell sorting, the protein expression of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 was determined using immunohistochemical and western blot analyses, and F‑actin in the cells was examined using confocal microscopy. The chemotherapeutic drug, oxaliplatin, was used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that the optimal concentration of icarrin to produce an antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells was 10‑5 mol/l, and the optimal treatment duration was 72 h. The icariin group had a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase, compared with the control group, treated with high glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (P<0.05). The proportion of HepG2 cells in the S phase was significantly lower in the oxaliplatin (24.19%; P<0.05) and icariin (21.07%; P<0.01) groups, compared with the control group (28.62%). Icariin markedly decreased the expression of Bcl‑2, compared with the control (P<0.01), and disrupted the polymerization of F‑actin filaments in the HepG2 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that, at an optimum concentration of 10‑5 mol/l, icariin inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells, promoted apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bcl‑2, and disrupted the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Beta-glucan extracted from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei prevents the genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei is studied for its nutraceutical potential and as a medicinal supplement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective effect of beta-glucan extracted from the mushroom A. blazei against DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), using the comet assay (genotoxicity) and micronucleus assay with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity) in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). To elucidate the possible beta-glucan mechanism of action, desmutagenesis or bioantimutagenesis types, three treatment protocols were tested: simultaneous, pre-treatment, and presimultaneous. The results showed that beta-glucan does not exert genotoxic or mutagenic effect, but that it does protect against DNA damage caused by B[a]P in every protocol tested. The data suggest that beta-glucan acts through binding to B[a]P or the capture of free radicals produced during its activation. On the other hand, the pre-treatment results also suggest the possibility that beta-glucan modulates cell metabolism.

  6. Effects of Nano-CeO₂ with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-09-02

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO₂) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO₂ with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO₂ at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO₂ were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO₂ were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO₂ entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO₂ with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell's ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO₂, the rod-like nano-CeO₂ has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas.

  7. Effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts on HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Hua; Long, Min; Zhu, Bao-Yi; Yang, Shu-Hui; Ren, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Hui-Zhong

    2011-06-21

    To observe the effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts (SSE) on the hepatoma cell line HepG-2 in vitro and in vivo and determine its mechanisms of action. Cultured HepG-2 cells treated with SSE were analysed by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide and clone formation assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were conducted by flow cytometric, TdT-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods, and protein expression was examined by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The pathological changes of the tumor cells were observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Tumor growth inhibition and side effects were determined in a xenograft mouse model. SSE treatment could not only inhibit HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner but also induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The number of colonies formed by SSE-treated tumor cells was fewer than that of the controls (P < 0.05). SSE induced caspase-dependent apoptosis accompanied by a significant decrease in Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and elevation of Bak expression (P < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor α in the xenograft tumor tissue and the liver functions of SSE-treated mice showed no significant changes at week 8 compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Systemic administration of SSE could inhibit the HepG-2 xenograft tumor growth with no obvious toxic side effects on normal tissues. SSE can induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo through decreasing expression of Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and increasing expression of Bax.

  8. Mangiferin: A xanthone attenuates mercury chloride induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaivalya, Mudholkar; Nageshwar Rao, B N; Satish Rao, B S

    2011-01-01

    Mangiferin (MGN), a dietary C-glucosylxanthone present in Mangifera indica, is known to possess a spectrum of beneficial pharmacological properties. This study demonstrates antigenotoxic potential of MGN against mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. Treatment of HepG2 cells with various concentrations of HgCl2 for 3 h caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency and elevation in DNA strand breaks (olive tail moment and tail DNA). Pretreatment with MGN significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited HgCl2 -induced (20 µM for 30 h) DNA damage. An optimal antigenotoxic effect of MGN, both in micronuclei and comet assay, was observed at a concentration of 50 µM. Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of HgCl2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, indicating an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, MGN by itself failed to generate ROS at a concentration of 50 µM, whereas it could significantly decrease HgCl2 -induced ROS. Our study clearly demonstrates that MGN pretreatment reduced the HgCl2-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells, thus demonstrating the genoprotective potential of MGN, which is mediated mainly by the inhibition of oxidative stress.

  9. Hyperglycemia and anthocyanin inhibit quercetin metabolism in HepG2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells...

  10. Classification of hepatotoxicants using HepG2 cells: A proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Van den Hof, Wim F P M; Coonen, Maarten L J; van Herwijnen, Marcel; Brauers, Karen; Wodzig, Will K W H; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-03-17

    With the number of new drug candidates increasing every year, there is a need for high-throughput human toxicity screenings. As the liver is the most important organ in drug metabolism and thus capable of generating relatively high levels of toxic metabolites, it is important to find a reliable strategy to screen for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Microarray-based transcriptomics is a well-established technique in toxicogenomics research and is an ideal approach to screen for drug-induced injury at an early stage. The aim of this study was to prove the principle of classifying known hepatotoxicants and nonhepatotoxicants using their distinctive gene expression profiles in vitro in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we undertook to subclassify the hepatotoxic compounds by investigating the subclass of cholestatic compounds. Prediction analysis for microarrays was used for classification of hepatotoxicants and nonhepatotoxicants, which resulted in an accuracy of 92% on the training set and 91% on the validation set, using 36 genes. A second model was set up with the goal of finding classifiers for cholestasis, resulting in 12 genes that appeared capable of correctly classifying 8 of the 9 cholestatic compounds, resulting in an accuracy of 93%. We were able to prove the principle that transcriptomic analyses of HepG2 cells can indeed be used to classify chemical entities for hepatotoxicity. Genes selected for classification of hepatotoxicity and cholestasis indicate that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response may be important cellular effects of drug-induced liver injury. However, the number of compounds in both the training set and the validation set should be increased to improve the reliability of the prediction.

  11. Alantolactone Induces Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells through GSH Depletion, Inhibition of STAT3 Activation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad; Li, Ting; Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Rasul, Azhar; Nawaz, Faisal; Sun, Meiyan; Zheng, Yongchen; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) constitutively expresses in human liver cancer cells and has been implicated in apoptosis resistance and tumorigenesis. Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to possess anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines. In our previous report, we showed that alantolactone induced apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells via GSH depletion and ROS generation. However, the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion remained unexplored. The present study was conducted to envisage the molecular mechanism of alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by focusing on the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion and its effect on STAT3 activation. We found that alantolactone induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with GSH depletion, inhibition of STAT3 activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis and GSH depletion were effectively inhibited or abrogated by a thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The data demonstrate clearly that intracellular GSH plays a central role in alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Thus, alantolactone may become a lead chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:23533997

  12. N-acetyl-cysteine protects against DNA damage associated with lead toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Christine K; Haile, Samuel; Edwards, Falicia; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Lead toxicity has been associated with its ability to interact and damage DNA. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In vitro studies in our laboratory indicated that lead nitrate (PbNO3) induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress to human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells in a dose-dependent manner. In this research, we hypothesized that n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant compound, affords protection against lead-induced cell death associated with genotoxic damage. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells were treated either with a physiologic dose of NAC, NAC plus PbNO3, or PbNO3 alone, followed by incubation in humidified 5% CO2 incubator at 37 degrees C for 48 hr. The cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. The degree of DNA damage was detected by micro gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Our results showed that lead exposure induces a substantial cytotoxicity as well as a significant genotoxicity to HepG2 cells. However, co-treatment with a physiologic dose (500 microM) of NAC slightly increases cell viability, and significantly reduced (P < .05) the degree of DNA damage. Hence, NAC treatment may be a promising therapeutic candidate for chemoprevention against lead toxicity, based on its ability to scavenge free radicals.

  13. Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO2 with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO2 at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO2 were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO2 were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO2 entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO2 with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell’s ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO2, the rod-like nano-CeO2 has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas. PMID:26404340

  14. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  15. Activated AMPK explains hypolipidemic effects of sulfated low molecular weight guluronate on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hao, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xia; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Pei-Ju; Yu, Guang-Li

    2014-10-06

    Low molecular weight and sulfated low molecular weight guluronate (LMG and SLMG) were prepared and hypolipidemic effects were studied in a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Both compounds decreased total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) and inhibited 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity in HepG2 cells. In general, SLMG had greater effects than LMG. Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK's downstream targets were evidenced by increased phosphorylation of AMPK, HMGCR, and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which decreased HMGRC and ACC activity. We further demonstrated that activated AMPK was linked to down-regulated SREBP-1 and up-regulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Trinitrotoluene Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in HePG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe trinitrotoluene (TNT)-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis in HePG2 cells. Material/Methods HePG2 cells were cultured in vitro with 0, 6, 12, or 24 μg/ml TNT solution for 12, 24, and 48 h. Western blotting was performed to detect intracellular ERS-related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP94, Caspase 4, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression from the respective genes. Results The expressions of ERS-related proteins GRP78 and GRP94 as well as mRNA and protein expression of ERS signaling apoptotic CHOP in the TNT treatment group were significantly increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ERS-induced apoptotic protein Caspase-4 were significantly increased. Flow cytometry revealed that after TNT treatment, the apoptosis rate also significantly increased. Conclusions TNT could increase the expression levels of GRP78, GRP94, Caspase-4, and CHOP in HePG2 cells; this increase in protein expression might be involved in HePG2 apoptosis through the induction of the ERS pathway. PMID:26551326

  17. HepG2 cells acquire stem cell-like characteristics after immune cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Yang, Miqing; Lin, Ling; Ren, Hongzhen; Lin, Chaotong; Lin, Suling; Shen, Guoying; Ji, Binfeng; Meng, Chun

    2016-02-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently regarded as one of the main culprits of tumor formation and therapy failure. It is known that chronic inflammation is associated with CSCs, but it is not clear yet how inflammation affects the development of CSCs. In the present study we aimed to examine the relationship between cancer cell stimulation mediated by immune cells and the acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype. Cancer cells derived from single hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells were treated with mouse splenic B cells (MSBCs) and mouse peritoneal macrophage cells (MPMCs), respectively. The stem cell-like characteristics of the resulting HepG2 cells (MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2) were evaluated using different assays, including biomarker assays, in vitro tumoroid and colony forming assays, in vivo tumor forming assays and signal transduction pathway activation assays. Various stemness characteristics of HepG2 cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity were evaluated. The expression levels of stemness-related genes and its encoded proteins in the MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells were assessed using RT-PCR and FACS analyses. We found that MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells possess hepatic CSC properties, including persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, high tumorigenic capacity and over-expression of CSC-related genes and proteins (i.e., EpCAM, ALDH, CD133 and CD44), compared to the parental cells. We also found that 1x10(3) MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice and that the Notch and SHH signaling pathways were highly activated in MSBC-HepG2 cells. We conclude that the immune system may have a double-edge effect on cancer development. On one hand, immune cells such as B lymphocytes and macrophages may recognize, attack and eliminate cancer cells, whereas on the other hand, they may promote a subset of cancer cells to acquire stem cell-like characteristics.

  18. Combined Toxic Effects of Polar and Nonpolar Chemicals on Human Hepatocytes (HepG2) Cells by Quantitative Property-Activity Relationship Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Jin, Eun Sil; Lee, Sung Kwang

    2016-01-01

    We determined the toxicity of mixtures of ethyl acetate (EA), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene (TOL) and xylene (XYL) with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values obtained using human hepatocytes cells. According to these data, quantitative property-activity relationships (QPAR) models were successfully proposed to predict the toxicity of mixtures by multiple linear regressions (MLR). The leave-one-out cross validation method was used to find the best subsets of descriptors in the learning methods. Significant differences in physico-chemical properties such as boiling point (BP), specific gravity (SG), Reid vapor pressure (rVP) and flash point (FP) were observed between the single substances and the mixtures. The EC50 of the mixture of EA and IPA was significantly lower than that of contained TOL and XYL. The mixture toxicity was related to the mixing ratio of MEK, TOL and XYL (MLR equation EC50 = 3.3081 − 2.5018 × TOL − 3.2595 × XYL − 12.6596 × MEK × XYL), as well as to BP, SG, VP and FP (MLR equation EC50 = 1.3424 + 6.2250 × FP − 7.1198 × SG × FP − 0.03013 × rVP × FP). These results suggest that QPAR-based models could accurately predict the toxicity of polar and nonpolar mixtures used in rotogravure printing industries. PMID:27818736

  19. Combined Toxic Effects of Polar and Nonpolar Chemicals on Human Hepatocytes (HepG2) Cells by Quantitative Property-Activity Relationship Modeling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Jin, Eun Sil; Lee, Sung Kwang

    2016-10-01

    We determined the toxicity of mixtures of ethyl acetate (EA), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene (TOL) and xylene (XYL) with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values obtained using human hepatocytes cells. According to these data, quantitative property-activity relationships (QPAR) models were successfully proposed to predict the toxicity of mixtures by multiple linear regressions (MLR). The leave-one-out cross validation method was used to find the best subsets of descriptors in the learning methods. Significant differences in physico-chemical properties such as boiling point (BP), specific gravity (SG), Reid vapor pressure (rVP) and flash point (FP) were observed between the single substances and the mixtures. The EC50 of the mixture of EA and IPA was significantly lower than that of contained TOL and XYL. The mixture toxicity was related to the mixing ratio of MEK, TOL and XYL (MLR equation EC50 = 3.3081 - 2.5018 × TOL - 3.2595 × XYL - 12.6596 × MEK × XYL), as well as to BP, SG, VP and FP (MLR equation EC50 = 1.3424 + 6.2250 × FP - 7.1198 × SG × FP - 0.03013 × rVP × FP). These results suggest that QPAR-based models could accurately predict the toxicity of polar and nonpolar mixtures used in rotogravure printing industries.

  20. Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

    2014-06-01

    Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma.

  1. Modification of the apolipoprotein B gene in HepG2 cells by gene targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Flynn, L M; Young, S G

    1992-01-01

    The HepG2 cell line has been used extensively to study the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B. In this study, we tested whether gene-targeting techniques can be used to inactivate one of the apo B alleles in HepG2 cells by homologous recombination using a transfected gene-targeting vector. Our vector contained exons 1-7 of the apo B gene, in which exon 2 was interrupted by a promoterless neomycin resistance (neo(r)) gene. The recombination of this vector with the cognate gene would inactivate an apo B allele and enable the apo B promoter to activate the transcription of the neo(r) gene. To detect the rare homologous recombinant clone, we developed a novel solid phase RIA that uses the apo B-specific monoclonal antibody MB19 to analyze the apo B secreted by G418-resistant (G418r) clones. Antibody MB19 detects a two-allele genetic polymorphism in apo B by binding to the apo B allotypes MB19(1) and MB19(2) with high and low affinity, respectively. HepG2 cells normally secrete both the apo B MB19 allotypes. Using the MB19 immunoassay, we identified a G418r HepG2 clone that had lost the ability to secrete the MB19(1) allotype. The inactivation of an apo B allele of this clone was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of an 865-bp fragment unique to the targeted apo B allele and by Southern blotting of genomic DNA. This study demonstrates that gene-targeting techniques can be used to modify the apo B gene in HepG2 cells and demonstrates the usefulness of a novel solid phase RIA system for detecting apo B gene targeting events in this cell line. Images PMID:1321843

  2. Modification of the apolipoprotein B gene in HepG2 cells by gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Farese, R V; Flynn, L M; Young, S G

    1992-07-01

    The HepG2 cell line has been used extensively to study the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B. In this study, we tested whether gene-targeting techniques can be used to inactivate one of the apo B alleles in HepG2 cells by homologous recombination using a transfected gene-targeting vector. Our vector contained exons 1-7 of the apo B gene, in which exon 2 was interrupted by a promoterless neomycin resistance (neo(r)) gene. The recombination of this vector with the cognate gene would inactivate an apo B allele and enable the apo B promoter to activate the transcription of the neo(r) gene. To detect the rare homologous recombinant clone, we developed a novel solid phase RIA that uses the apo B-specific monoclonal antibody MB19 to analyze the apo B secreted by G418-resistant (G418r) clones. Antibody MB19 detects a two-allele genetic polymorphism in apo B by binding to the apo B allotypes MB19(1) and MB19(2) with high and low affinity, respectively. HepG2 cells normally secrete both the apo B MB19 allotypes. Using the MB19 immunoassay, we identified a G418r HepG2 clone that had lost the ability to secrete the MB19(1) allotype. The inactivation of an apo B allele of this clone was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of an 865-bp fragment unique to the targeted apo B allele and by Southern blotting of genomic DNA. This study demonstrates that gene-targeting techniques can be used to modify the apo B gene in HepG2 cells and demonstrates the usefulness of a novel solid phase RIA system for detecting apo B gene targeting events in this cell line.

  3. TALEN-induced disruption of Nanog expression results in reduced proliferation, invasiveness and migration, increased chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai Qing; Ding, Yan; Li, Cheng Lin; Yang, Yi; Yan, Shi Rong; Li, Dong Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Nanog plays a central role in modulating the biological behaviors of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we employed transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) to disrupt Nanog expression in HepG2 cells and obtained subcloned cells with diallelic Nanog mutations. Significantly, we found that the expression of pluripotency factors Sox2, Oct4 and Klf4, as well as expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133, in the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells was markedly downregulated. This finding suggests that Nanog may play an important role in maintaining the pluripotency and malignancy of HepG2 cells. We also revealed that Nanog regulated cell proliferation by modulating the expression of cyclin D1/D3/E1 and CDK2, respectively. Additionally, the disruption of Nanog resulted in the downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators Snail and Twist, which contributed to the elevated level of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and to the decreased level of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin in the HepG2 cells. In addition, the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells exhibited reduced ability of invasion, migration and chemoresistance in vitro. In conclusion, the disruption of Nanog expression results in less proliferation, invasiveness, migration, more chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells, by which Nanog plays crucial roles in influencing the malignant phenotype of HepG2 cells.

  4. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Russo, Maria; Castellano, Immacolata; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of an autophagic process is revealed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, together with the expression of the specific autophagic molecular markers, LC3 II and Beclin-1. The effect of ovothiol is not due to its antioxidant capacity or to hydrogen peroxide generation. The concentration of ovothiol A in the culture media, as monitored by HPLC analysis, decreased by about 24% within 30 min from treatment. The proliferation of normal human embryonic lung cells is not affected by ovothiol A. These results hint at ovothiol as a promising bioactive molecule from marine organisms able to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells. PMID:25003791

  5. Protective Effect of Pinus koraiensis Needle Water Extract Against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sae Bom; Jung, Ga-young; Kim, Juhae; Chung, Young Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Needles of pine species are rich in polyphenols, which may exert beneficial effects on human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Pinus koraiensis needle water extracts (PKW). HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of PKW (from 10−3 to 1 mg/mL) and oxidative stress was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In the animal model, male ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and then mice were continually fed a high-fat diet with or without orally administered PKW (400 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Pretreatment with PKW prevented significant increases in cytotoxicity and catalase activity induced by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells. Similarly, the catalase protein expression levels elevated by t-BOOH were abrogated in cells pretreated with PKW. In mice fed a high-fat diet, PKW significantly increased hepatic activities of catalase and glutathione reductase and lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in the liver and kidney of mice with PKW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that PKW protects against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells treated with t-BOOH and in mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23822143

  6. Pentoxifylline induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by reducing reactive oxygen species production and activating the MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Dong, Lei; Li, Jing; Luo, Miaosha; Shang, Boxin

    2017-08-15

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative and has potent anti-tumor activity. This study aimed at investigating the anti-HCC effects of PTX and associated molecular mechanisms. The effects of varying doses of PTX on viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of HepG2 cells were determined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The effects of PTX on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators and activation of the MAPK signaling in HepG2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot assays. The effects of PTX on the growth of implanted HepG2 cells and their apoptosis in mice were examined. Our results indicated that PTX inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells and induced HepG2 cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with PTX reduced levels of ROS and Bcl-XL expression, but increased caspase 3 and caspase 9 expression and JNK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HepG2 cells. Pre-treatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, enhanced PTX-mediated cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and the JNK and ERK MAPK activation, while pre-treatment with SP600125 or PD98509 attenuated PTX-mediated effects in HepG2 cells. Treatment with PTX inhibited the growth of implanted HCC and promoted HCC apoptosis in mice. Our data demonstrate that PTX inhibits proliferation of HepG2 cells and induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by attenuating ROS production and enhancing the MAPK activation in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Kavalactones Yangonin and Methysticin induce apoptosis in human hepatocytes (HepG2) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Dunlop, R A; Rowe, A; Rodgers, K J; Ramzan, I

    2011-03-01

    While cases of severe kava hepatotoxicity have been reported, studies examining the toxicity of individual kavalactones are limited. The present study examined the in vitro hepatotoxicity of kavain, methysticin and yangonin on human hepatocytes (HepG2) and the possible mechanism(s) involved. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ethidium bromide (EB) assays. The mode of cell death was analysed with acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining with fluorescence microscopy. Glutathione oxidation was measured using the ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPT) fluorescence assay. Kavain had minimal cytotoxicity, methysticin showed moderate concentration-dependent toxicity and yangonin displayed marked toxicity with ~ 40% reduction in viability in the EB assay. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed the predominant mode of cell death was apoptosis rather than necrosis. No significant changes were observed in glutathione levels, excluding this as the primary mechanism of cell death in this model. Further studies may elucidate the precise apoptotic pathways responsible and whether toxic kavalactone metabolites are involved.

  8. Effects of TLR4 gene silencing on the proliferation and apotosis of hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Li, Tao; Xu, Yuanhong; Xu, Enjun; Zhou, Min; Wang, Baolong; Shen, Jilong

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key factors in the innate immune system and initiate an inflammatory response to foreign pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR4-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in numerous cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological effect of TLR4 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human liver cancer cells and the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular responses following TLR4 gene knockdown. Three TLR4 small interfering (si)RNA constructs, consisting of TLR4-siRNA-1, TLR4-siRNA-2 and TLR4-siRNA-3, were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. TLR4 knockdown was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The effect of the TLR4 siRNA on tumor cell proliferation was monitored by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and cell apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry. The expression of TLR4-associated proteins, consisting of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1R-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was detected by western blot analysis. TLR4-siRNA-1 had the strongest knockdown effect and inhibited TLR4 messenger RNA and protein expression. TLR4 knockdown with TLR4-siRNA-1 reduced cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. MyD88, TRIF, IRF3, IκBα, JNK and ERK were markedly suppressed in the cells transfected with TLR4 siRNA. However, nuclear expression of NF-κB and p-IκBα increased in HepG2 cells with TLR4 gene knockdown. The present study revealed that TLR4-mediated signaling plays a key role in the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured hepatocarcinoma cells. Therefore, RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 may raise

  9. Comparative Proteomics Analysis Reveals L-Arginine Activates Ethanol Degradation Pathways in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guokai; Lestari, Retno; Long, Baisheng; Fan, Qiwen; Wang, Zhichang; Guo, Xiaozhen; Yu, Jie; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xingya; Chen, Changqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xiuzhi; Purnomoadi, Agung; Achmadi, Joelal; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine (Arg) is a versatile amino acid that plays crucial roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, to investigate the alteration induced by Arg supplementation in proteome scale, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was employed to comparatively characterize the differentially expressed proteins between Arg deprivation (Ctrl) and Arg supplementation (+Arg) treated human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 21 proteins were identified as differentially expressed proteins and these 21 proteins were all up-regulated by Arg supplementation. Six amino acid metabolism-related proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, showed differential expressions. Intriguingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) based pathway analysis suggested that the three ethanol degradation pathways were significantly altered between Ctrl and +Arg. Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays validated that the key enzymes ADH1C, ALDH1A1, and ALDH2, which are mainly involved in ethanol degradation pathways, were highly differentially expressed, and activated between Ctrl and +Arg in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, 10 mM Arg significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by 100 mM ethanol treatment (P < 0.0001). This study is the first time to reveal that Arg activates ethanol degradation pathways in HepG2 cells. PMID:26983598

  10. Alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by Spirulina platensis C-phycocyanin induces apoptosis in the doxorubicinresistant human hepatocellular-carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Roy, Karnati R; Arunasree, Kalle M; Reddy, Nishant P; Dheeraj, Bhavanasi; Reddy, Gorla Venkateswara; Reddanna, Pallu

    2007-07-01

    C-PC (C-phycocyanin) is a water-soluble biliprotein from the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancerous properties. In the present study, the effect of C-PC was tested on the proliferation of doxorubicin-sensitive (S-HepG2) and -resistant (R-HepG2) HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines. These studies indicate a 50% decrease in the proliferation of S- and R-HepG2 cells treated with 40 and 50 microM C-PC for 24 h respectively. C-PC also enhanced the sensitivity of R-HepG2 cells to doxorubicin. R-HepG2 cells treated with C-PC showed typical apoptotic features such as membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation. Flow-cytometric analysis of R-HepG2 cells treated with 10, 25 and 50 microM C-PC for 24 h showed 18.8, 39.72 and 65.64% cells in sub-G(0)/G(1)-phase respectively. Cytochrome c release, decrease in membrane potential, caspase 3 activation and PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage were observed in C-PC-treated R-HepG2 cells. These studies also showed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax (Bcl2-associated X-protein) protein in the R-HepG2 cells treated with C-PC. The present study thus demonstrates that C-PC induces apoptosis in R-HepG2 cells and its potential as an anti-HCC agent.

  11. Anti-proliferative effects of Atractylis lancea (Thunb.) DC. via down-regulation of the c-myc/hTERT/telomerase pathway in Hep-G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-Qiang; Li, Liang-Zhi; He, Zhuo-Yang; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jia; Hu, Cui-Ying; Qin, Fen-Ju; Wang, Tao-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Atractylis lancea (Thunb.) DC. (AL), an important medicinal herb in Asia, has been shown to have anti-tumor effects on cancer cells, but the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. This study focused on potential effects and molecular mechanisms of AL on the proliferation of the Hep-G2 liver cancer cell line in vitro. Cell viability was assessed by MTT test in Hep-G2 cells incubated with an ethanol extract of AL. Then, the effects of AL on apoptosis and cell cycle progression were determined by flow cytometry. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assays was performed to investigate telomerase activity. The mRNA and protein expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and c-myc were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results show that AL effectively inhibits proliferation in Hep-G2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. When Hep-G2 cells were treated with AL after 48h,the IC50 was about 72.1 μg/ mL. Apoptosis was induced by AL via arresting the cells in the G1 phase. Furthermore, AL effectively reduced telomerase activity through inhibition of mRNA and protein expression of hTERT and c-myc. Hence, these data demonstrate that AL exerts anti-proliferative effects in Hep-G2 cells via down-regulation of the c-myc/hTERT/ telomerase pathway.

  12. Functional toxicogenomic assessment of triclosan in human HepG2 cells using genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals for which limited toxicological data are available are used and then detected in humans and the environment. Rapid and cost-effective approaches for assessing the toxicological properties of chemicals are needed. We used CRISPR-Cas9 functional genomic scree...

  13. Functional toxicogenomic assessment of triclosan in human HepG2 cells using genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals for which limited toxicological data are available are used and then detected in humans and the environment. Rapid and cost-effective approaches for assessing the toxicological properties of chemicals are needed. We used CRISPR-Cas9 functional genomic scree...

  14. Simultaneous detection of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells in blood by ICP-MS with gold nanoparticles and quantum dots as elemental tags.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoting; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Wang, Han; Xiao, Guangyang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) labeling for the simultaneous counting of two circulating tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HepG2 cells) in human blood. MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were captured by magnetic beads coupled with anti-EpCAM and then specifically labeled by CdSe QDs-anti-ASGPR and Au NPs-anti-MUC1, respectively, which were used as signal probes for ICP-MS measurement. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection of 50 MCF-7, 89 HepG2 cells and the linear ranges of 200-40000 MCF-7, 300-30000 HepG2 cells were obtained, and the relative standard deviations for seven replicate detections of 800 MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, low sample consumption, wide linear range and can be extended to the simultaneous detection of multiple CTC lines in human peripheral blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  16. Crude extract and solvent fractions of Calystegia soldanella induce G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Im; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The representative halophyte Calystegia soldanella (L) Roem. et Schult is a perennial vine herb that grows in coastal dunes throughout South Korea as well as in other regions around the world. This plant has long been used as an edible and medicinal herb to cure rheumatic arthritis, sore throat, dropsy, and scurvy. Some studies have also shown that this plant species exhibits various biological activities. However, there are few studies on cytotoxicity induced by C. soldanella treatment in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In this study, we investigated the viability of HepG2 cells following treatment with crude extracts and four solvent-partitioned fractions of C. soldanella. Of the crude extract and four solvent fractions tested, treatment with the 85% aqueous methanol (aq. MeOH) fraction resulted in the greatest inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation. Flow cytometry showed that the 85% aq. MeOH fraction induced a G0/G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle progression. The 85% aq. MeOH fraction arrested HepG2 cells at the G0/G1 phase in a concentration-dependent manner, and resulted in decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, CDK4, CDK6, p21, and p27. Additionally, the 85% aq. MeOH fraction treatment also arrested HepG2 cells in the S phase, with decreased expression of cyclin A, CDK2, and CDC25A. Also, treatment with this fraction reduced the expression of retinoblastoma (RB) protein and the transcription factor E2F. These results suggest that the 85% aq. MeOH fraction exhibits potential anticancer activity in HepG2 cells by inducing G0/G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle. PMID:28101580

  17. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Cogliati, Bruno; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Akisue, Gokithi; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Hansen, Daiane; Sanches, Daniel Soares; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-01-01

    Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng) show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. PMID:26075002

  18. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  19. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  20. AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    González-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Montero-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3. PMID:27490694

  1. Time-course regulation of survival pathways by epicatechin on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-02-01

    Polyphenols, such as epicatechin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin of survival/proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 10 micromol/L epicatechin did not result in any cell damage up to 18 h, as evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Moreover, the enhanced cell death evoked by an oxidative stress induced with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was prevented in the cells pretreated 4 or 18 h with epicatechin. Epicatechin-induced survival was a rapid event that was accompanied by early and sustained activation of major survival signaling proteins, such as AKT/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular-regulated kinase (activated from 5 min to 18 h), as well as protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha (30 min to 18 h), in concert with unaltered c-jun N-amino terminal kinase levels and early inactivation of key death-related signals like PKC-delta (5 min to 18 h). Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation was transiently reduced when cells were treated with 10 micromol/L epicatechin (15-240 min). These data suggest that epicatechin induces cellular survival through a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, the ultimate effect on HepG2 cells being regulated by the balance among these signals.

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines).

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Andreani, Tatiana; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, Marco V; Santana, Maria Helena A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-06-23

    Insulin was used as model protein to developed innovative Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) for the delivery of hydrophilic biotech drugs, with potential use in medicinal chemistry. SLNs were prepared by double emulsion with the purpose of promoting stability and enhancing the protein bioavailability. Softisan(®)100 was selected as solid lipid matrix. The surfactants (Tween(®)80, Span(®)80 and Lipoid(®)S75) and insulin were chosen applying a 2(2) factorial design with triplicate of central point, evaluating the influence of dependents variables as polydispersity index (PI), mean particle size (z-AVE), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) by factorial design using the ANOVA test. Therefore, thermodynamic stability, polymorphism and matrix crystallinity were checked by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), whereas the effect of toxicity of SLNs was check in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed a mean particle size (z-AVE) width between 294.6 nm and 627.0 nm, a PI in the range of 0.425-0.750, ZP about -3 mV, and the EE between 38.39% and 81.20%. After tempering the bulk lipid (mimicking the end process of production), the lipid showed amorphous characteristics, with a melting point of ca. 30 °C. The toxicity of SLNs was evaluated in two distinct cell lines (HEPG-2 and Caco-2), showing to be dependent on the concentration of particles in HEPG-2 cells, while no toxicity in was reported in Caco-2 cells. SLNs were stable for 24 h in in vitro human serum albumin (HSA) solution. The resulting SLNs fabricated by double emulsion may provide a promising approach for administration of protein therapeutics and antigens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Macelignan protects HepG2 cells against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jong Hee; Han, Kyu Lee; Choo, Jeong Han; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effect of macelignan, isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. The tetrazolium dye colorimetric test (MTT test) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to monitor cell viability and necrosis, respectively. Lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] was estimated by the fluorometric method. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was measured using a fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), and DNA damage was detected using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results showed that macelignan significantly reduced the cell growth inhibition and necrosis caused by t-BHP. Furthermore, macelignan ameliorated lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by a reduction in MDA formation in a dose-dependent manner. It was also found that macelignan reduced intracellular ROS formation and DNA damaging effect caused by t-BHP. These results strongly suggest that macelignan has significant protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive intermediates.

  4. Cellular interactions and biological responses to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B cells: role of cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raju Y; Simmons, Steven O; Killius, Micaela G; Zucker, Robert M; Kligerman, Andrew D; Blackman, Carl F; Fry, Rebecca C; Demarini, David M

    2014-05-01

    We showed previously that exposure of human lung cells (BEAS-2B) to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) produced micronuclei (MN) only when the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%. Nanoparticles localize in the liver; thus, we exposed human liver cells (HepG2) to nano-TiO2 and found the same requirement for MN induction. Nano-TiO2 also formed small agglomerates in medium containing as little as 1% protein and caused cellular interaction as measured by side scatter by flow cytometry and DNA damage (comet assay) in HepG2 cells. Nano-TiO2 also increased the activity of the inflammatory factor NFkB but not of AP1 in a reporter-gene HepG2 cell line. Suspension of nano-TiO2 in medium containing 0.1% protein was sufficient for induction of MN by the nanoparticles in either BEAS-2B or HepG2 cells as long the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Riboflavin deficiency induces a significant change in proteomic profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhonghao; Pu, Lingling; Gao, Weina; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Jingyu; Shi, Tala; Yao, Zhanxin; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC–MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson’s disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency. PMID:28367977

  6. Riboflavin deficiency induces a significant change in proteomic profiles in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhonghao; Pu, Lingling; Gao, Weina; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Jingyu; Shi, Tala; Yao, Zhanxin; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-04-03

    Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC-MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson's disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency.

  7. [Establishment of a model for evaluating hypolipidemic effect in HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Niu, Yucun; Lü, Na; Li, Ying; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Changhao

    2010-03-01

    To establish a model of evaluating hypolipidemic effect in vitro. Adding cholesterol to the culture medium for HepG2 cells to induce a hypercholesterolemia model. The content of cellular cholesterol and the expression of protein regulating cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells were determined. The validation of the model was identified by lovastatin, a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug. Free fatty acid was added to the culture medium for HepG2 cells to induce a hypertriglyceridemia model. The content of cellular triglyceride and the absorption rate of free fatty acid were determined. The validation of the model was identified by fenofibrate, a triglyceride-lowering drug. Cellular cholesterol content was increased and the expression of HMG-CoA redutase, SREBP-2 and LDLR were decreased after adding cholesterol and 25-hydrocholesterol to the culture medium. Cellular cholesterol was decreased and the expression of SREBP-2 and LDLR were up-regulated by Lovastatin. The absorption of oleic acid in cells was up to 40% after adding oleic acid (50 micromol) to the culture medium for 6 h. The absorption of free fatty acid was increased but the content of cellular triglyceride was not increased in cells by Fenofibrate. This model might be an effective method for screening and assessing functional factors for lowing plasma lipids.

  8. PUMA and survivin are involved in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by microcystin-LR via mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Feng, Yiyi; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in order to elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by MC-LR. Morphological evaluation results showed that MC-LR induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The biochemical assays revealed that MC-LR-exposure caused overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cyclooxygenase-2 activity alteration, cytochrome c release, and remarkable activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in HepG2 cells, indicating that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, we also found that p53 and Bax might play an important role in MC-LR-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in which PUMA and survivin were involved. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the possible functions of PUMA and survivin in MC-LR-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Mechanism of the promotion of steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Xie, Ping; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Lingqiang; An, Wei; Zhan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    The role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. It is known that apoptosis of hepatocytes is an important characteristics of NASH. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cholesterol on steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis and the possible mechanism in vitro. In this study, HepG2 cells were divided into three groups: (1) normal group, (2) steatosis group and (3) cholesterol group. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid to establish a steatosis study model. Steatosis was assessed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride content assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using an apoptosis kit. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins (P53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E) were determined by western blot analyses. We found that a hepatocyte steatosis model was successfully established by oleic acid (200 μmol/L) induction. The cholesterol (50 mg/L) group had similar amount of lipid droplets and triglyceride content as steatosis group (P > 0.5). However, the apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) of the cholesterol group was significantly higher than that of the normal group or the steatosis group, and the protein expressions of Bax and caspase-3, but not P53, Bcl-2, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E, were also increased in the cholesterol group. Those results suggested that cholesterol markedly promoted apoptosis of steatosis HepG2 cells in vitro, likely through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expression. This study contributes to explain the effect of cholesterol on NASH pathogenesis. PMID:25400762

  10. Biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles and its cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kumar; Karunagaran, Vithiya; Mahanty, Biswanath; Sen, Shampa

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were gaining significant importance in a variety of applications due to its paramagnetic properties and biocompatibility. Various chemical methods were employed for hematite nanoparticle synthesis which require special equipment or a complex production process. In this study, protein capped crystalline hexagonal hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by green approach using culture supernatant of a newly isolated bacterium, Bacillus cereus SVK1 at ambient conditions. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Nanoparticles were evaluated for its possible anticancer activity against HepG2 liver cancer cells by MTT assay. Hematite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 30.2 nm, exhibited a significant cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (CTC50=704 ng/ml). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effects of marein on high glucose-induced glucose metabolic disorder in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Baoping; Le, Liang; Zhai, Wei; Wan, Wenting; Hu, Keping; Yong, Peng; He, Chunnian; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study has shown that Coreopsis tinctoria increases insulin sensitivity and regulates hepatic metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance rats. However, it is unclear whether or not marein, a major compound of C. tinctoria, could improve insulin resistance. Here we investigate the effect and mechanism of action of marein on improving insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. We investigated the protective effects of marein in high glucose-induced human liver carcinoma cell HepG2. In kinase inhibitor studies, genistein, LY294002, STO-609 and compound C were added to HepG2 cells 1h before the addition of marein. Transfection with siRNA was used to knock down LKB1, and 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), an effective tracer, was used to detect glucose uptake. The results showed for the first time that marein significantly stimulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Akt substrate of 160kDa (AS160) and enhanced the translocation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) to the plasma membrane. Further study indicated that genistein (an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) altered the effect of marein on glucose uptake, and both LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and compound C (an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor) significantly decreased marein-stimulated 2-NBDG uptake. Additionally, marein-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked in the presence of STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor; however, marein-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation was not blocked by LKB1 siRNA in HepG2 cells. Marein also inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) at Ser 612, but inhibited GSK-3β phosphorylation and increased glycogen synthesis. Moreover, marein significantly decreased the expression levels of FoxO1, G6Pase and PEPCK. Consequently, marein improved insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake

  12. Cytotoxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in HepG2 cells exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Urani, C; Melchioretto, P; Canevali, C; Crosta, G F

    2005-10-01

    Cadmium is a widespread industrial pollutant. The primary route of exposure occurs via contaminated drinking water or food supplies, and tobacco. Its chronic introduction and ingestion lead to bio-magnification in target organs, as the liver. The aim of this paper is to determine Cd cytotoxic concentrations in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Further aims are the study of the activation and involvement of protection mechanisms against Cd hepatotoxicity. Cd was accumulated within the cells, as measured by ICP-AES. Metallothioneins (MT-1 and -2), a family of metal-binding proteins, were induced in a dose-dependent way after treatment with concentrations below the IC(50) value (mean value 22 microM). The over-expression of MT by Zn pre-treatment was able to defend against Cd cytotoxicity. Heat shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70) was induced at high non-cytotoxic concentrations (5, 10 microM) probably as a consequence of proteotoxicity, but its over-expression by a sub-lethal heat shock was not able to protect the cells from Cd cytotoxic concentrations (20, 50, 100 microM).

  13. Glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid regulate a common hepatoprotective pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Lin, Li-Jen; Kao, Shung-Te; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Shun-Ting; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-15

    Glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid are widely used hepatoprotectants for the treatment of liver disorders, such as hepatitis C virus infection, primary biliary cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells responsive to glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid were analyzed in this study. HepG2 cells were treated with 25 µM hepatoprotectants for 24 h. Gene expression profiles of hepatoprotectants-treated cells were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray in triplicates. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities were assessed by luciferase assay. Among a total of 30,968 genes, 252 genes were commonly regulated by glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid. These compounds affected the expression of genes relevant various biological pathways, such as neurotransmission, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, and anti-oxidative pathways were differentially regulated by all compounds. Moreover, interaction networks showed that NF-κB might play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Further analysis revealed that these hepatoprotectants inhibited NF-κB activities in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggested that glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid regulated the expression of genes relevant to apoptosis and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the regulation by these hepatoprotectants might be relevant to the suppression of NF-κB activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Lovastatin prevents bleomycin-induced DNA damage to HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Marjan; Etebari, Mahmoud; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Lovastatin as a member of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors is used as a lipid-lowering agent. It can also inhibit the formation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion and finally leads to decline in oxidative stress processes. Here, we evaluated whether lovastatin can increase DNA damage resistance of HepG2 cells against genotoxicity of the anticancer drug bleomycin (BLM). HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of lovastatin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 µM) before exposure to BLM (0.5 µg/mL for one h). The genotoxic dose of BLM and lovastatin was separately determined and comet assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity. After trapping cells in agarose coated lames, they were lysed and the electrophoresis was done in alkaline pH, then colored and monitored by florescent microscope. The results of this study indicated that lovastatin in doses lower than 5 µM has genoprotective effect and in doses higher than 50 µM is genotoxic. In conclusion, lovastatin is able to protect genotoxic effects of BLM in HepG2 cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process. PMID:28003840

  15. Pu-erh tea supplementation suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in the rat liver through downregulating Akt and JNK signalings as demonstrated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Te; Weng, Meng-Shih; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Kuo, Kuan-Li; Tsai, Yao-Jen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. Overexpression of FAS is dominant in cancer cells and proliferative tissues. The expression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves was significantly suppressed. The gains in body weight, levels of triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol were also suppressed in the tea-treated rats. FAS expression in hepatoma HepG2 cells was suppressed by the extracts of pu-erh tea at both the protein and mRNA levels. FAS expression in HepG2 cells was strongly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and JNK inhibitor II and slightly inhibited by p38 inhibitor SB203580 and MEK inhibitor PD98059, separately. Based on these findings, we suggest that the suppression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves may occur through downregulation of the PI3K/AKt and JNK signaling pathways. The major components of tea that have been demonstrated to be responsible for the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects are catechins, caffeine, and theanine. The compositions of catechins, caffeine, and theanine varied dramatically in pu-erh, black, oolong, and green teas. The active principles and molecular mechanisms that exerted these biological effects in pu-erh tea deserve future exploration.

  16. S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Do, Minh Truong; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-08-01

    S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a nontoxic garlic compound, has a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this report, we provide evidence that SAC prevented free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. SAC significantly reduced FFA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and subsequent cell death. Also, SAC mitigated total cellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells. SAC significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, SAC down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target genes, including ACC and fatty acid synthase. Use of a specific inhibitor showed that SAC activated AMPK via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and silent information regulator T1. Our results demonstrate that SAC activates AMPK through CaMKK and inhibits SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, SAC has therapeutic potential for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Selenocystine against methyl mercury cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic substance and the effect of selenium against MeHg toxicity is a hot topic. Until now, no related works have been reported from the view of the point of elemental speciation which is promising to study the mechanism at the molecular level. In this work, to reveal the effect of selenocystine (SeCys2) against MeHg cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, a comprehensive analytical platform for speciation study of mercury and selenium in MeHg incubated or MeHg and SeCys2 co-incubated HepG2 cells was developed by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) hyphenated techniques and chip-based pretreatment method. Interesting phenomenon was found that the co-incubation of MeHg with SeCys2 promoted the uptake of MeHg in HepG2 cells, but reduced the cytotoxicity of MeHg. Results obtained by ICP-MS based hyphenated techniques revealed a possible pathway for the incorporation and excretion of mercury species with the coexistence of SeCys2. The formation of MeHg and SeCys2 aggregation promotes the uptake of MeHg; majority of MeHg transforms into small molecular complexes (MeHg-glutathione (GSH) and MeHg-cysteine (Cys)) in HepG2 cells; and MeHg-GSH is the elimination species which results in reducing the cytotoxicity of MeHg.

  18. Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ≤ 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148

  19. Protective effects of quercetin on nicotine induced oxidative stress in 'HepG2 cells'.

    PubMed

    Yarahmadi, Amir; Zal, Fatemeh; Bolouki, Ayeh

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nicotine has been recognized to result in oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this work was to estimate the hepatotoxicity effect of nicotine on viability and on antioxidant defense system in cultures of HepG2 cell line and the other hand, ameliorative effect of quercetin (Q) as an antioxidant was analyzed. Nicotine induced concentration dependent loss in HepG2 cell line viability. The results indicated that nicotine decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) and increased activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) content in the HepG2 cells. Q significantly increased activity of SOD, GR and GSH content and decreased activity of GPX in nicotine + Q groups. Our data demonstrate that Q plays a protective role against the imbalance elicited by nicotine between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense systems, and suggest that administration of this antioxidant may find clinical application where cellular damage is a consequence of ROS.

  20. [Experimental study on the immune response of fusion tumor vaccine of HepG2 and dendritic cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Pang, Y B; Cui, B Y; He, J; Huang, X P; Liang, W; Li, L Q; Luo, X L

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To estimate the immune response of HepG2/dendritic cell (DC) fusion cells vaccines against HepG2 cells in vitro. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy donors by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation.Then DC were obtain from PBMCs by culturing in medium containing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 5 days.DC and HepG2 fusion cells were induced by polythyleneglycol (PEG). The fusion cells were examined under fluorescence microscope by labeling DCs and HepG2 with green and red fluorescein, respectively, and then the fusion rates were analyzed by flow cytometry.The capacity of fusion cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-12 and stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocyte was assessed by ELISA and Flow cytometry, respectively.ELISPOT was used to assess the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) produced by cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL), and the specific killing ability of fusion cells induce-CTL targeting HepG2 was estimated. Results: The fusion rate of HepG2/DC was 54.5%, and the fusion cells expressed a higher levels of DC mature marker CD80 and costimulatory molecules CD83, CD86 and MHC-Ⅰ, MHC-Ⅱ molecules HLA-ABC and HLA-DR than those in immature DCs (P<0.01). HepG2/DC showed a greater capacity to secrete high level of IL-12 (P<0.05) and activate proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro, as compared with DCs alone and DCs mix HepG2 (P<0.01). The HepG2/DC -activated CTL generated higher IFN-γ level and had a specific killing ability against HepG2 cells at the effecter/target ratio 30∶1 (31.4%±2.4%) and 100∶1 (57.6%±7.3%) (P<0.01). Conclusions: HepG2/DC fusion cells could efficiently stimulate T lymphocytes to generate specific CTL targeting HepG2 cells.It might be a promising strategy of immunotherapy for HCC.

  1. Differential expression of several drug transporter genes in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Louisa, Melva; Suyatna, Frans D; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture techniques have many advantages for investigation of drug transport to target organ like liver. HepG2 and Huh-7 are two cell lines available from hepatoma that can be used as a model for hepatic drug transport. The present study is aimed to analyze the expression level of several drug transporter genes in two hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7 and their response to inhibitors. This is an in vitro study using HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. The expression level of the following drug transporter genes was quantified: P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance protein 1, Organic Anionic Transporter Protein 1B1 (OATP1B1) and Organic Cationic Transporter-1 (OCT1). Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells using Tripure isolation reagent, then gene expression level of the transporters is quantified using Applied Biosystems quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Verapamil (P-glycoprotein inhibitor), nelfinavir (OATP1B1 inhibitor), quinidine (OCT1 inhibitor) were used to differentiate the inhibitory properties of these agents to the transporter expressions in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Huh-7 shows a higher level of P-glycoprotein, OATP1B1 and OCT1 expressions compared with those of HepG2. Verapamil reduces the expressions of P-glycoprotein in HepG2 and Huh-7; nelfinavir reduces the expression of OATP1B1 in HepG2 and Huh-7; while quinidine reduces the OCT1 gene expressions in HepG2, but not in Huh-7 cells. This study indicates that HepG2 might be a more suitable in vitro model than Huh-7 to study drug transport in hepatocytes involving drug transporters.

  2. The effect of WSEWS pentapeptide and WSEWS-specific monoclonal antibodies on constitutive and IL-6 induced acute-phase protein production by a human hepatoma cell line, HEPG-2.

    PubMed

    Biró, J; Bösze, S; Hudecz, F; Nagy, Z; Rajnavölgyi, E; Schmidt, B; Rákász, E; Falus, A

    1995-05-01

    Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily characterised by the obligatory presence of WSXWS (Trp-Ser-X-Trp-Ser) sequence motif near the transmembrane domain. To more clearly understand the role of this motif, we treated the HepG2 hepatoma cell line with synthetic WSEWS peptide (E is glutamic acid) and checked the spontaneous and IL-6-induced production of acute-phase protein fibrinogen and C1-inhibitor (C1-INH). The peptide revealed a definitely stimulatory effect both on the constitutive synthesis of C1-INH and on the IL-6-induced fibrinogen synthesis of HepG2 cells. Monoclonal antibody specific for WSEWS pentapeptide was stimulatory for the spontaneous secretion of both fibrinogen and C1-INH. However, the IL-6-induced elevations of these acute-phase proteins were oppositely regulated, since the anti-WSEWS monoclonal antibody was inhibitory on the production of fibrinogen induced by IL-6 but strongly augmented the IL-6 induced production of C1-INH. Our study indicates that the WSEWS motif is critical in the effect of IL-6 on the acute-phase protein production influencing either the ligand binding by the WSEWS-containing receptor molecule or the signal transduction.

  3. [3D evaluation model for drug hepatotoxicity testing on HepG2 cells and its application in drug safety evaluation].

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dan; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Tan, Hong-Ling; Liang, Qian-de; Wang, Yu-Guang; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Gao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    3D in vitro toxicity testing model was developed by magnetic levitation method for culture of the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and applied to evaluate the drug hepatotoxicity. After formation of stable 3D structure for HepG2 cells, their glycogen storage capacity under 2D and 3D culture conditions were detected by immunohistochemistry technology, and the mRNA expression levels of phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ drug metabolism enzymes, drug transporters, nuclear receptors and liver-specific marker albumin(ALB) were compared between 2D and 3D culture conditions by using RT-PCR method. Immunohistochemistry results showed that HepG2 cells had abundant glycogen storage capacity under 3D culture conditions, which was similar to human liver tissues. The mRNA expression levels of major drug metabolism enzymes, drug transporters, nuclear receptors and ALB in HepG2 cells under 3D culture conditions were up-regulated as compared with 2D culture conditions. For drug hepatotoxicity evaluation, the typical hepatotoxic drug acetaminophen(APAP), and most reported drugs Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.(Chinese name He-shou-wu) and Psoraleae corylifolia L.(Chinese name Bu-gu-zhi) were selected for single dose and repeated dose(7 d) exposure. In the repeated dose exposure test, 3D HepG2 cells showed higher sensitivity. This established 3D HepG2 cells model with magnetic levitation 3D culture techniques was more close to the human liver tissues both in morphology and functions, so it was a better 3D hepatotoxicity evaluation model. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Allyl-isatin suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weihua; An, Yukuan; Qu, Huiqing; Yang, Yue; Yang, Junhou; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-06-01

    The anticancer effect of the newly synthesized isatin derivative, N-allyl-isatin (Allyl-I), was evaluated in vitro with human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining was used to observe the cell morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effects of Allyl-I on the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blot analysis was performed to detect the influence of Ally1-I on the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c), Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Allyl-I significantly inhibited HepG2 cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Allyl-I can induce cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the G2/M phase. Apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed after AO/EB double staining. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) double staining showed that the apoptotic rates significantly increased in the presence of Allyl-I. Rhodamine 123 staining indicated that Allyl-I can decrease the MMP. Allyl-I also altered the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins. Protein levels of cyt c and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated following Allyl-I treatment. By contrast, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased. Results suggest that Allyl-I suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis might be correlated with the mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Effect of Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil on the expression of p21 and CDK4 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Guang; Wang, Baixin; Chen, Liping; Wang, Shuqiu; Liu, Zhixin; Ma, Xiaoru; Wang, Fangfang; Liang, Yanfeng; Wu, Jiamei; Yang, Zhiwei

    2016-08-01

    To research the anti-cancer mechanism of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the components of Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris). We tested the inhibitory effect of Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil on the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 in vitro using 3-(4, 5-Dimet hylt hiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dip henyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescence activating cell sorter analysis was used to examine the levels of apoptosis, and western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of p21, p-p21 and CDK4 proteins. Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil contains 45 ingredients, and L-ascorbic acid 2, 6-bispalmitate was the main component and accounted for 44.96% of total drive-off peak area. Other components included (Z)-14-met hyl-8-exadecenal- acetal (8.56%), phytol (7.74%) and lauric acid (6.31% ). Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil treatment reduced the proliferation of HepG2 cells and the half growth inhibition concentration (IC50) was 2.03 mg/mL. Furthermore, we also observed significantly increased HepG2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil significantly increased the expression of p21 and p-p21 and significantly decreased the expression of CDK4 in HepG2 cells compared with controls (P < 0.01). Our results showed that Fanbaicao (Herba Potentillae Discoloris) oil has anti-cancer activities in HepG2 cells, which is probably related to the upregulation of p21 and p-p21 and downregulation of CDK4 expression.

  6. Induction of Apoptosis by Berberine in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells via Downregulation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Mao; Zhang, Zhi-Lang; Liu, Ning; Han, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Qin-Cheng; Deng, Wei-Jun; Liao, Cai-Xian

    2017-01-26

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapeutic approaches, which causes difficulty in the development of effective drugs for the treatment of HCC. Berberine, a major ingredient of Rhizoma coptidis, is a natural alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine. Berberine exhibits potent antitumor activity against HCC due to its high efficiency and low toxicity. In the present study, we found that berberine sensitized HepG cells to NF-κB-mediated apoptosis. Berberine exhibited a significant antiproliferation effect on the HepG2 cells and promoted apoptosis. Both qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining revealed that berberine reduced the NF-κB p65 levels in HepG2 cells. Moreover, p65 overexpression rescued berberine-induced cell proliferation and prevented HepG2 cells from undergoing apoptosis. These results suggest that berberine inhibits the growth of HepG2 cells by promoting apoptosis through the NF-κB p65 pathway.

  7. Glucose inhibits the insulin-induced activation of the insulin-degrading enzyme in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, O; Gögebakan, O; Pfeiffer, A F H; Rudovich, N

    2009-08-01

    Hepatic insulin degradation decreases in type 2 diabetes. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) plays a key role in insulin degradation and its gene is located in a diabetes-associated chromosomal region. We hypothesised that IDE may be regulated by insulin and/or glucose in a liver cell model. To validate the observed regulation of IDE in vivo, we analysed biopsies of human adipose tissue during different clamp experiments in men. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were incubated in normal (1 g/l) or high (4.5 g/l) glucose medium and treated with insulin for 24 h. Catalytic activity, mRNA and protein levels of IDE were assessed. IDE mRNA levels were measured in biopsies of human subcutaneous adipose tissue before and at 240 min of hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic and hyperglycaemic clamps. In HepG2 cells, insulin increased IDE activity under normal glucose conditions with no change in IDE mRNA or protein levels. Under conditions of high glucose, insulin increased mRNA levels of IDE without changes in IDE activity. Both in normal and high glucose medium, insulin increased levels of the catalytically more active 15a IDE isoform compared with the 15b isoform. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, IDE mRNA levels were not significantly upregulated after euglycaemic or hyperglycaemic clamps. Insulin increases IDE activity in HepG2 cells in normal but not in high glucose conditions. This disturbance cannot be explained by corresponding alterations in IDE protein levels or IDE splicing. The loss of insulin-induced regulation of IDE activity under hyperglycaemia may contribute to the reduced insulin extraction and peripheral hyperinsulinaemia in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene and aspirin co-administration on ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, M; Pappas, P; Marselos, M

    2001-01-30

    The effects of two different protocols of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and aspirin co-administration were studied in a well-established human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). During this work, we have performed toxicity tests for cell viability/cell proliferation as well as studies on the expression of ALDH3A1 after exposure of HepG2 cells to 3MC or/and aspirin. For the evaluation of toxic concentrations of 3MC and aspirin, the WST-1 test was used. WST-1 is a reliable cytotoxicity test which is based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 to formazan by mitochondrial enzymes of living cells. A broad range of drug concentrations for either 3MC (0.25-50.0 microM) or aspirin (0.05-10.0 mM) were used for cell exposure, in several periods of time. The expression of ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells showed typical time- and dose-response curves of induction after application of 3MC (1-5 days, 1.5-5.0 microM, respectively). When cells were firstly exposed to 3MC (2.5 and 5.0 microM) and then to aspirin (0.25 mM), the induced ALDH3A1 activity was further enhanced in a statistically significant way (P<0.05). On the contrary, when aspirin application was preceded 3MC exposuring a statistically significant decrease in ALDH3A1 inducibility was observed, as compared with the application of 3MC alone.

  9. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Liang, Ping; Zhou, JianBo; Huang, XiaoBing; Wen, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG(2) cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG(2) cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG(2) cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G(1) phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms.

  10. Quercetin reduces cyclin D1 activity and induces G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Li, L U; Fang, L I; Xie, Hua; Yao, Wenxiu; Zhou, Xiang; Xiong, Zhujuan; Wang, L I; Li, Zhixi; Luo, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Quercetin is able to inhibit proliferation of malignant tumor cells; however, the exact mechanism involved in this biological process remains unclear. The current study utilized a quantitative proteomic analysis to explore the antitumor mechanisms of quercetin. The leucine of HepG2 cells treated with quercetin was labeled as d3 by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). The isotope peaks of control HepG2 cells were compared with the d3-labeled HepG2 cells by mass spectrometry (MS) to identify significantly altered proteins. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were subsequently employed to verify the results of the MS analysis. A flow cytometry assay was designed to observe the influence of various quercetin treatment concentrations on the cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells. The results indicated that quercetin is able to substantially inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce an obvious morphological alteration of cells. According to the MS results, the 70 credibly-changed proteins that were identified may play important roles in multiple cellular processes, including protein synthesis, signaling, cytoskeletal processes and metabolism. Among these functional proteins, the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was found to be significantly decreased. RT-PCR and western blot analyses verified the SILAC-MS results of decreased CCND1 expression. In summary, flow cytometry revealed that quercetin is able to induce G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. Based on the aforementioned observations, it is suggested that quercetin exerts antitumor activity in HepG2 cells through multiple pathways, including interfering with CCND1 gene expression to disrupt the cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells. In the future, we aim to explore this effect in vivo.

  11. [Biological function and molecular mechanism of URI in HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhong, Yanyu; Wang, Hongmin; Yang, Sijun; Wei, Wenxiang

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of the unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The cDNA sequence and shRNA of URI were obtained and sub-cloned into eukaryotic expression vectors. Then those vectors were transfected into HepG2 cells to obtain stable transfection cell line. The cell proliferation and anchor-independent growth in URI-overexpressing and knockdown HepG2 cells were determined by CCK-8 and soft agar colony assay. Flow cytometry was applied to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis of γ-ray irradiated cells. Apoptosis related genes were detected by Western blot. The pCDNA3.1-URI and pGPU6-URIi eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed successfully and corresponding stable transfection cell lines were obtained. Cell proliferation rates of the HepG2, pCDNA3.1-URI-HepG2 and pGPU6-URIi-HepG2 cells were (588.78 ± 32.12)%, (959.33 ± 58.8)% and (393.93 ± 39.7)%, respectively (P < 0.05). The number of cell clones of HepG2, pCDNA3.1-URI-HepG2 and pGPU6-URIi-HepG2 cells were 43 ± 7, 85 ± 5 and 20 ± 4 (P < 0.05), respectively. After γ-ray irradiation, the URI-overexpressing cell line showed a significantly lower apoptosis rate and G(2)/M phase arrest than those in the URI-depleted cell line (P < 0.05). In the HepG2 cells, the relative protein expression levels of URI, Bax and Bcl-2 were 0.92 ± 0.03, 1.11 ± 0.13 and 0.82 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05). In the pCDNA3.1-URI-HepG2 cells, the relative protein expression levels of URI, Bax and Bcl-2 were 1.79 ± 0.12, 0.48 ± 0.01 and 2.20 ± 0.30 (P < 0.05), respectively. In the pGPU6-URIi-HepG2 cells, the relative protein expression levels of URI, Bax and Bcl-2 were 0.50 ± 0.04, 1.52 ± 0.20 and 0.38 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), respectively. The expression of Bax was down-regulated and Bcl-2 was up-regulated in the URI-overexpressing cell line. However, on the contrary, expression of Bax was up-regulated and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the URI-depleted cell line. URI

  12. Investigation of quercetin-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis-associated cellular biophysical alterations by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Li, Baole; Tu, Lvying; Zhu, Haiyan; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Bai, Haihua; Cai, Huaihong; Cai, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a wildly distributed bioflavonoid, has been proved to possess excellent antitumor activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the biophysical properties of HepG2 cells were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the anticancer effects of quercetin on HCC cells at nanoscale. The results showed that quercetin could induce severe apoptosis in HepG2 cells through arrest of cell cycle and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential. Additionally, the nuclei and F-actin structures of HepG2 cells were destroyed by quercetin treatment as well. AFM morphological data showed some typical apoptotic characterization of HepG2 cells with increased particle size and roughness in the ultrastructure of cell surface upon quercetin treatment. As an important biophysical property of cells, the membrane stiffness of HepG2 cells was further quantified by AFM force measurements, which indicated that HepG2 cells became much stiffer after quercetin treatment. These results collectively suggest that quercetin can be served as a potential therapeutic agent for HCC, which not only extends our understanding of the anticancer effects of quercetin against HCC cells into nanoscale, but also highlights the applications of AFM for the investigation of anticancer drugs.

  13. Autophagy in anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Sun, Hai-Qing; Shi, Hong-Lin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Chen, De-Xi; Lou, Jin-Li; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of autophagy in the anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR). METHODS: Autophagy was induced through serum deprivation. An ALR-expressing plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells, and autophagic flux was determined using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. After ALR-expressing plasmid transfection, an autophagy inhibitor [3-methyladenine (3-MA)] was added to HepG2 cells, and apoptosis was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Autophagy was activated in HepG2 cells, peaking at 24 h after serum deprivation. Microtubule-associated protein light chain three-II levels were higher in HepG2 cells treated with ALR than in control cells, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and qPCR studies showed the similar trend, and p62 levels showed the opposite trend, which indicated that ALR may play an important role in increasing autophagy flux. The numbers of apoptotic cells were substantially higher in HepG2 cells treated with both ALR and 3-MA than in cells treated with ALR alone. Therefore, the protective effect of ALR was significantly attenuated or abolished when autophagy was inhibited, indicating that the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR may be related to autophagy. CONCLUSION: ALR protects cells from apoptosis partly through increased autophagy in HepG2 cells and may be valuable as a new therapeutic treatment for liver disease. PMID:25954098

  14. Autophagy in anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Sun, Hai-Qing; Shi, Hong-Lin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Chen, De-Xi; Lou, Jin-Li; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2015-05-07

    To investigate the role of autophagy in the anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR). Autophagy was induced through serum deprivation. An ALR-expressing plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells, and autophagic flux was determined using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. After ALR-expressing plasmid transfection, an autophagy inhibitor [3-methyladenine (3-MA)] was added to HepG2 cells, and apoptosis was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Autophagy was activated in HepG2 cells, peaking at 24 h after serum deprivation. Microtubule-associated protein light chain three-II levels were higher in HepG2 cells treated with ALR than in control cells, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and qPCR studies showed the similar trend, and p62 levels showed the opposite trend, which indicated that ALR may play an important role in increasing autophagy flux. The numbers of apoptotic cells were substantially higher in HepG2 cells treated with both ALR and 3-MA than in cells treated with ALR alone. Therefore, the protective effect of ALR was significantly attenuated or abolished when autophagy was inhibited, indicating that the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR may be related to autophagy. ALR protects cells from apoptosis partly through increased autophagy in HepG2 cells and may be valuable as a new therapeutic treatment for liver disease.

  15. Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase and the S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Boonyapiwat, Boontarika; Panagopoulos, Panayotis; Jones, Hevfin; Mitchell, Stephen C; Forbes, Ben; Steventon, Glyn B

    2005-01-01

    The role of phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase (PAH) in the S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (SCMC) in the rat has now been well established in rat cytosolic fractions in vitro. However, the role of PAH in the S-oxidation of SCMC in human cytosolic fractions or hepatocytes has yet to be investigated. The aim of this investigation was to analyse the kinetic parameters of PAH oxidation of both L-phenylalanine (Phe) and SCMC in the human HepG2 cell line in order to investigate the use of these cells as a model for the cellular regulation of SCMC S-oxidation. The experimentally determined Km and V(max) were 7.14 +/- 0.32 mM and 0.85 +/- 0.32 nmole Tyr formed min(-1) x mg protein(-1) using Phe as substrate. For SCMC the values were 25.24 +/- 5.91 mM and 0.79 +/- 0.09 nmole SCMC (RIS) S-oxides formed min(-1) x mg protein(-1). The experimentally determined Km and V(max) for the cofactor BH4 were 6.81 +/- 0.21 microM and 0.41 +/- 0.004 nmole Tyr formed min(-1) x mg protein(-1) for Phe and 7.24 +/- 0.19 microM and 0.42 +/- 0.002 nmole SCMC (R/S) S-oxides formed min(-1) x mg protein(-1) for SCMC. The use of various PAH inhibitors confirmed that HepG2 cells contained PAH and that the enzyme was capable of converting SCMC to its (R) and (S) S-oxide metabolites in an in vitro PAH assay. Thus HepG2 cells have become a useful additional tool for the investigation of the cellular regulation of PAH in the S-oxidation of SCMC.

  16. Growth inhibition effect of HMME-mediated PDT on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Song, Yuanjian; Ma, Limin; Zang, Lixin; Tao, Lili; Zhang, Zhiguo; Han, Jiwu

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a promising new strategy for liver cancer treatment. Three elements of PDT--optical output power, irradiation time, and photosensitizer concentration--play important roles in promoting cell death. This research aimed to characterize the effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-based PDT on hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and thus elucidate the relationship between cell death and the three elements mentioned earlier. Furthermore, in this study, we present a parameter that represents the cumulative effects of these elements. The accumulation of HMME in HepG2 cells was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The absorption spectrum of HMME was detected using fluorescence spectral analysis. The viability of the treated cells was determined using the MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. We found that the fluorescence intensity was positively correlated with the incubation time for up to 2 h. The cell growth inhibition rate was significantly high and gradually increased with increasing concentrations of HMME or increasing light intensity, which was calculated as optical output power × irradiation time. Further analysis revealed an e-exponential decay of the cell survival rate to the product of the HMME concentration and the light intensity. We defined the product as parameter B (B = optical output power × irradiation time × HMME concentration). Similarly, the rate of cell apoptosis showed roughly e-exponential growth to parameter B. In conclusion, HMME-mediated PDT can significantly kill HepG2 cells, and the killing effect was related to the cumulative effects of the optical output power, the irradiation time, and the HMME concentration. Therefore, the newly defined parameter B, as a comprehensive physical quantity, may be of great significance for the regulation of light and photosensitizer according to patient-specific conditions in clinical practice.

  17. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 μg/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia.

  18. Chemosensitization of HepG2 cells by suppression of NF-κB/p65 gene transcription with specific-siRNA.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Wang, Si-Ye; Yao, Min; Sai, Wen-Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Jun-Ling; Cai, Yin; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Yao, Deng-Fu

    2015-12-07

    To investigate small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype formation in human HepG2 cells. Total RNA was extracted from human HepG2 or LO2 cells. NF-κB/p65 mRNA was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequencing. NF-κB/p65 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Specific-siRNA was transfected to HepG2 cells to knock down NF-κB/p65 expression. The effects on cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis were assessed, and the level of NF-κB/p65 or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HepG2 cells express NF-κB/p65 and express relatively less phosphorylated p65 (P-p65) and little P-gp. After treatment of HepG2 cells with different doses of doxorubicin, the expression of NF-κB/p65, P-p65, and especially P-gp were dose-dependently upregulated. After HepG2 cells were transfected with NF-κB/p65 siRNA (100 nmol/L), the expression of NF-κB/p65, P-p65, and P-gp were downregulated significantly and dose-dependently. The viability of HepG2 cells was decreased to 23% in the combination NF-κB/p65 siRNA (100 nmol/L) and doxorubicin (0.5 μmol/L) group and 47% in the doxorubicin (0.5 μmol/L) group (t = 7.043, P < 0.001). Knockdown of NF-κB/p65 with siRNA is an effective strategy for inhibiting HepG2 cell growth by downregulating P-gp expression associated chemosensitization and apoptosis induction.

  19. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by solanine and Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y B; Gao, S Y; Ji, C F; Zou, X

    2008-01-17

    The nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of digestive system cancer. The anti-tumor activity of solanine, a steroid alkaloid isolated from the nightshade has been demonstrated. To observe the effect of anti-tumor and mechanism of solanine. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC(50) on the three digestive system tumor cell lines. The effect on the morphology was observed with a laser confocal microscopy; the rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM); the expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by Western blot. The results show that the IC(50) for HepG(2), SGC-7901, and LS-174 were 14.47, >50, and >50 microg/ml, respectively; the morphology of cells in the negative control was normal; for the treated groups, typical signs for apoptosis were found. The rate of apoptosis in HepG(2) cells induced by s