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Sample records for human holocarboxylase synthetase

  1. Genetics Home Reference: holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of biotin, a B vitamin found in foods such as liver, egg yolks, and milk. Holocarboxylase synthetase attaches biotin to certain enzymes that are essential for the normal production and breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in ...

  2. Resveratrol compounds inhibit human holocarboxylase synthetase and cause a lean phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cordonier, Elizabeth L.; Adjam, Riem; Camara Teixeira, Daniel; Onur, Simone; Zbasnik, Richard; Read, Paul E.; Döring, Frank; Schlegel, Vicki L.; Zempleni, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is the sole protein-biotin ligase in the human proteome. HLCS has key regulatory functions in intermediary metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism, and in gene repression through epigenetic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to identify foodborne inhibitors of HLCS that alter HLCS-dependent pathways in metabolism and gene regulation. When libraries of extracts from natural products and chemically pure compounds were screened for HLCS inhibitor activity, resveratrol compounds in grape materials caused an HLCS inhibition of >98% in vitro. The potency of these compounds was piceatannol > resveratrol > piceid. Grape-borne compounds other than resveratrol metabolites also contributed toward HLCS inhibition, e.g., p-coumaric acid and cyanidin chloride. HLCS inhibitors had meaningful effects on body fat mass. When Drosophila melanogaster brummer mutants, which are genetically predisposed to storing excess amounts of lipids, were fed diets enriched with grape leaf extracts and piceid, body fat mass decreased by more than 30% in males and females. However, Drosophila responded to inhibitor treatment with an increase in the expression of HLCS, which elicited an increase in the abundance of biotinylated carboxylases in vivo. We conclude that mechanisms other than inhibition of HLCS cause body fat loss in flies. We propose that the primary candidate is the inhibition of the insulin receptor/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26303405

  3. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of human holocarboxylase synthetase, a gene responsible for biotin dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Ishida, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes biotin incorporation into various carboxylases that require biotin as a prosthetic group. They are acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis; pyruvate carboxylase, a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis; propionyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism. HCS is therefore involved in various metabolic processes and is a key enzyme for biotin utilization by mammalian cells. Deficiency of HCS in man is known to cause biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. Isolation of cDNA clones for the enzyme is essential to understand HCS and its deficiency at the molecular level. We purified bovine liver HCS and sequenced its proteolytic peptides. Degenerative oligonucleotide primers were synthesized from the two peptide sequences and used to amplify a putative HCS cDNA fragment from human liver by PCR. Using the amplified DNA fragment as a probe, we screened {lambda}gt10 human liver cDNA library and isolated 12 positive clones. The isolated cDNAs encoded a protein of 726 amino acids with molecular mass of 80,759. The protein contained several sequences identical or similar to those of peptides derived from the bovine liver HCS. The predicted protein had a homologous region with BirA which acts as both a biotin-[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase and a biotin repressor in E. coli, suggesting a functional relationship between the two proteins. We expressed the protein using pET3 a vector in E. coli (BL21 strain) and raised antiserum against the expressed protein. The antiserum immunoprecipitated HCS activities of human lymphoblasts and bovine liver. A one-base deletion and a missense mutation were found in cells from siblings with HCS deficiency. The human HCS gene was assigned to chromosome 21, region 21q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.

  4. Effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human holocarboxylase synthetase gene on enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Shingo; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zempleni, Janos

    2012-04-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is a biotin protein ligase, which has a pivotal role in biotin-dependent metabolic pathways and epigenetic phenomena in humans. Knockdown of HLCS produces phenotypes such as heat susceptibility and decreased life span in Drosophila melanogaster, whereas knockout of HLCS appears to be embryonic lethal. HLCS comprises 726 amino acids in four domains. More than 2500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in human HLCS. Here, we tested the hypotheses that HLCS SNPs impair enzyme activity, and that biotin supplementation restores the activities of HLCS variants to wild-type levels. We used an in silico approach to identify five SNPs that alter the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains in human HLCS. Recombinant HLCS was used for enzyme kinetics analyses of HLCS variants, wild-type HLCS, and the L216R mutant, which has a biotin ligase activity near zero. The biotin affinity of variant Q699R is lower than that of the wild-type control, but the maximal activity was restored to that of wild-type HLCS when assay mixtures were supplemented with biotin. In contrast, the biotin affinities of HLCS variants V96F and G510R are not significantly different from the wild-type control, but their maximal activities remained moderately lower than that of wild-type HLCS even when assay mixtures were supplemented with biotin. The V96 L SNP did not alter enzyme kinetics. Our findings suggest that individuals with HLCS SNPs may benefit from supplemental biotin, yet to different extents depending on the genotype.

  5. Identification of holocarboxylase synthetase chromatin binding sites in human mammary cell lines using the DNA adenine methyltransferase identification technology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dipika; Pannier, Angela K; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-06-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) is a chromatin protein that is essential for mediating the covalent binding of biotin to histones. Biotinylation of histones plays crucial roles in the repression of genes and repeats in the human genome. We tested the feasibility of DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) technology to map HCS binding sites in human mammary cell lines. Full-length HCS was fused to DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) for subsequent transfection into breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal breast (MCF-10A) cells. HCS docking sites in chromatin were identified by using the unique adenine methylation sites established by Dam in the fusion construct; docking sites were unambiguously identified using methylation-sensitive digestion, cloning, and sequencing. In total, 15 novel HCS binding sites were identified in the two cell lines, and the following 4 of the 15 overlapped between MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells: inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase A, corticotropin hormone precursor, ribosome biogenesis regulatory protein, and leptin precursor. We conclude that DamID is a useful technology to map HCS binding sites in human chromatin and propose that the entire set of HCS binding sites could be mapped by combining DamID with microarray technology.

  6. Human holocarboxylase synthetase with a start site at methionine-58 is the predominant nuclear variant of this protein and has catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Baolong; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S.K.; Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Unambiguous evidence is provided that methionine-58 serves as an in-frame alternative translation site for holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS58). {yields} Full-length HLCS and HLCS58 enter the nucleus, but HLCS58 is the predominant variant. {yields} HLCS58 has biological activity as biotin protein ligase. -- Abstract: Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to both carboxylases in extranuclear structures and histones in cell nuclei, thereby mediating important roles in intermediary metabolism, gene regulation, and genome stability. HLCS has three putative translational start sites (methionine-1, -7, and -58), but lacks a strong nuclear localization sequence that would explain its participation in epigenetic events in the cell nucleus. Recent evidence suggests that small quantities of HLCS with a start site in methionine-58 (HLCS58) might be able to enter the nuclear compartment. We generated the following novel insights into HLCS biology. First, we generated a novel HLCS fusion protein vector to demonstrate that methionine-58 is a functional translation start site in human cells. Second, we used confocal microscopy and western blots to demonstrate that HLCS58 enters the cell nucleus in meaningful quantities, and that full-length HLCS localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but may also enter the nucleus. Third, we produced recombinant HLCS58 to demonstrate its biological activity toward catalyzing the biotinylation of both carboxylases and histones. Collectively, these observations are consistent with roles of HLCS58 and full-length HLCS in nuclear events. We conclude this report by proposing a novel role for HLCS in epigenetic events, mediated by physical interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins as part of a larger multiprotein complex that mediates gene repression.

  7. A novel, enigmatic histone modification: biotinylation of histones by holocarboxylase synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Yousef I; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-12-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to histones in humans and other eukaryotes. Eleven biotinylation sites have been identified in histones H2A, H3, and H4. K12-biotinylated histone H4 is enriched in heterochromatin, repeat regions, and plays a role in gene repression. About 30% of the histone H4 molecules are biotinylated at K12 in histone H4 in human fibroblast telomeres. The abundance of biotinylated histones at distinct genomic loci depends on biotin availability. Decreased histone biotinylation decreases life span and stress resistance in Drosophila. Low enrichment of biotinylated histones at transposable elements impairs repression of these elements.

  8. Paracentric Inversion of Chromosome 21 Leading to Disruption of the HLCS Gene in a Family with Holocarboxylase Synthetase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Quinonez, Shane C; Seeley, Andrea H; Lam, Cindy; Glover, Thomas W; Barshop, Bruce A; Keegan, Catherine E

    2016-08-13

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that presents with multiple life-threatening metabolic derangements including metabolic acidosis, ketosis, and hyperammonemia. A majority of HLCS deficiency patients respond to biotin therapy; however, some patients show only a partial or no response to biotin therapy. Here, we report a neonatal presentation of HLCS deficiency with partial response to biotin therapy. Sequencing of HLCS showed a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 5, c.996G>C (p.Gln332His), which likely abolishes the normal intron 6 splice donor site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that the defect of the other allele is a paracentric inversion on chromosome 21 that disrupts HLCS. This case illustrates that in addition to facilitating necessary family testing, a molecular diagnosis can optimize management by providing a better explanation of the enzyme's underlying defect. It also emphasizes the potential benefit of a karyotype in cases in which molecular genetic testing fails to provide an explanation.

  9. Holocarboxylase synthetase is a chromatin protein and interacts directly with histone H3 to mediate biotinylation of K9 and K18.

    PubMed

    Bao, Baolong; Pestinger, Valerie; Hassan, Yousef I; Borgstahl, Gloria E O; Kolar, Carol; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) mediates the binding of biotin to lysine (K) residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4; HCS knockdown disturbs gene regulation and decreases stress resistance and lifespan in eukaryotes. We tested the hypothesis that HCS interacts physically with histone H3 for subsequent biotinylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were conducted and provided evidence that HCS co-localizes with histone H3 in human cells; physical interactions between HCS and H3 were confirmed using limited proteolysis assays. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) studies revealed that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains in HCS participate in H3 binding. Recombinant human HCS was produced and exhibited biological activity, as evidenced by biotinylation of its known substrate, recombinant p67. Recombinant histone H3.2 and synthetic H3-based peptides were also good targets for biotinylation by recombinant HCS (rHCS) in vitro, based on tracing histone-bound biotin with [(3)H]biotin, streptavidin and anti-biotin antibody. Biotinylation site-specific antibodies were generated and revealed that both K9 and K18 in H3 were biotinylated by HCS. Collectively, these studies provide conclusive evidence that HCS interacts directly with histone H3, causing biotinylation of K9 and K18. We speculate that the targeting of HCS to distinct regions in human chromatin is mediated by DNA sequence, biotin, RNA, epigenetic marks or chromatin proteins.

  10. Holocarboxylase synthetase interacts physically with euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, linking histone biotinylation with methylation events.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Hassan, Yousef I; Moriyama, Hideaki; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-08-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of the vitamin biotin to histones H3 and H4, thereby creating rare histone biotinylation marks in the epigenome. These marks co-localize with K9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me), an abundant gene repression mark. The abundance of H3K9me marks in transcriptionally competent loci decreases when HCS is knocked down and when cells are depleted of biotin. Here we tested the hypothesis that the creation of H3K9me marks is at least partially explained by physical interactions between HCS and histone-lysine N-methyltransferases. Using a novel in silico protocol, we predicted that HCS-interacting proteins contain a GGGG(K/R)G(I/M)R motif. This motif, with minor variations, is present in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT1. Physical interactions between HCS and the N-terminal, ankyrin and SET domains in EHMT1 were confirmed using yeast-two-hybrid assays, limited proteolysis assays and co-immunoprecipitation. The interactions were stronger between HCS and the N-terminus in EHMT1 compared with the ankyrin and SET domains, consistent with the localization of the HCS-binding motif in the EHMT1 N-terminus. HCS has the catalytic activity to biotinylate K161 within the binding motif in EHMT1. Mutation of K161 weakened the physical interaction between EHMT1 and HCS, but it is unknown whether this effect was caused by loss of biotinylation or loss of the motif. Importantly, HCS knockdown decreased the abundance of H3K9me marks in repeats, suggesting that HCS plays a role in creating histone methylation marks in these loci. We conclude that physical interactions between HCS and EHMT1 mediate epigenomic synergies between biotinylation and methylation events.

  11. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-02-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH/sub 2/ from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and (/sup 125/I)-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the (/sup 125/I)antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10/sup 9/ platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency.

  12. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: the first crystallization of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefond, Luc; Frugier, Magali; Touzé, Elodie; Lorber, Bernard; Florentz, Catherine; Giegé, Richard Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Sauter, Claude

    2007-04-01

    Crystals of human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase lacking the C-terminal S4-like domain diffract to 2.7 Å resolution and are suitable for structure determination. Human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and a truncated version with its C-terminal S4-like domain deleted were purified and crystallized. Only the truncated version, which is active in tyrosine activation and Escherichia coli tRNA{sup Tyr} charging, yielded crystals suitable for structure determination. These tetragonal crystals, belonging to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, were obtained in the presence of PEG 4000 as a crystallizing agent and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution. Complete data sets could be collected and led to structure solution by molecular replacement.

  13. Molecular structure of the human argininosuccinate synthetase gene: Occurrence of alternative mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, S.O.; Beaudet, A.L.; Bock, H.G.O.; O'Brien, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    The human genome contains one expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene and ca. 14 pseudogenes that are dispersed to at least 11 human chromosomes. Eleven clones isolated from a human genomic DNA library were characterized extensively by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and nucleotide sequencing. These 11 clones represent the entire expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene that spans 63 kilobases and contains at least 13 exons. The expressed gene codes for two mRNAs that differ in their 5' untranslated sequences and arise by alternative splicing involving the inclusion or deletion of an entire exon. In normal human liver and cultured fibroblasts, the predominant mature argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA lacks sequences encoded by exon 2 in the expressed gene. In contrast, the predominant argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA in baboon liver contains exon 2 sequences. A transformed canavanine-resistant human cell line in which argininosuccinate synthetase activity is 180-fold higher than that in wild-type cells contains abundant amounts of both forms of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. The mRNA lacking exon 2 sequences is the more abundant mRNA species in the canavanine-resistant cells. These observations show that splicing of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA is species specific in primates and varies among different human cell types.

  14. Biotinyl-methyl 4-(amidomethyl) benzoate is a competitive inhibitor of human biotinidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Posttranslational modification of histones by biotinylation can be catalyzed by both biotinidase (BTD) and holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Biotinylation of histones is an important epigenetic mechanism to regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and chromatin remodeling. The role of BTD in histone ...

  15. The gene encoding human glutathione synthetase (GSS) maps to the long arm of chromosome 20 at band 11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.C.; Vaska, V.L.; Ford, J.H.

    1995-12-10

    Two forms of glutathione synthetase deficiency have been described. While one form is mild, causing hemolytic anemia, the other more severe form causes 5-oxoprolinuria with secondary neurological involvement. Despite the existence of two deficiency phenotypes, Southern blots hybridized with a glutathione synthetase cDNA suggest that there is a single glutathione synthetase gene in the human genome. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids showed the human glutathione synthetase gene (GSS) to be located on chromosome 20, and this assignment has been refined to subband 20q11.2 using in situ hybridization. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in human disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Svetlana; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtARSs) are essential in the process of transferring genetic information from mitochondrial DNA to the complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These synthetases perform an integral step in the initiation of mitochondrial protein synthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. All mtARSs are encoded by nuclear genes, nine of which have recently been described as disease genes for mitochondrial disorders. Unexpectedly, the clinical presentations of these diseases are highly specific to the affected synthetase. Encephalopathy is the most common manifestation but again with gene-specific outcomes. Other clinical presentations include myopathy with anemia, cardiomyopathy, tubulopathy and hearing loss with female ovarian dysgenesis. Here we review the described mutation types and the associated patient phenotypes. The identified mutation spectrum suggests that only mutation types that allow some residual tRNA-charging activity can result in the described mtARS diseases but the molecular mechanisms behind the selective tissue involvement are not currently understood.

  17. Human lysyl-tRNA synthetase is secreted to trigger proinflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Hye Jin; Min, You Hong; Choi, Eung-Chil; Shin, Young Kee; Park, Bum-Joon; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Sunghoon

    2005-01-01

    Although aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential for protein synthesis, they also function as regulators and signaling molecules in diverse biological processes. Here, we screened 11 different human ARSs to identify the enzyme that is secreted as a signaling molecule. Among them, we found that lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) was secreted from intact human cells, and its secretion was induced by TNF-α. The secreted KRS bound to macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to enhance the TNF-α production and their migration. The mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Gαi were determined to be involved in the signal transduction triggered by KRS. All of these activities demonstrate that human KRS may work as a previously uncharacterized signaling molecule, inducing immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. PMID:15851690

  18. Comparison of effects of aspirin and indomethacin on human platelet prostaglandin synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Crook, D; Collins, A J

    1977-01-01

    Human platelets were incubated in vitro with either aspirin or indomethacin and the prostaglandin synthetase activity of the resultant microsomal fraction from each incubation measured using a radiometric technique. Whereas aspirin produced a dose-related inhibition of the enzyme, indomethacin produced little or no inhibition over the same concentration range (10(-6) mol/l--10(-3) mol/l). Furthermore, administration of aspirin (600 mg) to volunteers produced a highly significant, prolonged inhibition of platelet microsomal prostaglandin synthetase whereas no inhibition was found with indomethacin (50 mg). As indomethacin is considerably more potent than aspirin as an inhibitor of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase in vitro, the results suggest a fundamental difference in the nature of the inhibition produced by each drug, aspirin being an essentially irreversible inhibitor whereas the inhibition produced by indomethacin is reversible. Studies with [3H-acetyl] aspirin have confirmed previous findings (Roth and Majerus, 1975) that aspirin produces an irreversible acetylation of a particulate fraction protein from human platelets. PMID:411427

  19. Structure of Human Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Synthetase at 2.3 Å Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Strauss, E.; Begley, T.P.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    The structure of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) synthetase was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. PPC synthetase is a dimer with identical monomers. Some features of the monomer fold resemble a group of NAD-dependent enzymes, while other features resemble the ribokinase fold. The ATP, phosphopantothenate, and cysteine binding sites were deduced from modeling studies. Highly conserved ATP binding residues include Gly43, Ser61, Gly63, Gly66, Phe230, and Asn258. Highly conserved phosphopantothenate binding residues include Asn59, Ala179, Ala180, and Asp183 from one monomer and Arg55 from the adjacent monomer. The structure predicts a ping pong mechanism with initial formation of an acyladenylate intermediate, followed by release of pyrophosphate and attack by cysteine to form the final products PPC and AMP.

  20. A fluorescence-based coupling reaction for monitoring the activity of recombinant human NAD synthetase.

    PubMed

    Bembenek, Michael E; Kuhn, Eric; Mallender, William D; Pullen, Lester; Li, Ping; Parsons, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    NAD synthetase is responsible for the conversion of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This reaction provides a biosynthetic route of the coenzyme and, thus, a source of cellular reducing equivalents. Alterations in the oxidative reductive potential of the cell have been implicated as a contributing factor in many disease states. Thus, this enzyme represents a new class of potential drug targets, and, hence, our efforts were focused upon developing a robust assay for utilization in a high throughput screen. Toward that end, we describe a coupled enzyme assay format for the measurement of recombinant human NAD synthetase by employing lactate dehydrogenase in a cycling/amplification reaction linked ultimately to the fluorescence generation of resorufin from resazurin via diaphorase. We present kinetics of the reaction of NAD synthetase in the coupled assay format, optimization conditions, and inhibition of the reaction by gossypol [1,1',6,6',7,7'-hexahydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-5,5'-bis(1-methylethyl)-[2,2'- binaphthalene]-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde] and illustrate the robustness of the assay by demonstrating 384-well microtiter plate uniformity statistics. Collectively, our results show that the assay method is both robust and well suited for this class of enzymes involved in the NAD+ biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones.

    PubMed

    Kellis, J T; Vickery, L E

    1984-09-07

    Several naturally occurring and synthetic flavones were found to inhibit the aromatization of androstenedione and testosterone to estrogens catalyzed by human placental and ovarian microsomes. These flavones include (in order of decreasing potency) 7,8-benzoflavone, chrysin, apigenin, flavone, flavanone, and quercetin; 5,6-benzoflavone was not inhibitory. 7,8-Benzoflavone and chrysin were potent competitive inhibitors and induced spectral changes in the aromatase cytochrome P-450 indicative of substrate displacement. Flavones may thus compete with steroids in their interaction with certain monooxygenases and thereby alter steroid hormone metabolism.

  2. Inhibition of human glutamine synthetase by L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine-relevance to the treatment of neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-12-01

    At high concentrations, the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine (MSO) is a convulsant, especially in dogs. Nevertheless, sub-convulsive doses of MSO are neuroprotective in rodent models of hyperammonemia, acute liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and suggest MSO may be clinically useful. Previous work has also shown that much lower doses of MSO are required to produce convulsions in dogs than in primates. Evidence from the mid-20th century suggests that humans are also less sensitive. In the present work, the inhibition of recombinant human glutamine synthetase by MSO is shown to be biphasic-an initial reversible competitive inhibition (K i 1.19 mM) is followed by rapid irreversible inactivation. This K i value for the human enzyme accounts, in part, for relative insensitivity of primates to MSO and suggests that this inhibitor could be used to safely inhibit glutamine synthetase activity in humans.

  3. Comparison of histidine recognition in human and trypanosomatid histidyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Wetzel, Allan B; de van der Schueren, Will J; Hol, Wim G J

    2014-11-01

    As part of a project aimed at obtaining selective inhibitors and drug-like compounds targeting tRNA synthetases from trypanosomatids, we have elucidated the crystal structure of human cytosolic histidyl-tRNA synthetase (Hs-cHisRS) in complex with histidine in order to be able to compare human and parasite enzymes. The resultant structure of Hs-cHisRS•His represents the substrate-bound state (H-state) of the enzyme. It provides an interesting opportunity to compare with ligand-free and imidazole-bound structures Hs-cHisRS published recently, both of which represent the ligand-free state (F-state) of the enzyme. The H-state Hs-cHisRS undergoes conformational changes in active site residues and several conserved motif of HisRS, compared to F-state structures. The histidine forms eight hydrogen bonds with HisRS of which six engage the amino and carboxylate groups of this amino acid. The availability of published imidazole-bound structure provides a unique opportunity to dissect the structural roles of individual chemical groups of histidine. The analysis revealed the importance of the amino and carboxylate groups, of the histidine in leading to these dramatic conformational changes of the H-state. Further, comparison with previously published trypanosomatid HisRS structures reveals a pocket in the F-state of the parasite enzyme that may provide opportunities for developing specific inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei HisRS.

  4. Exploring the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Glutamine Synthetase by Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    Issoglio, Federico M; Campolo, Nicolas; Zeida, Ari; Grune, Tilman; Radi, Rafael; Estrin, Dario A; Bartesaghi, Silvina

    2016-10-13

    Glutamine synthetase is an important enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In mammals, it plays a key role in preventing excitotoxicity in the brain and detoxifying ammonia in the liver. In plants and bacteria, it is fundamental for nitrogen metabolism, being critical for the survival of the organism. In this work, we show how the use of classical molecular dynamics simulations and multiscale quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations allowed us to examine the structural properties and dynamics of human glutamine synthetase (HsGS), as well as the reaction mechanisms involved in the catalytic process with atomic level detail. Our results suggest that glutamine formation proceeds through a two-step mechanism that includes a first step in which the γ-glutamyl phosphate intermediate forms, with a 5 kcal/mol free energy barrier and a -8 kcal/mol reaction free energy, and then a second rate-limiting step involving the ammonia nucleophilic attack, with a free energy barrier of 19 kcal/mol and a reaction free energy of almost zero. A detailed analysis of structural features within each step exposed the relevance of the acid-base equilibrium related to protein residues and substrates in the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions. These results provide a comprehensive study of HsGS dynamics and establish the groundwork for further analysis regarding changes in HsGS activity, as occur in natural variants and post-translational modifications.

  5. The mRNA of human cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase recruits prokaryotic ribosomes independently.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Ji, Quan-Quan; Ruan, Liang-Liang; Ye, Qing; Wang, En-Duo

    2014-07-25

    There are two isoforms of cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase (hcArgRS) in human cells. The long form is a component of the multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, and the other is an N-terminal truncated form (NhcArgRS), free in the cytoplasm. It has been shown that the two forms of ArgRS arise from alternative translational initiation in a single mRNA. The short form is produced from the initiation at a downstream, in-frame AUG start codon. Interestingly, our data suggest that the alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA also takes place in Escherichia coli transformants. When the gene encoding full-length hcArgRS was overexpressed in E. coli, two forms of hcArgRS were observed. The N-terminal sequencing experiment identified that the short form was identical to the NhcArgRS in human cytoplasm. By constructing a bicistronic system, our data support that the mRNA encoding the N-terminal extension of hcArgRS has the capacity of independently recruiting E. coli ribosomes. Furthermore, two critical elements for recruiting prokaryotic ribosomes were identified, the “AGGA” core of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the “A-rich” sequence located just proximal to the alternative in-frame initiation site. Although the mechanisms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translational initiation are distinct, they share some common features. The ability of the hcArgRS mRNA to recruit the prokaryotic ribosome may provide clues for shedding light on the mechanism of alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA in eukaryotic cells.

  6. Distribution of immunoreactive glutamine synthetase in the adult human and mouse brain. Qualitative and quantitative observations with special emphasis on extra-astroglial protein localization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bannier, Jana; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Steiner, Johann; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. Despite a plethora of studies on this enzyme, knowledge about the regional and cellular distribution of this enzyme in human brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we mapped fourteen post-mortem brains of psychically healthy individuals for the distribution of the glutamine synthetase immunoreactive protein. It was found that glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is expressed in multiple gray and white matter astrocytes, but also in oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and certain neurons. Since a possible extra-astrocytic expression of glutamine synthetase is highly controversial, we paid special attention to its appearance in oligodendrocytes and neurons. By double immunolabeling of mouse brain slices and cultured mouse brain cells for glutamine synthetase and cell-type-specific markers we provide evidence that besides astrocytes subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and neurons express glutamine synthetase. Moreover, we show that glutamine synthetase-immunopositive neurons are not randomly distributed throughout human and mouse brain, but represent a subpopulation of nitrergic (i.e. neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing) neurons. Possible functional implications of an extra-astrocytic localization of glutamine synthetase are discussed.

  7. An exposed cysteine residue of human angiostatic mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2010-04-13

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(Trp). Human TrpRS exists in two forms: a major form that is the full-length protein and a truncated form (mini TrpRS) in which most of the N-terminal extension is absent. Human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS has angiostatic activity. Because the full-length protein, which lacks angiostatic activity, has all of the amino acid determinants of the mini form, which has activity, I searched for conformational differences between the two proteins. Using a disulfide cross-linking assay, I showed that the molecular environment around Cys62 is significantly different between the two proteins. This difference can be explained by inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the full-length protein. These results give a clear demonstration of a significant difference, around a specific residue (Cys62), between a potent angiostatic and nonangiostatic version of human TrpRS.

  8. Characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs for human threonyl- and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzen, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques of molecular biology were used to clone, sequence and map two human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) cDNAs: threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) a class II enzyme and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) a class I enzyme. The predicted protein sequence of human ThrRS is highly homologous to that of lower eukaryotic and prokaryotic ThRSs, particularly in the regions containing the three structural motifs common to all class II synthetases. Signature regions 1 and 2, which characterize the class IIa subgroup (SerRS, ThrRS and HisRS) are highly conserved from bacteria to human. Structural predictions for human ThrRS based on the known structure of the closely related SerRS from E.coli implicate strongly conserved residues in the signature sequences to be important in substrate binding. The amino terminal 100 residues of the deduced amino acid sequence of ThrRS shares structural similarity to SerRS consistent with forming an antiparallel helix implicated in tRNA binding. The 5' untranslated sequence of the human ThrRS gene shares short stretches of common sequence with the gene for hamster HisRS including a binding site for the promoter specific transcription factor sp-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of human CysRS has a high degree of sequence identify to E. coli CysRS. Human CysRS possesses the classic characteristics of a class I synthetase and is most closely related to the MetRS subgroup. The amino terminal half of human CysRS can be modeled as a nucleotide binding fold and shares significant sequence and structural similarity to the other enzymes in this subgroup. The CysRS structural gene (CARS) was mapped to human chromosome 11p15.5 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. CARS is the first aaRS gene to be mapped to chromosome 11. The steady state of both CysRS and ThrRs mRNA were quantitated in several human tissues. Message levels for these enzymes appear to be subjected to differential regulation in different cell types.

  9. Congenital Visual Impairment and Progressive Microcephaly Due to Lysyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Synthetase (KARS) Mutations: The Expanding Phenotype of Aminoacyl-Transfer RNA Synthetase Mutations in Human Disease.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Hugh J; Humphreys, Peter; Smith, Amanda; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Bulman, Dennis E; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Boycott, Kym M; Geraghty, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthetases (ARSs) are a group of enzymes required for the first step of protein translation. Each aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetase links a specific amino acid to its corresponding transfer RNA component within the cytoplasm, mitochondria, or both. Mutations in ARSs have been linked to a growing number of diseases. Lysyl-transfer RNA synthetase (KARS) links the amino acid lysine to its cognate transfer RNA. We report 2 siblings with severe infantile visual loss, progressive microcephaly, developmental delay, seizures, and abnormal subcortical white matter. Exome sequencing identified mutations within the KARS gene (NM_005548.2):c.1312C>T; p.Arg438Trp and c.1573G>A; p.Glu525Lys occurring within a highly conserved region of the catalytic domain. Our patients' phenotype is remarkably similar to a phenotype recently reported in glutaminyl-transfer RNA synthetase (QARS), another bifunctional ARS gene. This finding expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in KARS and draws attention to aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetase as a group of enzymes that are increasingly being implicated in human disease.

  10. Over-expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of two recombinant isoforms of human FAD synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Brizio, Carmen; Galluccio, Michele; Wait, Robin; Torchetti, Enza Maria; Bafunno, Valeria; Accardi, Rosita; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria . E-mail: m.barile@biologia.uniba.it

    2006-06-09

    FAD synthetase (FADS) (EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor FAD. Two hypothetical human FADSs, which are the products of FLAD1 gene, were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and identified by ESI-MS/MS. Isoform 1 was over-expressed as a T7-tagged protein which had a molecular mass of 63 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Isoform 2 was over-expressed as a 6-His-tagged fusion protein, carrying an extra 84 amino acids at the N-terminal with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. It was purified near to homogeneity from the soluble cell fraction by one-step affinity chromatography. Both isoforms possessed FADS activity and had a strict requirement for MgCl{sub 2}, as demonstrated using both spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The purified recombinant isoform 2 showed a specific activity of 6.8 {+-} 1.3 nmol of FAD synthesized/min/mg protein and exhibited a K {sub M} value for FMN of 1.5 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M. This is First report on characterization of human FADS, and First cloning and over-expression of FADS from an organism higher than yeast.

  11. Gain-Of-Function Mutational Activation of Human TRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.L.; Kapoor, M.; Otero, F.J.; Slike, B.M.; Tsuruta, H.; Frausto, R.; Bates, A.; Ewalt, K.L.; Cheresh, D.A.; Schimmel, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases.

  12. Chemical validation of trypanothione synthetase: a potential drug target for human trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Torrie, Leah S; Wyllie, Susan; Spinks, Daniel; Oza, Sandra L; Thompson, Stephen; Harrison, Justin R; Gilbert, Ian H; Wyatt, Paul G; Fairlamb, Alan H; Frearson, Julie A

    2009-12-25

    In the search for new therapeutics for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, many potential drug targets in Trypanosoma brucei have been validated by genetic means, but very few have been chemically validated. Trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC 6.3.1.9; spermidine/glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming)) is one such target. To identify novel inhibitors of T. brucei TryS, we developed an in vitro enzyme assay, which was amenable to high throughput screening. The subsequent screen of a diverse compound library resulted in the identification of three novel series of TryS inhibitors. Further chemical exploration resulted in leads with nanomolar potency, which displayed mixed, uncompetitive, and allosteric-type inhibition with respect to spermidine, ATP, and glutathione, respectively. Representatives of all three series inhibited growth of bloodstream T. brucei in vitro. Exposure to one of our lead compounds (DDD86243; 2 x EC(50) for 72 h) decreased intracellular trypanothione levels to <10% of wild type. In addition, there was a corresponding 5-fold increase in the precursor metabolite, glutathione, providing strong evidence that DDD86243 was acting on target to inhibit TryS. This was confirmed with wild-type, TryS single knock-out, and TryS-overexpressing cell lines showing expected changes in potency to DDD86243. Taken together, these data provide initial chemical validation of TryS as a drug target in T. brucei.

  13. Human selenophosphate synthetase 1 has five splice variants with unique interactions, subcellular localizations and expression patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Kwang Hee; Shim, Myoung Sup; Shin, Hyein; Xu, Xue-Ming; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2010-06-18

    Selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1) is an essential cellular gene in higher eukaryotes. Five alternative splice variants of human SPS1 (major type, {Delta}E2, {Delta}E8, +E9, +E9a) were identified wherein +E9 and +E9a make the same protein. The major type was localized in both the nuclear and plasma membranes, and the others in the cytoplasm. All variants form homodimers, and in addition, the major type forms a heterodimer with {Delta}E2, and {Delta}E8 with +E9. The level of expression of each splice variant was different in various cell lines. The expression of each alternative splice variant was regulated during the cell cycle. The levels of the major type and {Delta}E8 were gradually increased until G2/M phase and then gradually decreased. {Delta}E2 expression peaked at mid-S phase and then gradually decreased. However, +E9/+E9a expression decreased gradually after cell cycle arrest. The possible involvement of SPS1 splice variants in cell cycle regulation is discussed.

  14. Neurodegenerative disease-associated mutants of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase present individual molecular signatures

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Claude; Lorber, Bernard; Gaudry, Agnès; Karim, Loukmane; Schwenzer, Hagen; Wien, Frank; Roblin, Pierre; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated with a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The effects of these mutations on the structure and function of the enzymes remain to be established. Here, we investigate six mutants of the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase correlated with leukoencephalopathies. Our integrated strategy, combining an ensemble of biochemical and biophysical approaches, reveals that mutants are diversely affected with respect to their solubility in cellular extracts and stability in solution, but not in architecture. Mutations with mild effects on solubility occur in patients as allelic combinations whereas those with strong effects on solubility or on aminoacylation are necessarily associated with a partially functional allele. The fact that all mutations show individual molecular and cellular signatures and affect amino acids only conserved in mammals, points towards an alternative function besides aminoacylation. PMID:26620921

  15. Assignment of the human MARS gene, encoding methioninyl-tRNA synthetase, to chromosome 12 using human X Chinese hamster cell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Cirullo, R E; Wasmuth, J J

    1984-05-01

    We have isolated interspecific somatic cell hybrids between a temperature-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell methioninyl -tRNA synthetase mutant and human peripheral leukocytes. The hybrids were selected at 39 degrees C which requires the retention and expression of the human gene, MARS , which complements the defective CHO gene. In vitro heat-inactivation experiments on the methioninyl -tRNA synthetase activity in cell-free extracts from heat-resistant hybrids indicate that the human form of this enzyme and, therefore, the human MARS gene is present in hybrid cells. Cytogenetic analysis of three independent temperature-resistant hybrids revealed the presence of a single human chromosome, number 12. Two other independent hybrids examined contained human chromosome 12 as well as a second human chromosome. Electrophoretic analysis of extracts from hybrid cell lines for a human chromosome 12 marker isozyme, LDH-B, showed a pattern of heterotetrameric bands consistent with the presence of the human form of this enzyme in these cells. The correlation between the presence of the human form of methioninyl -tRNA synthetase and human chromosome 12 in temperature-resistant hybrids indicates that the human MARS locus is located on this chromosome.

  16. Crystal structure of tetrameric form of human lysyl-tRNA synthetase: Implications for multisynthetase complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Min; Ignatov, Michael; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2008-09-17

    In mammals, many aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are bound together in a multisynthetase complex (MSC) as a reservoir of procytokines and regulation molecules for functions beyond aminoacylation. The {alpha}{sub 2} homodimeric lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is tightly bound in the MSC and, under specific conditions, is secreted to trigger a proinflammatory response. Results by others suggest that {alpha}{sub 2} LysRS is tightly bound into the core of the MSC with homodimeric {beta}{sub 2} p38, a scaffolding protein that itself is multifunctional. Not understood is how the two dimeric proteins combine to make a presumptive {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer and, in particular, the location of the surfaces on LysRS that would accommodate the p38 interactions. Here we present a 2.3-{angstrom} crystal structure of a tetrameric form of human LysRS. The relatively loose (as seen in solution) tetramer interface is assembled from two eukaryote-specific sequences, one in the catalytic- and another in the anticodon-binding domain. This same interface is predicted to provide unique determinants for interaction with p38. The analyses suggest how the core of the MSC is assembled and, more generally, that interactions and functions of synthetases can be built and regulated through dynamic protein-protein interfaces. These interfaces are created from small adaptations to what is otherwise a highly conserved (through evolution) polypeptide sequence.

  17. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Luo, Yi-Pey; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin‑embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Crystal structure of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 reveals a novel allosteric site.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Yongcheng; Peng, Baozhen; Ding, Jianping

    2007-01-01

    PRPP (phosphoribosylpyrophosphate) is an important metabolite essential for nucleotide synthesis and PRS (PRPP synthetase) catalyses synthesis of PRPP from R5P (ribose 5-phosphate) and ATP. The enzymatic activity of PRS is regulated by phosphate ions, divalent metal cations and ADP. In the present study we report the crystal structures of recombinant human PRS1 in complexes with SO4(2-) ions alone and with ATP, Cd2+ and SO4(2-) ions respectively. The AMP moiety of ATP binds at the ATP-binding site, and a Cd2+ ion binds at the active site and in a position to interact with the beta- and gamma-phosphates of ATP. A SO4(2-) ion, an analogue of the activator phosphate, was found to bind at both the R5P-binding site and the allosteric site defined previously. In addi-tion, an extra SO4(2-) binds at a site at the dimer interface between the ATP-binding site and the allosteric site. Binding of this SO4(2-) stabilizes the conformation of the flexible loop at the active site, leading to the formation of the active, open conformation which is essential for binding of ATP and initiation of the catalytic reaction. This is the first time that structural stabilization at the active site caused by binding of an activator has been observed. Structural and biochemical data show that mutations of some residues at this site influence the binding of SO4(2-) and affect the enzymatic activity. The results in the present paper suggest that this new SO4(2-)-binding site is a second allosteric site to regulate the enzymatic activity which might also exist in other eukaryotic PRSs (except plant PRSs of class II), but not in bacterial PRSs.

  19. N114S mutation causes loss of ATP-induced aggregation of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Honglin; Peng, Xiaohui; Zhao Fang; Zhang Guobin; Tao Ye; Luo Zhaofeng; Li Yang; Teng Maikun; Li Xu Wei Shiqiang

    2009-02-20

    This study examined recombinant wild-type human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (wt-PRS1, EC 2.7.6.1) and the point mutant Asn114Ser PRS1 (N114S-Mutant) in cells of a patient with primary gout. Dynamic light-scattering and sedimentation velocity experiments indicated that the monomeric wt-PRS1 in solution was assembled into hexamers after adding the substrate ATP. However, this ATP-induced aggregation effect was not observed with N114S-Mutant, which has a 50% higher enzymatic activity than that of wt-PRS1. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the point mutation causes an increase of {alpha}-helix content and a decrease of turn content. Examination of the crystal structure of wt-PRS1 indicated that 12 hydrogen bonds formed by 6 pairs of N114 and D139 have an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. We suggest that the substitution of S114 for N114 in N114S-Mutant leads to the rupture of 12 hydrogen bonds and breakage of the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} allosteric site where PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} functions as a fixer of the ATP-binding loop. Therefore, we consider that formation of the hexamer as the structural basis of the ADP allosteric inhibition is greatly weakened by the N114S mutation, and that alteration of the ATP-binding loop conformation is the key factor in the increased activity of N114S-Mutant. These two factors could be responsible for the high level of activity of N114S-Mutant in this patient.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Inna; Kessler, Naama; Moor, Nina; Klipcan, Liron; Koc, Emine; Templeton, Paul; Spremulli, Linda; Safro, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the mitPheRS structure was solved using the molecular-replacement method. Human monomeric mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the charging of tRNA with the cognate amino acid phenylalanine. Human mitPheRS is a chimera of the bacterial α-subunit of PheRS and the B8 domain of its β-subunit. Together, the α-subunit and the ‘RNP-domain’ (B8 domain) at the C-terminus form the minimal structural set to construct an enzyme with phenylalanylation activity. The recombinant human mitPheRS was purified to homogeneity and crystallized in complex with phenylalanine and ATP. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55, b = 90, c = 96 Å.

  1. Chromosomal localization of the gene for the human trifunctional enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Barton, D; Du, J; Hum, D W; MacKenzie, R E; Francke, U

    1989-01-01

    A trifunctional protein in man, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, catalyzes three consecutive steps in the interconversion of tetrahydrofolate derivatives; these derivatives supply one-carbon units for intermediary metabolism. Somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization were used to localize the functional gene coding for this protein--to human chromosome 14q24, near the c-fos and TGF-beta 3 loci. A second hybridizing sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified near the centromere of the X chromosome, at Xp11. Images Figure 1 PMID:2786332

  2. The isolated carboxy-terminal domain of human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase rescues the pathological phenotype of mitochondrial tRNA mutations in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Perli, Elena; Giordano, Carla; Pisano, Annalinda; Montanari, Arianna; Campese, Antonio F; Reyes, Aurelio; Ghezzi, Daniele; Nasca, Alessia; Tuppen, Helen A; Orlandi, Maurizia; Di Micco, Patrizio; Poser, Elena; Taylor, Robert W; Colotti, Gianni; Francisci, Silvia; Morea, Veronica; Frontali, Laura; Zeviani, Massimo; d'Amati, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) diseases are multisystem disorders due to mutations in nuclear or mtDNA genes. Among the latter, more than 50% are located in transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and are responsible for a wide range of syndromes, for which no effective treatment is available at present. We show that three human mt aminoacyl-tRNA syntethases, namely leucyl-, valyl-, and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase are able to improve both viability and bioenergetic proficiency of human transmitochondrial cybrid cells carrying pathogenic mutations in the mt-tRNAIle gene. Importantly, we further demonstrate that the carboxy-terminal domain of human mt leucyl-tRNA synthetase is both necessary and sufficient to improve the pathologic phenotype associated either with these “mild” mutations or with the “severe” m.3243A>G mutation in the mt-tRNALeu(UUR) gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this small, non-catalytic domain is able to directly and specifically interact in vitro with human mt-tRNALeu(UUR) with high affinity and stability and, with lower affinity, with mt-tRNAIle. Taken together, our results sustain the hypothesis that the carboxy-terminal domain of human mt leucyl-tRNA synthetase can be used to correct mt dysfunctions caused by mt-tRNA mutations. PMID:24413190

  3. Mutation of the human mitochondrial phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase causes infantile-onset epilepsy and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Abdulraheem; Alston, Charlotte L; Parker, Alasdair; Simonic, Ingrid; Mehta, Sarju G; He, Langping; Reza, Mojgan; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential enzymes in protein synthesis since they charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. Mutations in the genes encoding mitochondrial aaRSs have been associated with a wide spectrum of human mitochondrial diseases. Here we report the identification of pathogenic mutations (a partial genomic deletion and a highly conserved p. Asp325Tyr missense variant) in FARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, in a patient with early-onset epilepsy and isolated complex IV deficiency in muscle. The biochemical defect was expressed in myoblasts but not in fibroblasts and associated with decreased steady state levels of COXI and COXII protein and reduced steady state levels of the mt-tRNA(Phe) transcript. Functional analysis of the recombinant mutant p. Asp325Tyr FARS2 protein showed an inability to bind ATP and consequently undetectable aminoacylation activity using either bacterial tRNA or human mt-tRNA(Phe) as substrates. Lentiviral transduction of cells with wildtype FARS2 restored complex IV protein levels, confirming that the p.Asp325Tyr mutation is pathogenic, causing respiratory chain deficiency and neurological deficits on account of defective aminoacylation of mt-tRNA(Phe).

  4. Multiple adaptive mechanisms affect asparagine synthetase substrate availability in asparaginase-resistant MOLT-4 human leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Aslanian, A M; Kilberg, M S

    2001-01-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is treated by combination chemotherapy with a number of drugs, almost always including the enzyme L-asparaginase (ASNase). Although the initial remission rate is quite high, relapse and associated drug resistance remain a problem. In vitro studies have demonstrated an adaptive increase in asparagine synthetase (AS) expression in ASNase-resistant cells, which is believed to permit ASNase-resistant human leukaemia cells to survive in vivo. The present results, obtained with ASNase-sensitive and -resistant human MOLT-4 leukaemia cell lines, illustrate that several other adaptive processes occur to provide sufficient amounts of the AS substrates, aspartate and glutamine, required to support this increased enzymic activity. In both cell populations, aspartate is derived almost exclusively from intracellular sources, whereas the necessary glutamine arises from both intracellular and extracellular sources. Transport of glutamine into ASNase-resistant cells is significantly enhanced compared with the parental cells, whereas amino acid efflux (e.g. asparagine) is reduced. Most of the adaptive change for the amino acid transporters, Systems A, ASC and L, is rapidly (12 h) reversed following ASNase removal. The enzymic activity of glutamine synthetase is also enhanced in ASNase-resistant cells by a post-transcriptional mechanism. The results demonstrate that there are several sites of metabolic adaptation in ASNase-treated leukaemia cells that serve to promote the replenishment of both glutamine and asparagine. PMID:11485552

  5. Elaborate uORF/IRES features control expression and localization of human glycyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Jana; Paulus, Caroline; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Jossinet, Fabrice; Frugier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    The canonical activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) is to charge glycine onto its cognate tRNAs. However, outside translation, GARS also participates in many other functions. A single gene encodes both the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of GARS but 2 mRNA isoforms were identified. Using immunolocalization assays, in vitro translation assays and bicistronic constructs we provide experimental evidence that one of these mRNAs tightly controls expression and localization of human GARS. An intricate regulatory domain was found in its 5′-UTR which displays a functional Internal Ribosome Entry Site and an upstream Open Reading Frame. Together, these elements hinder the synthesis of the mitochondrial GARS and target the translation of the cytosolic enzyme to ER-bound ribosomes. This finding reveals a complex picture of GARS translation and localization in mammals. In this context, we discuss how human GARS expression could influence its moonlighting activities and its involvement in diseases. PMID:26327585

  6. Expression cloning of a human cDNA encoding folylpoly(gamma-glutamate) synthetase and determination of its primary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Garrow, T A; Admon, A; Shane, B

    1992-01-01

    A human cDNA for folypoly(gamma-glutamate) synthetase [FPGS; tetrahydrofolate:L-glutamate gamma-ligase (ADP forming), EC 6.3.2.17] has been cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli folC mutant. The cDNA encodes a 545-residue protein of M(r) 60,128. The deduced sequence has regions that are highly homologous to peptide sequences obtained from purified pig liver FPGS and shows limited homology to the E. coli and Lactobacillus casei FPGSs. Expression of the cDNA in E. coli results in elevated expression of an enzyme with characteristics of mammalian FPGS. Expression of the cDNA in AUXB1, a mammalian cell lacking FPGS activity, overcomes the cell's requirement for thymidine and purines but does not overcome the cell's glycine auxotrophy, consistent with expression of the protein in the cytosol but not the mitochondria. PMID:1409616

  7. A prokaryote and human tRNA synthetase provide an essential RNA splicing function in yeast mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Houman, Fariba; Rho, Seung Bae; Zhang, Jiansu; Shen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chien-Chia; Schimmel, Paul; Martinis, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    Mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides two essential functions. In addition to aminoacylation, LeuRS functions in RNA splicing. The details of how it came to act in splicing are not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human mitochondrial LeuRSs can substitute in splicing for the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial LeuRS. Mutations of yeast mitochondrial LeuRS that had previously been shown to abolish splicing activity also eliminate splicing by the M. tuberculosis enzyme. These results suggest the role of LeuRS in splicing in yeast mitochondria results from features of the enzyme that are broadly conserved in evolution. These features are not likely to be designed for splicing per se, but instead have been adopted in yeast for that purpose. PMID:11087829

  8. A Human Disease-causing Point Mutation in Mitochondrial Threonyl-tRNA Synthetase Induces Both Structural and Functional Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Liu, Ru-Juan; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria require all translational components, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), to complete organelle protein synthesis. Some aaRS mutations cause mitochondrial disorders, including human mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (hmtThrRS) (encoded by TARS2), the P282L mutation of which causes mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. However, its catalytic and structural consequences remain unclear. Herein, we cloned TARS2 and purified the wild-type and P282L mutant hmtThrRS. hmtThrRS misactivates non-cognate Ser and uses post-transfer editing to clear erroneously synthesized products. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the mutation induces a decrease in Thr activation, aminoacylation, and proofreading activities and a change in the protein structure and/or stability, which might cause reduced catalytic efficiency. We also identified a splicing variant of TARS2 mRNA lacking exons 8 and 9, the protein product of which is targeted into mitochondria. In HEK293T cells, the variant does not dimerize and cannot complement the ThrRS knock-out strain in yeast, suggesting that the truncated protein is inactive and might have a non-canonical function, as observed for other aaRS fragments. The present study describes the aminoacylation and editing properties of hmtThrRS, clarifies the molecular consequences of the P282L mutation, and shows that the yeast ThrRS-deletion model is suitable to test pathology-associated point mutations or alternative splicing variants of mammalian aaRS mRNAs. PMID:26811336

  9. Secreted human glycyl-tRNA synthetase implicated in defense against ERK-activated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Chul; Kang, Taehee; Jin, Da; Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Yun Jung; Cho, Kiwon; Park, Young Woo; Guo, Min; He, Weiwei; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul; Kim, Sunghoon

    2012-03-13

    Although adaptive systems of immunity against tumor initiation and destruction are well investigated, less understood is the role, if any, of endogenous factors that have conventional functions. Here we show that glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GRS), an essential component of the translation apparatus, circulates in serum and can be secreted from macrophages in response to Fas ligand that is released from tumor cells. Through cadherin (CDH)6 (K-cadherin), GRS bound to different ERK-activated tumor cells, and released phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from CDH6. The activated PP2A then suppressed ERK signaling through dephosphorylation of ERK and induced apoptosis. These activities were inhibited by blocking GRS with a soluble fragment of CDH6. With in vivo administration of GRS, growth of tumors with a high level of CDH6 and ERK activation were strongly suppressed. Our results implicate a conventional cytoplasmic enzyme in translation as an intrinsic component of the defense against ERK-activated tumor formation.

  10. Entamoeba lysyl-tRNA synthetase contains a cytokine-like domain with chemokine activity towards human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Castro de Moura, Manuel; Miro, Francesc; Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sunghoon; Celada, Antonio; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2011-11-01

    Immunological pressure encountered by protozoan parasites drives the selection of strategies to modulate or avoid the immune responses of their hosts. Here we show that the parasite Entamoeba histolytica has evolved a chemokine that mimics the sequence, structure, and function of the human cytokine HsEMAPII (Homo sapiens endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II). This Entamoeba EMAPII-like polypeptide (EELP) is translated as a domain attached to two different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) that are overexpressed when parasites are exposed to inflammatory signals. EELP is dispensable for the tRNA aminoacylation activity of the enzymes that harbor it, and it is cleaved from them by Entamoeba proteases to generate a standalone cytokine. Isolated EELP acts as a chemoattractant for human cells, but its cell specificity is different from that of HsEMAPII. We show that cell specificity differences between HsEMAPII and EELP can be swapped by site directed mutagenesis of only two residues in the cytokines' signal sequence. Thus, Entamoeba has evolved a functional mimic of an aaRS-associated human cytokine with modified cell specificity.

  11. Complex organisation of the 5'-end of the human glycine tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Mudge, S J; Williams, J H; Eyre, H J; Sutherland, G R; Cowan, P J; Power, D A

    1998-03-16

    Glycine tRNA synthetase (glyRS) catalyses the addition of the amino acid glycine to its cognate tRNA molecules. In the silk moth worm Bombyx mori, this gene is subject to complex transcriptional regulation because of the predominance of glycine in silk. In vertebrates, glycine is a major constituent of collagen but there have been no studies of glyRS regulation. In this study we have isolated and mapped a genomic clone containing the 5'-end of glyRS. Primer extension studies identified only one transcriptional start point (TSP) in three different cell lines. Expression of the transcript identified may be regulated translationally because it contains five potential initiation codons, three of which are in good context for initiation. The most 3' of the potential initiation codons has previously been predicted to be the initiating codon for cytoplasmic glyRS. Two of the upstream codons are in-frame with this codon, and both are predicted to extend the N-terminus of glyRS to include a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Sequencing of genomic DNA surrounding the TSP showed features common to the promoters of housekeeping genes, as well as a canonical TATA box at the unusual position of +9. Surprisingly, promoter activity in vitro was not specified by a 1.9 kb genomic fragment containing the TSP and TATA box, but by a contiguous 0.4 kb fragment immediately downstream. These studies suggest that the transcription of glyRS from a single start point requires downstream promoter elements.

  12. Assignment of two human autoantigen genes-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 9q21 and lysyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q23-q24

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.C.; Blinder, J.; Pai, S.I.

    1996-08-15

    Protein synthesis is initiated by the attachment of amino acids to cognate tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). Five of twenty human aaRS (histidyl-RS, threonyl-RS, alanyl-RS, glycyl-RS, and isoleucyl-RS) have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Autoantibodies to human lysyl-RS, a sixth autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS, were recently identified. The genes for histidyl-RS and threonyl-RS have been localized to chromosome 5, and we recently reported that the genes for alanyl-RS and glycyl-RS localize to chromosomes 16 and 7, respectively. To understand the genesis of autoimmune responses to aaRS better, we have used PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assign the genes for isoleucyl-RS and lysyl-RS. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Large Conformational Changes of Insertion 3 in Human Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase (hGlyRS) during Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiangyu; Qin, Xiangjing; Chen, Lei; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lei, Dongsheng; Ren, Gang; Zhou, Zhihong; Wang, Zhong; Li, Qing; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is the enzyme that covalently links glycine to cognate tRNA for translation. It is of great research interest because of its nonconserved quaternary structures, unique species-specific aminoacylation properties, and noncanonical functions in neurological diseases, but none of these is fully understood. We report two crystal structures of human GlyRS variants, in the free form and in complex with tRNAGly respectively, and reveal new aspects of the glycylation mechanism. We discover that insertion 3 differs considerably in conformation in catalysis and that it acts like a “switch” and fully opens to allow tRNA to bind in a cross-subunit fashion. The flexibility of the protein is supported by molecular dynamics simulation, as well as enzymatic activity assays. The biophysical and biochemical studies suggest that human GlyRS may utilize its flexibility for both the traditional function (regulate tRNA binding) and alternative functions (roles in diseases). PMID:26797133

  14. Asparagine synthetase expression alone is sufficient to induce l-asparaginase resistance in MOLT-4 human leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Aslanian, A M; Fletcher, B S; Kilberg, M S

    2001-01-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is treated by combination chemotherapy with a number of drugs, always including the enzyme L-asparaginase (ASNase). Although the initial remission rate is quite high, relapse and associated drug resistance are a significant problem. In vitro studies have demonstrated increased asparagine synthetase (AS) expression in ASNase-resistant cells, which has led to the hypothesis that elevated AS activity permits drug-resistant survival. The data presented show that not only is elevated AS expression a property of ASNase-resistant MOLT-4 human leukaemia cells, but that short-term (12 h) treatment of the cells with ASNase causes a relatively rapid induction of AS expression. The results also document that the elevated expression of AS in ASNase-resistant cells is not fully reversible, even 6 weeks after ASNase removal from the culture medium. Furthermore, ASNase resistance, assessed as both drug-insensitive cell growth rates and decreased drug-induced apoptosis, parallels this irreversible AS expression. Mimicking the elevated AS activity in ASNase-resistant cells by overexpression of the human AS protein by stable retroviral transformation of parental MOLT4 cells is sufficient to induce the ASNase-resistance phenotype. These data document that ASNase resistance in ALL cells is a consequence of elevated AS expression and that although other drug-induced metabolic changes occur, they are secondary to the increased asparagine biosynthetic rate. PMID:11415466

  15. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma.

  16. Activation of LXR increases acyl-CoA synthetase activity through direct regulation of ACSL3 in human placental trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Weedon-Fekjaer, M Susanne; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Solaas, Karianne; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Duttaroy, Asim K; Nebb, Hilde Irene

    2010-07-01

    Placental fatty acid transport and metabolism are important for proper growth and development of the feto-placental unit. The nuclear receptors, liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta), are key regulators of lipid metabolism in many tissues, but little is known about their role in fatty acid transport and metabolism in placenta. The current study investigates the LXR-mediated regulation of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) and its functions in human placental trophoblast cells. We demonstrate that activation of LXR increases ACSL3 expression, acyl-CoA synthetase activity, and fatty acid uptake in human tropholast cells. Silencing of ACSL3 in these cells attenuates the LXR-mediated increase in acyl-CoA synthetase activity. Furthermore, we show that ACSL3 is directly regulated by LXR through a conserved LXR responsive element in the ACSL3 promoter. Our results suggest that LXR plays a regulatory role in fatty acid metabolism by direct regulation of ACSL3 in human placental trophoblast cells.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a putative human holocytochrome c-type synthetase gene (HCCS) isolated from the critical region for microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, L.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.

    1996-06-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder associated with X chromosomal rearrangements resulting in monosomy from Xpter to Xp22. Features include microphthalmia, sclerocornea, linear skin defects, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Using a cross-species conservation strategy, an expressed sequence from the 450- to the 550-kb MLS critical region on Xp22 was identified by screening a human embryo cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed a transcript of {approx}2.6 kb in all tissues examined, with weaker expression of {approx}1.2- and {approx}5.2-kb transcripts. The strongest expression was observed in heart and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis of a 3-kb cDNA contig revealed an 807-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 268-amino-acid-protein. Comparison of the sequence with sequences in the databases revealed homology with holocytochrome c-type synthetases, which catalyze the covalent addition of a heme group onto c-type cytochromes in the mitochondria. The c-type cytochromes are required for proper functioning of the electron transport pathway. The human gene (HGMW-approved symbol HCCS) and the corresponding murine gene characterized in this paper are the first mammalian holocytochrome c-type synthetases to be described in the literature. Because of the lack of a neuromuscular phenotype in MLS, it is uncertain whether the deletion of a mitochondrial holocytochrome synthetase would contribute to the phenotype seen in MLS. The expression pattern of this gene and knowledge about the function of holocytochrome synthetases, however, suggest that it is a good candidate for X-linked encephalomyopathies typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Long-Range Structural Effects of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease-Causing Mutation in Human Glycyl-TRNA Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, W.; Nangle, L.A.; Zhang, W.; Schimmel, P.; Yang, X.-L.

    2009-06-04

    Functional expansion of specific tRNA synthetases in higher organisms is well documented. These additional functions may explain why dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common heritable disease of the peripheral nervous system. At least 10 disease-causing mutant alleles of GlyRS have been annotated. These mutations scatter broadly across the primary sequence and have no apparent unifying connection. Here we report the structure of wild type and a CMT-causing mutant (G526R) of homodimeric human GlyRS. The mutation is at the site for synthesis of glycyl-adenylate, but the rest of the two structures are closely similar. Significantly, the mutant form diffracts to a higher resolution and has a greater dimer interface. The extra dimer interactions are located {approx}30 {angstrom} away from the G526R mutation. Direct experiments confirm the tighter dimer interaction of the G526R protein. The results suggest the possible importance of subtle, long-range structural effects of CMT-causing mutations at the dimer interface. From analysis of a third crystal, an appended motif, found in higher eukaryote GlyRSs, seems not to have a role in these long-range effects.

  19. Mutations of Human NARS2, Encoding the Mitochondrial Asparaginyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cause Nonsyndromic Deafness and Leigh Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mohsin; Huang, Vincent H.; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Potluri, Prasanth; Mahl, Sarah E.; Davila, Antonio; Nazli, Sabiha; Hancock, Saege; Yu, Margret; Gargus, Jay; Chang, Richard; Al-sheqaih, Nada; Newman, William G.; Abdenur, Jose; Starr, Arnold; Hegde, Rashmi; Dorn, Thomas; Busch, Anke; Park, Eddie; Wu, Jie; Schwenzer, Hagen; Flierl, Adrian; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie; Khan, Shaheen N.; Li, Ronghua; Guan, Min-Xin; Friedman, Thomas B.; Wu, Doris K.; Procaccio, Vincent; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Wallace, Douglas C.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Huang, Taosheng; Riazuddin, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate association of variants in the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase NARS2 with human hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. A homozygous missense mutation ([c.637G>T; p.Val213Phe]) is the underlying cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB94) and compound heterozygous mutations ([c.969T>A; p.Tyr323*] + [c.1142A>G; p.Asn381Ser]) result in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and Leigh syndrome, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. The severity of the genetic lesions and their effects on NARS2 protein structure cosegregate with the phenotype. A hypothetical truncated NARS2 protein, secondary to the Leigh syndrome mutation p.Tyr323* is not detectable and p.Asn381Ser further decreases NARS2 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. p.Asn381Ser also disrupts dimerization of NARS2, while the hearing loss p.Val213Phe variant has no effect on NARS2 oligomerization. Additionally we demonstrate decreased steady-state levels of mt-tRNAAsn in fibroblasts from the Leigh syndrome patients. In these cells we show that a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and electron transport chain (ETC) activity can be rescued by overexpression of wild type NARS2. However, overexpression of the hearing loss associated p.Val213Phe mutant protein in these fibroblasts cannot complement the OCR and ETC defects. Our findings establish lesions in NARS2 as a new cause for nonsyndromic hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. PMID:25807530

  20. Mutations of human NARS2, encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, cause nonsyndromic deafness and Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mariella; Richard, Elodie M; Wang, Xinjian; Shahzad, Mohsin; Huang, Vincent H; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Potluri, Prasanth; Mahl, Sarah E; Davila, Antonio; Nazli, Sabiha; Hancock, Saege; Yu, Margret; Gargus, Jay; Chang, Richard; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Newman, William G; Abdenur, Jose; Starr, Arnold; Hegde, Rashmi; Dorn, Thomas; Busch, Anke; Park, Eddie; Wu, Jie; Schwenzer, Hagen; Flierl, Adrian; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie; Khan, Shaheen N; Li, Ronghua; Guan, Min-Xin; Friedman, Thomas B; Wu, Doris K; Procaccio, Vincent; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Wallace, Douglas C; Ahmed, Zubair M; Huang, Taosheng; Riazuddin, Saima

    2015-03-01

    Here we demonstrate association of variants in the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase NARS2 with human hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. A homozygous missense mutation ([c.637G>T; p.Val213Phe]) is the underlying cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB94) and compound heterozygous mutations ([c.969T>A; p.Tyr323*] + [c.1142A>G; p.Asn381Ser]) result in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and Leigh syndrome, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. The severity of the genetic lesions and their effects on NARS2 protein structure cosegregate with the phenotype. A hypothetical truncated NARS2 protein, secondary to the Leigh syndrome mutation p.Tyr323* is not detectable and p.Asn381Ser further decreases NARS2 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. p.Asn381Ser also disrupts dimerization of NARS2, while the hearing loss p.Val213Phe variant has no effect on NARS2 oligomerization. Additionally we demonstrate decreased steady-state levels of mt-tRNAAsn in fibroblasts from the Leigh syndrome patients. In these cells we show that a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and electron transport chain (ETC) activity can be rescued by overexpression of wild type NARS2. However, overexpression of the hearing loss associated p.Val213Phe mutant protein in these fibroblasts cannot complement the OCR and ETC defects. Our findings establish lesions in NARS2 as a new cause for nonsyndromic hearing loss and Leigh syndrome.

  1. Human endomembrane H sup + pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Suedhof, T.C.; Stone, D.K.; Johnston, P.A.; Xie, Xiaosong ); Fried, V.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Preparations of mammalian H{sup +} pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H{sup +} pump are unknown from animal cells. The authors report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H{sup +} pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H{sup +} gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H{sup +} pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2006-12-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of a group of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs for translation. Mutations of human and mouse GlyRSs are causally associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, the most common genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system. As the first step towards a structure–function analysis of this disease, native human GlyRS was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or its enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.74, c = 247.18 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained one GlyRS molecule and had a solvent content of 69%.

  3. Multiple erythroid isoforms of human long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are produced by switch of the fatty acid gate domains

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Kuypers, Frans A

    2006-01-01

    Background The formation of acyl-CoA by the action of acyl-CoA synthetases plays a crucial role in membrane lipid turnover, including the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. In human, five Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain (ACSL) genes have been identified with as many as 3 different transcript variants for each. Results Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain member 6 (ACSL6) is responsible for activation of long-chain fatty acids in erythrocytes. Two additional transcript variants were also isolated from brain and testis. We report the expression in reticulocytes of two new variants and of the one isolated from brain. All three represented different spliced variants of a mutually exclusive exon pair. They encode a slightly different short motif which contains a conserved structural domain, the fatty acid Gate domain. The motifs differ in the presence of either the aromatic residue phenylalanine (Phe) or tyrosine (Tyr). Based on homology, two new isoforms for the closely related ACSL1 were predicted and characterized. One represented a switch of the Phe- to the Tyr-Gate domain motif, the other resulted from the exclusion of both. Swapping of this motif also appears to be common in all mammalian ACSL member 1 and 6 homologs. Conclusion We propose that a Phe to Tyr substitution or deletion of the Gate domain, is the structural reason for the conserved alternative splicing that affects these motifs. Our findings support our hypothesis that this region is structurally important to define the activity of these enzymes. PMID:16834775

  4. Studies on the thiol group of lactose synthetase A protein from human milk and on the binding of uridine diphosphate galactose to the enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, B. J.; Andrews, P.

    1974-01-01

    The lactose synthetase activity of A protein from human milk was much decreased but not abolished by reaction with thiol-group reagents. Protection experiments indicated that a free thiol group on the enzyme is situated near the UDP-galactose binding site and inactivation of the enzyme with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was probably due to prevention of UDP-galactose binding. Affinity chromatography showed that the mercuribenzoate substituent also decreased the affinity of A protein for N-acetylglucosamine but complex-formation between A protein–N-acetylglucosamine and α-lactalbumin was relatively unaffected. UDP-galactose appears to be bound to the enzyme mainly through its pyrophosphate group with Mn2+ ion and through the cis hydroxyls of ribose, whereas its hexose moiety has little if any affinity for the enzyme. Lactose synthetase activity remaining after the reaction with thiol-group reagents indicates that a free thiol group is not an essential part of the A protein active site. PMID:4375968

  5. Biotinylation of histones represses transposable elements in human and mouse cells and cell lines and in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yap Ching; West, John T; Kratzer, Stephanie J; Ilvarsonn, Anne M; Eissenberg, Joel C; Dave, Bhavana J; Klinkebiel, David; Christman, Judith K; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-12-01

    Transposable elements such as long terminal repeats (LTR) constitute approximately 45% of the human genome; transposition events impair genome stability. Fifty-four promoter-active retrotransposons have been identified in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms are important for transcriptional repression of retrotransposons, preventing transposition events, and abnormal regulation of genes. Here, we demonstrate that the covalent binding of the vitamin biotin to lysine-12 in histone H4 (H4K12bio) and lysine-9 in histone H2A (H2AK9bio), mediated by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), is an epigenetic mechanism to repress retrotransposon transcription in human and mouse cell lines and in primary cells from a human supplementation study. Abundance of H4K12bio and H2AK9bio at intact retrotransposons and a solitary LTR depended on biotin supply and HCS activity and was inversely linked with the abundance of LTR transcripts. Knockdown of HCS in Drosophila melanogaster enhances retrotransposition in the germline. Importantly, we demonstrated that depletion of H4K12bio and H2AK9bio in biotin-deficient cells correlates with increased production of viral particles and transposition events and ultimately decreases chromosomal stability. Collectively, this study reveals a novel diet-dependent epigenetic mechanism that could affect cancer risk.

  6. Localization of two human autoantigen genes by PCR screening and in situ hybridization-glycyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 7p15 and Alanyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q22

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.C.; Pai, S.I.; Liu, P.; Ge, Q.; Targoff, I.N.

    1995-11-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aminoacyl-RS) catalyze the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA. Five of 20 human aminoacyl-RS (histidyl-RS, threonyl-RS, isoleucyl-RS, glycyl-RS, and alanyl-RS) have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM; 9). A sixth autoantigenic amino-acyl-RS, lysyl-RS, was recently reported. The genes for histidyl-RS and threonyl-RS have been assigned to chromosome 5, as have the genes for leucyl-RS and arginyl-RS. Six other aminoacyl-RS (glutamyl-prolyl-RS, valyl-RS, cysteinyl-RS, methionyl-RS, tryptophanyl-RS, and asparaginyl-RS) were assigned to chromosomes 1, 6, 11, 12, 14, and 18, respectively. The reason for a preponderance of aminoacyl-RS genes on chromosome 5 is unknown, but it has been suggested that regulatory relatedness might be a factor. Recently the entire or partial cDNA sequences for two autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS genes, glycyl-RS (gene symbol GARS; 4) and alanyl-RS (gene symbol AARS; 1), were reported. To understand further the genesis of autoimmune responses to aminoacyl-RS and to determine whether genes for autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS colocalize to chromosome 5, we have determined the chromosomal site of the GARS and AARS genes by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid panels and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-04-20

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity.

  8. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity. PMID:27094087

  9. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for assembly of very low density lipoproteins in human hepatoma Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongbing; Ye, Jin

    2008-01-11

    Hepatocytes play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism by exporting cholesterol and triglyceride into plasma through secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL production is also required for release of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected hepatocytes. Here, we show that long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) plays a crucial role in secretion of VLDL and HCV from hepatocytes. In cultured human hepatoma Huh7 cells, ACSL3 is specifically required for incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine. In cells receiving small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3, secretion of apolipoprotein B, the major protein component of VLDL, was inhibited and the lipoprotein was rapidly degraded. This inhibition in secretion was completely eliminated when these cells were treated with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3 also inhibited secretion of HCV from Huh7-derived cells. These results identify ACSL3 as a new enzymatic target to limit VLDL secretion and HCV infection.

  10. Antiviral activity of human oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) is mediated by enhancing retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yugen; Ghosh, Arundhati; Cuevas, Rolando A.; Forero, Adriana; Dhar, Jayeeta; Ibsen, Mikkel Søes; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan Leo; Schmidt, Tobias; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K.; Fujita, Takashi; Hartmann, Rune; Barik, Sailen; Hornung, Veit; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Virus infection is sensed in the cytoplasm by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58), which requires RNA and polyubiquitin binding to induce type I interferon (IFN), and activate cellular innate immunity. We show that the human IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) protein had antiviral activity and mediated RIG-I activation by mimicking polyubiquitin. Loss of OASL expression reduced RIG-I signaling and enhanced virus replication in human cells. Conversely, OASL expression suppressed replication of a number of viruses in a RIG-I-dependent manner and enhanced RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. OASL interacted and colocalized with RIG-I, and through its C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain specifically enhanced RIG-I signaling. Bone marrow derived macrophages from mice deficient for Oasl2 showed that among the two mouse orthologs of human OASL; Oasl2 is functionally similar to human OASL. Our findings show a mechanism by which human OASL contributes to host antiviral responses by enhancing RIG-I activation. PMID:24931123

  11. [Polymorphism in the human 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase genes (OAS), associated with predisposition to severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis, in populations from North Eurasia].

    PubMed

    Barkhash, A V; Babenko, V N; Kobzev, V F; Romashchenko, A G; Voevoda, M I

    2010-01-01

    2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are a family of interferon-induced enzymes which play an important role in the antiviral defense in mammals. In human genome three genes encoding functional synthetases (OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3) form a cluster. Previously we found that particular genotypes and/or alleles of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within OAS2 and OAS3 genes are associated with predisposition to severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Russian population. In current study we investigated the distribution of three of that SNPs (OAS3rs2285932 (C/T Ile438Ile), OAS3rs2072136 (G/A, Ser567Ser) and OAS2 rs15895 (G/A, Trp720Ter relative to p71 isoform)) in seven populations from North Eurasia: Caucasians (Russians and Germans (from Altai region)), Central Asian Mongoloids (Altaians, Khakasses, Tuvinians and Shorians) and Arctic Mongoloids (Chukchi). Differences between populations in genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies and in linkage disequilibrium structure for these SNPs were detected. We found that these frequencies correlate with the ethnicity of the populations and with their supposed differential exposure to TBE virus. Particularly, the lowest frequencies of G/G genotype for OAS3 gene rs2072136 SNP (that according to our previously obtained data is associated with predisposition to severe forms of TBE) were found in Altaians, Khakasses, Tuvinians and Shorians who may highly contact with TBE virus in places of their habitation. Thus, data obtained allow to suppose that TBE virus might act as a selection factor for particular OAS genes variants in Central Asian Mongoloids.

  12. [Anti-synthetase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan

    2012-01-01

    Antysynthetase syndrome is considered as a group ofidiopathic inflammatory myositis with charcteristic serologic hallmark--antibodies which recognise the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetasses (ARS). Clinical picture of those patients contains myositis and/or intersticial lung disease (ILD) and/or arthritis and/or fever and/or Raynaud phenomenon and sometimes characteristic look of mechanic's hands. Myositis can be overt, sometimes even absent, while IBP is major cause of morbidity and determines the outcome of the disease. Untill now eight different any-synthetase autoantibodies are recognised, and most frequent are findings of anti-histidyl-tRNa synthetase antibodies. Patients with other ARS autoantibodies usually have severe ILD. Drug of choice are steroids in dosage of 1 mg/kg with immunosupresive agent (azatioprin or methotrexate) while in severe IBP cyclophosphamide is needed. Recently succsesful treatment with rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide is reported.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions glutathione synthetase deficiency glutathione synthetase ...

  14. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in eukaryotic histone H3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BirA ligase, a prokaryotic ortholog of human holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), is known to biotinylate proteins. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase may also catalyze biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would render recombinant BirA ligase a useful surrogate for HCS in stud...

  15. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Partitioning to Diacylglycerol and Triacylglycerol via a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ–Independent Mechanism in Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Bardia; Kanter, Jenny E.; Sherrid, Ashley M.; Golej, Deidre L.; Bender, Andrew T.; Liu, Joey; Hsueh, Willa A.; Beavo, Joseph A.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2010-01-01

    Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In addition to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, rosiglitazone can affect other targets, such as directly inhibiting recombinant long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-4 activity. Because it is unknown if ACSL4 is expressed in vascular cells involved in atherosclerosis, we investigated the ability of rosiglitazone to inhibit ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. Human and murine SMCs and human macrophages expressed Acsl4, and rosiglitazone inhibited Acsl activity in these cells. Furthermore, rosiglitazone acutely inhibited partitioning of fatty acids into phospholipids in human SMCs and inhibited fatty acid partitioning into diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol in human SMCs and macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism. Conversely, murine macrophages did not express ACSL4, and rosiglitazone did not inhibit ACSL activity in these cells, nor did it affect acute fatty acid partitioning into cellular lipids. Thus, rosiglitazone inhibits ACSL activity and fatty acid partitioning in human and murine SMCs and in human macrophages through a PPAR-γ–independent mechanism likely to be mediated by ACSL4 inhibition. Therefore, rosiglitazone might alter the biological effects of fatty acids in these cells and in atherosclerosis. PMID:17259370

  16. Revised nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase gene family.

    PubMed

    Mashek, Douglas G; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Coleman, Rosalind A; Berger, Johannes; Bernlohr, David A; Black, Paul; DiRusso, Concetta C; Farber, Steven A; Guo, Wen; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Khodiyar, Varsha; Kuypers, Frans A; Maltais, Lois J; Nebert, Daniel W; Renieri, Alessandra; Schaffer, Jean E; Stahl, Andreas; Watkins, Paul A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Yamamoto, Tokuo T

    2004-10-01

    By consensus, the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) community, with the advice of the human and mouse genome nomenclature committees, has revised the nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases. ACS is the family root name, and the human and mouse genes for the long-chain ACSs are termed ACSL1,3-6 and Acsl1,3-6, respectively. Splice variants of ACSL3, -4, -5, and -6 are cataloged. Suggestions for naming other family members and for the nonmammalian acyl-CoA synthetases are made.

  17. Limitations to the development of recombinant human embryonic kidney 293E cells using glutamine synthetase-mediated gene amplification: Methionine sulfoximine resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da Young; Noh, Soo Min; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-08-10

    To investigate the feasibility of glutamine synthetase (GS)-mediated gene amplification in HEK293 cells for the high-level stable production of therapeutic proteins, HEK293E cells were transfected by the GS expression vector containing antibody genes and were selected at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations in 96-well plates. For a comparison, CHOK1 cells were transfected by the same GS expression vector and selected at various MSX concentrations. Unlike CHOK1 cells, HEK293E cells producing high levels of antibodies were not selected at all. For HEK293E cells, the number of wells with the cell pool did not decrease with an increase in the concentration of MSX up to 500μM MSX. A q-RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the antibody genes in the HEK293E cells, unlike the CHOK1 cells, were not amplified after increasing the MSX concentration. It was found that the GS activity in HEK293E cells was much higher than that in CHOK1 cells (P<0.05). In a glutamine-free medium, the GS activity of HEK293E cells was approximately 4.8 times higher than that in CHOK1 cells. Accordingly, it is inferred that high GS activity of HEK293E cells results in elevated resistance to MSX and therefore hampers GS-mediated gene amplification by MSX. Thus, in order to apply the GS-mediated gene amplification system to HEK293 cells, the endogenous GS expression level in HEK293 cells needs to be minimized by knock-out or down-regulation methods.

  18. Hepatocytes explanted in the spleen preferentially express carbamoylphosphate synthetase rather than glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Lamers, W H; Been, W; Charles, R; Moorman, A F

    1990-10-01

    Urea cycle enzymes and glutamine synthetase are essential for NH3 detoxification and systemic pH homeostasis in mammals. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase, the first and flux-determining enzyme of the cycle, is found only in a large periportal compartment, and glutamine synthetase is found only in a small, complementary pericentral compartment. Because it is not possible to manipulate experimentally the intrahepatic distribution of carbamoylphosphate synthetase and glutamine synthetase, we looked for conditions in which explanted hepatocytes would exhibit either the carbamoylphosphate synthetase phenotype or glutamine synthetase phenotype. In the spleen hepatocytes either settle as individual cells or in small agglomerates. The dispersed cells only express the carbamoylphosphate synthetase phenotype. Within the agglomerates, sinusoids that drain on venules develop. Hepatocytes surrounding the venules stain only weakly for carbamoylphosphate synthetase but are strongly positive for glutamine synthetase. These observations were made for explanted embryonic hepatocytes (no prior expression of either carbamoylphosphate synthetase or glutamine synthetase), neonatal hepatocytes (compartments of gene expression not yet established) and adult periportal and pericentral hepatocytes.

  19. Regulation of active site coupling in glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Resto, Melissa; Gerratana, Barbara

    2009-05-21

    NAD{sup +} is an essential metabolite both as a cofactor in energy metabolism and redox homeostasis and as a regulator of cellular processes. In contrast to humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD{sup +} biosynthesis is absolutely dependent on the activity of a multifunctional glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} at the synthetase domain using ammonia derived from L-glutamine in the glutaminase domain. Here we report the kinetics and structural characterization of M. tuberculosis NAD{sup +} synthetase. The kinetics data strongly suggest tightly coupled regulation of the catalytic activities. The structure, the first of a glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, reveals a homooctameric subunit organization suggesting a tight dependence of catalysis on the quaternary structure, a 40-{angstrom} intersubunit ammonia tunnel and structural elements that may be involved in the transfer of information between catalytic sites.

  20. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  1. Identification and functional characterization of a novel bacterial type asparagine synthetase A: a tRNA synthetase paralog from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Reetika; Tripathi, Pankaj; Khan, Sameena; Sethu Lakshmi, Bhavana; Lal, Shambhu Krishan; Gowri, Venkatraman Subramanian; Sharma, Amit; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-04-25

    Asparagine is formed by two structurally distinct asparagine synthetases in prokaryotes. One is the ammonia-utilizing asparagine synthetase A (AsnA), and the other is asparagine synthetase B (AsnB) that uses glutamine or ammonia as a nitrogen source. In a previous investigation using sequence-based analysis, we had shown that Leishmania spp. possess asparagine-tRNA synthetase paralog asparagine synthetase A (LdASNA) that is ammonia-dependent. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and kinetic analysis of ASNA from Leishmania donovani. Interestingly, LdASNA was both ammonia- and glutamine-dependent. To study the physiological role of ASNA in Leishmania, gene deletion mutations were attempted via targeted gene replacement. Gene deletion of LdASNA showed a growth delay in mutants. However, chromosomal null mutants of LdASNA could not be obtained as the double transfectant mutants showed aneuploidy. These data suggest that LdASNA is essential for survival of the Leishmania parasite. LdASNA enzyme was recalcitrant toward crystallization so we instead crystallized and solved the atomic structure of its close homolog from Trypanosoma brucei (TbASNA) at 2.2 Å. A very significant conservation in active site residues is observed between TbASNA and Escherichia coli AsnA. It is evident that the absence of an LdASNA homolog from humans and its essentiality for the parasites make LdASNA a novel drug target.

  2. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Y C; Zhou, C; Sherman, M; Laughton, C A; Chen, S

    1998-02-01

    Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones.

  3. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Y C; Zhou, C; Sherman, M; Laughton, C A; Chen, S

    1998-01-01

    Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9435150

  4. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  5. Cloning and characterization of the C. elegans histidyl-tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Amaar, Y G; Baillie, D L

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the C. elegans histidyl-tRNA synthetase gene. The complete genomic sequence, and most of the cDNA sequence, of this gene is now determined. The gene size including flanking and coding regions is 2230 nucleotides long. Three small introns (45-50 bp long) are found to interrupt the open reading frame. The open reading frame translates to 523 amino acids. This putative protein sequence shows extensive homology with the human and yeast histidyl-tRNA the histidyl-tRNA synthetase gene is a single copy gene. Hence, it is very likely that it encodes both the cytoplasmic and the mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetases. It is likely to be trans-spliced since it contains a trans-splice site in its 5' untranslated region. PMID:8414990

  6. Fatty Acid Synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.; Volkmann, Carol M.; Chao, Fu-Chuan

    1967-01-01

    A light particle fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained from the crude ribosomal material, and containing the fatty acid synthetase, consisted primarily of 27S and 47S components. This fraction has a protein-ribonucleic acid ratio of about 13. Electron micrographs showed particles ranging in diameter between 100 and 300 A in this material. By use of density gradient analysis, the fatty acid synthetase was found in the 47S component. This component contained particles which were predominantly 300 A in diameter and which were considerably flatter than ribosomes, and it consisted almost entirely of protein. Images PMID:6025308

  7. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  8. In vitro effects of metal pollution on Mediterranean sponges: species-specific inhibition of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase.

    PubMed

    Saby, Emilie; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike; Uriz, Maria J

    2009-09-14

    Heavy metals are among the main pollutants of the Mediterranean coastal waters where they can harm sublittoral biota. Filter-feeder, long-living invertebrates that remain fixed to the rocky bottom, such as sponges, are good targets to metal contamination studies since they may be exposed to potential low levels of contamination for years. Several molecular and biochemical mechanisms are developed by sponges to counteract the effects of noxious metals. As a result, some of the normal cell functions can be altered. Here we show that the main heavy metals that can be found in marine sublittoral waters (i.e. copper, iron, zinc and manganese) may alter the immune system of sponges by inhibiting the activity of the sponge 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2-5A synthetase), which is an enzyme involved in the immune system of vertebrates. We selected the widespread Mediterranean sponges Geodia cydonium, Crella elegans and Chondrosia reniformis for the study. They exerted a high 2-5A synthetase activity and gave a unique profile of 2',5'-oligoadenylate product production. Several metals alter the 2-5A synthetase activity differently, in a species-specific manner. 2-5A synthetases from G. cydonium and C. elegans were inhibited by all the metal ions assayed. However, in C. reniformis, 2-5A synthetase was either activated or inhibited by the same ions depending on their final concentrations. Like in humans, metal contamination may have an effect on the OAS activity and thus it might alter the sponge immune system. However, since the effects are species-specific, 2-5A synthetase cannot be used as general biomarker of metal pollutions.

  9. Elevated levels of interferon-induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in generalized persistent lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Read, S E; Williams, B R; Coates, R A; Evans, W K; Fanning, M M; Garvey, M B; Shepherd, F A

    1985-09-01

    The levels of the 2'-5' oligoadenylate enzyme synthetase in extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) were measured and compared with synthetase levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMs) from healthy heterosexual and homosexual controls. The mean basal synthetase level in heterosexual and homosexual controls was 14 +/- 13 and 12 +/- 9 pmol per hr/10(5) PBMs, respectively. Thirteen individuals with AIDS had a mean basal level of 129 +/- 75 pmol. Serial levels were persistently elevated in six of these individuals over a one- to 10-month period. Twelve of the 13 individuals had antibodies to human T cell lymphotrophic virus-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). Thirty-three individuals with ARC had a mean basal synthetase level of 68 +/- 84 pmol. Thirty-two of the 33 had antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV. Eleven (33%) have had consistently normal synthetase levels (less than 2 SD above the mean for the homosexual controls, i.e., 30 pmol) over a three- to nine-month follow-up period. Fourteen (42%) had persistently elevated levels over the same period; four (29%) of these developed AIDS during the follow-up period. Eight have had fluctuating levels but have remained clinically well. These studies suggest that persistently elevated synthetase levels in individuals with ARC and antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV indicate progressive virus-induced disease activity. Elevated synthetase levels may be an important prognostic indicator of increased risk of progression to AIDS.

  10. Structural analysis of the active site geometry of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M; Firestine, Steven M

    2008-12-16

    N(5)-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N(5)-CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N(5)-CAIR, MgADP, and P(i). The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N(5)-CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P(i) bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-A resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P(i) complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P(i) rather than ATP. The bound P(i) shifts by approximately 3 A relative to the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N(5)-CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N(5)-CAIR synthetase.

  11. Site Directed Mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Glutathione Synthetase Produces an Enzyme with Homoglutathione Synthetase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dworeck, Tamara; Zimmermann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Three different His-tagged, mutant forms of the fission yeast glutathione synthetase (GSH2) were derived by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in E. coli DH5α and affinity purified in a two-step procedure. Analysis of enzyme activity showed that it was possible to shift the substrate specificity of GSH2 from Gly (km 0,19; wild-type) to β-Ala or Ser. One mutation (substitution of Ile471, Cy472 to Met and Val and Ala 485 and Thr486 to Leu and Pro) increased the affinity of GSH2 for β-Ala (km 0,07) and lowered the affinity for Gly (km 0,83), which is a characteristic of the enzyme homoglutathione synthetase found in plants. Substitution of Ala485 and Thr486 to Leu and Pro only, increased instead the affinity of GSH2 for Ser (km 0,23) as a substrate, while affinity to Gly was preserved (km 0,12). This provides a new biosynthetic pathway for hydroxymethyl glutathione, which is known to be synthesized from glutathione and Ser in a reaction catalysed by carboxypeptidase Y. The reported findings provide further insight into how specific amino acids positioned in the GSH2 active site facilitate the recognition of different amino acid substrates, furthermore they support the evolutionary theory that homoglutathione synthetase evolved from glutathione synthetase by a single gene duplication event. PMID:23091597

  12. Retinal Vasculitis in Anti-Synthetase Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Christopher P; Pecen, Paula E; Baynes, Kimberly; Ehlers, Justis P; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old woman with a history of anti-synthetase syndrome-related myositis and interstitial lung disease presented with acute-onset blurry vision and rash on her hands and feet. Visual acuity was hand motion in her right eye and 20/40 in her left eye. Dilated fundus exam showed extensive retinal vasculitis, diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages, and subretinal fluid. Optical coherence tomography revealed significant macular thickening, and fluorescein angiography revealed vascular leakage with peripheral nonperfusion. Aggressive systemic immunosuppression was initiated, with gradual resolution of her disease during 8 months of follow-up. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:874-879.].

  13. Characterization of Cereulide Synthetase, a Toxin-Producing Macromolecular Machine

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Diego A.; Magarvey, Nathan A.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cereulide synthetase is a two-protein nonribosomal peptide synthetase system that produces a potent emetic toxin in virulent strains of Bacillus cereus. The toxin cereulide is a depsipeptide, as it consists of alternating aminoacyl and hydroxyacyl residues. The hydroxyacyl residues are derived from keto acid substrates, which cereulide synthetase selects and stereospecifically reduces with imbedded ketoreductase domains before incorporating them into the growing depsipeptide chain. We present an in vitro biochemical characterization of cereulide synthetase. We investigate the kinetics and side chain specificity of α-keto acid selection, evaluate the requirement of an MbtH-like protein for adenylation domain activity, assay the effectiveness of vinylsulfonamide inhibitors on ester-adding modules, perform NADPH turnover experiments and evaluate in vitro depsipeptide biosynthesis. This work also provides biochemical insight into depsipeptide-synthesizing nonribosomal peptide synthetases responsible for other bioactive molecules such as valinomycin, antimycin and kutzneride. PMID:26042597

  14. The microsomal dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, J; de Hoffmann, E; Van Hoof, F

    1985-01-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are products of the omega-oxidation of monocarboxylic acids. We demonstrate that in rat liver dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16) can be converted into their CoA esters by a dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase. During this activation ATP, which cannot be replaced by GTP, is converted into AMP and PPi, both acting as feedback inhibitors of the reaction. Thermolabile at 37 degrees C, and optimally active at pH 6.5, dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase displays the highest activity on dodecanedioic acid (2 micromol/min per g of liver). Cell-fractionation studies indicate that this enzyme belongs to the hepatic microsomal fraction. Investigations about the fate of dicarboxylyl-CoA esters disclosed the existence of an oxidase, which could be measured by monitoring the production of H2O2. In our assay conditions this H2O2 production is dependent on and closely follows the CoA consumption. It appears that the chain-length specificity of the handling of dicarboxylic acids by this catabolic pathway (activation to acyl-CoA and oxidation with H2O2 production) parallels the pattern of the degradation of exogenous dicarboxylic acids in vivo. PMID:4062873

  15. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mirando, Adam C; Fang, Pengfei; Williams, Tamara F; Baldor, Linda C; Howe, Alan K; Ebert, Alicia M; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lounsbury, Karen M; Guo, Min; Francklyn, Christopher S

    2015-08-14

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze an early step in protein synthesis, but also regulate diverse physiological processes in animal cells. These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad spectrum toxicity that has discouraged deeper investigation. Recently, a less toxic variant (BC194) was identified that potently inhibits angiogenesis. Employing biochemical, cell biological, and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the toxicity of BN and its derivatives is linked to its competition with the threonine substrate at the molecular level, which stimulates amino acid starvation and apoptosis. By separating toxicity from the inhibition of angiogenesis, a direct role for TARS in vascular development in the zebrafish could be demonstrated. Bioengineered natural products are thus useful tools in unmasking the cryptic functions of conventional enzymes in the regulation of complex processes in higher metazoans.

  16. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mirando, Adam C.; Fang, Pengfei; Williams, Tamara F.; Baldor, Linda C.; Howe, Alan K.; Ebert, Alicia M.; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lounsbury, Karen M.; Guo, Min; Francklyn, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze an early step in protein synthesis, but also regulate diverse physiological processes in animal cells. These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad spectrum toxicity that has discouraged deeper investigation. Recently, a less toxic variant (BC194) was identified that potently inhibits angiogenesis. Employing biochemical, cell biological, and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the toxicity of BN and its derivatives is linked to its competition with the threonine substrate at the molecular level, which stimulates amino acid starvation and apoptosis. By separating toxicity from the inhibition of angiogenesis, a direct role for TARS in vascular development in the zebrafish could be demonstrated. Bioengineered natural products are thus useful tools in unmasking the cryptic functions of conventional enzymes in the regulation of complex processes in higher metazoans. PMID:26271225

  17. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  18. Overexpression of Human Fatty Acid Transport Protein 2/Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) Reveals Distinct Patterns of Trafficking of Exogenous Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4hr. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  19. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  20. Antitumor/Antifungal Celecoxib Derivative AR-12 is a Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor of the ANL-Family Adenylating Enzyme Acetyl CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AR-12/OSU-03012 is an antitumor celecoxib-derivative that has progressed to Phase I clinical trial as an anticancer agent and has activity against a number of infectious agents including fungi, bacteria and viruses. However, the mechanism of these activities has remained unclear. Based on a chemical-genetic profiling approach in yeast, we have found that AR-12 is an ATP-competitive, time-dependent inhibitor of yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase. AR-12-treated fungal cells show phenotypes consistent with the genetic reduction of acetyl CoA synthetase activity, including induction of autophagy, decreased histone acetylation, and loss of cellular integrity. In addition, AR-12 is a weak inhibitor of human acetyl CoA synthetase ACCS2. Acetyl CoA synthetase activity is essential in many fungi and parasites. In contrast, acetyl CoA is primarily synthesized by an alternate enzyme, ATP-citrate lyase, in mammalian cells. Taken together, our results indicate that AR-12 is a non-nucleoside acetyl CoA synthetase inhibitor and that acetyl CoA synthetase may be a feasible antifungal drug target. PMID:27088128

  1. Mechanistic issues in asparagine synthetase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Richards, N G; Schuster, S M

    1998-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of asparagine is an ATP-dependent process that utilizes the nitrogen atom derived from either glutamine or ammonia. Despite a long history of kinetic and mechanistic investigation, there is no universally accepted catalytic mechanism for this seemingly straightforward carboxyl group activating enzyme, especially as regards those steps immediately preceding amide bond formation. This chapter considers four issues dealing with the mechanism: (a) the structural organization of the active site(s) partaking in glutamine utilization and aspartate activation; (b) the relationship of asparagine synthetase to other amidotransferases; (c) the way in which ATP is used to activate the beta-carboxyl group; and (d) the detailed mechanism by which nitrogen is transferred.

  2. Glutamine Synthetase: Role in Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Norenberg, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an ATP-dependent enzyme found in most species that synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In brain, GS is exclusively located in astrocytes where it serves to maintain the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as nitrogen metabolism. Changes in the activity of GS, as well as its gene expression, along with excitotoxicity, have been identified in a number of neurological conditions. The literature describing alterations in the activation and gene expression of GS, as well as its involvement in different neurological disorders, however, is incomplete. This review summarizes changes in GS gene expression/activity and its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including hepatic encephalopathy, ischemia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and astroglial neoplasms. This review also explores the possibility of targeting GS in the therapy of these conditions.

  3. The enterococcal cytolysin synthetase has an unanticipated lipid kinase fold.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Tang, Weixin; Lukk, Tiit; Yu, Yi; Nair, Satish K; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2015-07-30

    The enterococcal cytolysin is a virulence factor consisting of two post-translationally modified peptides that synergistically kill human immune cells. Both peptides are made by CylM, a member of the LanM lanthipeptide synthetases. CylM catalyzes seven dehydrations of Ser and Thr residues and three cyclization reactions during the biosynthesis of the cytolysin large subunit. We present here the 2.2 Å resolution structure of CylM, the first structural information on a LanM. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the dehydratase domain of CylM resembles the catalytic core of eukaryotic lipid kinases, despite the absence of clear sequence homology. The kinase and phosphate elimination active sites that affect net dehydration are immediately adjacent to each other. Characterization of mutants provided insights into the mechanism of the dehydration process. The structure is also of interest because of the interactions of human homologs of lanthipeptide cyclases with kinases such as mammalian target of rapamycin.

  4. Regulation of 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression by interferons and platelet-derived growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Blanco, M.A. ); Lengyel, P. . Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry); Morrison, E.; BrownLee, C.; Stiles, C.D. ); Williams, B.R.G. )

    1989-03-01

    In murine BALB/c 3T3 cell cultures, either beta interferon or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhanced expression of the 2', 5-oligoadenylate synthetase mRNA and protein. The time course of induction in response to beta inteferon was similar to that in response to PDGF. Of several growth factors known to be present in clotted blood serum (i.e., epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, and PDGF), only PDGF enhanced expression of 2', 5-oligoadenylate synthetase. The linkage of an interferon response element-containing segment from the 5'-flanking region of a human or murine 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene made a heterologous gene responsive to interferon. The expression of such a gene construct in transfected cells was also induced by PDGF. Induction by PDGF was inhibited by mono- or polyclonal antibodies to murine interferon, which suggested that induction by PDGF requires interferon. Both PDGF and interferon induced nuclear factors that bound to this interferon response element-containing segment in vitro.

  5. Dual binding sites for translocation catalysis by Escherichia coli glutathionylspermidine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chien-Hua; Chiang, Bing-Yu; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Chong, Cheong-Meng; Yen, Fang-Jiun; Chen, Shoujun; Coward, James K; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2006-12-13

    Most organisms use glutathione to regulate intracellular thiol redox balance and protect against oxidative stress; protozoa, however, utilize trypanothione for this purpose. Trypanothione biosynthesis requires ATP-dependent conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to the two terminal amino groups of spermidine by glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS), which are considered as drug targets. GspS catalyzes the penultimate step of the biosynthesis-amide bond formation between spermidine and the glycine carboxylate of GSH. We report herein five crystal structures of Escherichia coli GspS in complex with substrate, product or inhibitor. The C-terminal of GspS belongs to the ATP-grasp superfamily with a similar fold to the human glutathione synthetase. GSH is likely phosphorylated at one of two GSH-binding sites to form an acylphosphate intermediate that then translocates to the other site for subsequent nucleophilic addition of spermidine. We also identify essential amino acids involved in the catalysis. Our results constitute the first structural information on the biochemical features of parasite homologs (including TryS) that underlie their broad specificity for polyamines.

  6. TRYPTOPHANASE-TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHETASE SYSTEMS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI III.

    PubMed Central

    Freundlich, Martin; Lichstein, Herman C.

    1962-01-01

    Freundlich, Martin (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and Herman C. Lichstein. Tryptophanase-tryptophan synthetase systems in Escherichia coli. III. Requirements for enzyme synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 84:996–1006. 1962.—The requirements for the formation of tryptophanase and tryptophan synthetase in Escherichia coli during repression release were studied. The kinetics of the formation of tryptophan synthetase differed in the two strains examined; this was attributed to differences in the endogenous level of tryptophan in the bacterial cells. The formation of both enzymes was inhibited by chloramphenicol, and by the absence of arginine in an arginine-requiring mutant. These results are indicative of a requirement for protein synthesis for enzyme formation. Requirements for nucleic acid synthesis were examined by use of a uracil- and thymine-requiring mutant, and with purine and pyrimidine analogues. The results obtained suggest that some type of ribonucleic acid synthesis was necessary for the formation of tryptophanase and tryptophan synthetase. PMID:13959620

  7. TRYPTOPHANASE-TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHETASE SYSTEMS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI I.

    PubMed Central

    Freundlich, Martin; Lichstein, Herman C.

    1962-01-01

    Freundlich, Martin (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and Herman C. Lichstein. Tryptophanase-tryptophan synthetase systems in Escherichia coli. I. Effect of tryptophan and related compounds. J. Bacteriol. 84:979–987. 1962.—The effect of tryptophan and related compounds on tryptophanase and tryptophan synthetase formation in Escherichia coli was determined. Several of these compounds stimulated the formation of tryptophanase while concomitantly decreasing the production of synthetase. A number of tryptophan analogues were found to inhibit growth. The possible mode of action of these substances was examined further. 5-Hydroxytryptophan greatly inhibited the formation of synthetase and also reduced growth. Its inhibitory action on growth was attributed, at least partially, to the false feedback inhibition of anthranilic acid formation. Tryptamine was found to be a potent inhibitor of the activity of synthetase, as well as of the enzyme(s) involved in the synthesis of anthranilic acid from shikimic acid. However, growth reduction was only partially reversed by tryptophan. Indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid decreased growth and increased the formation of synthetase six- to eightfold. The action of these compounds was ascribed to their ability to block the endogenous formation of tryptophan. PMID:13959621

  8. Activation of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity on induction of HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, E L; Nilson, L A

    1989-01-01

    A 27-fold increase in 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity, an enzyme associated with the antiproliferative actions of interferon (IFN), was observed after treatment of HL-60 human leukemia cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an inducer of granulocytic differentiation of the cells. Enzyme activity was elevated after 24 h of exposure to DMSO, was maximal at 48 hours, and declined thereafter. A comparable increase was observed after treatment with 1 U of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) per ml or 8 U of beta interferon (IFN-beta) per ml. Elevated levels of expression of other IFN-inducible genes, including type I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-B) mRNA and 2',5'-oligoadenylate phosphodiesterase activity, were also observed with DMSO treatment. DMSO-treated HL-60 cells had an increased amount of a 1.8-kilobase mRNA for oligoadenylate [oligo(A)] synthetase when compared with that of control cells; both DMSO- and IFN-treated HL-60 cells also expressed 1.6-, 3.4-, and 4.3-kilobase mRNA. The increase in both oligo(A) synthetase activity and mRNA levels was inhibited by polyclonal antiserum to human IFN-alpha; however, no IFN-alpha mRNA could be detected in the cells. Antiserum to IFN-beta or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) had no effect on oligo(A) synthetase expression or activity nor was there any detectable IFN-beta 1 or IFN-beta 2 mRNA in the cells. The anti-IFN-alpha serum did not block the elevation of HLA-B mRNA in DMSO-treated cells. These observations suggest that the increased expression of oligo(A) synthetase in DMSO-treated cells may be mediated by the release of an IFN-alpha-like factor; however, the levels of any IFN-alpha mRNA produced in the cells were extremely low. Images PMID:2476665

  9. Evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase quaternary structure and activity: Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Sanni, A; Walter, P; Boulanger, Y; Ebel, J P; Fasiolo, F

    1991-01-01

    Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases [L-phenylalanine:tRNAPhe ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.1.1.20] from Escherichia coli, yeast cytoplasm, and mammalian cytoplasm have an unusual conserved alpha 2 beta 2 quaternary structure that is shared by only one other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Both subunits are required for activity. We show here that a single mitochondrial polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an active phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. This protein (the MSF1 gene product) is active as a monomer. It has all three characteristic sequence motifs of the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and its activity may result from the recruitment of additional sequences into an alpha-subunit-like structure. Images PMID:1924298

  10. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  11. The prokaryotic FAD synthetase family: a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Ferreira, Patricia; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of cellular production of the flavin cofactors, flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD) will prevent the assembly of a large number of flavoproteins and flavoenzymes involved in key metabolic processes in all types of organisms. The enzymes responsible for FMN and FAD production in prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit various structural characteristics to catalyze the same chemistry, a fact that converts the prokaryotic FAD synthetase (FADS) in a potential drug target for the development of inhibitors endowed with anti-pathogenic activity. The first step before searching for selective inhibitors of FADS is to understand the structural and functional mechanisms for the riboflavin kinase and FMN adenylyltransferase activities of the prokaryotic enzyme, and particularly to identify their differential functional characteristics with regard to the enzymes performing similar functions in other organisms, particularly humans. In this paper, an overview of the current knowledge of the structure-function relationships in prokaryotic FADS has been presented, as well as of the state of the art in the use of these enzymes as drug targets.

  12. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongming; Marygold, Steven J; Gharib, Walid H; Suter, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, allowing them to decode the triplet code during translation. Through different mechanisms aaRSs also perform several non-canonical functions in transcription, translation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. Drosophila has become a preferred system to model human diseases caused by mutations in aaRS genes, to dissect effects of reduced translation or non-canonical activities, and to study aminoacylation and translational fidelity. However, the lack of a systematic annotation of this gene family has hampered such studies. Here, we report the identification of the entire set of aaRS genes in the fly genome and we predict their roles based on experimental evidence and/or orthology. Further, we propose a new, systematic and logical nomenclature for aaRSs. We also review the research conducted on Drosophila aaRSs to date. Together, our work provides the foundation for further research in the fly aaRS field. PMID:26761199

  13. Secondary NAD+ deficiency in the inherited defect of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liyan; Ibrahim, Khalid; Stucki, Martin; Frapolli, Michele; Shahbeck, Noora; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Penberthy, W Todd; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Häberle, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency is an ultra-rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism that has been described in only three patients so far. The disease is characterized by neonatal onset of severe encephalopathy, low levels of glutamine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, chronic moderate hyperammonemia, and an overall poor prognosis in the absence of an effective treatment. Recently, enteral glutamine supplementation was shown to be a safe and effective therapy for this disease but there are no data available on the long-term effects of this intervention. The amino acid glutamine, severely lacking in this disorder, is central to many metabolic pathways in the human organism and is involved in the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) starting from tryptophan or niacin as nicotinate, but not nicotinamide. Using fibroblasts, leukocytes, and immortalized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from a patient carrying a GLUL gene point mutation associated with impaired GS activity, we tested whether glutamine deficiency in this patient results in NAD(+) depletion and whether it can be rescued by supplementation with glutamine, nicotinamide or nicotinate. The present study shows that congenital GS deficiency is associated with NAD(+) depletion in fibroblasts, leukocytes and PBSC, which may contribute to the severe clinical phenotype of the disease. Furthermore, it shows that NAD(+) depletion can be rescued by nicotinamide supplementation in fibroblasts and leukocytes, which may open up potential therapeutic options for the treatment of this disorder.

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa; Konagaya, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The regulation by glucocorticoids of glutamine synthetase in L6 muscle cells in culture is studied. Glutamine synthetase activity was strikingly enhanced by dexamethasone. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked by RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction process. RU38486 alone was without effect. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. Glucocorticoids regulate the expression of glutamine synthetase mRNA in cultured muscle cells via interaction with intracellular receptors. Such regulation may be relevant to control of glutamine production by muscle.

  15. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for genetic code expansion

    PubMed Central

    Crnković, Ana; Suzuki, Tateki; Söll, Dieter; Reynolds, Noah M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic code expansion (GCE) has become a central topic of synthetic biology. GCE relies on engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and a cognate tRNA species to allow codon reassignment by co-translational insertion of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. Introduction of such amino acids increases the chemical diversity of recombinant proteins endowing them with novel properties. Such proteins serve in sophisticated biochemical and biophysical studies both in vitro and in vivo, they may become unique biomaterials or therapeutic agents, and they afford metabolic dependence of genetically modified organisms for biocontainment purposes. In the Methanosarcinaceae the incorporation of the 22nd genetically encoded amino acid, pyrrolysine (Pyl), is facilitated by pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and the cognate UAG-recognizing tRNAPyl. This unique aaRS•tRNA pair functions as an orthogonal translation system (OTS) in most model organisms. The facile directed evolution of the large PylRS active site to accommodate many ncAAs, and the enzyme’s anticodon-blind specific recognition of the cognate tRNAPyl make this system highly amenable for GCE purposes. The remarkable polyspecificity of PylRS has been exploited to incorporate >100 different ncAAs into proteins. Here we review the Pyl-OT system and selected GCE applications to examine the properties of an effective OTS. PMID:28239189

  16. Dihydrofolate synthetase and folylpolyglutamate synthetase: direct evidence for intervention of acyl phosphate intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.V.; Shane, B.; McGuire, J.J.; Coward, J.K.

    1988-12-13

    The transfer of /sup 17/O and/or /sup 18/O from (COOH-/sup 17/O or -/sup 18/O) enriched substrates to inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) has been demonstrated for two enzyme-catalyzed reactions involved in folate biosynthesis and glutamylation. COOH-/sup 18/O-labeled folate, methotrexate, and dihydropteroate, in addition to (/sup 17/O)-glutamate, were synthesized and used as substrates for folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) isolated from Escherichia coli, hog liver, and rat liver and for dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) isolated from E. coli. P/sub i/ was purified from the reaction mixtures and converted to trimethyl phosphate (TMP), which was then analyzed for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O enrichment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and/or mass spectroscopy. In the reactions catalyzed by the E. coli enzymes, both NMR and quantitative mass spectral analyses established that transfer of the oxygen isotope from the substrate /sup 18/O-enriched carboxyl group to P/sub i/ occurred, thereby providing strong evidence for an acyl phosphate intermediate in both the FPGS- and DHFS-catalyzed reactions. Similar oxygen-transfer experiments were carried out by use of two mammalian enzymes. The small amounts of P/sub i/ obtained from reactions catalyzed by these less abundant FPGS proteins precluded the use of NMR techniques. However, mass spectral analysis of the TMP derived from the mammalian FPGS-catalyzed reactions showed clearly that /sup 18/O transfer had occurred.

  17. Structural Analysis of the Active Site Geometry of N[superscript 5]-Carboxyaminoimidazole Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.; Firestine, Steven M.

    2009-09-11

    N{sub 5}-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N{sub 5}-CAIR, MgADP, and P{sub i}. The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P{sub i} bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P{sub i} complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P{sub i} rather than ATP. The bound P{sub i} shifts by approximately 3 {angstrom} relative to the {gamma}-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N{sub 5}-CAIR synthetase.

  18. Inhibitors of Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Have Potent Activity against Giardia intestinalis Trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Fan, Erkang

    2015-01-01

    The methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a novel drug target for the protozoan pathogen Giardia intestinalis. This protist contains a single MetRS that is distinct from the human cytoplasmic MetRS. A panel of MetRS inhibitors was tested against recombinant Giardia MetRS, Giardia trophozoites, and mammalian cell lines. The best compounds inhibited trophozoite growth at 500 nM (metronidazole did so at ∼5,000 nM) and had low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, indicating excellent potential for further development as anti-Giardia drugs. PMID:26324270

  19. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their connections to disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Gyu; Schimmel, Paul; Kim, Sunghoon

    2008-08-12

    Aminoacylation of transfer RNAs establishes the rules of the genetic code. The reactions are catalyzed by an ancient group of 20 enzymes (one for each amino acid) known as aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (AARSs). Surprisingly, the etiology of specific diseases-including cancer, neuronal pathologies, autoimmune disorders, and disrupted metabolic conditions-is connected to specific aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. These connections include heritable mutations in the genes for tRNA synthetases that are causally linked to disease, with both dominant and recessive disease-causing mutations being annotated. Because some disease-causing mutations do not affect aminoacylation activity or apparent enzyme stability, the mutations are believed to affect functions that are distinct from aminoacylation. Examples include enzymes that are secreted as procytokines that, after activation, operate in pathways connected to the immune system or angiogenesis. In addition, within cells, synthetases form multiprotein complexes with each other or with other regulatory factors and in that way control diverse signaling pathways. Although much has been uncovered in recent years, many novel functions, disease connections, and interpathway connections of tRNA synthetases have yet to be worked out.

  20. Functional linkage between the glutaminase and synthetase domains of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase. Role of serine 44 in carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate carbamoyltransferase-dihydroorotase (cad).

    PubMed

    Hewagama, A; Guy, H I; Vickrey, J F; Evans, D R

    1999-10-01

    Mammalian carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase is part of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate carbamoyltransferase-dihydroorotase (CAD), a multifunctional protein that also catalyzes the second and third steps of pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthesis requires the concerted action of the glutaminase (GLN) and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domains of CAD. There is a functional linkage between these domains such that glutamine hydrolysis on the GLN domain does not occur at a significant rate unless ATP and HCO(3)(-), the other substrates needed for carbamoyl phosphate synthesis, bind to the synthetase domain. The GLN domain consists of catalytic and attenuation subdomains. In the separately cloned GLN domain, the catalytic subdomain is down-regulated by interactions with the attenuation domain, a process thought to be part of the functional linkage. Replacement of Ser(44) in the GLN attenuation domain with alanine increases the k(cat)/K(m) for glutamine hydrolysis 680-fold. The formation of a functional hybrid between the mammalian Ser(44) GLN domain and the Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase large subunit had little effect on glutamine hydrolysis. In contrast, ATP and HCO(3)(-) did not stimulate the glutaminase activity, indicating that the interdomain linkage had been disrupted. In accord with this interpretation, the rate of glutamine hydrolysis and carbamoyl phosphate synthesis were no longer coordinated. Approximately 3 times more glutamine was hydrolyzed by the Ser(44) --> Ala mutant than that needed for carbamoyl phosphate synthesis. Ser(44), the only attenuation subdomain residue that extends into the GLN active site, appears to be an integral component of the regulatory circuit that phases glutamine hydrolysis and carbamoyl phosphate synthesis.

  1. The glutamine synthetase gene family in Populus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming) is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation of GS expression in various tissues and at various times during the poplar perennial growth. Results The GS gene family consists of 8 different genes exhibiting all structural and regulatory elements consistent with their roles as functional genes. Our results indicate that the family members are organized in 4 groups of duplicated genes, 3 of which code for cytosolic GS isoforms (GS1) and 1 which codes for the choroplastic GS isoform (GS2). Our analysis shows that Populus trichocarpa is the first plant species in which it was observed the complete GS family duplicated. Detailed expression analyses have revealed specific spatial and seasonal patterns of GS expression in poplar. These data provide insights into the metabolic function of GS isoforms in poplar and pave the way for future functional studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that GS duplicates could have been retained in order to increase the amount of enzyme in a particular cell type. This possibility could contribute to the homeostasis of nitrogen metabolism in functions associated to changes in glutamine-derived metabolic products. The presence of duplicated GS genes in poplar could also contribute to diversification of the enzymatic properties for a particular GS isoform through the assembly of GS polypeptides into homo oligomeric and/or hetero oligomeric holoenzymes in specific cell types. PMID:21867507

  2. Changes in the activity levels of glutamine synthetase, glutaminase and glycogen synthetase in rats subjected to hypoxic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, P.; Mukherjee, A. K.; Kumria, M. M. L.; Singh, S. N.; Patil, S. K. B.; Rangnathan, S.; Sridharan, K.

    Exposure to high altitude causes loss of body mass and alterations in metabolic processes, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of glutamine synthetase, glutaminase and glycogen synthetase under conditions of chronic intermittent hypoxia. Four groups, each consisting of 12 male albino rats (Wistar strain), were exposed to a simulated altitude of 7620 m in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h per day for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Blood haemoglobin, blood glucose, protein levels in the liver, muscle and plasma, glycogen content, and glutaminase, glutamine synthetase and glycogen synthetase activities in liver and muscle were determined in all groups of exposed and in a group of unexposed animals. Food intake and changes in body mass were also monitored. There was a significant reduction in body mass (28-30%) in hypoxia-exposed groups as compared to controls, with a corresponding decrease in food intake. There was rise in blood haemoglobin and plasma protein in response to acclimatisation. Over a three-fold increase in liver glycogen content was observed following 1 day of hypoxic exposure (4.76+/-0.78 mg.g-1 wet tissue in normal unexposed rats; 15.82+/-2.30 mg.g-1 wet tissue in rats exposed to hypoxia for 1 day). This returned to normal in later stages of exposure. However, there was no change in glycogen synthetase activity except for a decrease in the 21-days hypoxia-exposed group. There was a slight increase in muscle glycogen content in the 1-day exposed group which declined significantly by 56.5, 50.6 and 42% following 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure, respectively. Muscle glycogen synthetase activity was also decreased following 21 days of exposure. There was an increase in glutaminase activity in the liver and muscle in the 7-, 14- and 21-day exposed groups. Glutamine synthetase activity was higher in the liver in 7- and 14-day exposed groups; this returned to normal following 21 days of exposure

  3. Heterogeneity of Glutamine Synthetase Polypeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Miguel; Porta, Helena; Padilla, Jaime; Folch, Jorge; Sánchez, Federico

    1984-01-01

    Glutamine synthetases from roots, nodules, and leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been purified to homogeneity and their polypeptide composition determined. The leaf enzyme is composed of six polypeptides. The cytosolic fraction contains two 43,000 dalton polypeptides and the chloroplastic enzyme is formed by four 45,000 dalton polypeptides. Root glutamine synthetase consists only of the same two polypeptides of 43,000 dalton that are present in the leaf enzyme. The nodule enzyme is formed by two polypeptides of 43,000 dalton, one is common to the leaf and root enzyme but the other is specific for N2-fixing nodule tissue. The two glutamine synthetase forms of the nodule contain a different proportion of the 43,000 dalton polypeptides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16663942

  4. Analogs of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors clear malaria in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Tor, Anna; Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Bautista, José M.; Mirando, Adam C.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Varon, Sònia; Royo, Miriam; Cortés, Alfred; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Emerging resistance to existing antimalarial drugs drives the search for new antimalarials, and protein translation is a promising pathway to target. Here we explore the potential of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) family as a source of antimalarial drug targets. First, a battery of known and novel ARS inhibitors was tested against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and their activities were compared. Borrelidin, a natural inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), stands out for its potent antimalarial effect. However, it also inhibits human ThrRS and is highly toxic to human cells. To circumvent this problem, we tested a library of bioengineered and semisynthetic borrelidin analogs for their antimalarial activity and toxicity. We found that some analogs effectively lose their toxicity against human cells while retaining a potent antiparasitic activity both in vitro and in vivo and cleared malaria from Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice, resulting in 100% mice survival rates. Our work identifies borrelidin analogs as potent, selective, and unexplored scaffolds that efficiently clear malaria both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25489076

  5. Analogs of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors clear malaria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Tor, Anna; Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G; Bautista, José M; Mirando, Adam C; Francklyn, Christopher S; Varon, Sònia; Royo, Miriam; Cortés, Alfred; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2014-12-23

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Emerging resistance to existing antimalarial drugs drives the search for new antimalarials, and protein translation is a promising pathway to target. Here we explore the potential of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) family as a source of antimalarial drug targets. First, a battery of known and novel ARS inhibitors was tested against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and their activities were compared. Borrelidin, a natural inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), stands out for its potent antimalarial effect. However, it also inhibits human ThrRS and is highly toxic to human cells. To circumvent this problem, we tested a library of bioengineered and semisynthetic borrelidin analogs for their antimalarial activity and toxicity. We found that some analogs effectively lose their toxicity against human cells while retaining a potent antiparasitic activity both in vitro and in vivo and cleared malaria from Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice, resulting in 100% mice survival rates. Our work identifies borrelidin analogs as potent, selective, and unexplored scaffolds that efficiently clear malaria both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Spodenkiewicz, Marta; Diez-Fernandez, Carmen; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Häberle, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a cytosolic enzyme that produces glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Glutamine is a major substrate for various metabolic pathways, and is thus an important factor for the functioning of many organs; therefore, deficiency of glutamine due to a defect in GS is incompatible with normal life. Mutations in the human GLUL gene (encoding for GS) can cause an ultra-rare recessive inborn error of metabolism—congenital glutamine synthetase deficiency. This disease was reported until now in only three unrelated patients, all of whom suffered from neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy. The hallmark of GS deficiency in these patients was decreased levels of glutamine in body fluids, associated with chronic hyperammonemia. This review aims at recapitulating the clinical history of the three known patients with congenital GS deficiency and summarizes the findings from studies done along with the work-up of these patients. It is the aim of this paper to convince the reader that (i) this disorder is possibly underdiagnosed, since decreased concentrations of metabolites do not receive the attention they deserve; and (ii) early detection of GS deficiency may help to improve the outcome of patients who could be treated early with metabolites that are lacking in this condition. PMID:27775558

  7. Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Spodenkiewicz, Marta; Diez-Fernandez, Carmen; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Häberle, Johannes

    2016-10-19

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a cytosolic enzyme that produces glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Glutamine is a major substrate for various metabolic pathways, and is thus an important factor for the functioning of many organs; therefore, deficiency of glutamine due to a defect in GS is incompatible with normal life. Mutations in the human GLUL gene (encoding for GS) can cause an ultra-rare recessive inborn error of metabolism-congenital glutamine synthetase deficiency. This disease was reported until now in only three unrelated patients, all of whom suffered from neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy. The hallmark of GS deficiency in these patients was decreased levels of glutamine in body fluids, associated with chronic hyperammonemia. This review aims at recapitulating the clinical history of the three known patients with congenital GS deficiency and summarizes the findings from studies done along with the work-up of these patients. It is the aim of this paper to convince the reader that (i) this disorder is possibly underdiagnosed, since decreased concentrations of metabolites do not receive the attention they deserve; and (ii) early detection of GS deficiency may help to improve the outcome of patients who could be treated early with metabolites that are lacking in this condition.

  8. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L.; Steitz, Thomas A.; O’Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNAPyl have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate Nε-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNAPyl. Here, we examine an Nε-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids. PMID:25385624

  9. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L; Steitz, Thomas A; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-11-25

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNA(Pyl) have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate N(ε)-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNA(Pyl). Here, we examine an N(ε)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids.

  10. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphanie M; Habash, Dimah Z

    2009-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  11. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  12. Biotin

    PubMed Central

    Zempleni, Janos; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S.K.; Hassan, Yousef I.

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and serves as a coenzyme for five carboxylases in humans. Biotin is also covalently attached to distinct lysine residues in histones, affecting chromatin structure and mediating gene regulation. This review describes mammalian biotin metabolism, biotin analysis, markers of biotin status, and biological functions of biotin. Proteins such as holocarboxylase synthetase, biotinidase, and the biotin transporters SMVT and MCT1 play crucial roles in biotin homeostasis, and these roles are reviewed here. Possible effects of inadequate biotin intake, drug interactions, and inborn errors of metabolism are discussed, including putative effects on birth defects. PMID:19319844

  13. Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Li, Fanchi; Xue, Bin; Hu, Jiahuan; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinxin; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. In this study, the seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) genes from silkworm were cloned. Their full length are 1709 bp and 1868 bp and contain open reading frame (ORF) of 1485 bp and 1575 bp, respectively. RT-PCR examination showed that the transcription levels of SerRS, TyrRS, AlaRS and GlyRS are significantly higher in silk gland than in other tissues. In addition, their transcription levels are much higher in middle and posterior silk gland than in anterior silk gland. Moreover, treatment of silkworms with phoxim, an inhibitor of silk protein synthesis, but not TiO2 NP, an enhancer of silk protein synthesis, significantly reduced the transcription levels of aaRS and content of free amino acids in posterior silk gland, therefore affecting silk protein synthesis, which may be the mechanism of phoxim-silking disorders. Furthermore, low concentration of TiO2 NPs showed no effect on the transcription of aaRS and content of free amino acids, suggesting that TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis possibly by increasing the activity of fibroin synthase in silkworm. PMID:28134300

  14. Kinetic abnormalities of carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I in a case of congenital hyperammonaemia.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, I A; Letarte, J; Ouellet, R; Lemieux, B; Cathelineau, L

    1986-01-01

    A sensitive direct colourimetric method has been employed to measure kinetic parameters and pH dependence of carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I, in a liver sample from a 2 1/2-month-old girl, who died from complications of a late-developing congenital hyperammonaemia. The residual activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I was 25%, whereas other urea cycle enzymes were within normal range. Apparent Km for ammonium ion (0.73 mmol/L) was significantly increased (normal range 0.24-0.51). Km for bicarbonate ion was normal, while Km for NAG showed a slight variation from normal. The pH dependence curve of the patient's enzyme was flat, as compared to two controls showing pH optima at 7.8. Radial immunodiffusion (Mancini) of the abnormal enzyme against human enzyme antiserum gave a cross-reacting material of 10-20%. The methodological approach presented can be used to characterize abnormal enzymes in cases of partial deficiency with only 100-200 mg of liver tissue.

  15. Crystal structures of trypanosomal histidyl-tRNA synthetase illuminate differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic homologs.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Ethan A; Arakaki, Tracy L; Gillespie, J Robert; Larson, Eric T; Kelley, Angela; Mueller, Natascha; Napuli, Alberto J; Kim, Jessica; Zhang, Li; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Buckner, Frederick S; van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hol, Wim G J

    2010-03-26

    Crystal structures of histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) from the eukaryotic parasites Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi provide a first structural view of a eukaryotic form of this enzyme and reveal differences from bacterial homologs. HisRSs in general contain an extra domain inserted between conserved motifs 2 and 3 of the Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic core. The current structures show that the three-dimensional topology of this domain is very different in bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic forms of the enzyme. Comparison of apo and histidine-bound trypanosomal structures indicates substantial active-site rearrangement upon histidine binding but relatively little subsequent rearrangement after reaction of histidine with ATP to form the enzyme's first reaction product, histidyladenylate. The specific residues involved in forming the binding pocket for the adenine moiety differ substantially both from the previously characterized binding site in bacterial structures and from the homologous residues in human HisRSs. The essentiality of the single HisRS gene in T. brucei is shown by a severe depression of parasite growth rate that results from even partial suppression of expression by RNA interference.

  16. Inhibition of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase by sulfa drugs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y L; Hossler, P A; Calhoun, D H; Meshnick, S R

    1995-08-01

    Forty-four sulfa drugs were screened against crude preparations of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for p-aminobenzoic acid and 7,8-dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphate were 0.34 +/- 0.02 and 2.50 +/- 0.71 microM, respectively. Several sulfa drugs, including sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and sulfathiourea, inhibited dihydropteroate synthetase approximately as well as sulfamethoxazole, as determined by the concentrations which cause 50% inhibition and/or by Ki. For all sulfones and sulfonamides tested, unsubstituted p-amino groups were necessary for activity, and sulfonamides containing an N1-heterocyclic substituent were found to be the most effective inhibitors. Folate biosynthesis in isolated intact P. carinii was approximately equally sensitive to inhibition by sulfamethoxazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfathiazole. Two of these drugs, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfisoxazole, are known to be less toxic than sulfamethoxazole and should be further evaluated for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia.

  17. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complexes in Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mirande, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are essential enzymes for interpreting the genetic code. They are responsible for the proper pairing of codons on mRNA with amino acids. In addition to this canonical, translational function, they are also involved in the control of many cellular pathways essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Association of several of these enzymes within supramolecular assemblies is a key feature of organization of the translation apparatus in eukaryotes. It could be a means to control their oscillation between translational functions, when associated within a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MARS), and nontranslational functions, after dissociation from the MARS and association with other partners. In this review, we summarize the composition of the different MARS described from archaea to mammals, the mode of assembly of these complexes, and their roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. PMID:25807264

  18. Biochemical and inhibition studies of glutamine synthetase from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Yadav, Shailendra; Soumya, Neelagiri; Kumar, Rohit; Babu, Neerupudi Kishore; Singh, Sushma

    2017-03-25

    Leishmaniasis is a group of tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal disease if left untreated. Chemotherapy for leishmaniasis is problematic as the available drugs are toxic, costly and shows drug resistance, hence, there is a necessity to look out for the novel drug targets, chemical entities and vaccine. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In the present study, we have identified and characterized GS from L. donovani. The nucleotide sequence encoding putative glutamine synthetase like sequence from L. donovani (LdGS, LDBPK_060370) was cloned. A 43.5 kDa protein with 6X-His tag at the C-terminal end was obtained by overexpression of LdGS in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Expression of native LdGS in promastigotes and recombinant L. donovani glutamine synthetase (rLdGS) was confirmed by western blot analysis. An increase in expression of GS was observed at different phases of growth of the parasite. Expression of LdGS in promastigote and amastigote was confirmed by western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence studies of both the promastigote and amastigote stages of the parasite revealed the presence of LdGS in cytoplasm. GS exists as a single copy gene in parasite genome. Kinetic analysis of GS enzyme revealed Km value of 26.3 ± 0.4 mM for l- glutamate and Vmax value of 2.15 ± 0.07 U mg(-1). Present study confirms the presence of glutamine synthetase in L. donovani and provides comprehensive overview of LdGS for further validating it as a potential drug target.

  19. Identification of the glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase of Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Van Dommelen, Anne; Spaepen, Stijn; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2009-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is strictly regulated. One means of regulation is the modulation of activity through adenylylation catalyzed by adenylyltransferases. Using PCR primers based on conserved sequences in glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferases, we amplified part of the glnE gene of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The complete glnE sequence of A. brasilense Sp245 was retrieved from the draft genome sequence of this organism (http://genomics.ornl.gov/research/azo/). Adenylyltransferase is a bifunctional enzyme consisting of an N-terminal domain responsible for deadenylylation activity and a C-terminal domain responsible for adenylylation activity. Both domains are partially homologous to each other. Residues important for catalytic activity were present in the deduced amino acid sequence of the A. brasilense Sp245 glnE sequence. A glnE mutant was constructed in A. brasilense Sp7 by inserting a kanamycin resistance cassette between the two active domains of the enzyme. The resulting mutant was unable to adenylylate the glutamine synthetase enzyme and was impaired in growth when shifted from nitrogen-poor to nitrogen-rich medium.

  20. Expression of glutamine synthetase in balloon cells: a basis of their antiepileptic role?

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Barba, Carmen; Giordano, Flavio; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Guerrini, Renzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase is an enzyme involved in the clearance of glutamate, the most potent excitatory neurotransmitter. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of glutamine synthetase in neocortical samples from 5 children who underwent surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and a histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia IIb. In all cases, balloon cells, but not dysmorphic neurons, were immunopositive for glutamine synthetase. This finding suggests that balloon cells can be involved in the neutralization of glutamate and play a protective anti-seizure role.

  1. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of NAD synthetase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Arbade, Gajanan Kashinathrao; Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen that causes a wide range of infections. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in both hospital and community settings makes it imperative to characterize new drug targets to combat S. aureus infections. In this context, enzymes involved in NAD metabolism and synthesis are significant drug targets as NAD is a central player in several cellular processes. NAD synthetase catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, making it a crucial intermediate enzyme linked to the biosynthesis of several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, coenzymes and antibiotics.

  2. 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Is Targeted by the Viral Nonstructural Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Cuevas, Rolando A; Goswami, Ramansu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Barik, Sailen

    2015-10-01

    2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein (OASL) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein. Here we describe differential inhibitory activities of human OASL and the two mouse OASL homologs against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. Interestingly, nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of RSV promoted proteasome-dependent degradation of specific OASL isoforms. We conclude that OASL acts as a cellular antiviral protein and that RSV NS1 suppresses this function to evade cellular innate immunity and allow virus growth.

  3. Structural analysis of FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Susana; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Serrano, Ana; Medina, Milagros

    2008-01-01

    Background The prokaryotic FAD synthetase family – a group of bifunctional enzymes that catalyse riboflavin phosphorylation and FMN adenylylation within a single polypeptide chain- was analysed in terms of sequence and structure. Results Sequences of nearly 800 prokaryotic species were aligned. Those related with bifunctional FAD synthetase activities showed conservation of several consensus regions and highly conserved residues. A 3D model for the FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes (CaFADS) was generated. This model confirms that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are related to nucleotydyltransferases and riboflavin kinases, respectively. Models for the interaction of CaFADS with its substrates were also produced, allowing location of all the protein substrates in their putative binding pockets. These include two independent flavin binding sites for each CaFADS activity. Conclusion For the first time, the putative presence of a flavin binding site for the adenylylation activity, independent from that related with the phosphorylation activity, is shown. Additionally, these models suggest the functional relevance of some residues putatively involved in the catalytic processes. Their relevant roles were analysed by site-directed mutagenesis. A role was confirmed for H28, H31, S164 and T165 in the stabilisation of the P groups and the adenine moiety of ATP and, the P of FMN for the adenylylation. Similarly, T208, N210 and E268 appear critical for accommodation of the P groups of ATP and the ribityl end of RF in the active site for the phosphorylation process. Finally, the C-terminal domain was shown to catalyse the phosphorylation process on its own, but no reaction at all was observed with the individually expressed N-terminal domain. PMID:18811972

  4. Inactivation and covalent modification of CTP synthetase by thiourea dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. G.; Sparvero, L. J.; Villafranca, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Thiourea dioxide was used in chemical modification studies to identify functionally important amino acids in Escherichia coli CTP synthetase. Incubation at pH 8.0 in the absence of substrates led to rapid, time dependent, and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. The second-order rate constant for inactivation was 0.18 M-1 s-1. Inactivation also occurred in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of catalase, thereby ruling out mixed-function oxidation/reduction as the mode of amino acid modification. Saturating concentrations of the substrates ATP and UTP, and the allosteric activator GTP prevented inactivation by thiourea dioxide, whereas saturating concentrations of glutamine (a substrate) did not. The concentration dependence of nucleotide protection revealed cooperative behavior with respect to individual nucleotides and with respect to various combinations of nucleotides. Mixtures of nucleotides afforded greater protection against inactivation than single nucleotides alone, and a combination of the substrates ATP and UTP provided the most protection. The Hill coefficient for nucleotide protection was approximately 2 for ATP, UTP, and GTP. In the presence of 1:1 ratios of ATP:UTP, ATP:GTP, and UTP:GTP, the Hill coefficient was approximately 4 in each case. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that modification by thiourea dioxide causes detectable changes in the structure of the protein. Modification with [14C]thiourea dioxide demonstrated that complete inactivation correlates with incorporation of 3 mol of [14C]thiourea dioxide per mole of CTP synthetase monomer. The specificity of thiourea dioxide for lysine residues indicates that one or more lysines are most likely involved in CTP synthetase activity. The data further indicate that nucleotide binding prevents access to these functionally important residues. PMID:1303749

  5. Stability of Rat Brain Glutamine Synthetase to Oxygen Toxicity (Oxygen at High Pressure).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Enzyme assays using the gamma-glutamyl transferase method provided estimates of glutamine synthetase activity in rat brain homogenates subjected to a...supports the lack of any connection between convulsions caused by in vivo inhibition of glutamine synthetase and convulsions caused by oxygen toxicity (oxygen at high pressure). (Author)

  6. Peptide Mapping of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Evidence for Internal Sequence Homology in Escherichia coli Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Waterson, Robert M.; Konigsberg, William H.

    1974-01-01

    Most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contain polypeptide chains of about either 50,000 or 100,000 daltons. Peptide mapping of tryptic, chymotryptic, or Staphylococcus aureus acid protease digests of seryl-tRNA synthetase (100,000, dimer) and leucyl-tRNA synthetase (100,000, monomer) from E. coli was done after selective modification of lysine residues with [14C]succinic anhydride or of methionine residues with [14C]iodoacetate. By use of thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography on silicagel or cellulose plates followed by radioautography it was possible, depending upon the specific activity of the reagent used, to detect radioactive peptides obtained from as little as l μg of protein. Seryl-tRNA synthetase gave the correct number of tryptic peptides expected for a dimer of identical subunits. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase, on the other hand, gave roughly half the number of radioactive tryptic, chymotryptic, and acid protease peptides expected from the lysine, arginine, and methionine content of the 100,000 monomer. We have interpreted these results as indicating that extensive internal homology exists among lysine- and methionine-containing peptides within the leucyl-tRNA synthetase. The simplest conclusion that can be drawn from these observations is that the NH2- and COOH-terminal halves of leucyl-tRNA synthetase and perhaps other synthetases of 100,000 molecular weight may have evolved through a process of gene duplication and fusion, followed by limited diversification by way of amino-acid substitutions accumulating during evolution. Images PMID:4592690

  7. Inhibition of rabbit gastric glucosamine synthetase activity by Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Sakuma, S; Takahashi, K; Bohtani, Y; Nishida, H; Fujimoto, Y

    1997-05-01

    The effects of Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ on the activity of glucosamine synthetase, the rate-limiting enzyme of mucus synthesis, in rabbit gastric corporal mucosa were examined. Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ inhibited the glucosamine synthetase activity at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microM (Cu2+, 8-98% inhibition; Zn2+, 10-99% inhibition; Se4+, 32-89% inhibition). The inhibitory effects of these three ions were much stronger than that of UDP-N-acetylglúcosamine known as a representative inhibitor of the glucosamine synthetase activity (10 microM, 52% inhibition). Fe2+ had no significant effect on the glucosamine synthetase activity up to 100 microM. These results suggest that Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ can be potent inhibitors of gastric glucosamine synthetase activity.

  8. Circumstantial evidence for a role of glutamine-synthetase in suicide.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Hans O

    2011-06-01

    Suicide occurs during depression, schizophrenia, diabetes and epilepsy. A common denominator of these disorders is the presence of inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines affect function and expression of the glial enzyme glutamine synthetase and post mortem studies indicate that brain glutamine synthetase function is suppressed in mood disorders and epilepsy. In a study of schizophrenia brains, the expression of glutamine synthetase was reduced in those cases where the cause of death was suicide. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, lithium, which has a proven efficacy against suicide, increased in an animal experiment the expression of glutamine synthetase. Based on these data one could reason that suicide may be prevented by centrally acting GSK3 inhibitors. However, since inhibition of glutamine synthetase may lead to a deficit in glutamine and as consequence a GABA and glutamate deficit, even simple food supplementation with glutamine might help to reduce suicide.

  9. Replacement of the folC gene, encoding folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase in Escherichia coli, with genes mutagenized in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, C; Bognar, A L

    1992-01-01

    The folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase gene (folC) in Escherichia coli was deleted from the bacterial chromosome and replaced by a selectable Kmr marker. The deletion strain required a complementing gene expressing folylpolyglutamate synthetase encoded on a plasmid for viability, indicating that folC is an essential gene in E. coli. The complementing folC gene was cloned into the vector pPM103 (pSC101, temperature sensitive for replication), which segregated spontaneously at 42 degrees C in the absence of selection. This complementing plasmid was replaced in the folC deletion strain by compatible pUC plasmids containing folC genes with mutations generated in vitro, producing strains which express only mutant folylpolyglutamate synthetase. Mutant folC genes expressing insufficient enzyme activity could not complement the chromosomal deletion, resulting in retention of the pPM103 plasmid. Some mutant genes expressing low levels of enzyme activity replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strains produced were auxotrophic for products of folate-dependent pathways. The folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene from Lactobacillus casei, which may lack dihydrofolate synthetase activity, replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strain was auxotrophic for all folate end products. Images PMID:1548226

  10. Purification and comparison of two forms of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, C; Puerta, J; Alemany, S

    1987-12-30

    Only two S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase forms exist in rat liver: high-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase, which have been purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. High-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase had an apparent molecular mass, determined by gel filtration, of 210 kDa and was a tetramer constituted by 48.5-kDa subunits, estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular mass of low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase, as estimated by gel filtration, was 110 kDa and was constituted by two subunits of 47 kDa. An antiserum against low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase cross-reacted with the two forms. Reverse-phase HPLC runs of tryptic digestions of high-Mr and low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase showed that the peptide maps of the two forms were very similar, if not identical. High-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase activity was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyrophosphate. Depending on the dose used, S-adenosyl-L-methionine activated or inhibited low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and pyrophosphate had no effect on this form. The two synthetases showed a different specific activity at the physiological concentration of methionine. This report shows that even though the two forms are constructed of the same polypeptide chains, they are regulated in a different manner by methionine and by the products of the reaction.

  11. Novel Insights into Regulation of Asparagine Synthetase in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Javier; Rueda-López, Marina; Craven-Bartle, Blanca; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2012-01-01

    Asparagine, a key amino acid for nitrogen storage and transport in plants, is synthesized via the ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the enzyme asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 6.3.5.4). In this work, we present the molecular analysis of two full-length cDNAs that encode asparagine synthetase in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), PpAS1, and PpAS2. Phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that both genes are class II AS, suggesting an ancient origin of these genes in plants. A comparative study of PpAS1 and PpAS2 gene expression profiles showed that PpAS1 gene is highly regulated by developmental and environmental factors, while PpAS2 is expressed constitutively. To determine the molecular mechanisms underpinning the differential expression of PpAS1, the promoter region of the gene was isolated and putative binding sites for MYB transcription factors were identified. Gel mobility shift assays showed that a MYB protein from Pinus taeda (PtMYB1) was able to interact with the promoter region of PpAS1. Furthermore, transient expression analyses in pine cells revealed a negative effect of PtMYB1 on PpAS1 expression. The potential role of MYB factors in the transcriptional regulation of PpAS1 in vascular cells is discussed. PMID:22654888

  12. Biochemical characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Alderwick, Luke J; Lloyd, Georgina S; Lloyd, Adrian J; Lovering, Andrew L; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis arabinogalactan (AG) is an essential cell wall component. It provides a molecular framework serving to connect peptidoglycan to the outer mycolic acid layer. The biosynthesis of the arabinan domains of AG and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) occurs via a combination of membrane bound arabinofuranosyltransferases, all of which utilize decaprenol-1-monophosphorabinose as a substrate. The source of arabinose ultimately destined for deposition into cell wall AG or LAM originates exclusively from phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (pRpp), a central metabolite which is also required for other essential metabolic processes, such as de novo purine and pyrimidine biosyntheses. In M. tuberculosis, a single pRpp synthetase enzyme (Mt-PrsA) is solely responsible for the generation of pRpp, by catalyzing the transfer of pyrophosphate from ATP to the C1 hydroxyl position of ribose-5-phosphate. Here, we report a detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Mt-PrsA, which exhibits the most rapid enzyme kinetics reported for a pRpp synthetase. PMID:21045009

  13. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 3. Specificity for folate analogues

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.; Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    A variety of folate analogues were synthesized to explore the specificity of the folate binding site of hog liver folypolyglutamate synthetase and the requirements for catalysis. Modifications of the internal and terminal glutamate moieties of folate cause large drops in on rates and/or affinity for the protein. The only exceptions are glutamine, homocysteate, and ornithine analogues, indicating a less stringent specificity around the delta-carbon of glutamate. It is proposed that initial folate binding to the enzyme involves low-affinity interactions at a pterin and a glutamate site and that the first glutamate bound is the internal residue adjacent to the benzoyl group. Processive movement of the polyglutamate chain through the glutamate site and a possible conformational change in the protein when the terminal residue is bound would result in tight binding and would position the ..gamma..-carboxyl of the terminal glutamate in the correct position for catalysis. The 4-amino substitution of folate increases the on rate for monoglutamate derivatives but severely impairs catalysis with diglutamate derivatives. Pteroylornithine derivatives are the first potent and specific inhibitors of folylpolyglutamate synthetase to be identified and may act as analogues of reaction intermediates. Other folate derivatives with tetrahedral chemistry replacing the peptide bond, such as pteroyl-..gamma..-glutamyl-(psi,CH/sub 2/-NH)-glutamate, retain affinity for the protein but are considerably less effective inhibitors than the ornithine derivatives. Enzyme activity was assayed using (/sup 14/C)glutamate.

  14. Novel insights into regulation of asparagine synthetase in conifers.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Rueda-López, Marina; Craven-Bartle, Blanca; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2012-01-01

    Asparagine, a key amino acid for nitrogen storage and transport in plants, is synthesized via the ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the enzyme asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 6.3.5.4). In this work, we present the molecular analysis of two full-length cDNAs that encode asparagine synthetase in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), PpAS1, and PpAS2. Phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that both genes are class II AS, suggesting an ancient origin of these genes in plants. A comparative study of PpAS1 and PpAS2 gene expression profiles showed that PpAS1 gene is highly regulated by developmental and environmental factors, while PpAS2 is expressed constitutively. To determine the molecular mechanisms underpinning the differential expression of PpAS1, the promoter region of the gene was isolated and putative binding sites for MYB transcription factors were identified. Gel mobility shift assays showed that a MYB protein from Pinus taeda (PtMYB1) was able to interact with the promoter region of PpAS1. Furthermore, transient expression analyses in pine cells revealed a negative effect of PtMYB1 on PpAS1 expression. The potential role of MYB factors in the transcriptional regulation of PpAS1 in vascular cells is discussed.

  15. Evolution of the Glx-tRNA synthetase family: the glutaminyl enzyme as a case of horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lamour, V; Quevillon, S; Diriong, S; N'Guyen, V C; Lipinski, M; Mirande, M

    1994-01-01

    An important step ensuring the fidelity in protein biosynthesis is the aminoacylation of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The accuracy of this process rests on a family of 20 enzymes, one for each amino acid. One exception is the formation of Gln-tRNA(Gln) that can be accomplished by two different pathways: aminoacylation of tRNA(Gln) with Gln by glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS; EC 6.1.1.18) or transamidation of Glu from Glu-tRNA(Gln) mischarged by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS; EC 6.1.1.17). The latter pathway is widespread among bacteria and organelles that, accordingly, lack GlnRS. However, some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, do possess a GlnRS activity, which is responsible for Gln-tRNA(Gln) formation. In the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, both GluRS and GlnRS activities can be detected. To gain more insight into the evolutionary relationship between GluRS and GlnRS enzyme species, we have now isolated and characterized a human cDNA encoding GlnRS. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a strong similarity with other known GlnRSs and with eukaryotic GluRSs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the 14 GlxRS (GluRS or GlnRS) sequences available to date. Our data suggest that bacterial GlnRS has a eukaryotic origin and was acquired by a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. Images PMID:8078941

  16. The mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene family: evidence for concerted evolution of paralogous Oas1 genes in Rodentia and Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, Andrey A; Zharkikh, Andrey A; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Brinton, Margo A

    2006-10-01

    Multiple 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important components of innate immunity in mammals. Gene families encoding these proteins have previously been studied mainly in humans and mice. To reconstruct the evolution of this gene family in mammals, a search for additional 2-5A synthetase genes was performed in rat, cattle, pig, and dog. Twelve 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (Oas) genes were identified in the rat genome, including eight Oas1 genes, two Oas1 pseudogenes, single copies of Oas2 and Oas3, and two Oas-like genes, Oasl1 and Oasl2. Four OAS genes were detected in the pig genome and five OAS genes were found in both the cattle and dog genomes. An OAS3 gene was not found in either the cattle or the pig genome. While two tandemly duplicated OAS-like (OASL) genes were identified in the dog genome, only a single OASL orthologue was found in both the cattle and the pig genomes. The bovine and porcine OASL genes contain premature stop codons and encode truncated proteins, which lack the typical C-terminal double ubiquitin domains. The cDNA sequences of the rat, cattle, pig, and dog OAS genes were amplified, sequenced and compared with each other and with those in the human, mouse, horse, and chicken genomes. Evidence of concerted evolution of paralogous 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 genes was obtained in rodents (Rodentia) and even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). Calculations using the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggested that the homogenization of paralogous OAS1 sequences was due to gene conversion rather than stabilizing selection.

  17. Effect of Liver Damage and Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Glutamine Synthetase of Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savilov, P N; Yakovlev, V N

    2016-01-01

    Activity of glutamine synthetase in the hepatocytes of healthy animals and animals with chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis was studied on white mature female rats after liver resection (15-20% of organ weight) and hyperbaric oxygenation (3 atm, 50 min, 3 times). Surgically operated left and non-operated middle lobes of the liver were analyzed on day 3 after liver resection and exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. On day 65 of CCl4 poisoning, activity of glutamine synthetase decreased in both lobes and did not recover on day 3 after toxin cessation. Liver resection under conditions of CCl4-induced hepatitis restored reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in both liver lobes to the normal level. In healthy rats, the increase in glutamine synthetase activity after liver resection was found only in the middle lobe of the liver. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhanced the stimulatory effect of liver resection on glutamine synthetase activity in hepatocytes during chronic CCl4-induced hepatitis. In healthy animals with liver resection, activity of glutamine synthetase did not change after hyperbaric oxygenation, while normally oxygenation inhibited glutamine synthetase activity.

  18. Encapsulation of glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes: a new procedure for ammonia detoxification.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena A; Venediktova, Natalia I; Kudryavtsev, Andrey A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Kaminsky, Yury G; Felipo, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2008-12-01

    There are a number of pathological situations in which ammonia levels increase leading to hyperammonemia, which may cause neurological alterations and can lead to coma and death. Currently, there are no efficient treatments allowing rapid and sustained decrease of ammonia levels in these situations. A way to increase ammonia detoxification would be to increase its incorporation in glutamine by glutamine synthetase. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure to encapsulate glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes and to assess whether administration of these erythrocytes containing glutamine synthetase (GS) reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic mice. The procedure developed allowed the encapsulation of 3 +/- 0.25 IU of GS / mL of erythrocytes with a 70% cell recovery. Most metabolites, including ATP, remained unaltered in glutamine synthetase-loaded erythrocytes (named ammocytes by us) compared with native erythrocytes. The glutamine synthetase-loaded ammocytes injected in mice survived and retained essentially all of their glutamine synthetase activity for at least 48 h in vivo. Injection of these ammocytes into hyperammonemic mice reduced ammonia levels in the blood by about 50%. The results reported indicate that ammocytes are able to keep their integrity, normal energy metabolism, the inserted glutamine synthetase activity, and can be useful to reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic situations.

  19. The MTCY428.08 Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Codes for NAD+ Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Rita; Branzoni, Manuela; Labò, Monica; Rizzi, Menico; Riccardi, Giovanna

    1998-01-01

    The product of the MTCY428.08 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows sequence homology with several NAD+ synthetases. The MTCY428.08 gene was cloned into the expression vectors pGEX-4T-1 and pET-15b. Expression in Escherichia coli led to overproduction of glutathione S-transferase fused and His6-tagged gene products, which were enzymatically assayed for NAD synthetase activity. Our results demonstrate that the MTCY428.08 gene of M. tuberculosis is the structural gene for NAD+ synthetase. PMID:9620974

  20. Critical Evaluation of the Changes in Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Models of Cerebral Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Battaile, Kevin; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2015-12-01

    The following article addresses some seemingly paradoxical observations concerning cerebral glutamine synthetase in ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the brain, this enzyme is predominantly found in astrocytes and catalyzes part of the glutamine-glutamate cycle. Glutamine synthetase is also thought to be especially sensitive to inactivation by the oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals generated during strokes. Despite this apparent sensitivity, glutamine synthetase specific activity is elevated in the affected tissues during reperfusion. Given the central role of the glutamine-glutamate cycle in the brain, we sought to resolve these conflicting observations with the view of providing an alternative perspective for therapeutic intervention in stroke.

  1. Regulation of Angiogenesis by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Mirando, Adam C.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Lounsbury, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their canonical roles in translation the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) have developed secondary functions over the course of evolution. Many of these activities are associated with cellular survival and nutritional stress responses essential for homeostatic processes in higher eukaryotes. In particular, six ARSs and one associated factor have documented functions in angiogenesis. However, despite their connection to this process, the ARSs are mechanistically distinct and exhibit a range of positive or negative effects on aspects of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. This variability is achieved through the appearance of appended domains and interplay with inflammatory pathways not found in prokaryotic systems. Complete knowledge of the non-canonical functions of ARSs is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:25535072

  2. Activity of formylphosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Smithers, G.W.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1986-05-01

    Formylphosphate (FP), a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase, was synthesized from formylfluoride and Pi. Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR showed that FP is very unstable with a half-life of 48 min at 20/sup 0/C and pH 7. At pH 7 hydrolysis occurs with O-P bond cleavage as shown by /sup 18/O incorporation from /sup 18/O-H/sub 2/O into Pi. The substrate activity of FP was tested in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. MgATP + H/sub 4/folate + HCOO/sup -/ in equilibrium MgADP + Pi +N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate FP supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate is produced from H/sub 4/-folate and FP but only if ADP is present, and ATP is produced from FP and ADP but only if H/sub 4/folate is present. The requirements for H/sub 4/folate in the synthesis of ATP from ADP and FP and for ADP in the synthesis of N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate from FP and H/sub 4/folate, are consistent with past kinetic and isotope exchange studies which showed that the reaction proceeds by a sequential mechanism and that all three substrates must be present for any reaction to occur.

  3. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  4. Identification of pantoate kinase and phosphopantothenate synthetase from Methanospirillum hungatei.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroki; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tokutake, Yuka; Hanada, Satoshi; Chohnan, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Pantothenate synthetase (PanC) and pantothenate kinase which function in the canonical coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway cannot be found in most archaea. COG1829 and COG1701 intrinsic to archaea were proposed as the candidate proteins for producing 4'-phosphopantothenate instead, and the COG1701 protein from Methanosarcina mazei was assigned as PanC. Meanwhile, the Thermococcus kodakarensis COG1829 and COG1701 proteins were biochemically identified as novel enzymes, i.e., pantoate kinase (PoK) and phosphopantothenate synthetase (PPS). In this study, the functions of Mhun_0831 (COG1829) and Mhun_0832 (COG1701) from Methanospirillum hungatei were identified, and the recombinant enzymes were partially characterized. Plasmids simultaneously possessing the two genes encoding Mhun_0831 and Mhun_0832 complemented the poor growth of the temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli pantothenate kinase mutant ts9. The recombinant Mhun_0831 and Mhun_0832 expressed in E. coli cells exhibited PoK and PPS activities, respectively, being in accord with the functions of T. kodakarensis proteins. The PoK activity was most active at pH 8.5 and 40°C, and accepted ATP and UTP as a phosphate donor. Although CoA did not affect the PoK activity, the end product considerably accelerated the PPS activity. The homologs of both proteins are widely conserved in most archaeal genomes. Taken together, our findings indicate that archaea can synthesize CoA through the unique pathway involving PoK and PPS, in addition to the canonical one that the order Thermoplasmatales employs.

  5. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  6. Structure of Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase-Halofuginone Complex Provides Basis for Development of Drugs against Malaria and Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vitul; Yogavel, Manickam; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Touquet, Bastien; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Sharma, Amit

    2015-05-05

    The Chinese herb Dichroa febrifuga has traditionally treated malaria-associated fever. Its active component febrifugine (FF) and derivatives such as halofuginone (HF) are potent anti-malarials. Here, we show that FF-based derivatives arrest parasite growth by direct interaction with and inhibition of the protein translation enzyme prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS). Dual administration of inhibitors that target different tRNA synthetases suggests high utility of these drug targets. We reveal the ternary complex structure of PRS-HF and adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate where the latter facilitates HF integration into the PRS active site. Structural analyses also highlight spaces within the PRS architecture for HF derivatization of its quinazolinone, but not piperidine, moiety. We also show a remarkable ability of HF to kill the related human parasite Toxoplasma gondii, suggesting wider HF efficacy against parasitic PRSs. Hence, our cell-, enzyme-, and structure-based data on FF-based inhibitors strengthen the case for their inclusion in anti-malarial and anti-toxoplasmosis drug development efforts.

  7. Identification of acyl-CoA synthetases involved in the mammalian sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohkuni, Aya; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio

    2013-12-13

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles both as a bioactive lipid molecule and an intermediate of the sphingolipid-to-glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway. To identify human acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) involved in S1P metabolism, we cloned all 26 human ACS genes and examined their abilities to restore deficient sphingolipid-to-glycerophospholipid metabolism in a yeast mutant lacking two ACS genes, FAA1 and FAA4. Here, in addition to the previously identified ACSL family members (ACSL1, 3, 4, 5, and 6), we found that ACSVL1, ACSVL4, and ACSBG1 also restored metabolism. All 8 ACSs were localized either exclusively or partly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where S1P metabolism takes place. We previously proposed the entire S1P metabolic pathway from results obtained using yeast cells, i.e., S1P is metabolized to glycerophospholipids via trans-2-hexadecenal, trans-2-hexadecenoic acid, trans-2-hexadecenoyl-CoA, and palmitoyl-CoA. However, as S1P is not a naturally occurring long-chain base 1-phosphate in yeast, the validity of this pathway required further verification using mammalian cells. In the present study, we treated HeLa cells with the ACS inhibitor triacsin C and found that inhibition of ACSs resulted in accumulation of trans-2-hexadecenoic acid as in ACS mutant yeast. From these results, we conclude that S1P is metabolized by a common pathway in eukaryotes.

  8. Dark-induced and organ-specific expression of two asparagine synthetase genes in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, F Y; Coruzzi, G M

    1990-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs for asparagine synthetase (AS) of Pisum sativum has uncovered two distinct AS mRNAs (AS1 and AS2) encoding polypeptides that are highly homologous to the human AS enzyme. The amino-terminal residues of both AS1 and AS2 polypeptides are identical to the glutamine-binding domain of the human AS enzyme, indicating that the full-length AS1 and AS2 cDNAs encode glutamine-dependent AS enzymes. Analysis of nuclear DNA shows that AS1 and AS2 are each encoded by single genes in P.sativum. Gene-specific Northern blot analysis reveals that dark treatment induces high-level accumulation of AS1 mRNA in leaves, while light treatment represses this effect as much as 30-fold. Moreover, the dark-induced accumulation of AS1 mRNA was shown to be a phytochrome-mediated response. Both AS1 and AS2 mRNAs also accumulate to high levels in cotyledons of germinating seedlings and in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. These patterns of AS gene expression correlate well with the physiological role of asparagine as a nitrogen transport amino acid during plant development. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1968003

  9. IL-1beta stimulates argininosuccinate synthetase gene expression through NF-kappaB in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Fairand, Alain; Vavasseur, Karine; Husson, Annie

    2005-05-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is limiting the arginine synthesis and can be stimulated by immunostimulants. We previously identified a putative NF-kappaB element in the human ASS gene promoter but its functionality was unknown (Husson et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 270 (2003) 1887). In the present study, using Caco-2 cells, a human enterocyte line, we demonstrate that IL-1beta rapidly induces the expression of the ASS gene at a transcriptional level through NF-kappaB activation. Using gel shift assay and double-strand oligonucleotide sequence of the identified putative NF-kappaB binding site of the ASS promoter, we provide evidence that NF-kappaB may functionally interact with this element.

  10. Evidence for two immunologically distinct acetyl-coenzyme A synthetases in yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Mandel, A. D.; Klein, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that clearly establishes the presence of two acetyl-CoA synthetases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one elaborated under 'aerobic' conditions, the other under 'nonaerobic' conditions. The antibody produced by each enzyme is immunologically specific.

  11. Alternative pathways for editing non-cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, H; Fersht, A R

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the editing mechanisms of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase operate by two alternative pathways: pre-transfer, by hydrolysis of the non-cognate aminoacyl adenylate; post-transfer, by hydrolysis of the mischarged tRNA. The methionyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli, for example, are shown to reject misactivated homocysteine rapidly by the pre-transfer route. A novel feature of this reaction is that homocysteine thiolactone is formed by the facile cyclisation of the homocysteinyl adenylate. Valyl-tRNA synthetases, on the other hand, reject the more readily activated non-cognate amino acids by primarily the post-transfer route. The features governing the choice of pathway are discussed. PMID:7024910

  12. Preparation and cross-reactivity of anti-avian glutamine synthetase antibody.

    PubMed

    Smith, D D; Vorhaben, J E; Campbell, J W

    1983-04-01

    Rabbit antibody to chicken liver mitochondrial glutamine synthetase was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography for analysis of the immunological relatedness of vertebrate glutamine synthetases. The antibody cross-reacted with enzymes from representatives of all five vertebrate classes, indicating a high degree of evolutionary conservatism in the structure of the enzymes. A unique aspect of the immunological similarity of these enzymes is that it exists between cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes which are, in general, immunologically distinct. The antibody did not cross-react with two insect glutamine synthetases. Compositional difference indices, calculated from the amino acid compositions of glutamine synthetases from several species, gave a mean estimate of over 80% sequence homology for the vertebrate enzymes. The avian mitochondrial enzyme gave a mean 78% homology with the mammalian cytosolic enzyme.

  13. Diffuse glutamine synthetase overexpression restricted to areas of peliosis in a β-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma: a potential pitfall in glutamine synthetase interpretation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Ryan S; Gullapalli, Rama R; Wu, Jin; Morris, Katherine; Hanson, Joshua A

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas have recently been classified into four subtypes based on molecular findings: hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) inactivated, inflammatory/telangiectatic, β-catenin activated, and unclassifiable. β-catenin-activated adenomas have the potential for malignant transformation and are thus important to recognize. Diffuse glutamine synthetase immunohistochemical positivity has been shown to be a reliable surrogate marker for β-catenin activation, though variations in staining patterns may be difficult to interpret. We report a case of a peliotic adenoma that was morphologically consistent with a β-catenin wild-type hepatocellular adenoma but harbored a β-catenin mutation by molecular analysis. The tumor lacked nuclear β-catenin positivity and demonstrated a hitherto undescribed pattern of glutamine synthetase overexpression restricted to areas of peliosis with mostly negative staining in non-peliotic areas. This pattern was initially interpreted as physiologic and may represent a potential pitfall in glutamine synthetase interpretation.

  14. The identification of new cytosolic glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and their expression during leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Marmagne, Anne; Talbotec, Joël; Krupinska, Karin; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase are two master enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation in plants. Their roles in nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen use efficiency have been proposed. In this report, the genes coding for the cytosolic glutamine synthetases (HvGS1) and asparagine synthetases (HvASN) in barley were identified. In addition to the three HvGS1 and two HvASN sequences previously reported, two prokaryotic-like HvGS1 and three HvASN cDNA sequences were identified. Gene structures were then characterized, obtaining full genomic sequences. The response of the five HvGS1 and five HvASN genes to leaf senescence was then studied. Developmental senescence was studied using primary and flag leaves. Dark-exposure or low-nitrate conditions were also used to trigger stress-induced senescence. Well-known senescence markers such as the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents were monitored in order to characterize senescence levels in the different leaves. The three eukaryotic-like HvGS1_1, HvGS1_2, and HvGS1_3 sequences showed the typical senescence-induced reduction in gene expression described in many plant species. By contrast, the two prokaryotic-like HvGS1_4 and HvGS1_5 sequences were repressed by leaf senescence, similar to the HvGS2 gene, which encodes the chloroplast glutamine synthetase isoenzyme. There was a greater contrast in the responses of the five HvASN and this suggested that these genes are needed for N remobilization in senescing leaves only when plants are well fertilized with nitrate. Responses of the HvASN sequences to dark-induced senescence showed that there are two categories of asparagine synthetases, one induced in the dark and the other repressed by the same conditions.

  15. Recurrent seizures and brain pathology after inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus in rats.

    PubMed

    Eid, Tore; Ghosh, Arko; Wang, Yue; Beckström, Henning; Zaveri, Hitten P; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Lai, James C K; Malthankar-Phatak, Gauri H; de Lanerolle, Nihal C

    2008-08-01

    An excess of extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus has been linked to the generation of recurrent seizures and brain pathology in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism which results in glutamate excess in MTLE remains unknown. We recently reported that the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase is deficient in the hippocampus in patients with MTLE, and we postulated that this deficiency is critically involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. To further explore the role of glutamine synthetase in MTLE we created a novel animal model of hippocampal glutamine synthetase deficiency by continuous (approximately 28 days) microinfusion of methionine sulfoximine (MSO: 0.625 to 2.5 microg/h) unilaterally into the hippocampus in rats. This treatment led to a deficiency in hippocampal glutamine synthetase activity by 82-97% versus saline. The majority (>95%) of the MSO-treated animals exhibited recurrent seizures that continued for several weeks. Some of the MSO-treated animals exhibited neuropathological features that were similar to mesial temporal sclerosis, such as hippocampal atrophy and patterned loss of hippocampal neurons. However, many MSO-treated animals displayed only minimal injury to the hippocampus, with no clear evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis. These findings support the hypothesis that a deficiency in hippocampal glutamine synthetase causes recurrent seizures, even in the absence of classical mesial temporal sclerosis, and that restoration of glutamine synthetase may represent a novel approach to therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  16. Brugia malayi Asparaginyl - tRNA Synthetase Stimulates Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Vasodilation and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D, Jeeva Jothi; Dhanraj, Muthu; Solaiappan, Shanmugam; Sivanesan, Sanjana; Kron, Michael; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of chronic infection with lymphatic filarial parasites is the development of lymphatic disease which often results in permanent vasodilation and lymphedema, but all of the mechanisms by which filarial parasites induce pathology are not known. Prior work showed that the asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (BmAsnRS) of Brugia malayi, an etiological agent of lymphatic filariasis, acts as a physiocrine that binds specifically to interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine receptors. Endothelial cells are one of the many cell types that express IL-8 receptors. IL-8 also has been reported previously to induce angiogenesis and vasodilation, however, the effect of BmAsnRS on endothelial cells has not been reported. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that BmAsnRS might produce physiological changes in endothelial by studying the in vitro effects of BmAsnRS using a human umbilical vein cell line EA.hy926 and six different endothelial cell assays. Our results demonstrated that BmAsnRS produces consistent and statistically significant effects on endothelial cells that are identical to the effects of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. This study supports the idea that new drugs or immunotherapies that counteract the adverse effects of parasite-derived physiocrines may prevent or ameliorate the vascular pathology observed in patients with lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751209

  17. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes.

  18. Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma Parasites Are Inhibited by a Benzoxaborole Targeting Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru-Juan; Lukarska, Maria; Gut, Jiri; Bougdour, Alexandre; Touquet, Bastien; Wang, En-Duo; Li, Xianfeng; Alley, M. R. K.; Freund, Yvonne R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasites Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma are serious threats to human health. Cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrheal disease in malnourished children and immunocompromised individuals, with the only FDA-approved drug treatment currently being nitazoxanide. The existing therapies for toxoplasmosis, an important pathology in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women, also have serious limitations. With the aim of developing alternative therapeutic options to address these health problems, we tested a number of benzoxaboroles, boron-containing compounds shown to be active against various infectious agents, for inhibition of the growth of Cryptosporidium parasites in mammalian cells. A 3-aminomethyl benzoxaborole, AN6426, with activity in the micromolar range and with activity comparable to that of nitazoxanide, was identified and further characterized using biophysical measurements of affinity and crystal structures of complexes with the editing domain of Cryptosporidium leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS). The same compound was shown to be active against Toxoplasma parasites, with the activity being enhanced in the presence of norvaline, an amino acid that can be mischarged by LeuRS. Our observations are consistent with AN6426 inhibiting protein synthesis in both Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma by forming a covalent adduct with tRNALeu in the LeuRS editing active site and suggest that further exploitation of the benzoxaborole scaffold is a valid strategy to develop novel, much needed antiparasitic agents. PMID:27431220

  19. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    SciTech Connect

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  20. Discovery of potent anti-tuberculosis agents targeting leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Gudzera, Olga I; Golub, Andriy G; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G; Volynets, Galyna P; Lukashov, Sergiy S; Kovalenko, Oksana P; Kriklivyi, Ivan A; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Starosyla, Sergiy A; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M; Tukalo, Michail A

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease caused by human pathogen bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacterial drug resistance is a very significant medical problem nowadays and development of novel antibiotics with different mechanisms of action is an important goal of modern medical science. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) has been recently clinically validated as antimicrobial target. Here we report the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of M. tuberculosis LeuRS. Using receptor-based virtual screening we have identified six inhibitors of M. tuberculosis LeuRS from two different chemical classes. The most active compound 4-{[4-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]hydrazonomethyl}-2-methoxy-6-nitro-phenol (1) inhibits LeuRS with IC50 of 6μM. A series of derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro toward M. tuberculosis LeuRS. It was revealed that the most active compound 2,6-Dibromo-4-{[4-(4-nitro-phenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-hydrazonomethyl}-phenol inhibits LeuRS with IC50 of 2.27μM. All active compounds were tested for antimicrobial effect against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The compound 1 seems to have the best cell permeability and inhibits growth of pathogenic bacteria with IC50=10.01μM and IC90=13.53μM.

  1. Structure of equine 2'-5'oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) gene family and FISH mapping of OAS genes to ECA8p15-->p14 and BTA17q24-->q25.

    PubMed

    Perelygin, A A; Lear, T L; Zharkikh, A A; Brinton, M A

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important mediators of the antiviral activity of interferons. Both human and mouse 2-5A synthetase gene families encode four forms of enzymes: small, medium, large and ubiquitin-like. In this study, the structures of four equine OAS genes were determined using DNA sequences derived from fifteen cDNA and four BAC clones. Composition of the equine OAS gene family is more similar to that of the human OAS family than the mouse Oas family. Two OAS-containing bovine BAC clones were identified in GenBank. Both equine and bovine BAC clones were physically assigned by FISH to horse and cattle chromosomes, ECA8p15-->p14 and BTA17q24--> q25, respectively. The comparative mapping data confirm conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.

  2. Actinobacterial Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Involved in Steroid Side-Chain Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acyl-CoA synthetases from the cholate catabolic pathway of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 acyl-CoA synthetases predicted to be involved in steroid metabolism revealed that the characterized synthetases each represent an orthologous class with a distinct function in steroid side-chain degradation. The synthetases were specific for the length of alkanoate substituent. FadD19 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (FadD19Mtb) transformed 3-oxo-4-cholesten-26-oate (kcat/Km = 0.33 × 105 ± 0.03 × 105 M−1 s−1) and represents orthologs that activate the C8 side chain of cholesterol. Both CasGRHA1 and FadD17Mtb are steroid-24-oyl-CoA synthetases. CasG and its orthologs activate the C5 side chain of cholate, while FadD17 and its orthologs appear to activate the C5 side chain of one or more cholesterol metabolites. CasIRHA1 is a steroid-22-oyl-CoA synthetase, representing orthologs that activate metabolites with a C3 side chain, which accumulate during cholate catabolism. CasI had similar apparent specificities for substrates with intact or extensively degraded steroid nuclei, exemplified by 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oate and 1β(2′-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α(3″-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone (kcat/Km = 2.4 × 105 ± 0.1 × 105 M−1 s−1 and 3.2 × 105 ± 0.3 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively). Acyl-CoA synthetase classes involved in cholate catabolism were found in both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Overall, this study provides insight into the physiological roles of acyl-CoA synthetases in steroid catabolism and

  3. Spectrophotometric studies of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases of rat liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Garland, P. B.; Yates, D. W.; Haddock, B. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Deca-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid is a substrate for both ATP-specific (EC 6.2.1.2 or 3) and GTP-specific (EC 6.2.1.–) acyl-CoA synthetases of rat liver mitochondria. The enzymic synthesis of decatetraenoyl-CoA results in new spectral characteristics. The difference spectrum for the acyl-CoA minus free acid has a maximum at 376nm with εmM 34. Isosbestic points are at 345nm and 440nm. 2. The acylation of CoA by decatetraenoate in mitochondrial suspensions can be continuously measured with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. 3. By using this technique, three distinct types of acyl-CoA synthetase activity were demonstrated in rat liver mitochondria. One of these utilized added CoA and ATP, required added Mg2+ and corresponded to a previously described `external' acyl-CoA synthetase. The other two acyl-CoA synthetase activities utilized intramitochondrial CoA and did not require added Mg2+. Of these two `internal' acyl-CoA synthetases, one was insensitive to uncoupling agents, was inhibited by phosphate or arsenate, and corresponded to the GTP-specific enzyme. The other corresponded to the ATP-specific enzyme. 4. Atractylate inhibited the activity of the two internal acyl-CoA synthetases only when the energy source was added ATP. 5. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA acylated by decatetraenoate was independent of whether the internal ATP-specific or GTP-specific acyl-CoA synthetase was active. It is concluded that these two internal acyl-CoA synthetases have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA. 6. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA that could be acylated with decatetraenoate was decreased by the addition of palmitoyl-dl-carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, or pyruvate. These observations indicated that pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.–), citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), and succinyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.4) all have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA as do

  4. Expression of glutamine synthetase in the mouse kidney: localization in multiple epithelial cell types and differential regulation by hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Jill W; Chu, Diana; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2013-09-01

    Renal glutamine synthetase catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ with glutamate, forming glutamine and decreasing the ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine glutamine synthetase's specific cellular expression in the mouse kidney and its regulation by hypokalemia, a common cause of altered renal ammonia metabolism. Glutamine synthetase mRNA and protein were present in the renal cortex and in both the outer and inner stripes of the outer medulla. Immunohistochemistry showed glutamine synthetase expression throughout the entire proximal tubule and in nonproximal tubule cells. Double immunolabel with cell-specific markers demonstrated glutamine synthetase expression in type A intercalated cells, non-A, non-B intercalated cells, and distal convoluted tubule cells, but not in principal cells, type B intercalated cells, or connecting segment cells. Hypokalemia induced by feeding a nominally K+ -free diet for 12 days decreased glutamine synthetase expression throughout the entire proximal tubule and in the distal convoluted tubule and simultaneously increased glutamine synthetase expression in type A intercalated cells in both the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct. We conclude that glutamine synthetase is widely and specifically expressed in renal epithelial cells and that the regulation of expression differs in specific cell populations. Glutamine synthetase is likely to mediate an important role in renal ammonia metabolism.

  5. Investigating arsenic susceptibility from a genetic perspective in Drosophila reveals a key role for glutathione synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jorge G Muñiz; Opoka, Robert; Kane, Daniel; Cartwright, Iain L

    2009-02-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water can lead to a variety of serious pathological outcomes. However, differential responsiveness within human populations suggests that interindividual genetic variation plays an important role. We are using Drosophila to study toxic metal response pathways because of unrivalled access to varied genetic approaches and significant demonstrable overlap with many aspects of mammalian physiology and disease phenotypes. Genetic analysis (via chromosomal segregation and microsatellite marker-based recombination) of various wild-type strains exhibiting relative susceptibility or tolerance to the lethal toxic effects of arsenite identified a limited X-chromosomal region (16D-F) able to confer a differential response phenotype. Using an FRT-based recombination approach, we created lines harboring small, overlapping deficiencies within this region and found that relative arsenite sensitivity arose when the dose of the glutathione synthetase (GS) gene (located at 16F1) was reduced by half. Knockdown of GS expression by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured S2 cells led to enhanced arsenite sensitivity, while GS RNAi applied to intact organisms dramatically reduced the concentration of food-borne arsenite compatible with successful growth and development. Our analyses, initially guided by observations on naturally occurring variants, provide genetic proof that an optimally functioning two-step glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic pathway is required in vivo for a robust defense against arsenite; the enzymatic implications of this are discussed in the context of GSH supply and demand under arsenite-induced stress. Given an identical pathway for human GSH biosynthesis, we suggest that polymorphisms in GSH biosynthetic genes may be an important contributor to differential arsenic sensitivity and exposure risk in human populations.

  6. Biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, R A; Janssen, K A; Resnick, A D; Blumenberg, M; Foor, F; Magasanik, B

    1977-01-01

    The glutamine synthetase (GS) from Klebsiella aerogenes is similar to that from Escherichia coli in several respects: (i) it is repressed by high levels of ammonia in the growth medium; (ii) its biosynthetic activity is greatly reduced by adenylylation; and (iii) adenylylation lowers the pH optimum and alters the response of the enzymes to various inhibitors in the gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) assay. There are, however, several important differences: (i) the isoactivity point for the adenylylated and non-adenylylated forms in the gammaGT assay occurs at pH 7.55 in K. aerogenes and at pH 7.15 in E. coli; (ii) the non-adenylylated form of the GS from K. aerogenes is stimulated by 60 mM MgCl2 in the gammaGT assay at pH 7.15. A biosynthetic reaction assay that correlates well with number of non-adenylylated enzyme subunits, as determined by the method of Mg2+ inhibition of the gammaGT assay, is described. Finally, we have found that it is necessary to use special methods to harvest growing cells to prevent changes in the adenylylation state of GS from occurring during harvesting. PMID:14104

  7. Cloning, expression, and purification of glutamine synthetase from Clostridum acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, K.P.; Zappe, H.; Jones, D.T.; Woods, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    A glutamine synthetase (GS) gene, glnA, from the gram-positive obligate anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum was cloned on recombinant plasmid pHZ200 and enabled Escherichia coli glnA deletion mutants to utilize (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ as a sole source of nitrogen. The cloned C. acetobutylicum gene was expressed from a regulatory region contained within the cloned DNA fragment. glnA expression was subject to nitrogen regulation in E. coli. This cloned glnA DNA did not enable an E. coli glnA ntrB ntrC deletion mutant to utilize arginine or low levels of glutamine as sole nitrogen sources, and failed to activate histidase activity in this strain which contained the Klebsiella aerogenes hut operon. The GS produced by pHZ200 was purified and had an apparent subunit molecular weight of approximately 59,000. There was no DNA or protein homology between the cloned C. acetobutylicum glnA gene and GS and the corresponding gene and GS from E. coli. The C. acetobutylicum GS was inhibited by Mg/sup 2 +/ in the ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase assay, but there was no evidence that the GS was adenylylated.

  8. Insights into an Unusual Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Binz, Tina M.; Maffioli, Sonia I.; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano; Müller, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The GE81112 tetrapeptides (1–3) represent a structurally unique class of antibiotics, acting as specific inhibitors of prokaryotic protein synthesis. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the GE81112 biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. L-49973 and the development of a genetic manipulation system for Streptomyces sp. L-49973. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the tetrapeptide antibiotic GE81112 (getA-N) was identified within a 61.7-kb region comprising 29 open reading frames (open reading frames), 14 of which were assigned to the biosynthetic gene cluster. Sequence analysis revealed the GE81112 cluster to consist of six nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes encoding incomplete di-domain NRPS modules and a single free standing NRPS domain as well as genes encoding other biosynthetic and modifying proteins. The involvement of the cloned gene cluster in GE81112 biosynthesis was confirmed by inactivating the NRPS gene getE resulting in a GE81112 production abolished mutant. In addition, we characterized the NRPS A-domains from the pathway by expression in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzymatic assays. The previously unknown stereochemistry of most chiral centers in GE81112 was established from a combined chemical and biosynthetic approach. Taken together, these findings have allowed us to propose a rational model for GE81112 biosynthesis. The results further open the door to developing new derivatives of these promising antibiotic compounds by genetic engineering. PMID:20710026

  9. Structural Biology of Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bradley R.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are modular enzymes that catalyze synthesis of important peptide products from a variety of standard and non-proteinogenic amino acid substrates. Within a single module are multiple catalytic domains that are responsible for incorporation of a single residue. After the amino acid is activated and covalently attached to an integrated carrier protein domain, the substrates and intermediates are delivered to neighboring catalytic domains for peptide bond formation or, in some modules, chemical modification. In the final module, the peptide is delivered to a terminal thioesterase domain that catalyzes release of the peptide product. This multi-domain modular architecture raises questions about the structural features that enable this assembly line synthesis in an efficient manner. The structures of the core component domains have been determined and demonstrate insights into the catalytic activity. More recently, multi-domain structures have been determined and are providing clues to the features of these enzyme systems that govern the functional interaction between multiple domains. This chapter describes the structures of NRPS proteins and the strategies that are being used to assist structural studies of these dynamic proteins, including careful consideration of domain boundaries for generation of truncated proteins and the use of mechanism-based inhibitors that trap interactions between the catalytic and carrier protein domains. PMID:26831698

  10. In situ autoradiographic detection of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, D.J.; Milman, G.; Osborne, C.; Shane, B.

    1986-11-01

    The enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the conversion of folate (pteroylmonoglutamate) to the polyglutamate forms (pteroylpolyglutamates) that are required for folate retention by mammalian cells. A rapid in situ autoradiographic assay for FPGS was developed which is based on the folate cofactor requirement of thymidylate synthase. Chinese hamster AUX B1 mutant cells lack FPGS activity and are unable to accumulate folate. As a result, the conversion of (6-/sup 3/H)deoxyuridine to thymidine via the thymidylate synthase reaction is impaired in AUX B1 cells and no detectable label is incorporated into DNA. In contrast, FPGS in wild-type Chinese hamster CHO cells causes folate retention and enables the incorporation of (6-/sup 3/H)deoxyuridine into DNA. Incorporation may be detected by autoradiography of monolayer cultures or of colonies replica plated onto polyester discs. Introduction of Escherichia coli FPGS into AUX B1 cells restores the activity of the thymidylate synthase pathway and demonstrates that the E. coli FPGS enzyme can provide pteroylpolyglutamates which functions in mammalian cells.

  11. The plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase and root apical meristem maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Avinash C; Tang, Yuhong; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

    2011-01-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the attachment of glutamate residues to the folate molecule in plants. Three isoforms of FPGS have been identified in Arabidopsis and these are localized in the plastid (AtDFB), mitochondria (AtDFC) and cytosol (AtDFD). We recently determined that mutants in the AtDFB (At5G05980) gene disrupt primary root development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Transient expression of AtDFB-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion under the control of the native AtDFB promoter in Nicotiana tabacum leaf epidermal cells verified the plastid localization of AtDFB. Furthermore, low concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a compound commonly used as a folate antagonist in plant and mammalian cells induced primary root defects in wild type seedlings that were similar to atdfb. In addition, atdfb seedlings were more sensitive to MTX when compared to wild type. Quantitative (q) RT-PCR showed lower transcript levels of the mitochondrial and cytosolic FPGS in roots of 7-day-old atdfb seedling suggesting feedback regulation of AtDFB on the expression of other FPGS isoforms during early seedling development. The primary root defects of atdfb, which can be traced in part to altered quiescent center (QC) identity, pave the way for future studies that could link cell type specific folate and FPGS isoform requirements to whole organ development. PMID:21502816

  12. 2′-5′-Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Is Targeted by the Viral Nonstructural Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Cuevas, Rolando A.; Goswami, Ramansu; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    2′-5′-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein (OASL) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein. Here we describe differential inhibitory activities of human OASL and the two mouse OASL homologs against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. Interestingly, nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of RSV promoted proteasome-dependent degradation of specific OASL isoforms. We conclude that OASL acts as a cellular antiviral protein and that RSV NS1 suppresses this function to evade cellular innate immunity and allow virus growth. PMID:26178980

  13. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed.

  14. Interdomain and Intermodule Organization in Epimerization Domain Containing Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hung; Li, Kunhua; Guntaka, Naga Sandhya; Bruner, Steven D

    2016-08-19

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, complex multidomain enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of a wide range of peptidic natural products. Inherent to synthetase chemistry is the thioester templated mechanism that relies on protein/protein interactions and interdomain dynamics. Several questions related to structure and mechanism remain to be addressed, including the incorporation of accessory domains and intermodule interactions. The inclusion of nonproteinogenic d-amino acids into peptide frameworks is a common and important modification for bioactive nonribosomal peptides. Epimerization domains, embedded in nonribosomal peptide synthetases assembly lines, catalyze the l- to d-amino acid conversion. Here we report the structure of the epimerization domain/peptidyl carrier protein didomain construct from the first module of the cyclic peptide antibiotic gramicidin synthetase. Both holo (phosphopantethiene post-translationally modified) and apo structures were determined, each representing catalytically relevant conformations of the two domains. The structures provide insight into domain-domain recognition, substrate delivery during the assembly line process, in addition to the structural organization of homologous condensation domains, canonical players in all synthetase modules.

  15. The yeast VAS1 gene encodes both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic valyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Chatton, B; Walter, P; Ebel, J P; Lacroute, F; Fasiolo, F

    1988-01-05

    S1 mapping on the VAS1 structural gene indicates the existence of two classes of transcripts initiating at distinct in-frame translation start codons. The longer class of VAS1 transcripts initiates upstream of both ATG codons located 138 base pairs away and the shorter class downstream of the first ATG. A mutation that destroys the first AUG on the long message results in respiratory deficiency but does not affect viability. Mutation of the ATG at position 139 leads to lethality because the initiating methionine codon of the essential cytoplasmic valyl-tRNA synthetase has been destroyed. N-terminal protein sequence data further confirm translation initiation at ATG-139 for the cytoplasmic valyl-tRNA synthetase. From these results, we conclude that the VAS1 single gene encodes both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic valyl-tRNA synthetases. The presequence of the mitochondrial valyl-tRNA synthetase shows amino acid composition but not the amphiphilic character of imported mitochondrial proteins. From mutagenesis of the ATG-139 we conclude that the presequence specifically targets the cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial valyl-tRNA synthetase to the mitochondrial outer membrane and prevents binding of the enzyme core to cytoplasmic tRNAVal.

  16. Methionyl-tRNA synthetase from Caenorhabditis elegans: A specific multidomain organization for convergent functional evolution

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Legouis, Renaud; Negrutskii, Boris; Mirande, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a multidomain protein that specifically binds tRNAMet and catalyzes the synthesis of methionyl-tRNAMet. The minimal, core enzyme found in Aquifex aeolicus is made of a catalytic domain, which catalyzes the aminoacylation reaction, and an anticodon-binding domain, which promotes tRNA–protein association. In eukaryotes, additional domains are appended in cis or in trans to the core enzyme and increase the stability of the tRNA–protein complexes. Eventually, as observed for MetRS from Homo sapiens, the C-terminal appended domain causes a slow release of aminoacyl-tRNA and establishes a limiting step in the global aminoacylation reaction. Here, we report that MetRS from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans displays a new type of structural organization. Its very C-terminal appended domain is related to the oligonucleotide binding-fold-based tRNA-binding domain (tRBD) recovered at the C-terminus of MetRS from plant, but, in the nematode enzyme, this domain is separated from the core enzyme by an insertion domain. Gel retardation and tRNA aminoacylation experiments show that MetRS from nematode is functionally related to human MetRS despite the fact that their appended tRBDs have distinct structural folds, and are not orthologs. Thus, functional convergence of human and nematode MetRS is the result of parallel and convergent evolution that might have been triggered by the selective pressure to invent processivity of tRNA handling in translation in higher eukaryotes. PMID:20954242

  17. [2'-5' olygoadenylate synthetase activity in peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Nakazato, H; Ikeda, M

    1995-03-01

    Interferons are produced in response to viral infection and play an important part in defense by their antiviral effects. An interferon-induced enzyme, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2-5AS) also takes an important part of the system of defense against viral infections, and its activity elevates in nonspecific viral infections. This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of examining serum 2-5AS activity and peripheral blood WBC 2-5AS (WBC 2-5AS) as diagnostic aids of viral infections that cause facial paralysis. Samples were obtained from 83 patients with Bell's palsy, 20 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, 74 healthy individuals, and a total of 177 subjects. In 177, we measured serum 2-5AS level in 123 subjects, WBC 2-5AS level in 57, and both in 25. Serum 2-5AS levels in Bell's palsy (60 cases) ranged from 20 to 146 pmol/dl (average: 38.5). The range in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (13) was 20-333 (average: 59.0), and in healthy controls (50), it was 20-128 (average: 41.4). WBC 2-5AS level ranged from 20 to 5900 pmol/dl (average: 733.2) in Bell's palsy (23 cases), from 20-4540 (average: 1371.4) in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (7), and from 20-903 (average: 294.5) in healthy individuals (24). There were no statistically significant differences in serum 2-5AS activities. Otherwise, there was significant difference (p < 0.01) between healthy individuals and Patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome in WBC 2-5AS activity. In Bell's palsy, 3 cases (13.0%) with markedly high WBC 2-5AS levels existed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Antimalarial Benzoxaboroles Target Plasmodium falciparum Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Palencia, Andres; Guo, Denghui; Ahyong, Vida; Dong, Chen; Li, Xianfeng; Hernandez, Vincent S.; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Choi, Wai; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Cooper, Roland; Alley, M. R. K.; Freund, Yvonne R.; DeRisi, Joseph; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for new antimalarials, ideally with novel mechanisms of action. Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomes. Therefore, we investigated the antimalarial activity and mechanism of action of 3-aminomethyl benzoxaboroles against Plasmodium falciparum. Two 3-aminomethyl compounds, AN6426 and AN8432, demonstrated good potency against cultured multidrug-resistant (W2 strain) P. falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 310 nM and 490 nM, respectively) and efficacy against murine Plasmodium berghei infection when administered orally once daily for 4 days (90% effective dose [ED90], 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). To characterize mechanisms of action, we selected parasites with decreased drug sensitivity by culturing with stepwise increases in concentration of AN6426. Resistant clones were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Three generations of resistant parasites had polymorphisms in the predicted editing domain of the gene encoding a P. falciparum leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS; PF3D7_0622800) and in another gene (PF3D7_1218100), which encodes a protein of unknown function. Solution of the structure of the P. falciparum LeuRS editing domain suggested key roles for mutated residues in LeuRS editing. Short incubations with AN6426 and AN8432, unlike artemisinin, caused dose-dependent inhibition of [14C]leucine incorporation by cultured wild-type, but not resistant, parasites. The growth of resistant, but not wild-type, parasites was impaired in the presence of the unnatural amino acid norvaline, consistent with a loss of LeuRS editing activity in resistant parasites. In summary, the benzoxaboroles AN6426 and AN8432 offer effective antimalarial activity and act, at least in part, against a novel target, the editing domain of P. falciparum LeuRS. PMID:27270277

  19. Functional interactions between a glutamine synthetase promoter and MYB proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Avila, Concepción; Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael; Cánovas, Francisco M; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2004-08-01

    In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), ammonium assimilation is catalysed by glutamine synthetase (GS) [EC 6.3.1.2], which is encoded by two genes, PsGS1a and PsGS1b. PsGS1b is expressed in the vascular tissue throughout the plant body, where it is believed to play a role in recycling ammonium released by various facets of metabolism. The mechanisms that may underpin the transcriptional regulation of PsGS1b were explored. The PsGS1b promoter contains a region that is enriched in previously characterized cis-acting elements, known as AC elements. Pine nuclear proteins bound these AC element-rich regions in a tissue-specific manner. As previous experiments had shown that R2R3-MYB transcription factors could interact with AC elements, the capacity of the AC elements in the PsGS1b promoter to interact with MYB proteins was examined. Two MYB proteins from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), PtMYB1 and PtMYB4, bound to the PsGS1b promoter were able to activate transcription from this promoter in yeast, arabidopsis and pine cells. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that the two MYB proteins were most abundant in cells previously shown to accumulate PsGS1b transcripts. Immunoprecipitation analysis and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicated these same two proteins in the formation of complexes between pine nuclear extracts and the PsGS1b promoter. Given that these MYB proteins were previously shown to have the capacity to activate gene expression related to lignin biosynthesis, we hypothesize that they may function to co-regulate lignification, a process that places significant demands on nitrogen recycling, and GS, the major enzyme involved in the nitrogen recycling pathway.

  20. Blockade of Glutamine Synthetase Enhances Inflammatory Response in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Erika M.; Menga, Alessio; Lebrun, Aurore; Hooper, Douglas C.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Microglial cells are brain-resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia. Results: GS inhibition enhances release of inflammatory mediators of LPS-activated microglia in vitro, leading to perturbation of the redox balance and decreased viability of cocultured neurons. GS inhibition also decreases insulin-mediated glucose uptake in microglia. In vivo, microglia-specific GS ablation enhances expression of inflammatory markers upon LPS treatment. In the spinal cords from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), GS expression levels and glutamine/glutamate ratios are reduced. Innovation: Recently, metabolism has been highlighted as mediator of immune cell function through the discovery of mechanisms that (behind these metabolic changes) modulate the inflammatory response. The present study shows for the first time a metabolic mechanism mediating microglial response to a proinflammatory stimulus, pointing to GS activity as a master modulator of immune cell function and thus unraveling a potential therapeutic target. Conclusions: Our study highlights a new role of GS in modulating immune response in microglia, providing insights into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with inflammation and new strategies of therapeutic intervention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 351–363. PMID:27758118

  1. Functional Analysis of Leishmania Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Samuel O.; Evans, Krystal J.; Smith, Terry K.; Smith, Barbara A.; Hilley, James D.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Kaye, Paul M.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS) is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, the CFAS gene is transcribed in both insect (extracellular) and host (intracellular) stages of the parasite life cycle. Tagged CFAS protein is stably detected in intracellular L. infantum but only during the early log phase of extracellular growth, when it shows partial localisation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid analyses of L. infantum wild type, CFAS null and complemented parasites detect a low abundance CFAS-dependent C19Δ fatty acid, characteristic of a cyclopropanated species, in wild type and add-back cells. Sub-cellular fractionation studies locate the C19Δ fatty acid to both ER and plasma membrane-enriched fractions. This fatty acid is not detectable in wild type L. major, although expression of the L. infantum CFAS gene in L. major generates cyclopropanated fatty acids, indicating that the substrate for this modification is present in L. major, despite the absence of the modifying enzyme. Loss of the L. infantum CFAS gene does not affect extracellular parasite growth, phagocytosis or early survival in macrophages. However, while endocytosis is also unaffected in the extracellular CFAS nulls, membrane transporter activity is defective and the null parasites are more resistant to oxidative stress. Following infection in vivo, L. infantum CFAS nulls exhibit lower parasite burdens in both the liver and spleen of susceptible hosts but it has not been possible to complement this phenotype, suggesting that loss of C19Δ fatty acid may lead to irreversible changes in cell physiology that cannot be rescued by re-expression. Aberrant cyclopropanation in L. major decreases parasite virulence but does not influence parasite tissue tropism. PMID:23251490

  2. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2015-10-20

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  3. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-08-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  4. Transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Ksenia; Kayumov, Airat; Woyda, Kathrin; Ilinskaja, Olga; Forchhammer, Karl

    2013-05-02

    The Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a dual role in cell metabolism by functioning as catalyst and regulator. GS catalyses the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonium. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, GS becomes feedback-inhibited by high intracellular glutamine levels and then binds transcription factors GlnR and TnrA, which control the genes of nitrogen assimilation. While GS-bound TnrA is no longer able to interact with DNA, GlnR-DNA binding is shown to be stimulated by GS complex formation. In this paper we show a new physiological feature of the interaction between glutamine synthetase and TnrA. The transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in vivo and in vitro, while the GlnR protein does not affect the activity of the enzyme.

  5. Structure of a tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase containing an iron–sulfur cluster

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gye Won; Yang, Xiang-Lei; McMullan, Daniel; Chong, Yeeting E.; Krishna, S. Sri; Rife, Christopher L.; Weekes, Dana; Brittain, Scott M.; Abdubek, Polat; Ambing, Eileen; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; White, Aprilfawn; Wolf, Guenter; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Schimmel, Paul; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that contains an iron–sulfur cluster in the tRNA anticodon-binding region and efficiently charges tRNA with tryptophan has been found in Thermotoga maritima. The crystal structure of TmTrpRS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase; TrpRS; EC 6.1.1.2) reveals an iron–sulfur [4Fe–­4S] cluster bound to the tRNA anticodon-binding (TAB) domain and an l-­tryptophan ligand in the active site. None of the other T. maritima aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) contain this [4Fe–4S] cluster-binding motif (C-x 22-C-x 6-C-x 2-C). It is speculated that the iron–sulfur cluster contributes to the stability of TmTrpRS and could play a role in the recognition of the anticodon. PMID:20944229

  6. Structure of Leishmania major methionyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with intermediate products methionyladenylate and pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric T; Kim, Jessica E; Zucker, Frank H; Kelley, Angela; Mueller, Natascha; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Merritt, Ethan A; Hol, Wim G J

    2011-03-01

    Leishmania parasites cause two million new cases of leishmaniasis each year with several hundreds of millions of people at risk. Due to the paucity and shortcomings of available drugs, we have undertaken the crystal structure determination of a key enzyme from Leishmania major in hopes of creating a platform for the rational design of new therapeutics. Crystals of the catalytic core of methionyl-tRNA synthetase from L. major (LmMetRS) were obtained with the substrates MgATP and methionine present in the crystallization medium. These crystals yielded the 2.0 Å resolution structure of LmMetRS in complex with two products, methionyladenylate and pyrophosphate, along with a Mg(2+) ion that bridges them. This is the first class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) structure with pyrophosphate bound. The residues of the class I aaRS signature sequence motifs, KISKS and HIGH, make numerous contacts with the pyrophosphate. Substantial differences between the LmMetRS structure and previously reported complexes of Escherichia coli MetRS (EcMetRS) with analogs of the methionyladenylate intermediate product are observed, even though one of these analogs only differs by one atom from the intermediate. The source of these structural differences is attributed to the presence of the product pyrophosphate in LmMetRS. Analysis of the LmMetRS structure in light of the Aquifex aeolicus MetRS-tRNA(Met) complex shows that major rearrangements of multiple structural elements of enzyme and/or tRNA are required to allow the CCA acceptor triplet to reach the methionyladenylate intermediate in the active site. Comparison with sequences of human cytosolic and mitochondrial MetRS reveals interesting differences near the ATP- and methionine-binding regions of LmMetRS, suggesting that it should be possible to obtain compounds that selectively inhibit the parasite enzyme.

  7. PPARδ activation induces hepatic long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 expression in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Chin Fung Kelvin; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Dong, Bin; Shende, Vikram Ravindra; Liu, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    The arachidonic acid preferred long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is a key enzyme for fatty acid metabolism in various metabolic tissues. In this study, we utilized hamsters fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet or a high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHFD) as animal models to explore novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for ACSL4 expression under hyperlipidemic conditions. Through cloning hamster ACSL4 homolog and tissue profiling ACSL4 mRNA and protein expressions we observed a selective upregulation of ACSL4 in testis and liver of HCHFD fed animals. Examination of transcriptional activators of the ACSL family revealed an increased hepatic expression of PPARδ but not PPARα in HCHFD fed hamsters. To explore a role of PPARδ in dietary cholesterol-mediated upregulation of ACSL4, we administered a PPARδ specific agonist L165041 to normolipidemic and dyslipidemic hamsters. We observed significant increases of hepatic ACSL4 mRNA and protein levels in all L165041-treated hamsters as compared to control animals. The induction of ACSL4 expression by L165041 in liver tissue in vivo was recapitulated in human primary hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from hamster and mouse. Moreover, employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we showed that depletion of PPARδ in hamster hepatocytes specifically reduced ACSL4 expression. Finally, utilizing HepG2 as a model system, we demonstrate that PPARδ activation leads to increased ACSL4 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and consequently higher arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activity. Taken together, we have discovered a novel PPARδ-mediated regulatory mechanism for ACSL4 expression in liver tissue and cultured hepatic cells. PMID:25645621

  8. PPARδ activation induces hepatic long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chin Fung Kelvin; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Dong, Bin; Shende, Vikram Ravindra; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The arachidonic acid preferred long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is a key enzyme for fatty acid metabolism in various metabolic tissues. In this study, we utilized hamsters fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet or a high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHFD) as animal models to explore novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for ACSL4 expression under hyperlipidemic conditions. Through cloning hamster ACSL4 homolog and tissue profiling ACSL4 mRNA and protein expressions we observed a selective upregulation of ACSL4 in testis and liver of HCHFD fed animals. Examination of transcriptional activators of the ACSL family revealed an increased hepatic expression of PPARδ but not PPARα in HCHFD fed hamsters. To explore a role of PPARδ in dietary cholesterol-mediated upregulation of ACSL4, we administered a PPARδ specific agonist L165041 to normolipidemic and dyslipidemic hamsters. We observed significant increases of hepatic ACSL4 mRNA and protein levels in all L165041-treated hamsters as compared to control animals. The induction of ACSL4 expression by L165041 in liver tissue in vivo was recapitulated in human primary hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from hamster and mouse. Moreover, employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we showed that depletion of PPARδ in hamster hepatocytes specifically reduced ACSL4 expression. Finally, utilizing HepG2 as a model system, we demonstrate that PPARδ activation leads to increased ACSL4 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and consequently higher arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activity. Taken together, we have discovered a novel PPARδ-mediated regulatory mechanism for ACSL4 expression in liver tissue and cultured hepatic cells.

  9. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-23

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNA(Gln) and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca(2+) and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC.

  10. Is hydrogen peroxide involved in the benzyl viologen-mediated in-vivo inactivation of rat liver glutamine synthetase?

    PubMed Central

    Muriana, F. J.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Relimpio, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    After benzyl viologen administration to rats, a decrease in the rat liver glutamine synthetase activity was observed. An increase in the rat liver catalase activity was found concomitantly. In combination with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, benzyl viologen again diminished, but markedly, the rat liver glutamine synthetase activity. Moreover, partially purified glutamine synthetase from rat liver underwent rapid inactivation upon aerobic incubation with NAD(P)H and benzyl viologen. This inactivation was prevented by catalase, which suggests that the NAD(P)H/BV2+/O2-dependent system has a role in H2O2 production. Our results suggest that H2O2 is involved in the benzyl viologen-mediated in-vivo inactivation of the rat liver glutamine synthetase. In contrast, benzyl viologen alone or in combination with aminotriazole produced a significant increase of brain glutamine synthetase. PMID:8098954

  11. Time course of the uridylylation and adenylylation states in the glutamine synthetase bicyclic cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Varón-Castellanos, R; Havsteen, B H; García-Moreno, M; Valero-Ruiz, E; Molina-Alarcón, M; García-Cánovas, F

    1993-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of the glutamine synthetase bicyclic cascade is presented. It includes the dependence on time from the onset of the reaction of both the uridylylation of Shapiro's regulatory protein and the adenylylation of the glutamine synthetase. The transient phase equations obtained allow an estimation of the time elapsed until the states of uridylylation and adenylylation reach their steady-states, and therefore an evaluation of the effective sensitivity of the system. The contribution of the uridylylation cycle to the adenylylation cycle has been studied, and an equation relating the state of adenylylation at any time to the state of uridylylation at the same instant has been derived. PMID:8104399

  12. The binding of tyrosinyl-5'-AMP to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (E.coli).

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, F; Krauss, G; Kownatzki, R; Maass, G

    1979-01-01

    The binding between tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (E.coli) and the alkylanalogue of the aminoacyladenylate, tyrosinyl-5'-AMP, has been investigated by fluorescence titrations and rapid mixing experiments. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase has two equivalent and independent binding sites for tyrosinyl-5'-AMP. The intrinsic binding constant is 4 x 10(7)M-1. The binding sites for tRNATyr and tyrosinyl-5'-AMP are independent of each other, the anticooperative mode of tRNA binding being preserved in the presence of tyrosinyl-5-AMP. PMID:377229

  13. Reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in Rhodospirillum rubrum mutants lacking the adenylyltransferase GlnE.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Anders; Nordlund, Stefan; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe

    2009-10-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, the GlnE adenylyltransferase (encoded by glnE) catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase, thereby regulating nitrogen assimilation. We have generated glnE mutant strains that are unable to adenylylate glutamine synthetase (GS). Surprisingly, the activity of GS was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, even when grown in nitrogen-fixing conditions. Our results support the proposal that R. rubrum can only cope with the absence of an adenylylation system in the presence of lowered GS expression or activity. In general terms, this report also provides further support for the central role of GS in bacterial metabolism.

  14. Correlation of Exon 3 β-catenin Mutations with Glutamine Synthetase Staining Patterns in Hepatocellular Adenoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Gillian; Liu, Xinxin; Hu, Junjie; Xu, Zhong; Che, Li; Solomon, David; Tsokos, Christos; Shafizadeh, Nafis; Chen, Xin; Gill, Ryan; Kakar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The current clinical practice is based on the assumption of strong correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase expression and β-catenin activation in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. This high correlation is based on limited data, and may represent an oversimplification as glutamine synthetase staining patterns show wide variability in clinical practice. Standardized criteria for interpreting diverse glutamine synthetase patterns, and the association between each pattern and β-catenin mutations is not clearly established. This study examines the correlation between glutamine synthetase staining patterns and β-catenin mutations in 15 typical hepatocellular adenomas, 5 atypical hepatocellular neoplasms and 60 hepatocellular carcinomas. Glutamine synthetase staining was classified into one of three patterns: (a) diffuse homogeneous: moderate to strong cytoplasmic staining in more than 90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, (b) diffuse heterogeneous: moderate to strong staining in 50–90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, and (c) patchy: moderate to strong staining in <50% of lesional cells (often perivascular), or weak staining irrespective of extent, and all other staining patterns (including negative cases). Sanger sequencing of CTNNB1 exon 3 was performed in all cases. Of hepatocellular tumors with diffuse glutamine synthetase staining (homogeneous or heterogeneous), an exon 3 β-catenin mutation was detected in 33% (2/6) of typical hepatocellular adenoma, 75% (3/4) of atypical hepatocellular neoplasm and 17% (8/47) of hepatocellular carcinomas. An exon 3 mutation was also observed in 15% (2/13) of hepatocellular carcinomas with patchy glutamine synthetase staining. The results show a modest correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase immunostaining and exon 3 β-catenin mutations in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with discrepancy rates exceeding 50% in both hepatocellular adenoma and

  15. Correlation of exon 3 β-catenin mutations with glutamine synthetase staining patterns in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hale, Gillian; Liu, Xinxin; Hu, Junjie; Xu, Zhong; Che, Li; Solomon, David; Tsokos, Christos; Shafizadeh, Nafis; Chen, Xin; Gill, Ryan; Kakar, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The current clinical practice is based on the assumption of strong correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase expression and β-catenin activation in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. This high correlation is based on limited data and may represent an oversimplification as glutamine synthetase staining patterns show wide variability in clinical practice. Standardized criteria for interpreting diverse glutamine synthetase patterns, and the association between each pattern and β-catenin mutations is not clearly established. This study examines the correlation between glutamine synthetase staining patterns and β-catenin mutations in 15 typical hepatocellular adenomas, 5 atypical hepatocellular neoplasms and 60 hepatocellular carcinomas. Glutamine synthetase staining was classified into one of the three patterns: (a) diffuse homogeneous: moderate-to-strong cytoplasmic staining in >90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, (b) diffuse heterogeneous: moderate-to-strong staining in 50-90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, and (c) patchy: moderate-to-strong staining in <50% of lesional cells (often perivascular), or weak staining irrespective of the extent, and all other staining patterns (including negative cases). Sanger sequencing of CTNNB1 exon 3 was performed in all cases. Of hepatocellular tumors with diffuse glutamine synthetase staining (homogeneous or heterogeneous), an exon 3 β-catenin mutation was detected in 33% (2/6) of typical hepatocellular adenoma, 75% (3/4) of atypical hepatocellular neoplasm and 17% (8/47) of hepatocellular carcinomas. An exon 3 mutation was also observed in 15% (2/13) of hepatocellular carcinomas with patchy glutamine synthetase staining. The results show a modest correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase immunostaining and exon 3 β-catenin mutations in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with discrepancy rates >50% in both hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular

  16. Pancreatic cancer cell lines deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Tawnya L.; Kim, Randie; Galante, Joseph; Parsons, Colin M.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bold, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells can synthesize the non-essential amino acid arginine from aspartate and citrulline using the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). It has been observed that ASS is under-expressed in various types of cancers ASS, for which arginine become auxotrophic. Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a prokaryotic enzyme that metabolizes arginine to citrulline and has been found to inhibit melanoma and hepatoma cancer cells deficient of ASS. We tested the hypothesis that pancreatic cancers have low ASS expression and therefore arginine deprivation by ADI will inhibit cell growth. ASS expression was examined in 47 malignant and 20 non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues as well as a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Arginine deprivation was achieved by treatment with a recombinant form of ADI formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-ADI). Effects on caspase activation, cell growth and cell death were examined. Furthermore, the effect of PEG-ADI on the in vivo growth of pancreatic xenografts was examined. Eighty-seven percent of the tumors lacked ASS expression; 5 of 7 cell lines similarly lacked ASS expression. PEG-ADI specifically inhibited growth of those cell lines lacking ASS. PEG-ADI treatment induced caspase activation and induction of apoptosis. PEG-ADI was well tolerated in mice despite complete elimination of plasma arginine; tumor growth was inhibited by ∼50%. Reduced expression of ASS occurs in pancreatic cancer and predicts sensitivity to arginine deprivation achieved by PEG-ADI treatment. Therefore, these findings suggest that arginine deprivation by ADI could provide a beneficial strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a malignancy in which new therapy is desperately needed. PMID:18661517

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Glutamine Synthetase Mutations that Lead to Clinically Relevant Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Frieg, Benedikt; Görg, Boris; Homeyer, Nadine; Keitel, Verena; Häussinger, Dieter; Gohlke, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes ATP-dependent ligation of ammonia and glutamate to glutamine. Two mutations of human GS (R324C and R341C) were connected to congenital glutamine deficiency with severe brain malformations resulting in neonatal death. Another GS mutation (R324S) was identified in a neurologically compromised patient. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the impairment of GS activity by these mutations have remained elusive. Molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and rigidity analyses suggest that all three mutations influence the first step of GS catalytic cycle. The R324S and R324C mutations deteriorate GS catalytic activity due to loss of direct interactions with ATP. As to R324S, indirect, water-mediated interactions reduce this effect, which may explain the suggested higher GS residual activity. The R341C mutation weakens ATP binding by destabilizing the interacting residue R340 in the apo state of GS. Additionally, the mutation is predicted to result in a significant destabilization of helix H8, which should negatively affect glutamate binding. This prediction was tested in HEK293 cells overexpressing GS by dot-blot analysis: Structural stability of H8 was impaired through mutation of amino acids interacting with R341, as indicated by a loss of masking of an epitope in the glutamate binding pocket for a monoclonal anti-GS antibody by L-methionine-S-sulfoximine; in contrast, cells transfected with wild type GS showed the masking. Our analyses reveal complex molecular effects underlying impaired GS catalytic activity in three clinically relevant mutants. Our findings could stimulate the development of ATP binding-enhancing molecules by which the R324S mutant can be repaired extrinsically. PMID:26836257

  18. Structural Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism of Escherichia coli Selenophosphate Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Wattanasak, Rut; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Wally, Jeremy L.; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Thressa C.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-03-26

    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) catalyzes the synthesis of selenophosphate, the selenium donor for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine residues in seleno-tRNA. Selenocysteine, known as the 21st amino acid, is then incorporated into proteins during translation to form selenoproteins which serve a variety of cellular processes. SPS activity is dependent on both Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +} and uses ATP, selenide, and water to catalyze the formation of AMP, orthophosphate, and selenophosphate. In this reaction, the gamma phosphate of ATP is transferred to the selenide to form selenophosphate, while ADP is hydrolyzed to form orthophosphate and AMP. Most of what is known about the function of SPS has derived from studies investigating Escherichia coli SPS (EcSPS) as a model system. Here we report the crystal structure of the C17S mutant of SPS from E. coli (EcSPS{sup C17S}) in apo form (without ATP bound). EcSPS{sup C17S} crystallizes as a homodimer, which was further characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. The glycine-rich N-terminal region (residues 1 through 47) was found in the open conformation and was mostly ordered in both structures, with a magnesium cofactor bound at the active site of each monomer involving conserved aspartate residues. Mutating these conserved residues (D51, D68, D91, and D227) along with N87, also found at the active site, to alanine completely abolished AMP production in our activity assays, highlighting their essential role for catalysis in EcSPS. Based on the structural and biochemical analysis of EcSPS reported here and using information obtained from similar studies done with SPS orthologs from Aquifex aeolicus and humans, we propose a catalytic mechanism for EcSPS-mediated selenophosphate synthesis.

  19. Selenophosphate Synthetase 1 is an Essential Protein with Roles in Regulation of Redox Homeostasis in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Huh, Jang Hoe; Castro, Nadia P.; Xu, Xue-Ming; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Sang-Goo; Bang, Jeyoung; Na, Ji-Woon; Kong, Young-Yun; Beaglehole, Daniel; Southon, Eileen; Seifried, Harold; Tessarollo, Lino; Salomon, David S.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2016-01-01

    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) was initially detected in bacteria and was shown to synthesize selenophosphate, the active selenium donor. However, mammals have two SPS paralogs, which are designated SPS1 and SPS2. Although it is known that SPS2 catalyzes the synthesis of selenophosphate, the function of SPS1 remains largely unclear. To examine the role of SPS1 in mammals, we generated a Sps1 knockout mouse and found that systemic SPS1 deficiency led to embryos that were clearly underdeveloped by E8.5 and virtually resorbed by E14.5. The knockout of Sps1 in the liver preserved viability, but significantly affected the expression of a large number of mRNAs involved in cancer, embryonic development, and the glutathione system. Particularly notable was the extreme deficiency of glutaredoxin 1 (GLRX1) and glutathione-S-transferase omega 1. To assess these phenotypes at the cellular level, we targeted the removal of SPS1 in F9 cells, a mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line, which affected the glutathione system proteins and accordingly led to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Further, we found that several malignant characteristics of SPS1-deficient F9 cells were reversed, suggesting that SPS1 played a role in supporting and/or sustaining cancer. In addition, the overexpression of mouse or human GLRX1 led to a reversal of observed increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the F9 SPS1/GLRX1-deficient cells and resulted in levels that were similar to those in F9 SPS1-sufficient cells. The results suggested that SPS1 is an essential mammalian enzyme with roles in regulating redox homeostasis and controlling cell growth. PMID:27208177

  20. Progressive neuronal activation accompanies epileptogenesis caused by hippocampal glutamine synthetase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Albright, Benjamin; Dhaher, Roni; Wang, Helen; Harb, Roa; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Zaveri, Hitten; Eid, Tore

    2017-02-01

    Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats. We then used continuous video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring and c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the type of seizures and spatial distribution of neuronal activation early (1-5days postinfusion) and late (16-43days postinfusion) in epileptogenesis. Early in epileptogenesis, seizures were preferentially mild (stage 1-2), activating neurons in the entorhinal-hippocampal area, the basolateral amygdala, the piriform cortex, the midline thalamus, and the anterior olfactory area. Late in epileptogenesis, the seizures were generally more severe (stages 4-5) with neuronal activation extending to the neocortex, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediodorsal thalamu\\s, and the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of GS focally in the hippocampal formation triggers a process of epileptogenesis characterized by gradual worsening of seizure severity and involvement of progressively larger neuronal populations over a period of several weeks. Knowledge about the underlying mechanism of epileptogenesis is important because such knowledge may result in more specific and efficacious treatments of MTLE by moving away from large and poorly specific surgical resections to highly targeted surgical or pharmacological interventions of the epileptogenic process.

  1. Pancreatic cancer cell lines deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Tawnya L; Kim, Randie; Galante, Joseph; Parsons, Colin M; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bold, Richard J

    2008-10-15

    Eukaryotic cells can synthesize the non-essential amino acid arginine from aspartate and citrulline using the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). It has been observed that ASS is underexpressed in various types of cancers ASS, for which arginine become auxotrophic. Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a prokaryotic enzyme that metabolizes arginine to citrulline and has been found to inhibit melanoma and hepatoma cancer cells deficient of ASS. We tested the hypothesis that pancreatic cancers have low ASS expression and therefore arginine deprivation by ADI will inhibit cell growth. ASS expression was examined in 47 malignant and 20 non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues as well as a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Arginine deprivation was achieved by treatment with a recombinant form of ADI formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-ADI). Effects on caspase activation, cell growth and cell death were examined. Furthermore, the effect of PEG-ADI on the in vivo growth of pancreatic xenografts was examined. Eighty-seven percent of the tumors lacked ASS expression; 5 of 7 cell lines similarly lacked ASS expression. PEG-ADI specifically inhibited growth of those cell lines lacking ASS. PEG-ADI treatment induced caspase activation and induction of apoptosis. PEG-ADI was well tolerated in mice despite complete elimination of plasma arginine; tumor growth was inhibited by approximately 50%. Reduced expression of ASS occurs in pancreatic cancer and predicts sensitivity to arginine deprivation achieved by PEG-ADI treatment. Therefore, these findings suggest that arginine deprivation by ADI could provide a beneficial strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a malignancy in which new therapy is desperately needed.

  2. A new mechanism of post-transfer editing by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: catalysis of hydrolytic reaction by bacterial-type prolyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Boyarshin, Konstantin S; Priss, Anastasia E; Rayevskiy, Alexsey V; Ilchenko, Mykola M; Dubey, Igor Ya; Kriklivyi, Ivan A; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Tukalo, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are enzymes that specifically attach amino acids to cognate tRNAs for use in the ribosomal stage of translation. For many aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, the required level of amino acid specificity is achieved either by specific hydrolysis of misactivated aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate (pre-transfer editing) or by hydrolysis of the mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA (post-transfer editing). To investigate the mechanism of post-transfer editing of alanine by prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, we used molecular modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme, and tRNA modification. The results support a new tRNA-assisted mechanism of hydrolysis of misacylated Ala-tRNA(Pro). The most important functional element of this catalytic mechanism is the 2'-OH group of the terminal adenosine 76 of Ala-tRNA(Pro), which forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group of the alanine residue, strongly facilitating hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was shown by QM methods to proceed via a general acid-base catalysis mechanism involving two functionally distinct water molecules. The transition state of the reaction was identified. Amino acid residues of the editing active site participate in the coordination of substrate and both attacking and assisting water molecules, performing the proton transfer to the 3'-O atom of A76.

  3. Nucleotide synthetase ribozymes may have emerged first in the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Yu, Chunwu; Zhang, Wentao; Hu, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    Though the “RNA world” hypothesis has gained a central role in ideas concerning the origin of life, the scenario concerning its emergence remains uncertain. It has been speculated that the first scene may have been the emergence of a template-dependent RNA synthetase ribozyme, which catalyzed its own replication: thus, “RNA replicase.” However, the speculation remains uncertain, primarily because of the large sequence length requirement of such a replicase and the lack of a convincing mechanism to ensure its self-favoring features. Instead, we propose a nucleotide synthetase ribozyme as an alternative candidate, especially considering recent experimental evidence suggesting the possibility of effective nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis of RNA. A computer simulation was conducted to support our proposal. The conditions for the emergence of the nucleotide synthetase ribozyme are discussed, based on dynamic analysis on a computer. We suggest the template-dependent RNA synthetase ribozyme emerged later, perhaps after the emergence of protocells. PMID:17878321

  4. Brain and Liver Glutamine Synthetase of Rana catesbeiana and Rana cancrivora.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    glutamine synthetase in the liver is clear for most groups. The lungfishes (Dipnoids) do not retain urea except to avoid ammonia toxicity during...York. 11. Janssens, P.A. and Cohen, P.P. 1968. Nitrogen meta- bolism in the African lungfish . Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 24, 879-886. 9 12. Pickford, G.E

  5. Activation of chitin synthetase in permeabilized cells of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking proteinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, M P; Correa, J U; Cabib, E

    1982-01-01

    Digitonin treatment at 30 degrees C of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking proteinase B permeabilized the cells and caused rapid and extensive activation of chitin synthetase in situ. The same result was obtained with a mutant generally defective in vacuolar proteases. By lowering the temperature and using different permeabilization procedures, we showed that increases in permeability and activation are distinct processes. Activation was inhibited by the protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin, but by pepstatin or chymostatin. Metal chelators were also inhibitory, and their effect was reversed by the addition of Ca2+ but not by Mg2+. Antipain added together with Ca2+ after incubation of the cells in the presence of a chelating agent prevented reversal of inhibition, a result that was interpreted as indicating that antipain acts either on the same step affected by Ca2+ or on a subsequent step. Efforts to obtain activation in cell-free extracts were unsuccessful, but it was possible to extract the synthetase, once activated, by breaking permeabilized cells with glass beads. Treatment of the cell-free extracts with trypsin led not only to increased activity of chitin synthetase, but also to a change in the pH-activity curve and a diminished requirement by the enzyme for free N-acetylglucosamine. These observations suggest that the modification undergone by the synthetase during endogenous activation is different from that brought about by trypsin treatment. Images PMID:6216245

  6. A decrease in S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activity increases the probability of spontaneous sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, K; Freese, E

    1982-01-01

    Starting with a relaxed (relA) strain, mutants with reduced activity of adenosine triphosphate:L-methionine S-adenosyl transferase (EC 2.5.1.6; SAM synthetase) were isolated in Bacillus subtilis. One such mutant (gene symbol metE1) had only 3% of the normal SAM synthetase activity but grew almost as well as the parent strain. Another mutant was isolated (gene symbol spdC1) as being able to sporulate continually at a high frequency; it had one-half the normal SAM synthetase activity at 33 degrees C. Both mutants continually and spontaneously entered spore development at a higher frequency than the parent strain in a medium containing excess glucose, ammonium ions, and phosphate. Sporulation was prevented by a high concentration of SAM (1 mM or more) or by the combination of adenosine and methionine (0.5 mM or more each), both of which are precursors of SAM. In contrast to this continual increase in the spore titer, addition of decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase, rapidly initiated massive sporulation. Various amino acid analogs also induced sporulation in the relA strain, the methionine analogs ethionine and selenomethionine being most effective. PMID:6811558

  7. Acetyl-CoA synthetase is a conserved regulator of autophagy and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis during periods of stress. Eisenberg and colleagues (Eisenberg et al., 2014) now describe the central and conserved role for acetyl-CoA synthetase in regulating lifespan in yeast and flies by a mechanism involving autophagy. PMID:24703691

  8. CDC64 Encodes Cytoplasmic Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase, Ala1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Carolyn; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Polymenis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The cdc64-1 mutation causes G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to a type II Start phenotype. We report that CDC64 encodes Ala1p, an alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Thus, cdc64-1 might affect charging of tRNAAla and thereby initiation of cell division. PMID:10601222

  9. Assembly of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex via Heterotetrameric Glutathione Transferase-homology Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Maeng, Seo Jin; Cho, Hyo Je; Choi, Yoon Seo; Chung, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hoi Kyoung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Guo, Min; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Many multicomponent protein complexes mediating diverse cellular processes are assembled through scaffolds with specialized protein interaction modules. The multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC), consisting of nine different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and three non-enzymatic factors (AIMP1–3), serves as a hub for many signaling pathways in addition to its role in protein synthesis. However, the assembly process and structural arrangement of the MSC components are not well understood. Here we show the heterotetrameric complex structure of the glutathione transferase (GST) domains shared among the four MSC components, methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS), glutaminyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS), AIMP2 and AIMP3. The MRS-AIMP3 and EPRS-AIMP2 using interface 1 are bridged via interface 2 of AIMP3 and EPRS to generate a unique linear complex of MRS-AIMP3:EPRS-AIMP2 at the molar ratio of (1:1):(1:1). Interestingly, the affinity at interface 2 of AIMP3:EPRS can be varied depending on the occupancy of interface 1, suggesting the dynamic nature of the linear GST tetramer. The four components are optimally arranged for maximal accommodation of additional domains and proteins. These characteristics suggest the GST tetramer as a unique and dynamic structural platform from which the MSC components are assembled. Considering prevalence of the GST-like domains, this tetramer can also provide a tool for the communication of the MSC with other GST-containing cellular factors. PMID:26472928

  10. Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Deficiency Promotes Angiogenesis via the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Castranova, Daniel; Davis, Andrew E.; Lo, Brigid D.; Miller, Mayumi F.; Paukstelis, Paul J.; Swift, Matthew R.; Pham, Van N.; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Bell, Kameha; Shaw, Kenna M.; Kamei, Makoto; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Understanding the mechanisms regulating normal and pathologic angiogenesis is of great scientific and clinical interest. In this report, we show that mutations in two different aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, threonyl tRNA synthetase (tarsy58) or isoleucyl tRNA synthetase (iarsy68), lead to similar increased branching angiogenesis in developing zebrafish. Approach and Results The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway is activated by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase deficiencies, and we show that UPR genes atf4, atf6, and xbp1, as well as the key pro-angiogenic ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (vegfaa), are all up-regulated in tarsy58 and iarsy68 mutants. Finally, we show that the PERK-ATF4 arm of the UPR pathway is necessary for both the elevated vegfaa levels and increased angiogenesis observed in tarsy58 mutants. Conclusions Our results suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress acts as a pro-angiogenic signal via UPR pathway-dependent up-regulation of vegfaa. PMID:26821951

  11. A NONSTEADY STATE MODEL FOR THE TIGHT-BINDING INHIBITION OF THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE BY 5-FLUOROURACIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    5-Fluorouracil (5_FU) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug and tratogen that was chosen as a prototypic toxicant to contruct a biologically based dose-resonse (BBDR) model (Setzer et. al., 2001). Part of the BBDR model simulates the inhibition of thymidylate synthetase (TS), a...

  12. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase: double duty in amino acid sensing.

    PubMed

    Durán, Raúl V; Hall, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    The cellular response to amino acids is controlled at the molecular level by TORC1. While many of the elements that participate in TORC1 signaling are known, we still have no clear idea how cells sense amino acids. Two recent studies found that leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LRS) is a leucine sensor for TORC1, in both yeast and mammalian cells.

  13. Sponge OAS has a distinct genomic structure within the 2-5A synthetase family.

    PubMed

    Reintamm, Tõnu; Kuusksalu, Anne; Metsis, Madis; Päri, Mailis; Vallmann, Kerli; Lopp, Annika; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2008-11-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (2-5A synthetases, OAS) are enzymes that play an important role in the interferon-induced antiviral defense mechanisms in mammals. Sponges, the evolutionarily lowest multicellular animals, also possess OAS; however, their function is presently unclear. Low homology between primary structures of 2-5A synthetases from vertebrates and sponges renders their evolutionary relationship obscure. The genomic structure of vertebrate OASs has been thoroughly examined, making it possible to elucidate molecular evolution and expansion of this gene family. Until now, no OAS gene structure was available from sponges to compare it with the corresponding genes from higher organisms. In the present work, we determined the exon/intron structure of the OAS gene from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium and found it to be completely different from the strictly conserved exon/intron pattern of the OAS genes from vertebrates. This finding was corroborated by the analysis of OAS genes from another sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, whose genome was recently sequenced. Our data suggest that vertebrate and sponge OAS genes have no direct common intron-containing ancestor and two (sub)types of OAS may be discriminated. This study opens new perspectives for understanding the phylogenesis and evolution of 2-5A synthetases as well as functional aspects of this multigene family.

  14. A novel therapeutic target for peripheral nerve injury-related diseases: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Sun; Yeo, Seung Geun; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Na Young

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AminoARSs) are essential enzymes that perform the first step of protein synthesis. Beyond their original roles, AminoARSs possess non-canonical functions, such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Therefore, AminoARSs represent a powerful pharmaceutical target if their non-canonical functions can be controlled. Using AminoARSs-specific primers, we screened mRNA expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn of rats with peripheral nerve injury created by sciatic nerve axotomy. Of 20 AminoARSs, we found that phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase beta chain (FARSB), isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) and methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS) mRNA expression was increased in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the injured side, but not in glial cells. These findings suggest the possibility that FARSB, IARS and MARS, as a neurotransmitter, may transfer abnormal sensory signals after peripheral nerve damage and become a new target for drug treatment. PMID:26692865

  15. The effect of portacaval anastomosis on the expression of glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase in perivenous hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Robin; Levillain, Oliver; Brosnan, John T; Araneda, Silvia; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2013-05-01

    There is functional zonation of metabolism across the liver acinus, with glutamine synthetase restricted to a narrow band of cells around the terminal hepatic venules. Portacaval anastomosis, where there is a major rerouting of portal blood flow from the portal vein directly to the vena cava bypassing the liver, has been reported to result in a marked decrease in the activity of glutamine synthetase. It is not known whether this represents a loss of perivenous hepatocytes or whether there is a specific loss of glutamine synthetase. To answer this question, we have determined the activity of glutamine synthetase and another enzyme from the perivenous compartment, ornithine aminotransferase, as well as the immunochemical localization of both glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase in rats with a portacaval shunt. The portacaval shunt caused a marked decrease in glutamine synthetase activity and an increase in ornithine aminotransferase activity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase proteins maintained their location in the perivenous cells. These results indicate that there is no generalized loss of perivenous hepatocytes, but rather, there is a significant alteration in the expression of these proteins and hence metabolism in this cell population.

  16. Regulation of the intersubunit ammonia tunnel in Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Chuenchor, Watchalee; Doukov, Tzanko I.; Resto, Melissa; Chang, Andrew; Gerratana, Barbara

    2012-08-31

    Glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase is an essential enzyme and a validated drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtuNadE). It catalyses the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} from NaAD{sup +} (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide) at the synthetase active site and glutamine hydrolysis at the glutaminase active site. An ammonia tunnel 40 {angstrom} (1 {angstrom} = 0.1 nm) long allows transfer of ammonia from one active site to the other. The enzyme displays stringent kinetic synergism; however, its regulatory mechanism is unclear. In the present paper, we report the structures of the inactive glutaminase C176A variant in an apo form and in three synthetase-ligand complexes with substrates (NaAD{sup +}/ATP), substrate analogue {l_brace}NaAD{sup +}/AMP-CPP (adenosine 5'-[{alpha},{beta}-methylene]triphosphate){r_brace} and intermediate analogues (NaAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi), as well as the structure of wild-type mtuNadE in a product complex (NAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi/glutamate). This series of structures provides snapshots of the ammonia tunnel during the catalytic cycle supported also by kinetics and mutagenesis studies. Three major constriction sites are observed in the tunnel: (i) at the entrance near the glutaminase active site; (ii) in the middle of the tunnel; and (iii) at the end near the synthetase active site. Variation in the number and radius of the tunnel constrictions is apparent in the crystal structures and is related to ligand binding at the synthetase domain. These results provide new insight into the regulation of ammonia transport in the intermolecular tunnel of mtuNadE.

  17. The effect of glial glutamine synthetase inhibition on recognition and temporal memories in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kant, Deepika; Tripathi, Shweta; Qureshi, Munazah F; Tripathi, Shweta; Pandey, Swati; Singh, Gunjan; Kumar, Tankesh; Mir, Fayaz A; Jha, Sushil K

    2014-02-07

    The glutamate neurotransmitter is intrinsically involved in learning and memory. Glial glutamine synthetase enzyme synthesizes glutamine, which helps maintain the optimal neuronal glutamate level. However, the role of glutamine synthetase in learning and memory remains unclear. Using associative trace learning task, we investigated the effects of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (glutamine synthetase inhibitor) on recognition and temporal memories. MSO and vehicle were injected (i.p.) three hours before training in separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=11). Animals were trained to obtain fruit juice after following a set of sequential events. Initially, house-light was presented for 15s followed by 5s trace interval. Thereafter, juice was given for 20s followed by 20s inter-presentation interval. A total of 75 presentations were made over five sessions during the training and testing periods. The average number of head entries to obtain juice per session and during individual phases at different time intervals was accounted as an outcome measure of recognition and temporal memories. The total head entries in MSO and vehicle treated animals were comparable on training and testing days. However, it was 174.90% (p=0.08), 270.61% (p<0.05), 143.20% (p<0.05) more on training day and 270.33% (p<0.05), 157.94% (p<0.05), 170.42% (p<0.05) more on testing day, during the house-light, trace-interval and inter-presentation interval phases in MSO animals. Glutamine synthetase inhibition did not induce recognition memory deficit, while temporal memory was altered, suggesting that glutamine synthetase modulates some aspects of mnemonic processes.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of glutamine synthetase, a tegumental protein from Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunhui; Hong, Yang; Cao, Yan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Wei, Meimei; Liu, Shengfa; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-12-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine, providing nitrogen for the production of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, and other compounds required in many pivotal cellular events. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding Schistosoma japonicum glutamine synthetase (SjGS) was isolated from 21-day schistosomes. The entire open reading frame of SjGS contains a 1,095-bp coding region corresponding to 364 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 40.7 kDa. NCBIP blast shows that the putative amino acid of SjGS contains a classic β-grasp domain and a catalytic domain of glutamine synthetase. The relative mRNA expression of SjGS was evaluated in 7-, 13-, 21-, 28-, 35-, and 42-day worms of S. japonicum in the final host and higher expression at day 21, and 42 worms were observed. This protein was also detected in worm extracts using Western blot. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the SjGS protein was mainly distributed on tegument and parenchyma in 28-day adult worms. The recombinant glutamine synthetase with a molecular weight of 45 kDa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in its active form. The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was 3.30 ± 0.67 U.μg-1. The enzyme activity was highly stable over a wide range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-40 °C) under physiological conditions. The transcription of SjGS was upregulated in praziquantel-treated worms at 2-, 4-, and 24-h posttreatment compared with the untreated control. As a first step towards the clarification of the role of glutamine synthetase in schistosome species, we have cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding SjGS in S. japonicum, and the data presented suggest that SjGS is an important molecule in the development of the schistosome.

  19. Protein Translation Enzyme lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Presents a New Target for Drug Development against Causative Agents of Loiasis and Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites are an assemblage of two major phyla of nematodes (also known as roundworms) and platyhelminths (also called flatworms). These parasites are a major human health burden, and infections caused by helminths are considered under neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These infections are typified by limited clinical treatment options and threat of drug resistance. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are vital enzymes that decode genetic information and enable protein translation. The specific inhibition of pathogen aaRSs bores well for development of next generation anti-parasitics. Here, we have identified and annotated aaRSs and accessory proteins from Loa loa (nematode) and Schistosoma mansoni (flatworm) to provide a glimpse of these protein translation enzymes within these parasites. Using purified parasitic lysyl-tRNA synthetases (KRSs), we developed series of assays that address KRS enzymatic activity, oligomeric states, crystal structure and inhibition profiles. We show that L. loa and S. mansoni KRSs are potently inhibited by the fungal metabolite cladosporin. Our co-crystal structure of Loa loa KRS-cladosporin complex reveals key interacting residues and provides a platform for structure-based drug development. This work hence provides a new direction for both novel target discovery and inhibitor development against eukaryotic pathogens that include L. loa and S. mansoni. PMID:27806050

  20. An Incompatibility between a Mitochondrial tRNA and Its Nuclear-Encoded tRNA Synthetase Compromises Development and Fitness in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Holmbeck, Marissa A.; Siddiq, Mohammad A.; Abt, Dawn N.; Rand, David M.; Montooth, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription, translation, and respiration require interactions between genes encoded in two distinct genomes, generating the potential for mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to interact epistatically and cause incompatibilities that decrease fitness. Mitochondrial-nuclear epistasis for fitness has been documented within and between populations and species of diverse taxa, but rarely has the genetic or mechanistic basis of these mitochondrial–nuclear interactions been elucidated, limiting our understanding of which genes harbor variants causing mitochondrial–nuclear disruption and of the pathways and processes that are impacted by mitochondrial–nuclear coevolution. Here we identify an amino acid polymorphism in the Drosophila melanogaster nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl–tRNA synthetase that interacts epistatically with a polymorphism in the D. simulans mitochondrial-encoded tRNATyr to significantly delay development, compromise bristle formation, and decrease fecundity. The incompatible genotype specifically decreases the activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I, III, and IV that contain mitochondrial-encoded subunits. Combined with the identity of the interacting alleles, this pattern indicates that mitochondrial protein translation is affected by this interaction. Our findings suggest that interactions between mitochondrial tRNAs and their nuclear-encoded tRNA synthetases may be targets of compensatory molecular evolution. Human mitochondrial diseases are often genetically complex and variable in penetrance, and the mitochondrial–nuclear interaction we document provides a plausible mechanism to explain this complexity. PMID:23382693

  1. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence. PMID:27446562

  2. Identification of potent inhibitors of the Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase via high-throughput orthogonal screening.

    PubMed

    Pedró-Rosa, Laura; Buckner, Frederick S; Ranade, Ranae M; Eberhart, Christina; Madoux, Franck; Gillespie, J Robert; Koh, Cho Yeow; Brown, Steven; Lohse, Jacqueline; Verlinde, Christophe L M; Fan, Erkang; Bannister, Thomas; Scampavia, Louis; Hol, Wim G J; Spicer, Timothy; Hodder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Improved therapies for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of the neglected tropical disease human African trypanosomiasis, are urgently needed. We targeted T. brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), an aminoacyl-tRNA synthase (aaRS), which is considered an important drug target due to its role in protein synthesis, cell survival, and its significant differences in structure from its mammalian ortholog. Previous work using RNA interference of MetRS demonstrated growth inhibition of T. brucei, further validating it as an attractive target. We report the development and implementation of two orthogonal high-throughput screening assays to identify inhibitors of T. brucei MetRS. First, a chemiluminescence assay was implemented in a 1536-well plate format and used to monitor adenosine triphosphate depletion during the aminoacylation reaction. Hit confirmation then used a counterscreen in which adenosine monophosphate production was assessed using fluorescence polarization technology. In addition, a miniaturized cell viability assay was used to triage cytotoxic compounds. Finally, lower throughput assays involving whole parasite growth inhibition of both human and parasite MetRS were used to analyze compound selectivity and efficacy. The outcome of this high-throughput screening campaign has led to the discovery of 19 potent and selective T. brucei MetRS inhibitors.

  3. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence.

  4. STING-Dependent 2'-5' Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Production Is Required for Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae Survival.

    PubMed

    de Toledo-Pinto, Thiago Gomes; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Batista-Silva, Leonardo Ribeiro; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Lemes, Robertha Mariana Rodrigues; Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Sandoval, Felipe Galvan; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Shannon, Edward Joseph; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Antunes, Sérgio Luís Gomes; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Lara, Flávio Alves; Williams, Diana Lynn; Ozório Moraes, Milton

    2016-07-15

    Cytosolic detection of nucleic acids elicits a type I interferon (IFN) response and plays a critical role in host defense against intracellular pathogens. Herein, a global gene expression profile of Mycobacterium leprae-infected primary human Schwann cells identified the genes differentially expressed in the type I IFN pathway. Among them, the gene encoding 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) underwent the greatest upregulation and was also shown to be upregulated in M. leprae-infected human macrophage cell lineages, primary monocytes, and skin lesion specimens from patients with a disseminated form of leprosy. OASL knock down was associated with decreased viability of M. leprae that was concomitant with upregulation of either antimicrobial peptide expression or autophagy levels. Downregulation of MCP-1/CCL2 release was also observed during OASL knock down. M. leprae-mediated OASL expression was dependent on cytosolic DNA sensing mediated by stimulator of IFN genes signaling. The addition of M. leprae DNA enhanced nonpathogenic Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin intracellular survival, downregulated antimicrobial peptide expression, and increased MCP-1/CCL2 secretion. Thus, our data uncover a promycobacterial role for OASL during M. leprae infection that directs the host immune response toward a niche that permits survival of the pathogen.

  5. Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediated by Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 3 Is Required for Mutant KRAS Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Padanad, Mahesh S; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Melegari, Margherita; Rindhe, Smita; Mitsche, Matthew; Yang, Chendong; Batten, Kimberly; Huffman, Kenneth E; Liu, Jingwen; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Kalhor, Neda; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Wistuba, Ignacio I; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-08-09

    KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Mutant KRAS aberrantly regulates metabolic networks. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism to mutant KRAS tumorigenesis is not completely understood. We report that mutant KRAS regulates intracellular fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3), which converts fatty acids into fatty Acyl-CoA esters, the substrates for lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. ACSL3 suppression is associated with depletion of cellular ATP and causes the death of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, mutant KRAS promotes the cellular uptake, retention, accumulation, and β-oxidation of fatty acids in lung cancer cells in an ACSL3-dependent manner. Finally, ACSL3 is essential for mutant KRAS lung cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and is highly expressed in human lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that mutant KRAS reprograms lipid homeostasis, establishing a metabolic requirement that could be exploited for therapeutic gain.

  6. Hydroxamate-based colorimetric assay to assess amide bond formation by adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryotaro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrated the usefulness of a hydroxamate-based colorimetric assay for predicting amide bond formation (through an aminoacyl-AMP intermediate) by the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. By using a typical adenylation domain of tyrocidine synthetase (involved in tyrocidine biosynthesis), we confirmed the correlation between the absorbance at 490 nm of the l-Trp-hydroxamate-Fe(3+) complex and the formation of l-Trp-l-Pro, where l-Pro was used instead of hydroxylamine. Furthermore, this assay was adapted to the adenylation domains of surfactin synthetase (involved in surfactin biosynthesis) and bacitracin synthetase (involved in bacitracin biosynthesis). Consequently, the formation of various aminoacyl l-Pro formations was observed.

  7. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-03-11

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  8. A CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase purified from a marine bacterium, Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Hitomi; Mine, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) synthetase was found in a crude extract prepared from Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145, a marine bacterium that also produces a β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase. The CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase was purified from the crude extract of the cells by a combination of anion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band (60 kDa) on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The activity of the enzyme was maximal at 35 °C at pH 9.0, and the synthetase required Mg(2+) for activity. Although these properties are similar to those of other CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases isolated from bacteria, this synthetase produced not only CMP-Neu5Ac from cytidine triphosphate and Neu5Ac, but also CMP-N-glycolylneuraminic acid from cytidine triphosphate and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, unlike CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase purified from Escherichia coli.

  9. Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR transcription factor regulates gene expression in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Glutamine synthetase transmits the nitrogen regulatory signal to GlnR. The DNA-binding activity of GlnR is activated by a transient protein-protein interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. This signal transduction mechanism was analysed by creating mutant GlnR proteins with partial or complete truncations of their C-terminal domains. The truncated GlnR proteins were found to constitutively repress gene expression in vivo. This constitutive repression did not require glutamine synthetase. Purified mutant GlnR proteins bound DNA in vitro more tightly than wild-type GlnR protein and this binding was not activated by feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. While full-length GlnR is monomeric, the truncated GlnR proteins contained significant levels of dimers. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of GlnR acts as an autoinhibitory domain that prevents GlnR dimerization and thus impedes DNA binding. The GlnR C-terminal domain is also required for the interaction between GlnR and feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. Compared with the full-length GlnR protein, the truncated GlnR proteins were defective in their interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase in cross-linking experiments.

  10. Giardia fatty acyl-CoA synthetases as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fengguang; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Argüello-García, Raúl; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is one of the leading causes of diarrheal parasitic diseases worldwide. Although limited drugs to treat giardiasis are available, there are concerns regarding toxicity in some patients and the emerging drug resistance. By data-mining genome sequences, we observed that G. intestinalis is incapable of synthesizing fatty acids (FA) de novo. However, this parasite has five long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (GiACS1 to GiACS5) to activate FA scavenged from the host. ACS is an essential enzyme because FA need to be activated to form acyl-CoA thioesters before they can enter subsequent metabolism. In the present study, we performed experiments to explore whether some GiACS enzymes could serve as drug targets in Giardia. Based on the high-throughput datasets and protein modeling analyses, we initially studied the GiACS1 and GiACS2, because genes encoding these two enzymes were found to be more consistently expressed in varied parasite life cycle stages and when interacting with host cells based on previously reported transcriptome data. These two proteins were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Biochemical analysis revealed that both had apparent substrate preference toward palmitic acid (C16:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), and allosteric or Michaelis–Menten kinetics on palmitic acid or ATP. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C inhibited the activity of both enzymes (IC50 = 1.56 μM, Ki = 0.18 μM for GiACS1, and IC50 = 2.28 μM, Ki = 0.23 μM for GiACS2, respectively) and the growth of G. intestinalis in vitro (IC50 = 0.8 μM). As expected from giardial evolutionary characteristics, both GiACSs displayed differences in overall folding structure as compared with their human counterparts. These observations support the notion that some of the GiACS enzymes may be explored as drug targets in this parasite. PMID:26257723

  11. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  12. Proofreading in vivo: Editing of homocysteine by methionyl-tRNA synthetase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, H. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have established a pre-transfer proofreading mechanism for editing of homocysteine by bacterial methionyl-, isoleucyl-, and valyl-tRNA synthetases. The unusual feature of the editing is the formation of a distinct compound, homocysteine thiolactone. Now, two-dimensional TLC analysis of 35S-labeled amino acids extracted from cultures of the bacterium Escherichia coli reveals that the thiolactone is also synthesized in vivo. In E. coli, the thiolactone is made from homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by methionyl-tRNA synthetase. One molecule of homocysteine is edited as thiolactone per 109 molecules of methionine incorporated into protein in vivo. These results not only directly demonstrate that the adenylate proofreading pathway for rejection of misactivated homocysteine operates in vivo in E. coli but, in general, establish the importance of error-editing mechanisms in living cells.

  13. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: versatile players in the changing theater of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Francklyn, Christopher; Perona, John J; Puetz, Joern; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases attach amino acids to the 3' termini of cognate tRNAs to establish the specificity of protein synthesis. A recent Asilomar conference (California, January 13-18, 2002) discussed new research into the structure-function relationship of these crucial enzymes, as well as a multitude of novel functions, including participation in amino acid biosynthesis, cell cycle control, RNA splicing, and export of tRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. Together with the discovery of their role in the cellular synthesis of proteins to incorporate selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, these diverse functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases underscore the flexibility and adaptability of these ancient enzymes and stimulate the development of new concepts and methods for expanding the genetic code. PMID:12458790

  14. let-65 is cytoplasmic methionyl tRNA synthetase in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Alriyami, Maha Z.; Jones, Martin R.; Johnsen, Robert C.; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Baillie, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic methionyl tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is one of more than 20 cytoplasmic aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzymes (ARS). This family of enzymes catalyzes a process fundamental for protein translation. Using a combination of genetic mapping, oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, and phenotypic correlation, we show that mutations in the essential gene, let-65, reside within the predicted Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of MetRS, which we have named mars-1. We demonstrate that the lethality associated with alleles of let-65 is fully rescued by a transgenic array that spans the mars-1 genomic region. Furthermore, sequence analysis reveals that six let-65 alleles lead to the alteration of highly conserved amino acids. PMID:25606464

  15. Genetic incorporation of histidine derivatives using an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Han; Peters, Francis B; Yang, Peng-Yu; Reed, Sean; Chittuluru, Johnathan R; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-05-16

    A polyspecific amber suppressor aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair was evolved that genetically encodes a series of histidine analogues in both Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. In combination with tRNACUA(Pyl), a pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase mutant was able to site-specifically incorporate 3-methyl-histidine, 3-pyridyl-alanine, 2-furyl-alanine, and 3-(2-thienyl)-alanine into proteins in response to an amber codon. Substitution of His66 in the blue fluorescent protein (BFP) with these histidine analogues created mutant proteins with distinct spectral properties. This work further expands the structural and chemical diversity of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) that can be genetically encoded in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and affords new probes of protein structure and function.

  16. Purification, crystallization and data collection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2676, a pantothenate synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; van Niekirk, C. A. Johannes; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Sar2676, a pantothenate synthetase with a molecular weight of 31 419 Da from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized at 293 K. The protein crystallizes in a primitive triclinic lattice, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.3, b = 60.5, c = 117.6 Å, α = 87.2, β = 81.2, γ = 68.4°. A complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution at the ESRF. Consideration of the likely solvent content suggested the asymmetric unit to contain four molecules. This has been confirmed by molecular-replacement phasing calculations, which give a solution with four monomers using a monomer of pantothenate synthetase from Escherichia coli (PDB code 1iho), which is 41% identical to Sar2676, as a search model. PMID:17554169

  17. Multistep modeling of protein structure: application towards refinement of tyr-tRNA synthetase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Shibata, M.; Roychoudhury, M.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of multistep modeling (MSM) is expanding by adding a least-squares minimization step in the procedure to fit backbone reconstruction consistent with a set of C-alpha coordinates. The analytical solution of Phi and Psi angles, that fits a C-alpha x-ray coordinate is used for tyr-tRNA synthetase. Phi and Psi angles for the region where the above mentioned method fails, are obtained by minimizing the difference in C-alpha distances between the computed model and the crystal structure in a least-squares sense. We present a stepwise application of this part of MSM to the determination of the complete backbone geometry of the 321 N terminal residues of tyrosine tRNA synthetase to a root mean square deviation of 0.47 angstroms from the crystallographic C-alpha coordinates.

  18. Co-operation between Polymerases and Nucleotide Synthetases in the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Eun; Higgs, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that life passed through an RNA World stage in which replication was sustained by catalytic RNAs (ribozymes). The two most obvious types of ribozymes are a polymerase, which uses a neighbouring strand as a template to make a complementary sequence to the template, and a nucleotide synthetase, which synthesizes monomers for use by the polymerase. When a chemical source of monomers is available, the polymerase can survive on its own. When the chemical supply of monomers is too low, nucleotide production by the synthetase is essential and the two ribozymes can only survive when they are together. Here we consider a computational model to investigate conditions under which coexistence and cooperation of these two types of ribozymes is possible. The model considers six types of strands: the two functional sequences, the complementary strands to these sequences (which are required as templates), and non-functional mutants of the two sequences (which act as parasites). Strands are distributed on a two-dimensional lattice. Polymerases replicate strands on neighbouring sites and synthetases produce monomers that diffuse in the local neighbourhood. We show that coexistence of unlinked polymerases and synthetases is possible in this spatial model under conditions in which neither sequence could survive alone; hence, there is a selective force for increasing complexity. Coexistence is dependent on the relative lengths of the two functional strands, the strand diffusion rate, the monomer diffusion rate, and the rate of deleterious mutations. The sensitivity of this two-ribozyme system suggests that evolution of a system of many types of ribozymes would be difficult in a purely spatial model with unlinked genes. We therefore speculate that linkage of genes onto mini-chromosomes and encapsulation of strands in protocells would have been important fairly early in the history of life as a means of enabling more complex systems to evolve. PMID:27820829

  19. Glutamine synthetase immunor present in oligodendroglia of regions of the central nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.; Gibbs, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  20. Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is present in oligodendroglia of various regions of the central nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Eng, L. F.; Gibbs, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  1. What is the oligoadenylate synthetases-like protein and does it have therapeutic potential for influenza?

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, John F.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.

    2015-01-01

    Besides its pandemic potential, seasonal influenza infection is associated with an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide every year. Part of this virulence of influenza virus can be attributed to its ability to evade the host innate immune response. Here we discuss the possibility of using a recently described mechanism of boosting the innate immunity by oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein, to combat influenza infections. PMID:25544107

  2. Glutamine synthetase gene expression and glutamate transporters in C6-glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Baber, Zafeer; Haghighat, Nasrin

    2010-12-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the major glutamate-forming enzyme of vertebrae and is accepted to be a marker of astroglial cells. Maturation of astroglial cells is characterized by an increase in GS activity, and the regulation of this enzyme is the topic of many publications. The amino acid glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and mediates normal excitatory synaptic transmission by interaction with postsynaptic receptors. Glutamate also acts as a potent neurotoxin when present at high concentration. Glutamate neurotoxicity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the normal condition, L-glutamate is predominantly taken up, metabolized and recycled by astrocytes through the glutamate transporters (GLAST/GLT1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) catalytic activity. Because of the fundamental role of these glutamate transporters and the glutamine synthetase enzyme in controlling cerebral glutamate level, regulation of GS and studying of the glutamate transporters in glial cells is important. Astrocytes are supportive cells and act as the site of detoxification of glutamate in the brain. However, their isolation from the brain is a tedious, costly and time consuming procedure. On the other hand, the C6-glioma cells are readily available on the market. They are well characterized and have been a useful model for CNS glia in many laboratories. For this study, we used the C6-glioma cell line as a model system. We examined the presence or absence of glial specific glutamate transporters (GLTI and GLAST) in C6-glioma cells, which was done by immunocytochemistry. We also examined glutamine synthetase gene expression in these cells by treatment of the C6-glioma cells with estrogen (17ß estradiol). The findings from this study provide useful information about C6-glioma cells which makes the study of the CNS tremendously inexpensive.

  3. Thiol synthetases of legumes: immunogold localization and differential gene regulation by phytohormones

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Maria R.; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Loscos, Jorge; James, Euan K.; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Navascués, Joaquín; Gay, Marina; Becana, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In plants and other organisms, glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is catalysed sequentially by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γECS) and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). In legumes, homoglutathione (hGSH) can replace GSH and is synthesized by γECS and a specific homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS). The subcellular localization of the enzymes was examined by electron microscopy in several legumes and gene expression was analysed in Lotus japonicus plants treated for 1–48 h with 50 μM of hormones. Immunogold localization studies revealed that γECS is confined to chloroplasts and plastids, whereas hGSHS is also in the cytosol. Addition of hormones caused differential expression of thiol synthetases in roots. After 24–48 h, abscisic and salicylic acids downregulated GSHS whereas jasmonic acid upregulated it. Cytokinins and polyamines activated GSHS but not γECS or hGSHS. Jasmonic acid elicited a coordinated response of the three genes and auxin induced both hGSHS expression and activity. Results show that the thiol biosynthetic pathway is compartmentalized in legumes. Moreover, the similar response profiles of the GSH and hGSH contents in roots of non-nodulated and nodulated plants to the various hormonal treatments indicate that thiol homeostasis is independent of the nitrogen source of the plants. The differential regulation of the three mRNA levels, hGSHS activity, and thiol contents by hormones indicates a fine control of thiol biosynthesis at multiple levels and strongly suggests that GSH and hGSH play distinct roles in plant development and stress responses. PMID:22442424

  4. Thiol synthetases of legumes: immunogold localization and differential gene regulation by phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Maria R; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Loscos, Jorge; James, Euan K; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Navascués, Joaquín; Gay, Marina; Becana, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    In plants and other organisms, glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is catalysed sequentially by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γECS) and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). In legumes, homoglutathione (hGSH) can replace GSH and is synthesized by γECS and a specific homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS). The subcellular localization of the enzymes was examined by electron microscopy in several legumes and gene expression was analysed in Lotus japonicus plants treated for 1-48 h with 50 μM of hormones. Immunogold localization studies revealed that γECS is confined to chloroplasts and plastids, whereas hGSHS is also in the cytosol. Addition of hormones caused differential expression of thiol synthetases in roots. After 24-48 h, abscisic and salicylic acids downregulated GSHS whereas jasmonic acid upregulated it. Cytokinins and polyamines activated GSHS but not γECS or hGSHS. Jasmonic acid elicited a coordinated response of the three genes and auxin induced both hGSHS expression and activity. Results show that the thiol biosynthetic pathway is compartmentalized in legumes. Moreover, the similar response profiles of the GSH and hGSH contents in roots of non-nodulated and nodulated plants to the various hormonal treatments indicate that thiol homeostasis is independent of the nitrogen source of the plants. The differential regulation of the three mRNA levels, hGSHS activity, and thiol contents by hormones indicates a fine control of thiol biosynthesis at multiple levels and strongly suggests that GSH and hGSH play distinct roles in plant development and stress responses.

  5. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4(+) accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4(+) when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4(+). Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4(+) when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity.

  6. [Isolation of tyrosyl-tRNA-synthetase from Thermus thermophilus HB-27].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, A D; Tukalo, M A; Egorova, S P; Konovalenko, A V; Matsuka, G Kh

    1990-01-01

    A method for isolating tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus is described, including ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-sepharose, hydroxyapatite, heparin-sepharose and hydrophobic chromatography on Toyopearl HW-65. The yield of the purified enzyme was 1.6 mg per 1 kg of T. thermophilus cells. The enzyme is a dimer protein of the alpha 2 type with molecular weight of 100 kDa.

  7. Quality Control by Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase of Bacillus subtilis Is Required for Efficient Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Kermgard, Elizabeth; Yang, Zhou; Michel, Annika-Marisa; Simari, Rachel; Wong, Jacqueline; Ibba, Michael; Lazazzera, Beth A.

    2017-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase whose essential function is to aminoacylate tRNAIle with isoleucine. Like some other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, IleRS can mischarge tRNAIle and correct this misacylation through a separate post-transfer editing function. To explore the biological significance of this editing function, we created a ileS(T233P) mutant of Bacillus subtilis that allows tRNAIle mischarging while retaining wild-type Ile-tRNAIle synthesis activity. As seen in other species defective for aminoacylation quality control, the growth rate of the ileS(T233P) strain was not significantly different from wild-type. When the ileS(T233P) strain was assessed for its ability to promote distinct phenotypes in response to starvation, the ileS(T233P) strain was observed to exhibit a significant defect in formation of environmentally resistant spores. The sporulation defect ranged from 3-fold to 30-fold and was due to a delay in activation of early sporulation genes. The loss of aminoacylation quality control in the ileS(T233P) strain resulted in the inability to compete with a wild-type strain under selective conditions that required sporulation. These data show that the quality control function of IleRS is required in B. subtilis for efficient sporulation and suggests that editing by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases may be important for survival under starvation/nutrient limitation conditions. PMID:28139725

  8. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant α-synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Faergeman, Nils J.; Feddersen, Søren; Cole, Nelson B.; Pribill, Ingrid; Berger, Johannes; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Murphy, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Because α-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of α-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-14C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored after the addition of exogenous wt mouse or human α-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of α-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools was markedly reduced. The dilution coefficient lambda, which indicates 20:4n-6 recycling between the acyl-CoA pool and brain phospholipids, was increased 3.3-fold, indicating more 20:4n-6 was entering the 20:4n-6-CoA pool from the plasma relative to that being recycled from the phospholipids. This is consistent with the reduction in Acsl activity observed in the Snca-/- mice. Using titration microcalorimetry, we determined that α-synuclein bound free 20:4n-6 (Kd of 3.7 μM), but did not bind 20:4n-6-CoA. These data suggest α-synuclein is involved in substrate presentation to Acsl rather than product removal. In summary, our data demonstrate that α-synuclein has a major role in brain 20:4n-6 metabolism through its modulation of endoplasmic reticulum localized acyl-CoA synthetase activity, although mutants forms of α-synuclein fail to restore this activity. PMID:16734431

  9. Effect of post-silking drought on nitrogen partitioning and gene expression patterns of glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase in two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Fengxia; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xiaohong; Qin, Xiaoliang; Wen, Xiaoxia

    2016-05-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthetase (AS) are proposed to have important function in plant nitrogen (N) remobilization, but their roles under drought stress are not well defined. In this study, the expression dynamics of GS and AS genes were analyzed in two maize varieties (ZD958 and NH101) in relation to post-silking drought stress induced nitrogen partitioning. ZD958 was a 'stay-green' variety with 5% nitrogen harvest index (NHI) lower than NH101. From silking to maturity, the amount of nitrogen remobilized from ear-leaves in ZD958 was evidently lower than NH101, and post-silking drought stress increased the nitrogen remobilization for both varieties. In ear-leaves, the expression of ZmGln1-3 was enhanced under drought stress. Three AS genes (ZmAS1, ZmAS2 and ZmAS3) were differentially regulated by post-silking drought treatment, of which the expression of ZmAS3 was stimulated at late stage of leaf senescence. In NH101, the expression level of ZmAS3 was markedly higher than that in ZD958. In developing grains, there were no significant differences in expression patterns of GS and AS genes between well water and drought treated plants. Drought stress altered maize N partitioning at the whole-plant level, and the up-regulation of GS and AS genes may contribute to the higher leaf nitrogen remobilization when exposed to drought treatments.

  10. Directed evolution of adenylosuccinate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis and its application in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Guanglu; Li, Xinli; Fu, Jing; Chen, Tao; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhao, Xueming

    2016-08-10

    Adenylosuccinate synthetase (EC. 6.3.4.4) encoded by purA in Bacillus subtilis, catalyzing the first step of the conversion of IMP to AMP, plays an important role in flux distribution in the purine biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we described the use of site saturation mutagenesis to obtain a desired enzyme activity of adenylosuccinate synthetase and its application in flux regulation. Based on sequence alignment and structural modeling, a library of enzyme variants was created by a semi-rational evolution strategy in position Thr238 and Pro242. Other than purA deletion, the leaky mutation purA(P242N) partially reduced the flux towards AMP derived from IMP and increased the riboflavin synthesis precursor GTP, while also kept the requirement of ATP synthesis for cell growth. PurA(P242N) was introduced into an inosine-producing strain and resulted in an approximately 4.66-fold increase in inosine production, from 0.088±0.009g/L to 0.41±0.051g/L, in minimal medium without hypoxanthine accumulation. These results underline that the directed evolution of adenylosuccinate synthetase could tailor its activities and adjust metabolic flux. This mutation may provide a promising application in purine-based product accumulation, like inosine, guanosine and folate which are directly stemming from purine pathway in B. subtilis.

  11. Urease of Klebsiella aerogenes: control of its synthesis by glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, B; Magasanik, B

    1977-01-01

    Urease was purified 24-fold from extracts of Klebsiella aerogenes. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 230,000 as determined by gel filtration, is highly substrate specific, and has a Km for urea of 0.7 mM. A mutant strain lacking urease was isolated; it failed to grow with urea as the sole source of nitrogen but did grow on media containing other nitrogen sources such as ammonia, histidine, or arginine. Urease was present at a high level when the cells were starved for nitrogen; its synthesis was repressed when the external ammonia concentration was high. Formation of urease did not require induction by urea and was not subject to catabolite repression. Its synthesis was controlled by glutamine synthetase. Mutants lacking glutamine synthetase failed to produce urease, and mutants forming glutamine synthetase at a high constitutive level also formed urease constitutively. Thus, the formation of urease is regulated like that of other enzymes of K. aerogenes capable of supplying the cell with ammonia or glutamate. PMID:18438

  12. Unique domain appended to vertebrate tRNA synthetase is essential for vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoling; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Hui-Min; Swindell, Eric C.; Marshall, Alan G.; Guo, Min; Kishi, Shuji; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2012-01-01

    New domains were progressively added to cytoplasmic aminoacyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases during evolution. One example is the UNE-S domain, appended to seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) in species that developed closed circulatory systems. Here we show using solution and crystal structure analyses and in vitro and in vivo functional studies that UNE-S harbours a robust nuclear localization signal (NLS) directing SerRS to the nucleus where it attenuates vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. We also show that SerRS mutants previously linked to vasculature abnormalities either deleted the NLS or have the NLS sequestered in an alternative conformation. A structure-based second-site mutation, designed to release the sequestered NLS, restored normal vasculature. Thus, the essential function of SerRS in vascular development depends on UNE-S. These results are the first to show an essential role for a tRNA synthetase-associated appended domain at the organism level, and suggest that acquisition of UNE-S has a role in the establishment of the closed circulatory systems of vertebrates. PMID:22353712

  13. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M; Myers, Janette B; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E; Davies, Douglas R; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M; Barrett, Lynn K; Buckner, Frederick S; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment.

  14. Lactose synthetase activity in mouse mammary glands is controlled by thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial cells in explants from the mammary glands of euthyroid mature virgin mice are proliferatively dormant. They must undergo DNA synthesis and traverse the cell cycle in vitro before they are able to differentiate fully in response to insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, and synthesize enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin (measured as lactose synthetase activity). In contrast, glands from hyperthyroid mature virgin mice do not require DNA synthesis in vitro to differentiate. Explants from the euthyroid virgin tissue overcome their dependence on DNA synthesis when 10(-9) M 3,5,3'-triiodo-L- thyronine is added directly to the cultures in addition to the other three hormones. Explants from involuted mammary glands from euthyroid primiparous mice do not require DNA synthesis in vitro to make the milk protein even though they, like explants from mature euthyroid virgin tissue, are proliferatively dormant and do not contain detectable lactose synthetase activity in vivo. Glands from primiparous animals made mildly hypothyroid by ingestion of 0.1% thiouracil in drinking water during 7 wk of involution remain morphologically indistinguishable from glands of their euthyroid counterparts. However, explants from the glands of these hypothyroid animals revert to a state of dependence on DNA synthesis to differentiate functionally. These observations suggest that the dependence on DNA synthesis and cell cycle traversal for hormonal induction of lactose synthetase activity in the mouse mammary gland is controlled by thyroid hormones. PMID:117014

  15. Cloning and functional characterization of a homoglutathione synthetase from pea nodules.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Heras, Begoña; Matamoros, Manuel A; Ramos, Javier; Moran, Jose F; Becana, Manuel

    2002-05-01

    The thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH; gammaGlu-Cys-Gly) is very abundant in legume nodules where it performs multiple functions that are critical for optimal nitrogen fixation. Some legume nodules contain another tripeptide, homoglutathione (hGSH; gammaGlu-Cys-betaAla), in addition to or instead of GSH. We have isolated from a pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodule library a cDNA, GSHS2, that is expressed in nodules but not in leaves. This cDNA was overexpressed in insect cells and its protein product was identified as a highly active and specific hGSH synthetase. The enzyme, the first of this type to be completely purified, is predicted to be a homodimeric cytosolic protein. It shows a specific activity of 3400 nmol hGSH min-1 mg-1 protein with a standard substrate concentration (5 mM beta-alanine) and Km values of 1.9 mM for beta-alanine and 104 mM for glycine. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) shows that the pure enzyme is 57.3-fold more specific for beta-alanine than for glycine. Southern blot analysis revealed that the gene is present as a single copy in the pea genome and that there are homologous genes in other legumes. We conclude that the synthesis of hGSH in pea nodules is catalysed by a specific hGSH synthetase and not by a GSH synthetase with broad substrate specificity.

  16. Gene organization around the phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase locus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Comer, M M

    1981-01-01

    The organization of seven genes located at about 38 min on the genetic map of Escherichia coli was examined; these genes included pheS and pheT, which code for the alpha and beta subunits of phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, and thrS, the structural gene for threonyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. Deletion mutants were isolated from an F-prime-containing merodiploid strain and were characterized genetically. Seventeen different kinds of deletions extending into pheS of pheT were identified. These deletions unambiguously defined the gene order as aroD pps himA pheT pheS thrS pfkB. Mutants with deletions covering either pheS or pheT, but not both, were analyzed further by assay of phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. The phenotype of the mutants with a deletion from pfkB through pheS was anomalous; although the pheT gene was apparently still present, its product, the beta subunit, was much reduced in activity. PMID:7012115

  17. Food safety: Structure and expression of the asparagine synthetase gene family of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Runhong; Curtis, Tanya Y.; Powers, Stephen J.; Xu, Hongwei; Huang, Jianhua; Halford, Nigel G.

    2016-01-01

    Asparagine is an important nitrogen storage and transport molecule, but its accumulation as a free amino acid in crops has implications for food safety because free asparagine is a precursor for acrylamide formation during cooking and processing. Asparagine synthesis occurs by the amidation of aspartate, catalysed by asparagine synthetase, and this study concerned the expression of asparagine synthetase (TaASN) genes in wheat. The expression of three genes, TaASN1-3, was studied in different tissues and in response to nitrogen and sulphur supply. The expression of TaASN2 in the embryo and endosperm during mid to late grain development was the highest of any of the genes in any tissue. Both TaASN1 and TaASN2 increased in expression through grain development, and in the grain of field-grown plants during mid-development in response to sulphur deprivation. However, only TaASN1 was affected by nitrogen or sulphur supply in pot-based experiments, showing complex tissue-specific and developmentally-changing responses. A putative N-motif or GCN4-like regulatory motif was found in the promoter of TaASN1 genes from several cereal species. As the study was completed, a fourth gene, TaASN4, was identified from recently available genome data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that other cereal species have similar asparagine synthetase gene families to wheat. PMID:27110058

  18. Food safety: Structure and expression of the asparagine synthetase gene family of wheat.

    PubMed

    Gao, Runhong; Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Xu, Hongwei; Huang, Jianhua; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-03-01

    Asparagine is an important nitrogen storage and transport molecule, but its accumulation as a free amino acid in crops has implications for food safety because free asparagine is a precursor for acrylamide formation during cooking and processing. Asparagine synthesis occurs by the amidation of aspartate, catalysed by asparagine synthetase, and this study concerned the expression of asparagine synthetase (TaASN) genes in wheat. The expression of three genes, TaASN1-3, was studied in different tissues and in response to nitrogen and sulphur supply. The expression of TaASN2 in the embryo and endosperm during mid to late grain development was the highest of any of the genes in any tissue. Both TaASN1 and TaASN2 increased in expression through grain development, and in the grain of field-grown plants during mid-development in response to sulphur deprivation. However, only TaASN1 was affected by nitrogen or sulphur supply in pot-based experiments, showing complex tissue-specific and developmentally-changing responses. A putative N-motif or GCN4-like regulatory motif was found in the promoter of TaASN1 genes from several cereal species. As the study was completed, a fourth gene, TaASN4, was identified from recently available genome data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that other cereal species have similar asparagine synthetase gene families to wheat.

  19. Beneficial consequences of a selective glutamine synthetase inhibitor in oats and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1988-01-01

    We report on the effects of administering a unique glutamine synthetase inhibitor to cereals and N/sub 2/-fixing legumes. A bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) delivers this inhibitor to provide extended treatment periods; we inoculated the root systems of oat and legume plants with pv. tabaci to provide for delivery of this inhibitor to their root or root/nodule systems. Inoculation of legumes is accompanied by increased plant growth, total plant nitrogen, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation activity. Inoculation of the oats is accompanied by either of two results depending upon the genotype of the oat plant. One result is inhibition of plant growth followed by plant death as consequences of the loss of all of the glutamine synthetase activities in the plant and the subsequent accumulation of ammonia and cessation of nitrate uptake. The second and opposite result is observed in a small population of oats screened from a commercial cultivar and includes increased plant growth and leaf protein. The effects of this inhibitor can be beneficial when applied to appropriate plant material. In an attempt to effectively communicate these findings to the reader, we first introduce the inhibitor (a novel amino acid) and its bacterial delivery systems, the target of the inhibitor (glutamine synthetase-catalyzed ammonia assimilation), and the two different nitrogen economics in the legume and cereal plants used experimentally. The physiological, biochemical, and molecular genetic consequences of the inhibitor action in cereals and legumes, as we presently understand them, are then presented. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.,

  20. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M.; Myers, Janette B.; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E.; Davies, Douglas R.; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment. PMID:27500735

  1. Crystal structure of histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate.

    PubMed Central

    Arnez, J G; Harris, D C; Mitschler, A; Rees, B; Francklyn, C S; Moras, D

    1995-01-01

    The crystal structure at 2.6 A of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate has been determined. The enzyme is a homodimer with a molecular weight of 94 kDa and belongs to the class II of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). The asymmetric unit is composed of two homodimers. Each monomer consists of two domains. The N-terminal catalytic core domain contains a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet sitting on two alpha-helices, which can be superposed with the catalytic domains of yeast AspRS, and GlyRS and SerRS from Thermus thermophilus with a root-mean-square difference on the C alpha atoms of 1.7-1.9 A. The active sites of all four monomers are occupied by histidyl-adenylate, which apparently forms during crystallization. The 100 residue C-terminal alpha/beta domain resembles half of a beta-barrel, and provides an independent domain oriented to contact the anticodon stem and part of the anticodon loop of tRNA(His). The modular domain organization of histidyl-tRNA synthetase reiterates a repeated theme in aaRS, and its structure should provide insight into the ability of certain aaRS to aminoacylate minihelices and other non-tRNA molecules. Images PMID:7556055

  2. Modulating effects of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-derived mitochondrial Wnt2B palmitoylation on intestinal Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christina; Schneider, Ursula; Hedberg, Christian; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Gassler, Nikolaus; Kaemmerer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) activity in Wnt signaling in intestinal surface epithelia. METHODS: Several cell lines were used to investigate the ACSL5-dependent expression and synthesis of Wnt2B, a mitochondrially expressed protein of the Wnt signaling family. Wnt activity was functionally assessed with a luciferase reporter assay. ACSL5-related biochemical Wnt2B modifications were investigated with a modified acyl-exchange assay. The findings from the cell culture models were verified using an Apcmin/+ mouse model as well as normal and neoplastic diseased human intestinal tissues. RESULTS: In the presence of ACSL5, Wnt2B was unable to translocate into the nucleus and was enriched in mitochondria, which was paralleled by a significant decrease in Wnt activity. ACSL5-dependent S-palmitoylation of Wnt2B was identified as a molecular reason for mitochondrial Wnt2B accumulation. In cell culture systems, a strong relation of ACSL5 expression, Wnt2B palmitoylation, and degree of malignancy were found. Using normal mucosa, the association of ACSL5 and Wnt2B was seen, but in intestinal neoplasias the mechanism was only rudimentarily observed. CONCLUSION: ACSL5 mediates antiproliferative activities via Wnt2B palmitoylation with diminished Wnt activity. The molecular pathway is probably relevant for intestinal homeostasis, overwhelmed by other pathways in carcinogenesis. PMID:25356045

  3. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) is a common metabolic marker of chemosensitivity for targeted arginine- and glutamine-starvation therapy.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Wang, Dajuan; Hawke, David H; Savaraj, Niramol; Feun, Lynn G; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Helen H W; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2017-03-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of arginine (Arg). Many malignant human tumors are auxotrophic for Arg because ASS1 is silenced. ASS1 has been established as a sensor of Arg auxotrophic response and a chemosensitivity marker for Arg starvation therapy. Here, we report that ASS1 is also a sensor for glutamine (Gln)-deprivation response, and that upregulation of ASS1 expression is associated with resistance to Gln-starvation treatments. Knockdown of ASS1 expression resulted in increased sensitivity to both Arg- and Gln-starvation, whereas increased ASS1 expression by ectopic transfection is associated with resistance to both Arg- and Gln-starvation. The addition of permeable fumarate, a metabolite that bridges the tricarboxylic acid and urea cycles, resulted in downregulation of ASS1 expression and increased sensitivity to both Arg- and Gln-deprivation treatments. Mechanistically, the Gln-deprivation response, like the arginine-auxotrophic response, downregulates HIF-1α resulting in de-silencing of ASS1. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 is a common biosensor for Arg and Gln deprivation response and a shared target for Arg- and Gln-starvation therapies which have been in several current clinical trials.

  4. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes.

  5. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pengfei; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs as building blocks for translation. Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival. In addition, aaRSs in higher species have evolved important non-translational functions. These translational and non-translational functions of aaRS are attractive for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The interplay between amino acids, tRNA, ATP, EF-Tu and non-canonical binding partners, had shaped each family with distinct pattern of key sites for regulation, with characters varying among species across the path of evolution. These sporadic variations in the aaRSs offer great opportunity to target these essential enzymes for therapy. Up to this day, growing numbers of aaRS inhibitors have been discovered and developed. Here, we summarize the latest developments and structural studies of aaRS inhibitors, and classify them with distinct binding modes into five categories. PMID:26670257

  6. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stephen R; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0-330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target.

  7. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen R.; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M.; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0–330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target. PMID:26696846

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Chemical Compound that Inhibits Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Robles, Sara; Hu, Yanmei; Resto, Tahyra; Dean, Frank; Bullard, James M

    2017-03-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen problematic in causing nosocomial infections and is highly susceptible to development of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The gene encoding methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) from P. aeruginosa was cloned and the resulting protein characterized. MetRS was kinetically evaluated and the KM for its three substrates, methionine, ATP and tRNAMet were determined to be 35, 515, and 29 μM, respectively. P. aeruginosa MetRS was used to screen two chemical compound libraries (1690) and a natural product compound was identified that inhibited the aminoacylation function. The compound inhibited P. aeruginosa MetRS with an IC50 of 70 μM. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was determined against nine clinically relevant bacterial strains, including efflux pump mutants and hypersensitive strains of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The compound displayed broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity. The MIC against the hypersensitive strain of P. aeruginosa was 16 μg/ml. However, the compound was not effective against the wild-type and efflux pump mutant strains, indicating that efflux may not be responsible for the lack of activity against the wild-type strains. When tested in human cell cultures, the cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) was observed to be 30 μg/ml. The compound did not compete with methionine or ATP for binding MetRS, indicating that the mechanism of action of the compound likely occurs outside the active site of aminoacylation.

  9. Biosynthesis of Polymyxins B, E, and P Using Genetically Engineered Polymyxin Synthetases in the Surrogate Host Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Yu; Park, Soo-Young; Choi, Soo-Keun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The development of diverse polymyxin derivatives is needed to solve the toxicity and resistance problems of polymyxins. However, no platform has generated polymyxin derivatives by genetically engineering a polymyxin synthetase, which is a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. In this study, we present a two-step approach for the construction of engineered polymyxin synthetases by substituting the adenylation (A) domains of polymyxin A synthetase, which is encoded by the pmxABCDE gene cluster of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681. First, the seventh L-threonine-specific A-domain region in pmxA was substituted with the Lleucine- specific A-domain region obtained from P. polymyxa ATCC21830 to make polymyxin E synthetase, and then the sixth D-leucine-specific A-domain region (A6-D-Leu-domain) was substituted with the D-phenylalanine-specific A-domain region (A6-D-Phe-domain) obtained from P. polymyxa F4 to make polymyxin B synthetase. This step was performed in Escherichia coli on a pmxA-containing fosmid, using the lambda Red recombination system and the sacB gene as a counter-selectable marker. Next, the modified pmxA gene was fused to pmxBCDE on the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis BSK4dA, and the resulting recombinant strains BSK4-PB and BSK4-PE were confirmed to produce polymyxins B and E, respectively. We also succeeded in constructing the B. subtilis BSK4-PP strain, which produces polymyxin P, by singly substituting the A6-D-Leu-domain with the A6-D-Phe-domain. This is the first report in which polymyxin derivatives were generated by genetically engineering polymyxin synthetases. The two recombinant B. subtilis strains will be useful for improving the commercial production of polymyxins B and E, and they will facilitate the generation of novel polymyxin derivatives.

  10. Lengsin is a survivor of an ancient family of class I glutamine synthetases re-engineered by evolution for a role in the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Keith; White, Helen E; Wang, Luchun; Bateman, Orval A; Slingsby, Christine; Orlova, Elena V; Wistow, Graeme

    2006-12-01

    Lengsin is a major protein of the vertebrate eye lens. It belongs to the hitherto purely prokaryotic GS I branch of the glutamine synthetase (GS) superfamily, but has no enzyme activity. Like the taxon-specific crystallins, Lengsin is the result of the recruitment of an ancient enzyme to a noncatalytic role in the vertebrate lens. Cryo-EM and modeling studies of Lengsin show a dodecamer structure with important similarities and differences with prokaryotic GS I structures. GS homology regions of Lengsin are well conserved, but the N-terminal domain shows evidence of dynamic evolutionary changes. Compared with birds and fish, most mammals have an additional exon corresponding to part of the N-terminal domain; however, in human, this is a nonfunctional pseudoexon. Genes related to Lengsin are also present in the sea urchin, suggesting that this branch of the GS I family, supplanted by GS II enzymes in vertebrates, has an ancient role in metazoans.

  11. Hepatocyte-specific interplay of transcription factors at the far-upstream enhancer of the carbamoylphosphate synthetase gene upon glucocorticoid induction.

    PubMed

    Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Gaemers, Ingrid C; Schoneveld, Onard J L M; Das, Atze T; Grange, Thierry; Lamers, Wouter H

    2007-01-01

    Carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I is the flux-determining enzyme of the ornithine cycle, and neutralizes toxic ammonia by converting it to urea. An 80 bp glucocorticoid response unit located 6.3 kb upstream of the transcription start site mediates hormone responsiveness and liver-specific expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I. The glucocorticoid response unit consists of response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, forkhead box A, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, and an unidentified protein. With only four transcription factor response elements, the carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I glucocorticoid response unit is a relatively simple unit. The relationship between carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I expression and in vivo occupancy of the response elements was examined by comparing a carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I-expressing hepatoma cell line with a carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I-negative fibroblast cell line. DNaseI hypersensitivity assays revealed an open chromatin configuration of the carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I enhancer in hepatoma cells only. In vivo footprinting assays showed that the accessory transcription factors of the glucocorticoid response unit bound to their response elements in carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I-positive cells, irrespective of whether carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I expression was induced with hormones. In contrast, the binding of glucocorticoid receptor to the carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I glucocorticoid response unit was dependent on treatment of the cells with glucocorticoids. Only forkhead box A was exclusively present in hepatoma cells, and therefore appears to be an important determinant of the observed tissue specificity of carbamoylphosphate synthetase-I expression. As the glucocorticoid receptor is the only DNA-binding protein specifically recruited to the glucocorticoid response unit upon stimulation by glucocorticoids, it is likely to be directly responsible for the transcriptional activation mediated by the

  12. Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of adrenoleukodystrophy: the roles of the Bubblegum and Double bubble acyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Sivachenko, Anna; Gordon, Hannah B.; Kimball, Suzanne S.; Gavin, Erin J.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Letsou, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Debilitating neurodegenerative conditions with metabolic origins affect millions of individuals worldwide. Still, for most of these neurometabolic disorders there are neither cures nor disease-modifying therapies, and novel animal models are needed for elucidation of disease pathology and identification of potential therapeutic agents. To date, metabolic neurodegenerative disease has been modeled in animals with only limited success, in part because existing models constitute analyses of single mutants and have thus overlooked potential redundancy within metabolic gene pathways associated with disease. Here, we present the first analysis of a very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) double mutant. We show that the Drosophila bubblegum (bgm) and double bubble (dbb) genes have overlapping functions, and that the consequences of double knockout of both bubblegum and double bubble in the fly brain are profound, affecting behavior and brain morphology, and providing the best paradigm to date for an animal model of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Using this more fully penetrant model of disease to interrogate brain morphology at the level of electron microscopy, we show that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism via disruption of ACS function in vivo is causal of neurodegenerative pathologies that are evident in both neuronal cells and their supporting cell populations, and leads ultimately to lytic cell death in affected areas of the brain. Finally, in an extension of our model system to the study of human disease, we describe our identification of an individual with leukodystrophy who harbors a rare mutation in SLC27a6 (encoding a very-long-chain ACS), a human homolog of bgm and dbb. PMID:26893370

  13. Independent transcription of glutamine synthetase (glnA2) and glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (glnE) in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hotter, Grant S; Mouat, Pania; Collins, Desmond M

    2008-09-01

    Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis possess four glutamine synthetase homologues, two of which, glnA1 and glnA2, are required for virulence and are located on the bacterial chromosome on either side of glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (glnE). While glnA1 is encoded on the complementary strand, glnA2 is located 48bp upstream from glnE, raising the possibility that glnA2 and glnE may be co-transcribed. However, previous studies in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis have painted a contradictory picture of the (co)transcriptional status of glnA2 and glnE. Given the importance of the genes at the glnA1-glnE-glnA2 locus, we sought to clarify the transcriptional status of glnA2 and glnE in both M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that glnA2 and glnE were independently transcribed in all six M. bovis and M. tuberculosis strains examined. Northern analysis of the glnA2 transcript in M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv showed that it was monocistronic. These results predicted the presence of a glnE transcriptional start site in the glnA2-glnE intergenic region. An identical start site was confirmed in M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Typical mycobacterial -10 and -35 sequences are associated with this start site.

  14. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-08

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor.

  15. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  16. Magnesium dependence of the measured equilibrium constants of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Airas, R Kalervo

    2007-12-01

    The apparent equilibrium constants (K') for six reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli were measured, the equations for the magnesium dependence of the equilibrium constants were derived, and best-fit analyses between the measured and calculated values were used. The K' values at 1 mM Mg(2+) ranged from 0.49 to 1.13. The apparent equilibrium constants increased with increasing Mg(2+) concentrations. The values were 2-3 times higher at 20 mM Mg(2+) than at 1 mM Mg(2+), and the dependence was similar in the class I and class II synthetases. The main reason for the Mg(2+) dependence is the existence of PP(i) as two magnesium complexes, but only one of them is the real product. AMP exists either as free AMP or as MgAMP, and therefore also has some effect on the measured equilibrium constant. However, these dependences alone cannot explain the measured results. The measured dependence of the K' on the Mg(2+) concentration is weaker than that caused by PP(i) and AMP. Different bindings of the Mg(2+) ions to the substrate tRNA and product aminoacyl-tRNA can explain this observation. The best-fit analysis suggests that tRNA reacts as a magnesium complex in the forward aminoacylation direction but this given Mg(2+) ion is not bound to aminoacyl-tRNA at the start of the reverse reaction. Thus Mg(2+) ions seem to have an active catalytic role, not only in the activation of the amino acid, but in the posttransfer steps of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase reaction, too.

  17. Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Reger,A.; Carney, J.; Gulick, A.

    2007-01-01

    The adenylate-forming enzymes, including acyl-CoA synthetases, the adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and firefly luciferase, perform two half-reactions in a ping-pong mechanism. We have proposed a domain alternation mechanism for these enzymes whereby, upon completion of the initial adenylation reaction, the C-terminal domain of these enzymes undergoes a 140{sup o} rotation to perform the second thioester-forming half-reaction. Structural and kinetic data of mutant enzymes support this hypothesis. We present here mutations to Salmonella enterica acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and test the ability of the enzymes to catalyze the complete reaction and the adenylation half-reaction. Substitution of Lys609 with alanine results in an enzyme that is unable to catalyze the adenylate reaction, while the Gly524 to leucine substitution is unable to catalyze the complete reaction yet catalyzes the adenylation half-reaction with activity comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The positions of these two residues, which are located on the mobile C-terminal domain, strongly support the domain alternation hypothesis. We also present steady-state kinetic data of putative substrate-binding residues and demonstrate that no single residue plays a dominant role in dictating CoA binding. We have also created two mutations in the active site to alter the acyl substrate specificity. Finally, the crystallographic structures of wild-type Acs and mutants R194A, R584A, R584E, K609A, and V386A are presented to support the biochemical analysis.

  18. Characterisation of Drosophila CMP-sialic acid synthetase activity reveals unusual enzymatic properties

    PubMed Central

    Mertsalov, Ilya B.; Novikov, Boris N.; Scott, Hilary; Dangott, Lawrence; Panin, Vladislav M.

    2016-01-01

    CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSAS) is a key enzyme of the sialylation pathway. CSAS produces the activated sugar donor, CMP-sialic acid, which serves as a substrate for sialyltransferases to modify glycan termini with sialic acid. Unlike other animal CMP-Sia synthetases that normally localize in the nucleus, Drosophila melanogaster CSAS (DmCSAS) localizes in the cell secretory compartment, predominantly in the Golgi, which suggests that this enzyme has properties distinct from those of its vertebrate counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we purified recombinant DmCSAS and characterised its activity in vitro. Our experiments revealed several unique features of this enzyme. DmCSAS displays specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid as a substrate, shows preference for lower pH and can function with a broad range of metal cofactors. When tested at a pH corresponding to the Golgi compartment, the enzyme showed significant activity with several metal cations, including Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, while the activity with Mg2+ was found to be low. Protein sequence analysis and site-specific mutagenesis identified an aspartic acid residue that is necessary for enzymatic activity and predicted to be involved in coordinating a metal cofactor. DmCSAS enzymatic activity was found to be essential in vivo for rescuing the phenotype of DmCSAS mutants. Finally, our experiments revealed a steep dependence of the enzymatic activity on temperature. Taken together, our results indicate that DmCSAS underwent evolutionary adaptation to pH and ionic environment different from that of counterpart synthetases in vertebrates. Our data also suggest that environmental temperatures can regulate Drosophila sialylation, thus modulating neural transmission. PMID:27114558

  19. Targeted Disruption of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase pes3 Augments the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Cairns, Timothy; Stack, Deirdre; Schrettl, Markus; Bignell, Elaine M.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Miggin, Sinéad M.; O'Keeffe, Grainne; Larsen, Thomas O.; Doyle, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) is a documented virulence factor for the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi. Secreted or intracellularly located NRP products include the toxic molecule gliotoxin and the iron-chelating siderophores triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin. No structural or immunologically relevant NRP products have been identified in the organism. We investigated the function of the largest gene in A. fumigatus, which encodes the NRP synthetase Pes3 (AFUA_5G12730), by targeted gene deletion and extensive phenotypic analysis. It was observed that in contrast to other NRP synthetases, deletion of pes3 significantly increases the virulence of A. fumigatus, whereby the pes3 deletion strain (A. fumigatus Δpes3) exhibited heightened virulence (increased killing) in invertebrate (P < 0.001) and increased fungal burden (P = 0.008) in a corticosteroid model of murine pulmonary aspergillosis. Complementation restored the wild-type phenotype in the invertebrate model. Deletion of pes3 also resulted in increased susceptibility to the antifungal, voriconazole (P < 0.01), shorter germlings, and significantly reduced surface β-glucan (P = 0.0325). Extensive metabolite profiling revealed that Pes3 does not produce a secreted or intracellularly stored NRP in A. fumigatus. Macrophage infections and histological analysis of infected murine tissue indicate that Δpes3 heightened virulence appears to be mediated by aberrant innate immune recognition of the fungus. Proteome alterations in A. fumigatus Δpes3 strongly suggest impaired germination capacity. Uniquely, our data strongly indicate a structural role for the Pes3-encoded NRP, a finding that appears to be novel for an NRP synthetase. PMID:21746855

  20. Amino acid sequence around the active-site serine residue in the acyltransferase domain of goat mammary fatty acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, J; Højrup, P; Rasmussen, M M; Roepstorff, P; Knudsen, J

    1985-01-01

    Goat mammary fatty acid synthetase was labelled in the acyltransferase domain by formation of O-ester intermediates by incubation with [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]malonyl-CoA. Tryptic-digest and CNBr-cleavage peptides were isolated and purified by high-performance reverse-phase and ion-exchange liquid chromatography. The sequences of the malonyl- and acetyl-labelled peptides were shown to be identical. The results confirm the hypothesis that both acetyl and malonyl groups are transferred to the mammalian fatty acid synthetase complex by the same transferase. The sequence is compared with those of other fatty acid synthetase transferases. PMID:3922356

  1. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Baba, Seiki; Kuroishi, Chizu; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-02-01

    DHNA synthetase from G. kaustophilus has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The aerobic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus is a bacillus species that was isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Mariana Trench. 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) synthetase plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K{sub 2}) in this bacterium. DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.01, b = 130.66, c = 131.69 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Preliminary studies and molecular-replacement calculations reveal the presence of three monomers in the asymmetric unit.

  2. Probing the substrate-binding sites of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with the procion dye green HE-4BD.

    PubMed Central

    McArdell, J E; Duffield, M; Atkinson, T

    1989-01-01

    A reactive bis-dichloro derivative of the Procion dye Green HE-4BD was shown to inactivate irreversibly methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MTS) from Escherichia coli and also tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase (WTS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YTS) from Bacillus stearothermophilus at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. At a 5-fold excess of reactive dye over enzyme subunit concentration MTS was quantitatively inactivated within 20 min in the ATP/pyrophosphate exchange assay, whereas WTS and YTS show an 80% loss of activity over the same time period. The inactivation is affected by the addition of substrates, which either protect (WTS and YTS) or promote (YTS with tyrosine) the dye-mediated enzyme inactivation. Green HE-4BD-OH was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of MTS with respect to MgATP, methionine and tRNA substrates. PMID:2658972

  3. Isolation of mutants deficient in acetyl-CoA synthetase and a possible regulator of acetate induction in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sealy-Lewis, H M; Fairhurst, V

    1998-07-01

    Acetate-non-utilizing mutants in Aspergillus niger were selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in the presence of 0.1% glucose. Mutants showing normal morphology fell into two complementation groups. One class of mutant lacked acetyl-CoA synthetase but had high levels of isocitrate lyase, while the second class showed reduced levels of both acetyl-CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase compared to the wild-type strain. By analogy with mutants selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in Aspergillus nidulans, the properties of the mutants in A. niger suggest that the mutations are either in the structural gene for acetyl-CoA synthetase (acuA) or in a possible regulatory gene of acetate induction (acuB). A third class of mutant in a different complementation group was obtained which had abnormal morphology (yellow mycelium and few conidia); the specific lesion in these mutants has not been determined.

  4. Characterization of the interaction between lysyl-tRNA synthetase and laminin receptor by NMR.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Young; Ul Mushtaq, Ameeq; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae Gyu; Seok, Min Sook; Jang, Minseok; Han, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sunghoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-08-25

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) interacts with the laminin receptor (LR/RPSA) and enhances laminin-induced cell migration in cancer metastasis. In this nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based study, we show that the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds directly to the C-terminal region of 37LRP, and the previously found inhibitors BC-K-01 and BC-K-YH16899 interfere with KRS-37LRP binding. In addition, the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds to laminin, observed by NMR and SPR. These results provide crucial insights into the structural characteristics of the KRS-LR interaction on the cell surface.

  5. A Fluorescent, Reagentless Biosensor for ATP, Based on Malonyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescent reagentless biosensor for ATP has been developed, based on malonyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris as the protein scaffold and recognition element. Two 5-iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamines were covalently bound to this protein to provide the readout. This adduct couples ATP binding to a 3.7-fold increase in fluorescence intensity with excitation at 553 nm and emission at 575 nm. It measures ATP concentrations with micromolar sensitivity and is highly selective for ATP relative to ADP. Its ability to monitor enzymatic ATP production or depletion was demonstrated in steady-state kinetic assays in which ATP is a product or substrate, respectively. PMID:26355992

  6. Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-03-01

    Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia.

  7. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification.

  8. A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Marissa A; Donner, Julia R; Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Rand, David M

    2015-08-01

    Communication between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is vital for cellular function. The assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes, which produce the majority of cellular energy, requires the coordinated expression and translation of both mitochondrially and nuclear-encoded proteins. The joint genetic architecture of this system complicates the basis of mitochondrial diseases, and mutations both in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)- and nuclear-encoded genes have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Previously, in a set of mitochondrial-nuclear introgression strains, we characterized a dual genome epistasis in which a naturally occurring mutation in the Drosophila simulans simw(501) mtDNA-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA) for tyrosine (tRNA(Tyr)) interacts with a mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrially localized tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the incompatible mitochondrial-nuclear combination results in locomotor defects, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activity and severe alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Transgenic rescue strains containing nuclear variants of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase are sufficient to rescue many of the deleterious phenotypes identified when paired with the simw(501) mtDNA. However, the severity of this defective mito-nuclear interaction varies across traits and genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction might be tissue specific. Because mutations in mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) are associated with exercise intolerance in humans, this mitochondrial-nuclear introgression model in Drosophila provides a means to dissect the molecular basis of these, and other, mitochondrial diseases that are a consequence of the joint genetic architecture of mitochondrial function.

  9. Structures of Trypanosoma brucei Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase with Urea-Based Inhibitors Provide Guidance for Drug Design against Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kim, Jessica E.; Wetzel, Allan B.; de van der Schueren, Will J.; Shibata, Sayaka; Ranade, Ranae M.; Liu, Jiyun; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Buckner, Frederick S.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase of Trypanosoma brucei (TbMetRS) is an important target in the development of new antitrypanosomal drugs. The enzyme is essential, highly flexible and displaying a large degree of changes in protein domains and binding pockets in the presence of substrate, product and inhibitors. Targeting this protein will benefit from a profound understanding of how its structure adapts to ligand binding. A series of urea-based inhibitors (UBIs) has been developed with IC50 values as low as 19 nM against the enzyme. The UBIs were shown to be orally available and permeable through the blood-brain barrier, and are therefore candidates for development of drugs for the treatment of late stage human African trypanosomiasis. Here, we expand the structural diversity of inhibitors from the previously reported collection and tested for their inhibitory effect on TbMetRS and on the growth of T. brucei cells. The binding modes and binding pockets of 14 UBIs are revealed by determination of their crystal structures in complex with TbMetRS at resolutions between 2.2 Å to 2.9 Å. The structures show binding of the UBIs through conformational selection, including occupancy of the enlarged methionine pocket and the auxiliary pocket. General principles underlying the affinity of UBIs for TbMetRS are derived from these structures, in particular the optimum way to fill the two binding pockets. The conserved auxiliary pocket might play a role in binding tRNA. In addition, a crystal structure of a ternary TbMetRS•inhibitor•AMPPCP complex indicates that the UBIs are not competing with ATP for binding, instead are interacting with ATP through hydrogen bond. This suggests a possibility that a general ‘ATP-engaging’ binding mode can be utilized for the design and development of inhibitors targeting tRNA synthetases of other disease-causing pathogen. PMID:24743796

  10. A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Marissa A.; Donner, Julia R.; Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Rand, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Communication between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is vital for cellular function. The assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes, which produce the majority of cellular energy, requires the coordinated expression and translation of both mitochondrially and nuclear-encoded proteins. The joint genetic architecture of this system complicates the basis of mitochondrial diseases, and mutations both in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)- and nuclear-encoded genes have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Previously, in a set of mitochondrial-nuclear introgression strains, we characterized a dual genome epistasis in which a naturally occurring mutation in the Drosophila simulans simw501 mtDNA-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA) for tyrosine (tRNATyr) interacts with a mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrially localized tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the incompatible mitochondrial-nuclear combination results in locomotor defects, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activity and severe alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Transgenic rescue strains containing nuclear variants of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase are sufficient to rescue many of the deleterious phenotypes identified when paired with the simw501 mtDNA. However, the severity of this defective mito-nuclear interaction varies across traits and genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction might be tissue specific. Because mutations in mitochondrial tRNATyr are associated with exercise intolerance in humans, this mitochondrial-nuclear introgression model in Drosophila provides a means to dissect the molecular basis of these, and other, mitochondrial diseases that are a consequence of the joint genetic architecture of mitochondrial function. PMID:26035388

  11. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence.

    PubMed

    Shoen, Carolyn M; DeStefano, Michelle S; Hager, Cynthia C; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D; Gates, Hiriam O; Cynamon, Michael H; Kernodle, Douglas S

    2013-01-11

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  12. Structures of Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase with urea-based inhibitors provide guidance for drug design against sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kim, Jessica E; Wetzel, Allan B; de van der Schueren, Will J; Shibata, Sayaka; Ranade, Ranae M; Liu, Jiyun; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J Robert; Buckner, Frederick S; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G J

    2014-04-01

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase of Trypanosoma brucei (TbMetRS) is an important target in the development of new antitrypanosomal drugs. The enzyme is essential, highly flexible and displaying a large degree of changes in protein domains and binding pockets in the presence of substrate, product and inhibitors. Targeting this protein will benefit from a profound understanding of how its structure adapts to ligand binding. A series of urea-based inhibitors (UBIs) has been developed with IC50 values as low as 19 nM against the enzyme. The UBIs were shown to be orally available and permeable through the blood-brain barrier, and are therefore candidates for development of drugs for the treatment of late stage human African trypanosomiasis. Here, we expand the structural diversity of inhibitors from the previously reported collection and tested for their inhibitory effect on TbMetRS and on the growth of T. brucei cells. The binding modes and binding pockets of 14 UBIs are revealed by determination of their crystal structures in complex with TbMetRS at resolutions between 2.2 Å to 2.9 Å. The structures show binding of the UBIs through conformational selection, including occupancy of the enlarged methionine pocket and the auxiliary pocket. General principles underlying the affinity of UBIs for TbMetRS are derived from these structures, in particular the optimum way to fill the two binding pockets. The conserved auxiliary pocket might play a role in binding tRNA. In addition, a crystal structure of a ternary TbMetRS•inhibitor•AMPPCP complex indicates that the UBIs are not competing with ATP for binding, instead are interacting with ATP through hydrogen bond. This suggests a possibility that a general 'ATP-engaging' binding mode can be utilized for the design and development of inhibitors targeting tRNA synthetases of other disease-causing pathogen.

  13. Crystal structure of the N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of the nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Suebka, Suwimon; Chen, Chun Jung; Fuengfuloy, Pitchayada; Chuawong, Pitak

    2017-02-01

    The N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of the nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) plays a crucial role in the recognition of both tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). Here, the first X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of this enzyme (ND-AspRS1-104) from the human-pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The apo form of H. pylori ND-AspRS1-104 shares high structural similarity with the N-terminal anticodon-binding domains of the discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (D-AspRS) from Escherichia coli and ND-AspRS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, allowing recognition elements to be proposed for tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). It is proposed that a long loop (Arg77-Lys90) in this H. pylori domain influences its relaxed tRNA specificity, such that it is classified as nondiscriminating. A structural comparison between D-AspRS from E. coli and ND-AspRS from P. aeruginosa suggests that turns E and F (78GAGL81 and 83NPKL86) in H. pylori ND-AspRS play a crucial role in anticodon recognition. Accordingly, the conserved Pro84 in turn F facilitates the recognition of the anticodons of tRNA(Asp) ((34)GUC(36)) and tRNA(Asn) ((34)GUU(36)). The absence of the amide H atom allows both C and U bases to be accommodated in the tRNA-recognition site.

  14. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V.; Carvalho, Helena G.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    The experimental models of dicotyledonous cytoplasmic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases unveil a conserved eukaryotic-type decameric architecture, with subtle structural differences in M. truncatula isoenzymes that account for their distinct herbicide resistance. The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants.

  15. Activity of interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in rat lymphoid cells under transformed environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchenko, L. I.; Mikhailik, I. V.; Prokopova, K. V.

    It is detected that interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase is a sensitive index of immunocompetent cells functional state under transformed environment conditions. Microgravitation and ionising radiation induce increase of investigated enzyme activity in rat lymphocytes, which can be a result of lymphoid cells compensatory mechanisms starting in response to stress factors action. Administration of interferon inductors permits to stimulate the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, which enables one to correct pathological changes in the cells and to intensify adaptive reactions of immune systems.

  16. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase and the activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites in vivo in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Coccia, P.; Romano, M.; Jiritano, L.; Noseda, A.; Salmona, M.

    1984-11-01

    The role of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in the in vivo activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites capable of interacting irreversibly with cellular macromolecules was studied in guinea pig liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, colon, and brain. DNA and protein covalent binding experiments were made after systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) followed by radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (4 microgram/kg). Results are compared with a control situation in which the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase inhibitor (acetylsalicylic acid) was not administered. No decrease in the level of DNA or protein benzo(a)pyrene-derived covalent binding was observed in any of the tissues studied.

  17. Genetic association of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 variants with fasting glucose, diabetes, and subclinical atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Zhao, Wei; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Siebenthall, Kyle; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Saleheen, Danish; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) converts free fatty acids into acyl-CoAs. Mouse studies have revealed that ACSL1 channels acyl-CoAs to β-oxidation, thereby reducing glucose utilization, and is required for diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The role of ACSL1 in humans is unknown. We therefore examined common variants in the human ACSL1 locus by genetic association studies for fasting glucose, diabetes status, and preclinical atherosclerosis by using the MAGIC and DIAGRAM consortia; followed by analyses in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, the Penn-T2D consortium, and a meta-analysis of subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans; and finally, expression quantitative trait locus analysis and identification of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS). The results show that three SNPs in ACSL1 (rs7681334, rs735949, and rs4862423) are associated with fasting glucose or diabetes status in these large (>200,000 subjects) data sets. Furthermore, rs4862423 is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and coincides with a DHS highly accessible in human heart. SNP rs735949 is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs745805, significantly associated with ACSL1 levels in skin, suggesting tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms. This study provides evidence in humans of ACSL1 SNPs associated with fasting glucose, diabetes, and subclinical atherosclerosis and suggests links among these traits and acyl-CoA synthesis. PMID:26711138

  18. Reduced expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 has a negative prognostic impact in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingqing; Stewart, John; Wang, Hua; Rashid, Asif; Zhao, Jun; Katz, Matthew H.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fleming, Jason B.; Maitra, Anirban; Wolff, Robert A.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Wang, Huamin

    2017-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), the rate-limiting enzyme for arginine biosynthesis, is expressed in many types of human malignancies. Recent studies showed that ASS1 may have tumor suppressor function and that ASS1 deficiency is associated with clinical aggressiveness in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, myxofibrosarcomas and bladder cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of ASS1 expression in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our study included two independent cohorts: untreated cohort, which was comprised of 135 patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) without pre-operative neoadjuvant therapy, and treated cohort, which was comprised of 122 patients with PDAC who have completed neoadjuvant therapy and PD. The expression level of ASS1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and survival using SPSS statistics. Our study showed that 12% of PDAC in untreated cohort and 15% of PDAC in treated cohort has low expression of ASS1 (ASS1-low). ASS1-low was associated with higher recurrence (p = 0.045), shorter disease-free survival (DFS, 4.8 ± 1.6 months vs 15.3 ± 2.2 months, p = 0.001) and shorter overall survival (OS, 14.6 ± 6.4 months vs 26.5 ± 3.5 months, p = 0.005) in untreated cohort and shorter OS in treated cohort compared to ASS1-high tumors. In multivariate analysis, ASS1-low (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26–0.79, p = 0.005) was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in untreated cohort and an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32–0.97, p = 0.04) in treated cohort. Our results provide supporting evidence for future clinical trial using arginine deprivation agents either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy in treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:28187218

  19. A binding hotspot in Trypanosoma cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase revealed by fragment-based crystallographic cocktail screens

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kallur Siddaramaiah, Latha; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nguyen, Jasmine; Jian, Tengyue; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Buckner, Frederick S.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The chronic form of the infection often causes debilitating morbidity and mortality. However, the current treatment for the disease is typically inadequate owing to drug toxicity and poor efficacy, necessitating a continual effort to discover and develop new antiparasitic therapeutic agents. The structure of T. cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS), a validated drug target, has previously been reported. Based on this structure and those of human cytosolic HisRS, opportunities for the development of specific inhibitors were identified. Here, efforts are reported to identify small molecules that bind to T. cruzi HisRS through fragment-based crystallographic screening in order to arrive at chemical starting points for the development of specific inhibitors. T. cruzi HisRS was soaked into 68 different cocktails from the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (MSGPP) fragment library and diffraction data were collected to identify bound fragments after soaking. A total of 15 fragments were identified, all bound to the same site on the protein, revealing a fragment-binding hotspot adjacent to the ATP-binding pocket. On the basis of the initial hits, the design of reactive fragments targeting the hotspot which would be simultaneously covalently linked to a cysteine residue present only in trypanosomatid HisRS was initiated. Inhibition of T. cruzi HisRS was observed with the resultant reactive fragments and the anticipated binding mode was confirmed crystallo­graphically. These results form a platform for the development of future generations of selective inhibitors for trypanosomatid HisRS. PMID:26249349

  20. Structure and transformation of chitin synthetase particles (chitosomes) during microfibril synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bracker, C E; Ruiz-Herrera, J; Bartnicki-Garcia, S

    1976-01-01

    The fine structure of isolated chitin synthetase (UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose:chitin 4-beta-acetamido-deoxyglucosyltransferase; EC 2-4-1-16) particles (chitosomes) from Mucor rouxii and the elaboration of chitin microfibrils were studied by electron microscopy. Chitosomes are spheroidal, but often polymorphic, structures, mostly 40-70 nm in diameter. Their appearance after negative staining varies. Some reveal internal granular structure enclosed by a shell measuring 6-12 nm thick; others do not show internal structure but have a pronounced depression of the external surface. In thin sections, isolated chitosomes appear as microvesicular structures with a tripartite shell 6.5-7.0 nm thick. Morphologically similar structures can be seen in intact cells of M. rouxii. Isolated chitosomes undergo a seemingly irreversible series of transformations when substrate and activators are added. The internal structure changes, and a coiled microfibril (fibroid) appears inside the chitosome. The shell of the chitosome is opened or shed, and an extended microfibril arises from the fibroid particle. During prolonged incubation, the fibroid coils become less common and extended microfibrils appear thicker. We regard the chitosome as the cytoplasmic container and conveyor of chitin synthetase en route to its destination at the cell surface. Isolated chitosomes are well suited for integrated ultrastructural-biochemical studies of microfibril biogenesis in vitro. Images PMID:1070006

  1. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-01-01

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR–DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  2. Reaction Mechanism of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase Using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cátia; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino

    2016-06-27

    This paper is devoted to the understanding of the reaction mechanism of mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (mtGS) with atomic detail, using computational quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods at the ONIOM M06-D3/6-311++G(2d,2p):ff99SB//B3LYP/6-31G(d):ff99SB level of theory. The complete reaction undergoes a three-step mechanism: the spontaneous transfer of phosphate from ATP to glutamate upon ammonium binding (ammonium quickly loses a proton to Asp54), the attack of ammonia on phosphorylated glutamate (yielding protonated glutamine), and the deprotonation of glutamine by the leaving phosphate. This exothermic reaction has an activation free energy of 21.5 kcal mol(-1) , which is consistent with that described for Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (15-17 kcal mol(-1) ). The participating active site residues have been identified and their role and energy contributions clarified. This study provides an insightful atomic description of the biosynthetic reaction that takes place in this enzyme, opening doors for more accurate studies for developing new anti-tuberculosis therapies.

  3. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  4. Adenylosuccinate lyase of Bacillus subtilis regulates the activity of the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, N; Breton, R; Champagne, N; Lapointe, J

    1992-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase [L-glutamate:tRNA(Glu) ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.1.1.17] is copurified with a polypeptide of M(r) 46,000 that influences its affinity for its substrates and increases its thermostability. The gene encoding this regulatory factor was cloned with the aid of a 41-mer oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the amino acid sequence of an NH2-terminal segment of this factor. The nucleotide sequence of this gene and the physical map of the 1475-base-pair fragment on which it was cloned are identical to those of purB, which encodes the adenylosuccinate lyase (adenylosuccinate AMP-lyase, EC 4.3.2.2), an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purines. This gene complements the purB mutation of Escherichia coli JK268, and its presence on a multicopy plasmid behind the trc promoter in the purB- strain gives an adenylosuccinate lyase level comparable to that in wild-type B. subtilis. A complex between the adenylosuccinate lyase and the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase was detected by centrifugation on a density gradient. The interaction between these enzymes may play a role in the coordination of purine metabolism and protein biosynthesis. Images PMID:1608947

  5. One-pot synthesis of class II lanthipeptide bovicin HJ50 via an engineered lanthipeptide synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Ge, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Li; Teng, Kunling; Zhong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are a large class of bacteria-produced, ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. They are recognized as peptide antibiotics because most of them exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria especially those that are phylogenetically related to producers. Maturation of class II lanthipeptide like bovicin HJ50 undergoes precursor modification by LanM and a subsequent leader peptide cleavage by LanT. Herein, via co-expression of precursor gene bovA, modification gene bovM and transporter gene bovT in Escherichia coli C43 (DE3), bioactive bovicin HJ50 was successfully produced and secreted. To further achieve in vitro one-pot synthesis of bovicin HJ50, an engineered bovicin HJ50 synthetase BovT150M was obtained by fusing the peptidase domain of BovT (BovT150) to the N-terminus of BovM. BovT150M exhibited dual functions of precursor modification and leader peptide cleavage to release mature bovicin HJ50. Under the guidance of BovA leader peptide, BovT150M exhibited substrate tolerance to modify non-native substrates including suicin and lacticin 481. This work exemplifies the feasibility of enzyme chimera of peptidase domain (LanT150) and modification enzyme (LanM) as a one-pot lanthipeptide synthetase. PMID:27924934

  6. Poly specific trans-acyltransferase machinery revealed via engineered acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; McArthur, John; Randall, Shan; Draelos, Matthew M; Musiol, Ewa M; Muddiman, David C; Weber, Tilmann; Williams, Gavin J

    2013-01-18

    Polyketide synthases construct polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities via the condensation of extender units and acyl thioesters. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that polyketide synthases might be tolerant to non-natural extender units, in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at probing and utilizing polyketide synthase specificity are severely limited to only a small number of extender units, owing to the lack of synthetic routes to a broad variety of acyl-CoA extender units. Here, we report the construction of promiscuous malonyl-CoA synthetase variants that can be used to synthesize a broad range of malonyl-CoA extender units substituted at the C2-position, several of which contain handles for chemoselective ligation and are not found in natural biosynthetic systems. We highlighted utility of these enzymes by probing the acyl-CoA specificity of several trans-acyltransferases, leading to the unprecedented discovery of poly specificity toward non-natural extender units, several of which are not found in naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways. These results reveal that polyketide biosynthetic machinery might be more tolerant to non-natural substrates than previously established, and that mutant synthetases are valuable tools for probing the specificity of biosynthetic machinery. Our data suggest new synthetic biology strategies for harnessing this promiscuity and enabling the regioselective modification of polyketides.

  7. Catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of an oligomeric (p)ppGpp synthetase by an alarmone

    PubMed Central

    Steinchen, Wieland; Schuhmacher, Jan S.; Altegoer, Florian; Fage, Christopher D.; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Bange, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-based second messengers serve in the response of living organisms to environmental changes. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) [collectively named “(p)ppGpp”] act as alarmones that globally reprogram cellular physiology during various stress conditions. Enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homology (RSH) family synthesize (p)ppGpp by transferring pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP. Little is known about the catalytic mechanism and regulation of alarmone synthesis. It also is unclear whether ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functions. Here, we unravel the mechanism and allosteric regulation of the highly cooperative alarmone synthetase small alarmone synthetase 1 (SAS1) from Bacillus subtilis. We determine that the catalytic pathway of (p)ppGpp synthesis involves a sequentially ordered substrate binding, activation of ATP in a strained conformation, and transfer of pyrophosphate through a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. We show that pppGpp—but not ppGpp—positively regulates SAS1 at an allosteric site. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, we establish the structural and mechanistic basis for a biological activity in which ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functional roles. PMID:26460002

  8. Trans-oligomerization of duplicated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases maintains genetic code fidelity under stress

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Napolitano, Mauro; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Patterson, Carl J.; Foster, Andrew W.; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Robinson, Nigel J.; Luque, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play a key role in deciphering the genetic message by producing charged tRNAs and are equipped with proofreading mechanisms to ensure correct pairing of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid. Duplicated aaRSs are very frequent in Nature, with 25,913 cases observed in 26,837 genomes. The oligomeric nature of many aaRSs raises the question of how the functioning and oligomerization of duplicated enzymes is organized. We characterized this issue in a model prokaryotic organism that expresses two different threonyl-tRNA synthetases, responsible for Thr-tRNAThr synthesis: one accurate and constitutively expressed (T1) and another (T2) with impaired proofreading activity that also generates mischarged Ser-tRNAThr. Low zinc promotes dissociation of dimeric T1 into monomers deprived of aminoacylation activity and simultaneous induction of T2, which is active for aminoacylation under low zinc. T2 either forms homodimers or heterodimerizes with T1 subunits that provide essential proofreading activity in trans. These findings evidence that in organisms with duplicated genes, cells can orchestrate the assemblage of aaRSs oligomers that meet the necessities of the cell in each situation. We propose that controlled oligomerization of duplicated aaRSs is an adaptive mechanism that can potentially be expanded to the plethora of organisms with duplicated oligomeric aaRSs. PMID:26464444

  9. Promiscuous methionyl-tRNA synthetase mediates adaptive mistranslation to protect cells against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae Gyu; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Yang, Won Suk; Hong, Jeena; Kang, Taehee; Oh, Young Sun; Kim, Kyung Rok; Han, Byung Woo; Hwang, Byung Joon; Kang, Beom Sik; Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) acylate transfer (t)RNAs with amino acids. Charging tRNAs with the right amino acids is the first step in translation; therefore, the accurate and error-free functioning of ARSs is an essential prerequisite for translational fidelity. A recent study found that methionine (Met) can be incorporated into non-Met residues of proteins through methionylation of non-cognate tRNAs under conditions of oxidative stress. However, it was not understood how this mis-methionylation is achieved. Here, we report that methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS) is phosphorylated at Ser209 and Ser825 by extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) under conditions of stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that this phosphorylated MRS shows increased affinity for non-cognate tRNAs with lower affinity for tRNAMet, leading to an increase in Met residues in cellular proteins. The expression of a mutant MRS containing the substitutions S209D and S825D, mimicking dual phosphorylation, reduced ROS levels and cell death. This controlled inaccuracy of MRS seems to serve as a defense mechanism against ROS-mediated damage at the cost of translational fidelity. PMID:25097229

  10. Translocation of the thioesterase domain for the redesign of plipastatin synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ling; Liu, Hongxia; Ma, Zhi; Han, Jinzhi; Lu, Zhaoxin; Dai, Chen; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large enzymatic complexes that catalyse the synthesis of biologically active peptides in microorganisms. Genetic engineering has recently been applied to reprogram NRPSs to produce lipopeptides with a new sequence. The carboxyl-terminal thioesterase (TE) domains from NRPSs catalyse cleavage products by hydrolysis or complex macrocyclization. In this study, we modified plipastatin synthetase by moving the intrinsic TE region to the end of the internal thiolation (T) domains, thus generating Bacillus subtilis strains that could produce new truncated cyclic or linear peptides of the predicted sequence, which further provided an important insight into the regioselectivity of plipastatin TE. The TE was capable of recognizing and catalysing the lactone formation between L-Try3 with the last few residues L-Pro7 and L-Gln8 at the C-terminus. Additionally, the unmatched linkers connecting the TE region and T domain resulted in nonproduction strains, suggesting that the native T–TE linker is necessary and sufficient for the TE domain to release the products from the hybrid enzymes. This is the first report to demonstrate truncated cyclic lipopeptides production and module skipping by simply moving the TE domain forward in an NRPS system. PMID:28009004

  11. Glutamine synthetase activity and the expression of three glul paralogues in zebrafish during transport.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K S; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Kiron, Viswanath

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS; glutamate-ammonia ligase, EC 6.3.1.2) plays an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of fish. In this study the GS activity and the corresponding genes were examined to understand how they are regulated in zebrafish in response to hyperammonemic stress during a 72 h simulated transport. Whole body ammonia levels, the activity of the enzyme GS and the mRNA expression of the splice variants of three paralogues of glul, glutamine synthetase gene (glula, glulb and glulc) were examined in brain, liver and kidney of zebrafish. Whole body ammonia reached significantly higher levels by 48 h, while brain showed higher levels as early as 24 h, compared to the values at the start of the transport. The GS activities in brain, liver and kidney were significantly higher at the end of 72 h transport than those at the start. However, only the expression of mRNA of glulb-002 and glulb-003 were significantly upregulated during the simulated transport. In silico analysis of the putative promoter regions of glul paralogues revealed glucocorticoid receptor binding sites. However, glucocorticoid response elements of glulb were not different. The up-regulation of GS enzyme activity and hitherto unreported mRNA expression of glul paralogues during zebrafish transport indicate a physiological response of fish to ammonia.

  12. Crystal Structure and Function of 5-Formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; White, Robert H.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-08-06

    Purine biosynthesis requires 10 enzymatic steps in higher organisms, while prokaryotes require an additional enzyme for step 6. In most organisms steps 9 and 10 are catalyzed by the purH gene product, a bifunctional enzyme with both 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (FAICAR) synthase and inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase activity. Recently it was discovered that Archaea utilize different enzymes to catalyze steps 9 and 10. An ATP-dependent FAICAR synthetase is encoded by the purP gene, and IMP cyclohydrolase is encoded by the purO gene. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of FAICAR synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii complexed with various ligands, including the tertiary substrate complex and product complex. The enzyme belongs to the ATP grasp superfamily and is predicted to use a formyl phosphate intermediate formed by an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. In addition, we have determined the structures of a PurP orthologue from Pyrococcus furiosus, which is functionally unclassified, in three crystal forms. With approximately 50% sequence identity, P. furiosus PurP is structurally homologous to M. jannaschii PurP. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to explore the possible role of this functionally unclassified PurP.

  13. Isolation of a Kaurene Synthetase Inhibitor from Castor Bean Seedlings and Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gafni, Yedidya; Shechter, Ishaiahu

    1981-01-01

    Biosynthesis of ent-kaurene was investigated in extracts of cell suspension cultures and seedlings of castor bean. Both cell-free extracts contain an inhibitor of kaurene synthetase. The inhibition affects mainly the cyclization of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to copalyl pyrophosphate (activity A) and has little or no effect on the further cyclization of copalyl pyrophosphate to ent-kaurene (activity B) in both castor bean and Fusarium moniliforme cell-free enzyme preparations. In castor bean cell suspension cultures, the inhibitor diffuses out of the cells to the growth medium. The inhibitor is stable to 100 C heat treatment for 10 minutes and exposure to pH values of 2.0 or 13.0, and it diffuses through a dialysis bag (104-dalton cutoff). Gel filtration chromatography of the inhibitor on a calibrated Bio-Gel P-10 column indicated a molecular weight of 7,500. Kinetic studies indicate that the inhibition of activity of A of kaurene synthetase is noncompetitive and reversible. PMID:16661830

  14. Role of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase in inflammation and ischaemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C; Dawson, V L

    1998-07-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress can trigger DNA strand breakage, which then activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). This enzyme has also been termed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or poly(ADP-ribose) transferase (pADPRT). Rapid activation of the enzyme depletes the intracellular concentration of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, thus slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and subsequently ATP formation. This process can result in cell dysfunction and cell death. In this article, Csaba Szabó and Valina Dawson overview the impact of pharmacological inhibition or genetic inactivation of PARS on the course of oxidant-induced cell death in vitro, and in inflammation and reperfusion injury in vivo. A major trigger for DNA damage in pathophysiological conditions is peroxynitrite, a cytotoxic oxidant formed by the reaction between the free radicals nitric oxide and superoxide. The pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase is a novel approach for the experimental therapy of various forms of inflammation and shock, stroke, myocardial and intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion, and diabetes mellitus.

  15. Trans-oligomerization of duplicated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases maintains genetic code fidelity under stress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Napolitano, Mauro; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Patterson, Carl J; Foster, Andrew W; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Robinson, Nigel J; Luque, Ignacio

    2015-11-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play a key role in deciphering the genetic message by producing charged tRNAs and are equipped with proofreading mechanisms to ensure correct pairing of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid. Duplicated aaRSs are very frequent in Nature, with 25,913 cases observed in 26,837 genomes. The oligomeric nature of many aaRSs raises the question of how the functioning and oligomerization of duplicated enzymes is organized. We characterized this issue in a model prokaryotic organism that expresses two different threonyl-tRNA synthetases, responsible for Thr-tRNA(Thr) synthesis: one accurate and constitutively expressed (T1) and another (T2) with impaired proofreading activity that also generates mischarged Ser-tRNA(Thr). Low zinc promotes dissociation of dimeric T1 into monomers deprived of aminoacylation activity and simultaneous induction of T2, which is active for aminoacylation under low zinc. T2 either forms homodimers or heterodimerizes with T1 subunits that provide essential proofreading activity in trans. These findings evidence that in organisms with duplicated genes, cells can orchestrate the assemblage of aaRSs oligomers that meet the necessities of the cell in each situation. We propose that controlled oligomerization of duplicated aaRSs is an adaptive mechanism that can potentially be expanded to the plethora of organisms with duplicated oligomeric aaRSs.

  16. Archaeal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases interact with the ribosome to recycle tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Greber, Basil J; Franke, Vedran; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Ban, Nenad; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are essential enzymes catalyzing the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs, the immediate precursors for encoded peptides in ribosomal protein synthesis. Previous studies have suggested a link between tRNA aminoacylation and high-molecular-weight cellular complexes such as the cytoskeleton or ribosomes. However, the structural basis of these interactions and potential mechanistic implications are not well understood. To biochemically characterize these interactions we have used a system of two interacting archaeal aaRSs: an atypical methanogenic-type seryl-tRNA synthetase and an archaeal ArgRS. More specifically, we have shown by thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance that these two aaRSs bind to the large ribosomal subunit with micromolar affinities. We have identified the L7/L12 stalk and the proteins located near the stalk base as the main sites for aaRS binding. Finally, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of synonymous codons in the Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus genome that supports a mechanism in which the deacylated tRNAs may be recharged by aaRSs bound to the ribosome and reused at the next occurrence of a codon encoding the same amino acid. These results suggest a mechanism of tRNA recycling in which aaRSs associate with the L7/L12 stalk region to recapture the tRNAs released from the preceding ribosome in polysomes.

  17. A polyketide synthase-peptide synthetase gene cluster from an uncultured bacterial symbiont of Paederus beetles.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn

    2002-10-29

    Many drug candidates from marine and terrestrial invertebrates are suspected metabolites of uncultured bacterial symbionts. The antitumor polyketides of the pederin family, isolated from beetles and sponges, are an example. Drug development from such sources is commonly hampered by low yields and the difficulty of sustaining invertebrate cultures. To obtain insight into the true producer and find alternative supplies of these rare drug candidates, the putative pederin biosynthesis genes were cloned from total DNA of Paederus fuscipes beetles, which use this compound for chemical defense. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster and adjacent regions revealed the presence of ORFs with typical bacterial architecture and homologies. The ped cluster, which is present only in beetle specimens with high pederin content, is located on a 54-kb region bordered by transposase pseudogenes and encodes a mixed modular polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Notably, none of the modules contains regions with homology to acyltransferase domains, but two copies of isolated monodomain acyltransferase genes were found at the upstream end of the cluster. In line with an involvement in pederin biosynthesis, the upstream cluster region perfectly mirrors pederin structure. The unexpected presence of additional polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules reveals surprising insights into the evolutionary relationship between pederin-type pathways in beetles and sponges.

  18. Glutamine synthetase 2 is not essential for biosynthesis of compatible solutes in Halobacillus halophilus.

    PubMed

    Shiyan, Anna; Thompson, Melanie; Köcher, Saskia; Tausendschön, Michaela; Santos, Helena; Hänelt, Inga; Müller, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Halobacillus halophilus, a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from salt marshes, produces various compatible solutes to cope with osmotic stress. Glutamate and glutamine are dominant compatible solutes at mild salinities. Glutamine synthetase activity in cell suspensions of Halobacillus halophilus wild type was shown to be salt dependent and chloride modulated. A possible candidate to catalyze glutamine synthesis is glutamine synthetase A2, whose transcription is stimulated by chloride. To address the role of GlnA2 in the biosynthesis of the osmolytes glutamate and glutamine, a deletion mutant (ΔglnA2) was generated and characterized in detail. We compared the pool of compatible solutes and performed transcriptional analyses of the principal genes controlling the solute production in the wild type strain and the deletion mutant. These measurements did not confirm the hypothesized role of GlnA2 in the osmolyte production. Most likely the presence of another, yet to be identified enzyme has the main contribution in the measured activity in crude extracts and probably determines the total chloride-modulated profile. The role of GlnA2 remains to be elucidated.

  19. Vanderwaltozyma polyspora possesses two glycyl-tRNA synthetase genes: one constitutive and one inducible.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chin-I; Chen, Yueh-Lin; Chen, Shun-Jia; Chou, Chi-Mao; Chen, Chin-Yu; Wang, Chien-Chia

    2015-03-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are housekeeping enzymes essential for protein synthesis. We herein present evidence that the yeast Vanderwaltozyma polyspora possesses two paralogous glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) genes-GRS1 and GRS2. Paradoxically, GRS1 provided functions in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria, while GRS2 was essentially silent under normal growth conditions. Expression of GRS2 could be activated by stresses such as high pH or ethanol and most effectively by high temperature. The expressed GlyRS2 protein was exclusively found in the cytoplasm and more stable under heat-shock conditions (37°C) than under normal growth conditions (30°C) in vivo. In addition, GRS2 effectively rescued the cytoplasmic defect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRS1 knockout strain when expressed from a constitutive promoter. Moreover, the purified GlyRS2 enzyme was fairly active at both 30°C and 37°C in glycylation of yeast tRNA in vitro. However, unexpectedly, the purified GlyRS2 enzyme was practically inactive at temperature above 40°C in vitro. Our study suggests that GRS2 is an inducible gene that acts under stress conditions where GlyRS1 may be insufficient, unavailable, or rendered inactive.

  20. The same Arabidopsis gene encodes both cytosolic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Mireau, H; Lancelin, D; Small, I D

    1996-01-01

    In plants, all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are nuclearly encoded, despite the fact that their activities are required in the three protein-synthesizing cell compartments (cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). To investigate targeting of these enzymes, we cloned cDNAs encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and the corresponding nuclear gene, ALATS, from Arabidopsis by using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers based on highly conserved regions shared between known AlaRSs from other organisms. Analysis of the transcription of the gene showed the presence of two potential translation initiation codons in some ALATS mRNAs. Translation from the upstream AUG would generate an N-terminal extension with features characteristic of mitochondrial targeting peptides. A polyclonal antibody raised against part of the Arabidopsis AlaRS revealed that the Arabidopsis cytosolic and mitochondrial AlaRSs are immunologically similar, suggesting that both isoforms are encoded by the ALATS gene. In vitro experiments confirmed that two polypeptides can be translated from AlATS transcripts, with most ribosomes initiating on the downstream AUG to give the shorter polypeptide corresponding in size to the cytosolic enzyme. The ability of the presequence encoded between the two initiation codons to direct polypeptides to mitochondria was demonstrated by expression of fusion proteins in tobacco protoplasts and in yeast. We conclude that the ALATS gene encodes both the cytosolic and the mitochondrial forms of AlaRS, depending on which of the two AUG codons is used to initiate translation. PMID:8672889

  1. Structural diversity and protein engineering of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Perona, John J; Hadd, Andrew

    2012-11-06

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are the enzymes that ensure faithful transmission of genetic information in all living cells, and are central to the developing technologies for expanding the capacity of the translation apparatus to incorporate nonstandard amino acids into proteins in vivo. The 24 known aaRS families are divided into two classes that exhibit functional evolutionary convergence. Each class features an active site domain with a common fold that binds ATP, the amino acid, and the 3'-terminus of tRNA, embellished by idiosyncratic further domains that bind distal portions of the tRNA and enhance specificity. Fidelity in the expression of the genetic code requires that the aaRS be selective for both amino acids and tRNAs, a substantial challenge given the presence of structurally very similar noncognate substrates of both types. Here we comprehensively review central themes concerning the architectures of the protein structures and the remarkable dual-substrate selectivities, with a view toward discerning the most important issues that still substantially limit our capacity for rational protein engineering. A suggested general approach to rational design is presented, which should yield insight into the identities of the protein-RNA motifs at the heart of the genetic code, while also offering a basis for improving the catalytic properties of engineered tRNA synthetases emerging from genetic selections.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a stress-inducible glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Jia; Wu, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chien-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a large family of housekeeping enzymes that are pivotal in protein translation and other vital cellular processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two distinct nuclear glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) genes, GRS1 and GRS2. GRS1 encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial activities, while GRS2 is essentially silent and dispensable under normal conditions. We herein present evidence that expression of GRS2 was drastically induced upon heat shock, ethanol or hydrogen peroxide addition, and high pH, while expression of GRS1 was somewhat repressed under those conditions. In addition, GlyRS2 (the enzyme encoded by GRS2) had a higher protein stability and a lower K(M) value for yeast tRNA(Gly) under heat shock conditions than under normal conditions. Moreover, GRS2 rescued the growth defect of a GRS1 knockout strain when highly expressed by a strong promoter at 37 °C, but not at the optimal temperature of 30 °C. These results suggest that GRS2 is actually an inducible gene that may function to rescue the activity of GRS1 under stress conditions.

  3. Characterization of Two Members among the Five ADP-Forming Acyl Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) Synthetases Reveals the Presence of a 2-(Imidazol-4-yl)Acetyl-CoA Synthetase in Thermococcus kodakarensis

    PubMed Central

    Awano, Tomotsugu; Wilming, Anja; Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Fukui, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Thermococcus kodakarensis, along with those of most Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species, harbors five paralogous genes encoding putative α subunits of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases. The substrate specificities of the protein products for three of these paralogs have been clarified through studies on the individual enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus and T. kodakarensis. Here we have examined the biochemical properties of the remaining two acyl-CoA synthetase proteins from T. kodakarensis. The TK0944 and TK2127 genes encoding the two α subunits were each coexpressed with the β subunit-encoding TK0943 gene. In both cases, soluble proteins with an α2β2 structure were obtained and their activities toward various acids in the ADP-forming reaction were examined. The purified TK0944/TK0943 protein (ACS IIITk) accommodated a broad range of acids that corresponded to those generated in the oxidative metabolism of Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Cys. In contrast, the TK2127/TK0943 protein exhibited relevant levels of activity only toward 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate, a metabolite of His degradation, and was thus designated 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase (ICSTk), a novel enzyme. Kinetic analyses were performed on both proteins with their respective substrates. In T. kodakarensis, we found that the addition of histidine to the medium led to increases in intracellular ADP-forming 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate was detected in the culture medium, suggesting that ICSTk participates in histidine catabolism. The results presented here, together with those of previous studies, have clarified the substrate specificities of all five known NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase proteins in the Thermococcales. PMID:24163338

  4. Introduction of a leucine half-zipper engenders multiple high-quality crystals of a recalcitrant tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Min; Shapiro, Ryan; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2010-03-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase is recalcitrant to crystallization. A group of leucine substitutions has transformed the protein. Although Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase was among the first tRNA synthetases to be sequenced and extensively studied by functional analysis, it has proved to be recalcitrant to crystallization. This challenge remained even for crystallization of the catalytic fragment. By mutationally introducing three stacked leucines onto the solvent-exposed side of an α-helix, an engineered catalytic fragment of the synthetase was obtained that yielded multiple high-quality crystals and cocrystals with different ligands. The engineered α-helix did not form a leucine zipper that interlocked with the same α-helix from another molecule. Instead, using the created hydrophobic spine, it interacted with other surfaces of the protein as a leucine half-zipper (LHZ) to enhance the crystal lattice interactions. The LHZ made crystal lattice contacts in all crystals of different space groups. These results illustrate the power of introducing an LHZ into helices to facilitate crystallization. The authors propose that the method can be unified with surface-entropy reduction and can be broadly used for protein-surface optimization in crystallization.

  5. Ricinus communis contains and acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates ricinoleate to its CoA thioester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our effort to identify enzymes that are critical for producing large amounts of ricinoleate in castor oil, we have isolated three cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) in the castor plant. Analysis of the cDNA sequences reveals that two of them, designated RcACS 2 and RcACS 4, contain...

  6. Lysyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli K12. Chromatographic heterogeneity and the lysU-gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, J; Sanchez, R

    1987-01-01

    In contrast with most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Escherichia coli is coded for by two genes, the normal lysS gene and the inducible lysU gene. During its purification from E. coli K12, lysyl-tRNA synthetase was monitored by its aminoacylation and adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A) synthesis activities. Ap4A synthesis was measured by a new assay using DEAE-cellulose filters. The heterogeneity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) was revealed on hydroxyapatite; we focused on the first peak, LysRS1, because of its higher Ap4A/lysyl-tRNA activity ratio at that stage. Additional differences between LysRS1 and LysRS2 (major peak on hydroxyapatite) were collected. LysRS1 was eluted from phosphocellulose in the presence of the substrates, whereas LysRS2 was not. Phosphocellulose chromatography was used to show the increase of LysRS1 in cells submitted to heat shock. Also, the Mg2+ optimum in the Ap4A-synthesis reaction is much higher for LysRS1. LysRS1 showed a higher thermostability, which was specifically enhanced by Zn2+. These results in vivo and in vitro strongly suggest that LysRS1 is the heat-inducible lysU-gene product. PMID:3325036

  7. Reformation of leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexes in revertants from CHO mutant tsH1.

    PubMed

    Klekamp, M; Pahuski, E; Hampel, A

    1981-11-01

    A direct correlation was found to exist between increased thermolability of leucyl-tRNA synthetase and loss of the high-molecular-weight enzyme complexes in the CHO cell mutant tsH1 and its revertants. This was shown to occur apart from a differential thermostability between the complexes themselves and is supported by Michaelis constant determinations.

  8. The long-overlooked enzymology of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-independent pathway for virulence-conferring siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Oves-Costales, Daniel; Kadi, Nadia; Challis, Gregory L

    2009-11-21

    Siderophores are high-affinity ferric iron chelators biosynthesised and excreted by most microorganisms that play an important role in iron acquisition. Siderophore-mediated scavenging of ferric iron from hosts contributes significantly to the virulence of pathogenic microbes. As a consequence siderophore biosynthesis is an attractive target for chemotherapeutic intervention. Two main pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist in microbes. One pathway involves nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) multienzymes while the other is NRPS-independent. The enzymology of NRPS-mediated siderophore biosynthesis has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In contrast, the enzymology of NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) biosynthesis was overlooked for almost thirty years since the first genetic characterisation of the NIS biosynthetic pathway to aerobactin. However, the past three years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the enzymology of NIS synthetases, the key enzymes in the assembly of siderophores via the NIS pathway. The biochemical characterisation of ten purified recombinant synthetases has been reported since 2007, along with the first structural characterisation of a synthetase by X-ray crystallography in 2009. In this feature article we summarise the recent progress that has been made in understanding the long-overlooked enzymology of NRPS-independent siderophore biosynthesis, highlight important remaining questions, and suggest likely directions for future research.

  9. Molecular cloning of rat acss3 and characterization of mammalian propionyl-CoA synthetase in the liver mitochondrial matrix.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Maruta, Hitomi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-12-21

    Among the three acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family members (ACSS), ACSS3 is poorly characterized. To characterize ACSS3, we performed molecular cloning and protein expression of rat acss3 and determined its intracellular localization, tissue distribution, and substrate specificity. Transient expression of rat ACSS3 in HeLa cells resulted in a 10-fold increase of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity compared with that in control cells. The acss3 transcripts are expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest levels observed in liver tissue followed by kidney tissue. Subcellular fractionation using liver tissue showed that ACSS3 is localized into the mitochondrial matrix. Among the short-chain fatty acids examined, recombinant ACSS3, purified from Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid containing rat acss3, preferentially utilized propionate with a KM value of 0.19 mM. Knockdown of acss3 in HepG2 cells resulted in a significant decrease of ACSS3 expression level and propionyl-CoA synthetase activity in cell lysates. Levels of ACSS3 in the liver and the activity of propionyl-CoA synthetase in the mitochondria were significantly increased by fasting. These results suggested that ACSS3 is a liver mitochondrial matrix enzyme with high affinity to propionic acid, and its expression level is upregulated under ketogenic conditions.

  10. Modulation of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase by environmental stress in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, H.C.; Wiens, M.; Mueller, W.E.G.; Kuusksalu, A.; Kelve, M.

    1997-07-01

    Recently the authors established the presence of relatively high amounts of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylates (2{prime}-5{prime} A) and 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase (2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase) in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Here they determined by applying radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographical methods that the concentration of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase change following exposure of G. cydonium tissue to environmental stress. The 2{prime}-5{prime} A content and the activity of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase, present in crude sponge extract, increase by up to three-fold after treating sponge cubes for 2 h with natural stressors including heat shock (26 C), cold shock (6 C), pH shock (pH 6), and hypertonic shock and subsequent incubation for 18 h under ambient conditions (16 C). No response was observed after exposure of sponges to an alkaline (pH 10) or hypotonic environment. Similar changes have been found for the expression of heat shock protein HSP70 in G. cydonium. These results show that 2{prime}-5{prime} A in sponges may be useful as a novel biomarker for environmental monitoring.

  11. Detection of elevated levels of 2-5A synthetase in serum from children with various infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, H; Mitani, I; Koike, M; Kodama, T; Sokawa, J; Sawai, H; Ishibashi, K; Itoh, M; Watanabe, S; Sokawa, Y

    1986-01-01

    By a sensitive radioimmunoassay method, (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase was detected in serum from patients with viral, bacterial, or mycoplasmal infections at elevated levels compared with enzyme levels in serum from healthy individuals and patients suffering from noninfectious diseases. PMID:3760142

  12. Characterization of Acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in pancreatic beta cells: Gene silencing shows participation of ACSL3 and ACSL4 in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Longacre, Melissa J; Stoker, Scott W; Kendrick, Mindy A; O'Neill, Lucas M; Zitur, Laura J; Fernandez, Luis A; Ntambi, James M; MacDonald, Michael J

    2017-03-15

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) convert fatty acids to fatty acyl-CoAs to regulate various physiologic processes. We characterized the ACSL isoforms in a cell line of homogeneous rat beta cells (INS-1 832/13 cells) and human pancreatic islets. ACSL4 and ACSL3 proteins were present in the beta cells and human and rat pancreatic islets and concentrated in insulin secretory granules and less in mitochondria and negligible in other intracellular organelles. ACSL1 and ACSL6 proteins were not seen in INS-1 832/13 cells or pancreatic islets. ACSL5 protein was seen only in INS-1 832/13 cells. With shRNA-mediated gene silencing we developed stable ACSL knockdown cell lines from INS-1 832/13 cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was inhibited ∼50% with ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown and unaffected in cell lines with knockdown of ACSL5, ACLS6 and ACSL1. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated gene silencing of ACSL4 and ACSL3 in human pancreatic islets inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release. ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown cells showed inhibition of ACSL enzyme activity more with arachidonate than with palmitate as a substrate, consistent with their preference for unsaturated fatty acids as substrates. ACSL4 knockdown changed the patterns of fatty acids in phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylethanolamines. The results show the involvement of ACLS4 and ACLS3 in insulin secretion.

  13. Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxin; Watford, Malcolm

    2007-04-01

    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA. Culture in the absence of glutamine also resulted in very high glutamine synthetase protein abundance but mRNA levels were unchanged. Glucocorticoids also increased the abundance of glutamine synthetase mRNA in Hep G2 hepatoma cells but this was not reflected in changes in protein abundance. Culture of Hep G2 cells without glutamine resulted in very high levels of protein, again with no change in mRNA abundance. Insulin was without effect in both C2C12 and Hep G2 cells. In 3T3 L1 adipocytes glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase mRNA and protein, insulin added alone had no effect but in the presence of glucocorticoids resulted in lower mRNA levels than seen with glucocorticoids alone, although protein levels remained high under such conditions. In contrast to the other cell lines glutamine synthetase protein levels were relatively unchanged by culture in the absence of glutamine. The results support the hypothesis that in myocytes, and hepatomas, but not in adipocytes, glutamine acts to moderate glutamine synthetase induction by glucocorticoids.

  14. Glucocorticoids induce glutamine synthetase in folliculostellate cells of rat pituitary glands in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SHIRASAWA, NOBUYUKI; YAMANOUCHI, HIROSHI

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme that has a key role for glutamate metabolism in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study GS activity was measured and the amount of immunoreactive GS (ir-GS) cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland was quantified as a function of age. In addition, the effects of GS inhibitors, glucocorticoid administration, and adrenalectomy on GS activity were examined. Some of the ir-GS cells were also immunoreactive for S100 protein (ir-S100) which is a known marker for folliculostellate cells (FS) in the anterior pituitary. FS cells expressing GS were first detected in 3-d-old rats, and this cell population, expressed as the immunostained cell area divided by a standard unit area, increased as a function of age. The percentages of FS cells also expressing GS were 0.2, 6.4, 25 and 74% at 3 d, 30 d, 60 d and 2 y of age, respectively. GS enzyme activity also increased in parallel with the increase of ir-GS cell population maturation. The subcutaneous injection of methionine sulphoximine, a GS and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, reduced pituitary GS activity by 83%, but increased the population of ir-GS cells 3.5-fold in 30-d-old rats. Buthionine sulphoximine, a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, had little effect on GS activity or the ir-GS cell population. Neither methionine sulphoximine nor buthionine sulphoximine changed the population of ir-S100 protein cells (FS cells). Dexamethasone and hydrocortisone increased the population of ir-GS cells by 3.1 and 4.2-fold, respectively, within 12 h after administration. A significant increase of GS activity due to the injection of glucocorticoids was observed in the anterior pituitary, but not in the brain, retina or liver of immature rats. Adrenalectomy did not cause decrease of pituitary GS activity, and dexamethasone administration increased GS activity in both adrenalectomised and intact rats. In the monolayer culture of

  15. Structural modeling of tissue-specific mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS2) defects predicts differential effects on aminoacylation.

    PubMed

    Euro, Liliya; Konovalova, Svetlana; Asin-Cayuela, Jorge; Tulinius, Már; Griffin, Helen; Horvath, Rita; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Schara, Ulrike; Thorburn, David R; Suomalainen, Anu; Chihade, Joseph; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of mitochondrial protein synthesis is dependent on the coordinated action of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtARSs) and the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNAs. The recent advances in whole-exome sequencing have revealed the importance of the mtARS proteins for mitochondrial pathophysiology since nearly every nuclear gene for mtARS (out of 19) is now recognized as a disease gene for mitochondrial disease. Typically, defects in each mtARS have been identified in one tissue-specific disease, most commonly affecting the brain, or in one syndrome. However, mutations in the AARS2 gene for mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mtAlaRS) have been reported both in patients with infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and in patients with childhood to adulthood-onset leukoencephalopathy. We present here an investigation of the effects of the described mutations on the structure of the synthetase, in an effort to understand the tissue-specific outcomes of the different mutations. The mtAlaRS differs from the other mtARSs because in addition to the aminoacylation domain, it has a conserved editing domain for deacylating tRNAs that have been mischarged with incorrect amino acids. We show that the cardiomyopathy phenotype results from a single allele, causing an amino acid change R592W in the editing domain of AARS2, whereas the leukodystrophy mutations are located in other domains of the synthetase. Nevertheless, our structural analysis predicts that all mutations reduce the aminoacylation activity of the synthetase, because all mtAlaRS domains contribute to tRNA binding for aminoacylation. According to our model, the cardiomyopathy mutations severely compromise aminoacylation whereas partial activity is retained by the mutation combinations found in the leukodystrophy patients. These predictions provide a hypothesis for the molecular basis of the distinct tissue-specific phenotypic outcomes.

  16. Chemical Probes Allow Structural Insight into the Condensation Reaction of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Bloudoff, Kristjan; Alonzo, Diego A; Schmeing, T Martin

    2016-03-17

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) synthesize a vast variety of small molecules, including antibiotics, antitumors, and immunosuppressants. The NRPS condensation (C) domain catalyzes amide bond formation, the central chemical step in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. The catalytic mechanism and substrate determinants of the reaction are under debate. We developed chemical probes to structurally study the NRPS condensation reaction. These substrate analogs become covalently tethered to a cysteine introduced near the active site, to mimic covalent substrate delivery by carrier domains. They are competent substrates in the condensation reaction and behave similarly to native substrates. Co-crystal structures show C domain-substrate interactions, and suggest that the catalytic histidine's principle role is to position the α-amino group for nucleophilic attack. Structural insight provided by these co-complexes also allowed us to alter the substrate specificity profile of the reaction with a single point mutation.

  17. p97/VCP promotes degradation of CRBN substrate glutamine synthetase and neosubstrates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thang Van; Li, Jing; Lu, Chin-Chun Jean; Mamrosh, Jennifer L; Lu, Gang; Cathers, Brian E; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2017-04-04

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an essential role in metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Our recent study showed that CRBN, a direct protein target for the teratogenic and antitumor activities of immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, recognizes an acetyl degron of GS, resulting in ubiquitylation and degradation of GS in response to glutamine. Here, we report that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 promotes the degradation of ubiquitylated GS, resulting in its accumulation in cells with compromised p97 function. Notably, p97 is also required for the degradation of all four known CRBN neo-substrates [Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 (IKZF1) and 3 (IKZF3), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), and the translation termination factor GSPT1] whose ubiquitylation is induced by immunomodulatory drugs. Together, these data point to an unexpectedly intimate relationship between the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(CRBN) and p97 pathways.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes

    PubMed Central

    Herguedas, Beatriz; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Frago, Susana; Medina, Milagros; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes (CaFADS), a prokary­otic bifunctional enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of riboflavin as well as the adenylylation of FMN, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K. Diffraction-quality cubic crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled (SeMet-CaFADS) protein belonged to the cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 133.47 Å and a = b = c = 133.40 Å, respectively. Data sets for native and SeMet-containing crystals were collected to 1.95 and 2.42 Å resolution, respectively. PMID:20054130

  19. Plant growth is influenced by glutamine synthetase-catalyzed nitrogen metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.

    1991-06-11

    Ammonia assimilation has been implicated as participating in regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria. In fact, these simple organisms utilize an integrated regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism; we except to observe an integration of nitrogen and carbon fixation in plants; how could these complex systems grow efficiently and compete in the ecosystem without coordinating these two crucial activities We have been investigating the role of ammonia assimilation regulating the complex symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes. Just as is observed in the simple bacterial systems, perturbation of ammonia assimilation in legumes results in increased overall nitrogen fixation. The perturbed plants have increased growth and total nitrogen fixation capability. Because we have targeted the first enyzme in ammonia assimilation, glutamine synthetase, this provides a marker that could be used to assist selection or screening for increased biomass yield. 45 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  1. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera].

    PubMed

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike; Uriz, Maria Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) system (OAS, 2'-Phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2'-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2-5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2-5A degrading activity. Upon this finding, two out of three elements forming the 2-5A system have been found in sponges, only a endoribonuclease, RNAse L or similar, has to be found. We suspect the existence of a complex immune system in sponges, besides the self/non-self recognition system and the use of phagocytosis and secondary metabolites against pathogens.

  2. Heterogenous expression of poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex gene of Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Yang, G; Che, C; Liu, Y

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3, one of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) producers, depends on the existence of glutamate in the medium. In this paper, gamma-PGA synthetase complex gene (pgsBCA) was cloned from Bacillus licheniformis WBL-3. pgsBCA gene of B. licheniformis WBL-3 was highly homologous with pgsBCA gene of B. licheniformis 14580. The similarity was 97%, but the similarity of pgsBCA gene between B. licheniformis WBL-3 and Bacillus subtilis IF03336 was only 74%. However, when pgsBCA was expressed in Escherichia coli, the E. coli clone produced gamma-PGA extracellularly. The yield of gamma-PGA was 8.624 g/l. This result infers that B. licheniformis and B. subtilis has the similar gamma-PGA biosynthesis mechanism, namely, glutamic acid is catalyzed by an ATP-dependent amide ligase to synthesize gamma-PGA.

  3. Molecular Cross-Talk between Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Carrier Proteins and Unstructured Linker Regions.

    PubMed

    Harden, Bradley J; Frueh, Dominique P

    2017-01-24

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) employ multiple domains separated by linker regions to incorporate substrates into natural products. During synthesis, substrates are covalently tethered to carrier proteins that translocate between catalytic partner domains. The molecular parameters that govern translocation and associated linker remodeling remain unknown. Here, we used NMR to characterize the structure, dynamics, and invisible states of a peptidyl carrier protein flanked by its linkers. We showed that the N-terminal linker stabilizes and interacts with the protein core while modulating dynamics at specific sites involved in post-translational modifications and/or domain interactions. The results detail the molecular communication between peptidyl carrier proteins and their linkers and could guide efforts in engineering NRPSs to obtain new pharmaceuticals.

  4. Glutamine Synthetase in Legumes: Recent Advances in Enzyme Structure and Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; Credali, Alfredo; Estivill, Guillermo; Galván, Francisco; Vega, José M.; Márquez, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme involved in the assimilation of ammonia derived either from nitrate reduction, N2 fixation, photorespiration or asparagine breakdown. A small gene family is encoding for different cytosolic (GS1) or plastidic (GS2) isoforms in legumes. We summarize here the recent advances carried out concerning the quaternary structure of GS, as well as the functional relationship existing between GS2 and processes such as nodulation, photorespiration and water stress, in this latter case by means of proline production. Functional genomic analysis using GS2-minus mutant reveals the key role of GS2 in the metabolic control of the plants and, more particularly, in carbon metabolism. PMID:22942686

  5. S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase 3 Is Important for Pollen Tube Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ting

    2016-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine is widely used in a variety of biological reactions and participates in the methionine (Met) metabolic pathway. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one of the four S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes, METHIONINE ADENOSYLTRANSFERASE3 (MAT3), is highly expressed in pollen. Here, we show that mat3 mutants have impaired pollen tube growth and reduced seed set. Metabolomics analyses confirmed that mat3 pollen and pollen tubes overaccumulate Met and that mat3 pollen has several metabolite profiles, such as those of polyamine biosynthesis, which are different from those of the wild type. Additionally, we show that disruption of Met metabolism in mat3 pollen affected transfer RNA and histone methylation levels. Thus, our results suggest a connection between metabolism and epigenetics. PMID:27482079

  6. Active site coupling in Plasmodium falciparum GMP synthetase is triggered by domain rotation

    PubMed Central

    Ballut, Lionel; Violot, Sébastien; Shivakumaraswamy, Santosh; Thota, Lakshmi Prasoona; Sathya, Manu; Kunala, Jyothirmai; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Terreux, Raphaël; Haser, Richard; Balaram, Hemalatha; Aghajari, Nushin

    2015-01-01

    GMP synthetase (GMPS), a key enzyme in the purine biosynthetic pathway performs catalysis through a coordinated process across two catalytic pockets for which the mechanism remains unclear. Crystal structures of Plasmodium falciparum GMPS in conjunction with mutational and enzyme kinetic studies reported here provide evidence that an 85° rotation of the GATase domain is required for ammonia channelling and thus for the catalytic activity of this two-domain enzyme. We suggest that conformational changes in helix 371–375 holding catalytic residues and in loop 376–401 along the rotation trajectory trigger the different steps of catalysis, and establish the central role of Glu374 in allostery and inter-domain crosstalk. These studies reveal the mechanism of domain rotation and inter-domain communication, providing a molecular framework for the function of all single polypeptide GMPSs and form a solid basis for rational drug design targeting this therapeutically important enzyme. PMID:26592566

  7. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation.

  8. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  9. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase-controlled phosphoinositide availability limits VEGFA signaling and vascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weijun; Pham, Van N.; Stratman, Amber N.; Castranova, Daniel; Kamei, Makoto; Kidd, Kameha R.; Lo, Brigid D.; Shaw, Kenna M.; Torres-Vazquez, Jesus; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Davis, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis and translating these into effective therapies are of enormous scientific and clinical interests. In this report, we demonstrate the central role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS) in the regulation of VEGFA signaling and angiogenesis. CDS activity maintains phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) availability through resynthesis of phosphoinositides, whereas VEGFA, mainly through phospholipase Cγ1, consumes PIP2 for signal transduction. Loss of CDS2, 1 of 2 vertebrate CDS enzymes, results in vascular-specific defects in zebrafish in vivo and failure of VEGFA-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells in vitro. Absence of CDS2 also results in reduced arterial differentiation and reduced angiogenic signaling. CDS2 deficit-caused phenotypes can be successfully rescued by artificial elevation of PIP2 levels, and excess PIP2 or increased CDS2 activity can promote excess angiogenesis. These results suggest that availability of CDS-controlled resynthesis of phosphoinositides is essential for angiogenesis. PMID:22649102

  10. ACR11 is an Activator of Plastid-Type Glutamine Synthetase GS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Otsuki, Hitomi; Saito, Kazuki; Yokota Hirai, Masami

    2017-03-06

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an important enzyme for nitrogen assimilation, and GS2, encoded by GLN2, is the only plastid-type GS in Arabidopsis thaliana. A co-expression analysis suggested that the expression level of the gene encoding a uridylyltransferase-like protein, ACR11, is strongly correlated with GLN2 expression levels. Here we showed that the recombinant ACR11 protein increased GS2 activity in vitro by reducing the Km values of its substrate glutamine. A T-DNA insertion mutant of ACR11 exhibited a reduced GS activity under low nitrate conditions and reduced glutamine levels. Biochemical analyses revealed that ACR11 and GS2 interacted both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that ACR11 is an activator of GS2, giving it a mechanistic role in the nitrogen assimilation of A. thaliana.

  11. The growing pipeline of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors for malaria treatment.

    PubMed

    Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Sinadinos, Christopher; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2016-04-02

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Parasite resistance to existing drugs makes development of new antimalarials an urgency. The protein synthesis machinery is an excellent target for the development of new anti-infectives, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) have been validated as antimalarial drug targets. However, avoiding the emergence of drug resistance and improving selectivity to target aaRS in apicomplexan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum, remain crucial challenges. Here we discuss such issues using examples of known inhibitors of P. falciparum aaRS, namely halofuginone, cladosporin and borrelidin (inhibitors of ProRS, LysRS and ThrRS, respectively). Encouraging recent results provide useful guidelines to facilitate the development of novel drug candidates which are more potent and selective against these essential enzymes.

  12. Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance and biochemical characterization of fluorotyrosine-labeled-thymidylate-synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosson, Dan; Lewis, Charles A.; Ellis, Paul D.; Dunlap, R. Bruce

    1994-03-01

    Fluorotyrosine has been incorporated into thymidylate synthetase from Lactobacillus casei by growth of the bacterium in media containing 3-fluorotyrosine. The enzyme exhibited a specific activity 70% of that of the normal enzyme and formed a covalent binary complex with pyrimidine nucleotides, as well as a covalent ternary complex with 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to follow the formation of these complexes. 5-Fluorodeoxyuridylate, dUMP, dTMP and dCMP produced identical conformational changes in the enzyme as monitored by the fluorotyrosyl resonances. Ternary complex formation of the fluorotyrosine-containing enzyme with 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate resulted in further spectral changes.

  13. Mutational analysis of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene in Hirayama Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blumen, Sergiu C.; Drory, Vivian E.; Sadeh, Menachem; El-Ad, Baruch; Soimu, Uri; Groozman, Galina B.; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Goldfarb, Lev G.

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremity or Hirayama's Disease (HD) and autosomal dominant motor distal neuronopathy/axonopathy (CMT2D/dSMA-V), produced by glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) gene mutations, share some clinical features including: young age of onset, predilection for the distal upper extremity, asymmetry, sparing of proximal muscles and unusual cold sensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of GARS gene mutations may account for apparently non-familial cases. In order to inquire whether GARS gene mutations are associated with HD we studied seven patients fulfilling the clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria for HD. All patients underwent MRI of cervical spine that excluded compressive myelopathy in neutral position and intramedullary pathology. Each patient was tested for the presence of mutations in GARS by sequencing all coding exons amplified from genomic DNA. No pathogenic mutations were found, excluding the role of GARS gene as a possible factor in the etiology of HD in this cohort. PMID:19412816

  14. The albonoursin gene Cluster of S noursei biosynthesis of diketopiperazine metabolites independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Lautru, Sylvie; Gondry, Muriel; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean Luc

    2002-12-01

    Albonoursin [cyclo(deltaPhe-DeltaLeu)], an antibacterial peptide produced by Streptomyces noursei, is one of the simplest representatives of the large diketopiperazine (DKP) family. Formation of alpha,beta unsaturations was previously shown to occur on cyclo(L-Phe-L-Leu), catalyzed by the cyclic dipeptide oxidase (CDO). We used CDO peptide sequence information to isolate a 3.8 kb S. noursei DNA fragment that directs albonoursin biosynthesis in Streptomyces lividans. This fragment encompasses four complete genes: albA and albB, necessary for CDO activity; albC, sufficient for cyclic dipeptide precursor formation, although displaying no similarity to non ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes; and albD, encoding a putative membrane protein. This first isolated DKP biosynthetic gene cluster should help to elucidate the mechanism of DKP formation, totally independent of NRPS, and to characterize novel DKP biosynthetic pathways that could be engineered to increase the molecular diversity of DKP derivatives.

  15. An iterative nonribosomal peptide synthetase assembles the pyrrole-amide antibiotic congocidine in Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Juguet, Maud; Lautru, Sylvie; Francou, François-Xavier; Nezbedová, Sárka; Leblond, Pierre; Gondry, Muriel; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2009-04-24

    Congocidine (netropsin) is a pyrrole-amide (oligopyrrole, oligopeptide) antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. We have identified, in the right terminal region of the S. ambofaciens chromosome, the gene cluster that directs congocidine biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the cluster and in-frame deletions of 8 of the 22 genes confirm the involvement of this cluster in congocidine biosynthesis. Nine genes can be assigned specific functions in regulation, resistance, or congocidine assembly. In contrast, the biosynthetic origin of the precursors cannot be easily inferred from in silico analyses. Congocidine is assembled by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) constituted of a free-standing module and several single-domain proteins encoded by four genes. The iterative use of its unique adenylation domain, the utilization of guanidinoacetyl-CoA as a substrate by a condensation domain, and the control of 4-aminopyrrole-2-carboxylate polymerization constitute the most original features of this NRPS.

  16. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase: a target for improvement of crop nitrogen use efficiency?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Hanne C; Eriksson, Dennis; Møller, Inge S; Schjoerring, Jan K

    2014-10-01

    Overexpression of the cytosolic enzyme glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) has been investigated in numerous cases with the goal of improving crop nitrogen use efficiency. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent. Here, we review possible reasons underlying the lack of success and conclude that GS1 activity may be downregulated via a chain of processes elicited by metabolic imbalances and environmental constraints. We suggest that a pivotal role of GS1 may be related to the maintenance of essential nitrogen (N) flows and internal N sensing during critical stages of plant development. A number of more refined overexpression strategies exploiting gene stacking combined with tissue and cell specific targeting to overcome metabolic bottlenecks are considered along with their potential in relation to new N management strategies.

  17. Glutamine synthetase desensitizes differentiated adipocytes to proinflammatory stimuli by raising intracellular glutamine levels.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Erika Mariana; Spera, Iolanda; Menga, Alessio; Infantino, Vittoria; Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra

    2014-12-20

    The role of glutamine synthetase (GS) during adipocyte differentiation is unclear. Here, we assess the impact of GS on the adipocytic response to a proinflammatory challenge at different differentiation stages. GS expression at the late stages of differentiation desensitized mature adipocytes to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by increasing intracellular glutamine levels. Furthermore, LPS-activated mature adipocytes were unable to produce inflammatory mediators; LPS sensitivity was rescued following GS inhibition and the associated drop in intracellular glutamine levels. The ability of adipocytes to differentially respond to LPS during differentiation negatively correlates to GS expression and intracellular glutamine levels. Hence, modulation of intracellular glutamine levels by GS expression represents an endogenous mechanism through which mature adipocytes control the inflammatory response.

  18. Non-standard amino acid recognition by Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinis, S. A.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant E. coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase was screened for amino acid-dependent pyrophosphate exchange activity using noncognate aliphatic amino acids including norvaline, homocysteine, norleucine, methionine, and homoserine. [32P]-labeled reaction products were separated by thin layer chromatography using a novel solvent system and then quantified by phosphorimaging. Norvaline which differs from leucine by only one methyl group stimulated pyrophosphate exchange activity as did both homocysteine and norleucine to a lesser extent. The KM parameters for leucine and norvaline were measured to be 10 micromoles and 1.5 mM, respectively. Experiments are in progress to determine if norvaline is transferred to tRNA(Leu) and/or edited by a pre- or post-transfer mechanism.

  19. Screening for Expressed Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Polyketide Synthases Using LC-MS/MS-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunqiu; McClure, Ryan A.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics is a powerful technique for the profiling of protein expression in cells in a high-throughput fashion. Herein we report a protocol using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics for the screening of enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis, such as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) from bacterial strains. Taking advantage of the large size of modular NRPSs and PKSs (often >200 kDa), size-based separation (SDS-PAGE) is employed prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Based upon the protein identifications obtained through software search, we can accurately pinpoint the expressed NRPS and/or PKS gene clusters from a given strain and growth condition. The proteomics screening result can be used to guide the discovery of potentially new nonribosomal peptide and polyketide natural products. PMID:26831706

  20. Proximal Tubule Glutamine Synthetase Expression is Necessary for the Normal Response to Dietary Protein Restriction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2017-03-22

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation. Because renal proximal tubule GS expression increases during dietary protein restriction, this could contribute to the decreased ammonia excretion. The current study's purpose was to determine proximal tubule GS's role in the renal response to protein restriction. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Cre-negative (Control) and PT-GS-KO mice in metabolic cages were provided 20% protein diet for 2 days and were then changed to low protein (6%) diet for the next 7 days. Additional PT-GS-KO mice were maintained on 20% protein diet. Dietary protein restriction caused a rapid decrease in urinary ammonia excretion in both genotypes, but PT-GS-KO blunted this adaptive response significantly. This occurred despite no significant genotype-dependent differences in urinary pH or in serum electrolytes. There were no significant differences between Control and PT-GS-KO mice in expression of multiple other proteins involved in renal ammonia handling. We conclude that proximal tubule glutamine synthetase expression is necessary for the appropriate decrease in ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  1. Immunotherapeutic potential of N-formylated peptides of ESAT-6 and glutamine synthetase in experimental tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Sharma, Sadhna

    2014-02-01

    Recent understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis allows the possible application of immunotherapy for the treatment of tuberculosis. Therapies that would upregulate the host anti mycobacterial innate and/or adaptive immune response have been supposed to be useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. Since N-formyl peptides are products of bacterial metabolism, and their binding to a specific phagocyte receptor (FPR) induces chemotaxis and activation of phagocytes that are critical effectors in our innate immune system, it is reasonable to assume that the interaction between these two counterparts (i.e. formylated peptides and FPR) is also important in host defence against M. tuberculosis. In the present study the direct immunotherapeutic potential of N-formylated peptides of two non-classically secreted proteins (early secreted antigenic target-6 and glutamine synthetase) of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was evaluated. Treatment of M. tuberculosis H37Rv infected mice with N-formylated peptides of early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and glutamine synthetase (GS) markedly reduced the bacilli load in their lungs (p < 0.001) and spleen (p < 0.01) as compared to the untreated mice. In addition, the histopathological changes were observed to be in correlation with the CFU data with minor areas of consolidation in the lung sections of N-formylated peptide treated infected mice as compared to those of the untreated mice. Further, these N-formylated peptides were able to confer an additional therapeutic effect when given in combination with the anti tuberculosis drugs and hence can be used as an adjunct to the conventional chemotherapy against tuberculosis.

  2. Purification and characterization of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, P H

    1980-01-01

    3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate (KDO)-8-phosphate synthetase has been purified 450-fold from frozen Escherichia coli B cells. The purified enzyme catalyzed the stoichiometric formation of KDO-8-phosphate and Pi from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and D-arabinose-5-phosphate. The enzyme showed no metal requirement for activity and was inhibited by 1 mM Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Hg2+. The inhibition by Hg2+ could be reversed by dithiothreitol. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was determined to be 45 degrees C, and the energy of activation calculated by the Arrhenius equation was 15,000 calories (ca. 3,585 J) per mol. The enzyme activity was shown to be pH and buffer dependent, showing two pH optima, one at pH 4.0 to 6.0 in succinate buffer and one at pH 9.0 in glycine buffer. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 5.1. KDO-8-phosphate synthetase had a molecular weight of 90,000 +/- 6,000 as determined by molecular sieving through G-200 Sephadex and by Ferguson analysis using polyacrylamide gels. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 90,000-molecular-weight native enzyme was composed of three identical subunits, each with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 +/- 4,000. The enzyme had an apparent Km for D-arabinose-5-phosphate of 2 X 10(-5) M and an apparent Km for PEP of 6 X 10(-6) M. No other sugar or sugar-phosphate could substitute for D-arabinose-5-phosphate. D-Ribose-5-phosphate was a competitive inhibitor of D-arabinose-5-phosphate, with an apparent Ki of 1 X 10(-3) M. The purified enzyme has been utilized to synthesize millimole quantities of pure KDO-8-phosphate. PMID:6988389

  3. Ancient origin of the divergent forms of leucyl-tRNA synthetases in the Halobacteriales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has greatly impacted the genealogical history of many lineages, particularly for prokaryotes, with genes frequently moving in and out of a line of descent. Many genes that were acquired by a lineage in the past likely originated from ancestral relatives that have since gone extinct. During the course of evolution, HGT has played an essential role in the origin and dissemination of genetic and metabolic novelty. Results Three divergent forms of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) exist in the archaeal order Halobacteriales, commonly known as haloarchaea. Few haloarchaeal genomes have the typical archaeal form of this enzyme and phylogenetic analysis indicates it clusters within the Euryarchaeota as expected. The majority of sequenced halobacterial genomes possess a bacterial form of LeuRS. Phylogenetic reconstruction puts this larger group of haloarchaea at the base of the bacterial domain. The most parsimonious explanation is that an ancient transfer of LeuRS took place from an organism related to the ancestor of the bacterial domain to the haloarchaea. The bacterial form of LeuRS further underwent gene duplications and/or gene transfers within the haloarchaea, with some genomes possessing two distinct types of bacterial LeuRS. The cognate tRNALeu also reveals two distinct clusters for the haloarchaea; however, these tRNALeu clusters do not coincide with the groupings found in the LeuRS tree, revealing that LeuRS evolved independently of its cognate tRNA. Conclusions The study of leucyl-tRNA synthetase in haloarchaea illustrates the importance of gene transfer originating in lineages that went extinct since the transfer occurred. The haloarchaeal LeuRS and tRNALeu did not co-evolve. PMID:22694720

  4. Metabolic regulation of the gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, H M; Peng, S S; Coruzzi, G M

    1994-01-01

    Here, we characterize a cDNA encoding a glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase (ASN1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and assess the effects of metabolic regulation on ASN1 mRNA levels. Sequence analysis shows that the predicted ASN1 peptide contains a purF-type glutamine-binding domain. Southern blot experiments and cDNA clone analysis suggest that ASN1 is the only gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in A. thaliana. The ASN1 gene is expressed predominantly in shoot tissues, where light has a negative effect on its mRNA accumulation. This negative effect of light on ASN1 mRNA levels was shown to be mediated, at least in part, via the photoreceptor phytochrome. We also investigated whether light-induced changes in nitrogen to carbon ratios might exert a metabolic regulation of the ASN1 mRNA accumulation. These experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of ASN1 mRNA in dark-grown plants is strongly repressed by the presence of exogenous sucrose. Moreover, this sucrose repression of ASN1 expression can be partially rescued by supplementation with exogenous amino acids such as asparagine, glutamine, and glutamate. These findings suggest that the expression of the ASN1 gene is under the metabolic control of the nitrogen to carbon ratio in cells. This is consistent with the fact that asparagine, synthesized by the ASN1 gene product, is a favored compound for nitrogen storage and nitrogen transport in dark-grown plants. We have put forth a working model suggesting that when nitrogen to carbon ratios are high, the gene product of ASN1 functions to re-direct the flow of nitrogen into asparagine, which acts as a shunt for storage and/or long-distance transport of nitrogen. PMID:7846154

  5. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate are synthesized by yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, A; Günther Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1994-01-01

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (P4A) and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) from ATP and tri- or tetrapolyphosphate (P3 or P4), with relative velocities of 7:1, respectively. Of 12 nucleotides tested as potential donors of nucleotidyl moiety, only ATP, adenosine-5'-O-[3-thiotriphosphate], and acetyl-AMP were substrates, with relative velocities of 100, 62, and 80, respectively. The Km values for ATP, P3, and acetyl-AMP were 0.16, 4.7, and 1.8 mM, respectively. The synthesis of p4A could proceed in the absence of exogenous acetate but was stimulated twofold by acetate, with an apparent Km value of 0.065 mM. CoA did not participate in the synthesis of p4A (p5A) and inhibited the reaction (50% inhibitory concentration of 0.015 mM). At pH 6.3, which was optimum for formation of p4A (p5A), the rate of acetyl-CoA synthesis (1.84 mumol mg-1 min-1) was 245 times faster than the rate of synthesis of p4A measured in the presence of acetate. The known formation of p4A (p5A) in yeast sporulation and the role of acetate may therefore be related to acetyl-CoA synthetase. Images PMID:7910605

  6. Naturally Occurring Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase without tRNA-dependent Pre-transfer Editing*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Dulic, Morana; Bilus, Mirna; Sostaric, Nikolina; Lenhard, Boris; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2016-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 103-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability. PMID:26921320

  7. Molecular dynamics perspective on the protein thermal stability: a case study using SAICAR synthetase.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Kavyashree; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2013-09-23

    The enzyme SAICAR synthetase ligates aspartate with CAIR (5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole) forming SAICAR (5-amino-4-imidazole-N-succinocarboxamide ribonucleotide) in the presence of ATP. In continuation with our previous study on the thermostability of this enzyme in hyper-/thermophiles based on the structural aspects, here, we present the dynamic aspects that differentiate the mesophilic (E. coli, E. chaffeensis), thermophilic (G. kaustophilus), and hyperthermophilic (M. jannaschii, P. horikoshii) SAICAR synthetases by carrying out a total of 11 simulations. The five functional dimers from the above organisms were simulated using molecular dynamics for a period of 50 ns each at 300 K, 363 K, and an additional simulation at 333 K for the thermophilic protein. The basic features like root-mean-square deviations, root-mean-square fluctuations, surface accessibility, and radius of gyration revealed the instability of mesophiles at 363 K. Mean square displacements establish the reduced flexibility of hyper-/thermophiles at all temperatures. At the simulations time scale considered here, the long-distance networks are considerably affected in mesophilic structures at 363 K. In mesophiles, a comparatively higher number of short-lived (having less percent existence time) Cα, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions are formed, and long-lived (with higher percentage existence time) contacts are lost. The number of time-averaged salt-bridges is at least 2-fold higher in hyperthermophiles at 363 K. The change in surface accessibility of salt-bridges at 363 K from 300 K is nearly doubled in mesophilic protein compared to proteins from other temperature classes.

  8. Recombinant expression, purification, and crystallization of the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Jason M; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Belrhali, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases play a critical role in protein synthesis by providing precursor transfer-RNA molecules correctly charged with their cognate amino-acids. The essential nature of these enzymes make them attractive targets for designing new drugs against important pathogenic protozoans like Toxoplasma. Because no structural data currently exists for a protozoan glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QRS), an understanding of its potential as a drug target and its function in the assembly of the Toxoplasma multi-aminoacyl tRNA (MARS) complex is therefore lacking. Here we describe the optimization of expression and purification conditions that permitted the recovery and crystallization of both domains of the Toxoplasma QRS enzyme from a heterologous Escherichia coli expression system. Expression of full-length QRS was only achieved after the addition of an N-terminal histidine affinity tag and the isolated protein was active on both cellular and in vitro produced Toxoplasma tRNA. Taking advantage of the proteolytic susceptibility of QRS to cleavage into component domains, N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) motif-containing domain fragments were isolated and crystallization conditions discovered. Isolation of the C-terminal catalytic domain was accomplished after subcloning the domain and optimizing expression conditions. Purified catalytic domain survived cryogenic storage and yielded large diffraction-quality crystals over-night after optimization of screening conditions. This work will form the basis of future structural studies into structural-functional relationships of both domains including potential targeted drug-design studies and investigations into the assembly of the Toxoplasma MARS complex.

  9. Substrate activity of synthetic formyl phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Smithers, G.W.; Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1987-06-30

    Formyl phosphate, a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.3), was synthesized from formyl fluoride and inorganic phosphate, and the product was characterized by /sup 31/P, /sup 1/H, and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR indicates that formyl phosphate is particularly labile, with a half-life of 48 min in a buffered neutral solution at 20 /sup 0/C. At pH 7, hydrolysis occurs with P-O bond cleavage, as demonstrated by /sup 18/O incorporation from H/sub 2//sup 18/O into P/sub i/, while at pH 1 and pH 13 hydrolysis occurs with C-O bond cleavage. The substrate activity of formyl phosphate was tested in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. Formyl phosphate supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formyltetrahydrofolate is produced from tetrahydrofolate and formyl phosphate in a reaction mixture that contains enzyme, Mg(II), and ADP, and ATP is produced from formyl phosphate and ADP with enzyme, Mg(II), and tetrahydrofolate present. The requirements for ADP and for tetrahydrofolate as cofactors in these reactions are consistent with previous steady-state kinetic and isotope exchange studies, which demonstrated that all substrate subsites must be occupied prior to catalysis. The k/sub cat/ values for both the forward and reverse directions, with formyl phosphate as the substrate, are much lower than those for the normal forward and reverse reactions. Kinetic analysis of the formyl phosphate supported reactions indicates that the low steady-state rates observed for the synthetic intermediate are most likely due to the sequential nature of the normal reaction.

  10. Cytoplasmic Leucyl-Trna Synthetase of Neurospora Crassa Is Not Specified by the Leu-5 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Benarous, R.; Chow, C. M.; RajBhandary, U. L.

    1988-01-01

    We generated a λgt11 Neurospora crassa cDNA library and screened the library for the cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase (cyto LeuRS) clones using cyto LeuRS specific antibody. Two clones, λNCLRSC1 and λNCLRSC2, were obtained which have inserts of ~2 kbp and ~1.3 kbp, and which overlap by about 0.6 kbp. The following lines of evidence indicate that λNCLRSC1 and λNCLRSC2 encode parts of cyto LeuRS. (1) Antibodies affinity purified using either of the fusion proteins encoded by λNCLRSC1 or λNCLRSC2 inhibit cyto LeuRS activity. Thus, the fusion protein and cyto LeuRS share immunological determinants. (2) The same antibodies also react with an ~115-kDa protein, which comigrates with purified cyto LeuRS, in immunoblots of total N. crassa proteins. We used the cDNA clones to probe a N. crassa genomic DNA library and isolated two genomic DNA clones. Partial sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA clones shows a methionine initiated open reading frame, which includes a stretch of amino acid residues that are highly conserved and that are at the ATP binding site in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Using the cloned DNA as probe, we show that the cyto LeuRS mRNA is ~3900 nucleotides long. Finally, we have used restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping to show that the cyto LeuRS gene resides on the far right of linkage group II and not on linkage group V where the leu-5 mutation, which was previously reported to specify cyto LeuRS, is located. PMID:2842224

  11. Isolation of an acetyl-CoA synthetase gene (ZbACS2) from Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Cardoso, Helena; Sousa, Maria João; Steensma, H Yde; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    2004-03-01

    A gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACS genes, coding for acetyl-CoA synthetase, has been cloned from the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307, by using reverse genetic approaches. A probe obtained by PCR amplification from Z. bailii DNA, using primers derived from two conserved regions of yeast ACS proteins, RIGAIHSVVF (ScAcs1p; 210-219) and RVDDVVNVSG (ScAcs1p; 574-583), was used for screening a Z. bailii genomic library. Nine clones with partially overlapping inserts were isolated. The sequenced DNA fragment contains a complete ORF of 2027 bp (ZbACS2) and the deduced polypeptide shares significant homologies with the products of ACS2 genes from S. cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis (81% and 82% identity and 84% and 89% similarity, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the sequence of Zbacs2 is more closely related to the sequences from Acs2 than to those from Acs1 proteins. Moreover, this analysis revealed that the gene duplication producing Acs1 and Acs2 proteins has occurred in the common ancestor of S. cerevisiae, K. lactis, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Debaryomyces hansenii lineages. Additionally, the cloned gene allowed growth of S. cerevisiae Scacs2 null mutant, in medium containing glucose as the only carbon and energy source, indicating that it encodes a functional acetyl-CoA synthetase. Also, S. cerevisiae cells expressing ZbACS2 have a shorter lag time, in medium containing glucose (2%, w/v) plus acetic acid (0.1-0.35%, v/v). No differences in cell response to acetic acid stress were detected both by specific growth and death rates. The mode of regulation of ZbACS2 appears to be different from ScACS2 and KlACS2, being subject to repression by a glucose pulse in acetic acid-grown cells.

  12. Characterization of Drosophila CMP-sialic acid synthetase activity reveals unusual enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Mertsalov, Ilya B; Novikov, Boris N; Scott, Hilary; Dangott, Lawrence; Panin, Vladislav M

    2016-07-01

    CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSAS) is a key enzyme of the sialylation pathway. CSAS produces the activated sugar donor, CMP-sialic acid, which serves as a substrate for sialyltransferases to modify glycan termini with sialic acid. Unlike other animal CSASs that normally localize in the nucleus, Drosophila melanogaster CSAS (DmCSAS) localizes in the cell secretory compartment, predominantly in the Golgi, which suggests that this enzyme has properties distinct from those of its vertebrate counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we purified recombinant DmCSAS and characterized its activity in vitro Our experiments revealed several unique features of this enzyme. DmCSAS displays specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid as a substrate, shows preference for lower pH and can function with a broad range of metal cofactors. When tested at a pH corresponding to the Golgi compartment, the enzyme showed significant activity with several metal cations, including Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Mn(2+), whereas the activity with Mg(2+) was found to be low. Protein sequence analysis and site-specific mutagenesis identified an aspartic acid residue that is necessary for enzymatic activity and predicted to be involved in co-ordinating a metal cofactor. DmCSAS enzymatic activity was found to be essential in vivo for rescuing the phenotype of DmCSAS mutants. Finally, our experiments revealed a steep dependence of the enzymatic activity on temperature. Taken together, our results indicate that DmCSAS underwent evolutionary adaptation to pH and ionic environment different from that of counterpart synthetases in vertebrates. Our data also suggest that environmental temperatures can regulate Drosophila sialylation, thus modulating neural transmission.

  13. Succinyl-CoA Synthetase: New Antigen Candidate of Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Palma, Noemí; Pons, Maria J.; Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Sandoval, Isabel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Gutarra, Carlos; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim; Matsuoka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a neglected illness with mortality rates of 40–85% in the absence of treatment. The lack of a diagnostic technique to overcome misdiagnosis and treat asymptomatic carriers is of note. This study aimed to identify new B. bacilliformis antigenic candidates that could lead to a new diagnostic tool able to be implemented in endemic rural areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood (n = 198) and serum (n = 177) samples were collected in northern Peru. Clinical data were recorded. Specific 16S rRNA amplification by RT-PCR, IFA and ELISA for IgM/IgG with whole cells as antigens was done. Western blot analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing detected seroreactive proteins. ELISAs for IgM/IgG for the antigenic candidates were performed. Of the population 33.3% reported at least one symptom compatible with Carrion’s disease; 25.4% (IFA), 27.1% (ELISA-IgG), 33.9% (ELISA-IgM) and 38.9% (RT-PCR) of samples were positive. Four proteins were considered potential antigenic candidates, including two new antigenic candidates, succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit α (SCS-α) and succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit β (SCS-β). On Western blot both Pap31 and SCS-α interacted with IgM, while GroEL and SCS-β interacted with IgG. The presence of specific antibodies against the antigenic candidates varied from 34.5% (IgG against SCS-α) to 97.2% (IgM against Pap31). Conclusions/Significance RT-PCR and the high levels of positivity for specific ELISAs demonstrate high levels of B. bacilliformis exposure and asymptomatic carriers among inhabitants. The new antigens identified might be used as a new rapid diagnostic tool to diagnose acute Carrion’s disease and identify asymptomatic carriers. PMID:27627803

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding glutamine synthetase I from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei: anomalous phylogenies inferred from analysis of archaeal and bacterial glutamine synthetase I sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Tiboni, O; Cammarano, P; Sanangelantoni, A M

    1993-01-01

    The gene glnA encoding glutamine synthetase I (GSI) from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei was cloned and sequenced with the Sulfolobus solfataricus glnA gene as the probe. An operon reading frame of 448 amino acids was identified within a DNA segment of 1,528 bp. The encoded protein was 49% identical with the GSI of Methanococcus voltae and exhibited conserved regions characteristic of the GSI family. The P. woesei GSI was aligned with available homologs from other archaea (S. solfataricus, M. voltae) and with representative sequences from cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and gram-positive bacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from both the amino acid and the nucleotide sequence alignments. In accordance with the sequence similarities, archaeal and bacterial sequences did not segregate on a phylogeny. On the basis of sequence signatures, the GSI trees could be subdivided into two ensembles. One encompassed the GSI of cyanobacteria and proteobacteria, but also that of the high-G + C gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor (all of which are regulated by the reversible adenylylation of the enzyme subunits); the other embraced the GSI of the three archaea as well as that of the low-G + C gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium acetobutilycum, Bacillus subtilis) and Thermotoga maritima (none of which are regulated by subunit adenylylation). The GSIs of the Thermotoga and the Bacillus-Clostridium lineages shared a direct common ancestor with that of P. woesei and the methanogens and were unrelated to their homologs from cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and S. coelicolor. The possibility is presented that the GSI gene arose among the archaea and was then laterally transferred from some early methanogen to a Thermotoga-like organism. However, the relationship of the cyanobacterial-proteobacterial GSIs to the Thermotoga GSI and the GSI of low-G+C gram-positive bacteria remains unexplained. PMID:8098326

  15. The crystal structure of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus and its complexes with ATP and asparaginyl-adenylate: the mechanism of discrimination between asparagine and aspartic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Berthet-Colominas, C; Seignovert, L; Härtlein, M; Grotli, M; Cusack, S; Leberman, R

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined at 2.6 A resolution. This is the last of the three class IIb aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase structures to be determined. As expected from primary sequence comparisons, there are remarkable similarities between the tertiary structures of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase and aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, and most of the active site residues are identical except for three key differences. The structure at 2.65 A of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with a non-hydrolysable analogue of asparaginyl-adenylate permits a detailed explanation of how these three differences allow each enzyme to discriminate between their respective and very similar amino acid substrates, asparagine and aspartic acid. In addition, a structure of the complex of asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase with ATP shows exactly the same configuration of three divalent cations as previously observed in the seryl-tRNA synthetase-ATP complex, showing that this a general feature of class II synthetases. The structural similarity of asparaginyl- and aspartyl-tRNA synthetases as well as that of both enzymes to the ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase suggests that these three enzymes have evolved relatively recently from a common ancestor. PMID:9582288

  16. Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Both acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities are present in chloroplast envelope membranes. The functions of these enzymes in lipid metabolism remains unresolved, although the synthetase has been proposed to be involved in either plastid galactolipid synthesis or the export of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the cytoplasm. We have examined the locations of both enzymes within the two envelope membranes of pea (Pisum sativum var Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts. Inner and outer envelope membranes were purified from unfractionated envelope preparations by linear density sucrose gradient centrifugation. Acyl-CoA synthetase was located in the outer envelope membrane while acyl-CoA thioesterase was located in the inner envelope membrane. Thus, it seems unlikely that the synthetase is directly involved in galactolipid assembly. Instead, its localization supports the hypothesis that it functions in the transport of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663076

  17. Glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase and other enzyme activities related to the pyrimidine pathway in spleen of Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish).

    PubMed

    Anderson, P M

    1989-07-15

    The first two steps of urea synthesis in liver of marine elasmobranchs involve formation of glutamine from ammonia and of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine, catalysed by glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, respectively [Anderson & Casey (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 456-462]; both of these enzymes are localized exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this study was to establish the enzymology of carbamoyl phosphate formation and utilization for pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish), a representative elasmobranch. Aspartate carbamoyltransferase could not be detected in liver of dogfish. Spleen extracts, however, had glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate carbamoyltransferase, dihydro-orotase, and glutamine synthetase activities, all localized in the cytosol; dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, and orotidine-5'-decarboxylase activities were also present. Except for glutamine synthetase, the levels of all activities were very low. The carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity is inhibited by UTP and is activated by 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. The first three enzyme activities of the pyrimidine pathway were eluted in distinctly different positions during gel filtration chromatography under a number of different conditions; although complete proteolysis of inter-domain regions of a multifunctional complex during extraction cannot be excluded, the evidence suggests that in dogfish, in contrast to mammalian species, these three enzymes of the pyrimidine pathway exist as individual polypeptide chains. These results: (1) establish that dogfish express two different glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activities, (2) confirm the report [Smith, Ritter & Campbell (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 198-202] that dogfish express two different glutamine synthetases, and (3) provide indirect evidence that glutamine may not be available in liver for

  18. In vitro and in vivo effect of interleukin-2 on the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Handgretinger, R.; Bruchelt, G.; Kimmig, A.; Lang, P.; Daurer, B.; Dopfer, R.; Treuner, J.; Niethammer, D. )

    1990-02-01

    The in vitro and in vivo influence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase activity and natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Incubation of PBMCs in vitro with IL-2 resulted in a considerable secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and in a significant elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, as well as NK activity. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibodies inhibited the elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, but not the IL-2-induced augmentation of NK activity. Additionally, 2-5A synthetase and NK activity of PBMCs was measured in a child with neuroblastoma that was treated with recombinant IL-2 by continuous intravenous application. During the treatment, NK activity against the NK-sensitive cell line K 562 and against autologous tumor cells was not augmented. However, a significant increase of 2-5A synthetase activity in PBMCs was observed during IL-2 treatment, whereas there was no detectable serum level of IFN-gamma. We conclude that measuring 2-5A synthetase activity in patients treated with IL-2 may be helpful in monitoring the immunomodulatory effects of IL-2 on immune effector cells.

  19. Rheb protein binds CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its cellular localization and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) activity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-09

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis.

  20. Altered alpha subunits in phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases from p-fluorophenylalanine-resistant strains of Escherichis coli.

    PubMed

    Hennecke, H; Böck, A

    1975-07-01

    Three different phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases have been purified to near homogeneity, one from a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli and the others from two independently isolated p-fluorophenyalanine-resistant strains. The mutant enzymes were not able to use p-fluorophenylalanine as a substrate for activation and attachment to tRNA. They proved to be indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme by several electrophoretic and immunological criteria. The alpha and beta subunits of all three enzymes have been prepared by a method described in this paper. The isolated subunits per se did not reveal any significant enzyme activity, but combined they were able to form active phenylalanyl tRNA synthetase after a defined reconstitution process. Mixed reconstitution experiments between wild-type and mutant subunits indicate that the mutant alpha subunit is responsible for p-fluorophenylalanine resistance and therefore seems to carry the phenylalanine-binding site or to participate in its formation.

  1. In silico analysis of nonribosomal peptide synthetases of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri: identification of putative siderophore and lipopeptide biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Etchegaray, Augusto; Silva-Stenico, Maria E; Moon, David H; Tsai, Siu M

    2004-01-01

    The genomes of the plant pathogens Xanthomonas axonopodis (Xac) and Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc) were analysed with the aim of deducing their ability to produce nonribosomal peptides. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes were identified in two separate loci of Xac. While the genes of locus 1 are common to both strains, locus 2 was only found in Xac. Dissection and phylogenetic analysis of the condensation and thioesterase domains of the NRPSs of loci 1 and 2 of Xac revealed homology, respectively, with siderophore and lipopeptide synthetases. Further analysis of locus 1 revealed genes related to polyketide and polyamine biosynthesis that could be involved in the assembly of substrates for siderophore biosynthesis in both strains. In vitro production of siderophores by both Xac and Xcc was confirmed. Since bacterial siderophores and lipopeptides can be pathogenic and are typically produced nonribosomally, these results suggest that the identified genes could be involved in phytotoxin production.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Ross D.; Williams, Simon J.; Morrow, Carl A.; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Kobe, Bostjan; Fraser, James A.

    2013-01-01

    With increasingly large immunocompromised populations around the world, opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality. To combat the paucity of antifungal compounds, new drug targets must be investigated. Adenylosuccinate synthetase is a crucial enzyme in the ATP de novo biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. Although the enzyme is ubiquitous and well characterized in other kingdoms, no crystallographic studies on the fungal protein have been performed. Presented here are the expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic analyses of cryptococcal adenylosuccinate synthetase. The crystals had the symmetry of space group P212121 and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. PMID:23989157

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Ross D; Williams, Simon J; Morrow, Carl A; Ericsson, Daniel J; Kobe, Bostjan; Fraser, James A

    2013-09-01

    With increasingly large immunocompromised populations around the world, opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality. To combat the paucity of antifungal compounds, new drug targets must be investigated. Adenylosuccinate synthetase is a crucial enzyme in the ATP de novo biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. Although the enzyme is ubiquitous and well characterized in other kingdoms, no crystallographic studies on the fungal protein have been performed. Presented here are the expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic analyses of cryptococcal adenylosuccinate synthetase. The crystals had the symmetry of space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. coli at 2.71 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli was cloned, purified, and crystallized. Single crystals of the enzyme were grown under microgravity. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility and used to determine the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by the molecular-replacement method at 2.71 Å resolution. The active and regulatory sites in the molecule of E. coli phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase were revealed by comparison with the homologous protein from Bacillus subtilis, the structure of which was determined in a complex with functional ligands. The conformations of polypeptide-chain fragments surrounding and composing the active and regulatory sites were shown to be identical in both proteins.

  5. Severe respiratory failure as a presenting feature of an interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS).

    PubMed

    Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius; Castagneto, Corrado; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is defined as a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by the association of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without inflammatory myositis with the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase antibodies. ILD is one of the major extra-muscular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever as well as ILD associated ASS in the absence of muscular involvement. This patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Our patient's case demonstrates that the diagnosis of ASS may not be obvious. However, its diagnosis leads to appropriate and potentially life-saving treatment.

  6. [Glutathion-synthetase deficiency with 5-oxoprolinuria. Two new cases and a review of the literature (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Boivin, P; Galand, C; Schaison, G

    1978-05-06

    Hereditary deficiency in glutathion- synthetase is a rare disease presenting up to now either with a congenital non-spherocytic anaemia or with a metabolic acidosis, most often neonatal and accompanied by a pyroglutamic amino-aciduria (5-oxoprolinuria). These two syndrome may be present together or exist independently. Pyroglutamic amino-aciduria is the result of extension of the deficiency to non-haematopoietic cells, in particular renal. Two new cases of glutathion-synthetase deficiency are reported: both with haemolytic anaemia and moderate pyroglutamic amino-aciduria, in the absence of clinical signs of metabolic acidosis. The clinical, haematological and biochemical heterogeneity of the deficiency is illustrated by these two cases and datas from the literature.

  7. Three-dimensional structure of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. coli at 2.71 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, V. I. E-mail: tostars@mail.ru; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-01-15

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli was cloned, purified, and crystallized. Single crystals of the enzyme were grown under microgravity. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility and used to determine the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by the molecular-replacement method at 2.71 Å resolution. The active and regulatory sites in the molecule of E. coli phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase were revealed by comparison with the homologous protein from Bacillus subtilis, the structure of which was determined in a complex with functional ligands. The conformations of polypeptide-chain fragments surrounding and composing the active and regulatory sites were shown to be identical in both proteins.

  8. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus halodurans Aspartyl-tRNA Synthetases Retain Recognition of tRNA(Asn).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nilendra; Raff, Hannah; Islam, Mohammed Tarek; Feen, Melanie; Garofalo, Denise M; Sheppard, Kelly

    2016-02-13

    Synthesis of asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn-tRNA(Asn)) in bacteria can be formed either by directly ligating Asn to tRNA(Asn) using an asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) or by synthesizing Asn on the tRNA. In the latter two-step indirect pathway, a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) attaches Asp to tRNA(Asn) and the amidotransferase GatCAB transamidates the Asp to Asn on the tRNA. GatCAB can be similarly used for Gln-tRNA(Gln) formation. Most bacteria are predicted to use only one route for Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation. Given that Bacillus halodurans and Bacillus subtilis encode AsnRS for Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation and Asn synthetases to synthesize Asn and GatCAB for Gln-tRNA(Gln) synthesis, their AspRS enzymes were thought to be specific for tRNA(Asp). However, we demonstrate that the AspRSs are non-discriminating and can be used with GatCAB to synthesize Asn. The results explain why B. subtilis with its Asn synthetase genes knocked out is still an Asn prototroph. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that this may be common among Firmicutes and 30% of all bacteria. In addition, the phylogeny revealed that discrimination toward tRNA(Asp) by AspRS has evolved independently multiple times. The retention of the indirect pathway in B. subtilis and B. halodurans likely reflects the ancient link between Asn biosynthesis and its use in translation that enabled Asn to be added to the genetic code.

  9. A Previously Unknown Oxalyl-CoA Synthetase Is Important for Oxalate Catabolism in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin; Kim, Hyun Uk; Nakata, Paul A.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    Oxalate is produced by several catabolic pathways in plants. The best characterized pathway for subsequent oxalate degradation is via oxalate oxidase, but some species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have no oxalate oxidase activity. Previously, an alternative pathway was proposed in which oxalyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.8) catalyzes the first step, but no gene encoding this function has been found. Here, we identify ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME3 (AAE3; At3g48990) from Arabidopsis as a gene encoding oxalyl-CoA synthetase. Recombinant AAE3 protein has high activity against oxalate, with Km = 149.0 ± 12.7 μM and Vmax = 11.4 ± 1.0 μmol/min/mg protein, but no detectable activity against other organic acids tested. Allelic aae3 mutants lacked oxalyl-CoA synthetase activity and were unable to degrade oxalate into CO2. Seeds of mutants accumulated oxalate to levels threefold higher than the wild type, resulting in the formation of oxalate crystals. Crystal formation was associated with seed coat defects and substantially reduced germination of mutant seeds. Leaves of mutants were damaged by exogenous oxalate and more susceptible than the wild type to infection by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which produces oxalate as a phytotoxin to aid infection. Our results demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis, oxalyl-CoA synthetase encoded by AAE3 is required for oxalate degradation, for normal seed development, and for defense against an oxalate-producing fungal pathogen. PMID:22447686

  10. Cu-free cycloaddition for identifying catalytic active adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases by phage display.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yekui; Yin, Jun

    2008-10-15

    To engineer the substrate specificities of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), we developed a method to display NRPS modules on M13 phages and select catalytically active adenylation (A) domains that would load azide functionalized substrate analogs to the neighboring peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains. Biotin conjugated difluorinated cyclooctyne was used for copper free cycloaddition with an azide substituted substrate attached to PCP. Biotin-labeled phages were selected by binding to streptavidin.

  11. Effect of membrane-associated f1 bacteriophage coat protein upon the activity of Escherichia coli phosphatidylserine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, B K; Webster, R E

    1978-01-01

    The effects of insertion of the major coat protein of f1 bacteriophage into Escherichia coli membranes were investigated under conditions allowing in vivo analysis of phosphatidylserine synthesis. An E. coli strain possessing a temperature-sensitive phosphatidylserine decarboxylase was utilized under conditions in which the decarboxylase activity was reduced but nonlethal. The presence of the coat protein in the host membranes inhibits the activity of the phosphatidylserine synthetase and perhaps affects the activity of the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. PMID:211116

  12. Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes pesL and pes1 Are Essential for Fumigaclavine C Production in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Gallagher, Lorna; Schrettl, Markus; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of metabolites encoded by the majority of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, remains outstanding. We found that the nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthetases PesL and Pes1 were essential for fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, the end product of the complex ergot alkaloid (EA) pathway in A. fumigatus. Deletion of either pesL (ΔpesL) or pes1 (Δpes1) resulted in complete loss of fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, relatively increased production of fumitremorgins such as TR-2, fumitremorgin C and verruculogen, increased sensitivity to H2O2, and increased sensitivity to the antifungals, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Deletion of pesL resulted in severely reduced virulence in an invertebrate infection model (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that NRP synthesis plays an essential role in mediating the final prenylation step of the EA pathway, despite the apparent absence of NRP synthetases in the proposed EA biosynthetic cluster for A. fumigatus. Liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of fumiquinazolines A to F in both A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔpesL strains. This observation suggests that alternative NRP synthetases can also function in fumiquinazoline biosynthesis, since PesL has been shown to mediate fumiquinazoline biosynthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we provide here the first direct link between EA biosynthesis and virulence, in agreement with the observed toxicity associated with EA exposure. Finally, we demonstrate a possible cluster cross-talk phenomenon, a theme which is beginning to emerge in the literature. PMID:22344643

  13. Nanomolar inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase 1: synthesis, biological evaluation and X-ray crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Cédric; Silve, Sandra; Morales, Renaud; Pessegue, Bernard; Llopart, Sylvie; Nair, Anil; Bauer, Armin; Scheiper, Bodo; Pöverlein, Christoph; Ganzhorn, Axel; Lagrange, Sophie; Bacqué, Eric

    2015-04-01

    A series of imidazo[1,2-a]indeno[1,2-e]pyrazin-4-ones that potently inhibit M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (GlnA1) has been identified by high throughput screening. Exploration of this series was performed owing to a short chemistry program. Despite possibly nanomolar inhibitions, none of these compounds was active on whole cell Mtb, suggesting that GlnA1 may not be a suitable target to find new anti-tubercular drugs.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase from the Thermophilic thermus thermophilus strain HB27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramchik, Yu. A.; Timofeev, V. I.; Muravieva, T. I.; Sinitsyna, E. V.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases (PRPP synthetases) are among the key enzymes essential for vital functions of organisms and are involved in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, coenzymes, and the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. These enzymes are used in biotechnology for the combined chemoenzymatic synthesis of natural nucleotide analogs. Recombinant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase I from the thermophilic strain HB27 of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus ( T. th HB27) has high thermal stability and shows maximum activity at 75°C, due to which this enzyme holds promise for biotechnological applications. In order to grow crystals and study them by X-ray crystallography, an enzyme sample, which was produced using a highly efficient producer strain, was purified by affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. The screening of crystallization conditions was performed by the vapor-diffusion technique. The crystals of the enzyme suitable for X-ray diffraction were grown by the counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. These crystals were used to collect the X-ray diffraction data set at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility (Japan) to 3-Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P21 and have the following unitcell parameters: a = 107.7 Å, b = 112.6 Å, c = 110.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 116.6°. The X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for determining the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme at 3.0-Å resolution.

  15. The Drosophila ebony gene is closely related to microbial peptide synthetases and shows specific cuticle and nervous system expression.

    PubMed

    Hovemann, B T; Ryseck, R P; Walldorf, U; Störtkuhl, K F; Dietzel, I D; Dessen, E

    1998-10-09

    The previously detected ebony (e) locus (Caizzi et al., 1987) consists of a complex gene structure that is divided into seven exons. An open reading frame encoding the putative Ebony protein of 98.5 kDa exhibits homology to a family of peptide synthetases (Stachelhaus and Marahiel, 1995), in good correlation with the proposed function as beta-alanyl-dopamine synthetase. Multiple ebony transcripts are detected throughout development. P-factor mediated transformation of genomic DNA rescues the cuticle, electrophysiological and behavioural phenotypes. Fusion of the ebony reading frame with that of beta-galactosidase of E. coli reveals expression in cuticle and nervous system. Strong staining in the first and, to a lesser extent, in the second optic neuropile may reflect the pronounced visual defect observed in ebony mutants. In addition, weak central brain and thoracic ganglion expression is detected in flies. Conservation of a multidomain protein structure known from peptide synthetases should have functional implications on the putative reaction mechanism of peptide bond formation.

  16. Sequence and structural similarities between the leucine-specific binding protein and leucyl-tRNA synthetase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, R M; Oxender, D L

    1990-01-01

    A role for the leucyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.4) has been established for regulating the transport of leucine across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli by the leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV-I) transport system. This transport system is mediated by interactions of periplasmic binding proteins with a complex of membrane-associated proteins, and transcription of the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system genes is repressed by growth of E. coli on high levels of leucine. We now report results from sequence comparisons and structural modeling studies, which indicate that the leucine-specific binding protein, one of the periplasmic components of the LIV-I transport system, contains a 121-residue stretch, representing 36% of the mature protein, which displays both sequence and structural similarities to a region within the putative nucleotide-binding domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase. Early fusion events between ancestral genes for the leucine-specific binding protein and leucyl-tRNA synthetase could account for the similarity and suggest that processes of aminoacylation and transport for leucine in E. coli may be performed by evolutionarily interrelated proteins. PMID:2191293

  17. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the thioesterase domain of the rat fatty acid synthetase.

    PubMed

    Naggert, J; Witkowski, A; Mikkelsen, J; Smith, S

    1988-01-25

    A cloned cDNA containing the entire coding sequence for the long-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioester hydrolase (thioesterase I) component as well as the 3'-noncoding region of the fatty acid synthetase has been isolated using an expression vector and domain-specific antibodies. The coding region was assigned to the thioesterase I domain by identification of sequences coding for characterized peptide fragments, amino-terminal analysis of the isolated thioesterase I domain and the presence of the serine esterase active-site sequence motif. The thioesterase I domain is 306 amino acids long with a calculated molecular mass of 33,476 daltons; its DNA is flanked at the 5'-end by a region coding for the acyl carrier protein domain and at the 3'-end by a 1,537-base pairs-long noncoding sequence with a poly(A) tail. The thioesterase I domain exhibits a low, albeit discernible, homology with the discrete medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioester hydrolases (thioesterase II) from rat mammary gland and duck uropygial gland, suggesting a distant but common evolutionary ancestry for these proteins.

  18. MD Simulations of tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Dynamics, Folding, Binding, and Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongzhong; Macnamara, Lindsay M.; Leuchter, Jessica D.; Alexander, Rebecca W.; Cho, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    While tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are classes of biomolecules that have been extensively studied for decades, the finer details of how they carry out their fundamental biological functions in protein synthesis remain a challenge. Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are verifying experimental observations and providing new insight that cannot be addressed from experiments alone. Throughout the review, we briefly discuss important historical events to provide a context for how far the field has progressed over the past few decades. We then review the background of tRNA molecules, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and current state of the art MD simulation techniques for those who may be unfamiliar with any of those fields. Recent MD simulations of tRNA dynamics and folding and of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dynamics and mechanistic characterizations are discussed. We highlight the recent successes and discuss how important questions can be addressed using current MD simulations techniques. We also outline several natural next steps for computational studies of AARS:tRNA complexes. PMID:26184179

  19. Crystal structures of three protozoan homologs of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Ethan A; Arakaki, Tracy L; Gillespie, Robert; Napuli, Alberto J; Kim, Jessica E; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G J

    2011-05-01

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is an essential enzyme that is recognizably conserved across all forms of life. It is responsible for activating and attaching tryptophan to a cognate tRNA(Trp) molecule for use in protein synthesis. In some eukaryotes this original core function has been supplemented or modified through the addition of extra domains or the expression of variant TrpRS isoforms. The three TrpRS structures from pathogenic protozoa described here represent three illustrations of this malleability in eukaryotes. The Cryptosporidium parvum genome contains a single TrpRS gene, which codes for an N-terminal domain of uncertain function in addition to the conserved core TrpRS domains. Sequence analysis indicates that this extra domain, conserved among several apicomplexans, is related to the editing domain of some AlaRS and ThrRS. The C. parvum enzyme remains fully active in charging tRNA(Trp) after truncation of this extra domain. The crystal structure of the active, truncated enzyme is presented here at 2.4Å resolution. The Trypanosoma brucei genome contains separate cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of TrpRS that have diverged in their respective tRNA recognition domains. The crystal structure of the T. brucei cytosolic isoform is presented here at 2.8Å resolution. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three sequences that appear to be TrpRS homologs. However one of these, whose structure is presented here at 3.0Å resolution, has lost the active site motifs characteristic of the Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic domain while retaining the conserved features of a fully formed tRNA(Trp) recognition domain. The biological function of this variant E. histolytica TrpRS remains unknown, but, on the basis of a completely conserved tRNA recognition region and evidence for ATP but not tryptophan binding, it is tempting to speculate that it may perform an editing function. Together with a previously reported structure of an unusual Trp

  20. Lincosamide Synthetase—A Unique Condensation System Combining Elements of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Mycothiol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Janata, Jiri; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Koberska, Marketa; Ulanova, Dana; Kamenik, Zdenek; Novak, Petr; Kopecky, Jan; Novotna, Jitka; Radojevic, Bojana; Plhackova, Kamila; Gazak, Radek; Najmanova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics lincomycin and celesticetin, the amino acid and amino sugar units are linked by an amide bond. The respective condensing enzyme lincosamide synthetase (LS) is expected to be an unusual system combining nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) components with so far unknown amino sugar related activities. The biosynthetic gene cluster of celesticetin was sequenced and compared to the lincomycin one revealing putative LS coding ORFs shared in both clusters. Based on a bioassay and production profiles of S. lincolnensis strains with individually deleted putative LS coding genes, the proteins LmbC, D, E, F and V were assigned to LS function. Moreover, the newly recognized N-terminal domain of LmbN (LmbN-CP) was also assigned to LS as a NRPS carrier protein (CP). Surprisingly, the homologous CP coding sequence in celesticetin cluster is part of ccbZ gene adjacent to ccbN, the counterpart of lmbN, suggesting the gene rearrangement, evident also from still active internal translation start in lmbN, and indicating the direction of lincosamide biosynthesis evolution. The in vitro test with LmbN-CP, LmbC and the newly identified S. lincolnensis phosphopantetheinyl transferase Slp, confirmed the cooperation of the previously characterized NRPS A-domain LmbC with a holo-LmbN-CP in activation of a 4-propyl-L-proline precursor of lincomycin. This result completed the functional characterization of LS subunits resembling NRPS initiation module. Two of the four remaining putative LS subunits, LmbE/CcbE and LmbV/CcbV, exhibit low but significant homology to enzymes from the metabolism of mycothiol, the NRPS-independent system processing the amino sugar and amino acid units. The functions of particular LS subunits as well as cooperation of both NRPS-based and NRPS-independent LS blocks are discussed. The described condensing enzyme represents a unique hybrid system with overall composition quite dissimilar to any other known enzyme system

  1. Characterization of an L-phosphinothricin resistant glutamine synthetase from Exiguobacterium sp. and its improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaowei; Han, Yingkun; Kumar, Ashok; Gao, Haofeng; Liu, Ziduo; Hu, Nan

    2017-02-07

    A glutamine synthetase (GS; 1341 bp) gene with potent L-phosphinothricin (PPT) resistance was isolated and characterized from a marine bacterium Exiguobacterium sp. Molecular docking analysis indicated that the substitution of residues Glu60 and Arg64 may lead to significant changes in binding pocket. To enhance the enzymatic property of GS, variants E60A and R64G were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The results revealed a noteworthy change in the thermostability and activity in comparison to the wild type (WT). WT exhibited optimum activity at 35 °C, while E60A and R64G exhibited optimum activity at 45 and 40 °C, respectively. The mutant R64G was 4.3 times more stable at 70 °C in comparison to WT, while E60A was 5.7 times more stable. Kinetic analysis revealed that the k cat value of R64G mutant was 8.10-, 7.25- and 7.63-fold that of WT for ADP, glutamine and hydroxylamine, respectively. The kinetic inhibition (K i, 4.91 ± 0.42 mM) of R64G was 2.02-fold that of WT (2.43 ± 0.14 mM) for L-phosphinothricin. The analysis of structure and function relationship showed that the binding pocket underwent dramatic changes when Arg site of 64 was substituted by Gly, thus promoting the rapid capture of substrates and leading to increase in activity and PPT-resistance of mutant R64G. The rearrangements of the residues at the molecular level formed new hydrogen bonds around the active site, which contributed to the increase of thermostability of enzymes. This study provides new insights into substrate binding mechanism of glutamine synthetase and the improved GS gene also has a potential for application in transgenic crops with L-phosphinothricin tolerance.

  2. Structural and Functional Characterization of Aerobactin Synthetase IucA from a Hypervirulent Pathotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Daniel C.; Drake, Eric J.; Grant, Thomas D.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2016-06-28

    Iron is a vital mineral nutrient required by virtually all life forms to prosper; pathogenic bacteria are no exception. Despite the abundance of iron within the human host, highly regulated iron physiology can result in exceedingly low levels of iron bioavailable to prospective invading bacteria. To combat this scarcity of iron, many pathogenic bacteria have acquired specific and efficient iron acquisition systems, which allow them to thrive in iron-deficient host environments. One of the more prominent bacterial iron acquisition systems involves the synthesis, secretion, and reuptake of small-molecule iron chelators known as siderophores. Aerobactin, a citrate-hydroxamate siderophore originally isolated nearly 50 years ago, is produced by a number of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Aerobactin has recently been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in mediating the enhanced virulence of a particularly invasive pathotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP). Toward further understanding of this key virulence factor, we report the structural and functional characterization of aerobactin synthetase IucA from a strain of hvKP. The X-ray crystal structures of unliganded and ATP-bound forms of IucA were solved, forming the foundation of our structural analysis. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data suggest that, unlike its closest structurally characterized homologues, IucA adopts a tetrameric assembly in solution. Finally, we employed activity assays to investigate the substrate specificity and determine the apparent steady-state kinetic parameters of IucA.

  3. A Deoxynivalenol-Activated Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene from Wheat Encodes a Nuclear Localized Protein and Protects Plants Against Fusarium Pathogens and Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Dong-Yun; Yi, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Rong-Jing; Qu, Bo; Huang, Tao; He, Wei-Jie; Li, Cheng; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the fungal pathogen that causes globally important diseases of cereals and produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Owing to the dearth of available sources of resistance to Fusarium pathogens, characterization of novel genes that confer resistance to mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi is vitally important for breeding resistant crop varieties. In this study, a wheat methionyl-tRNA synthetase (TaMetRS) gene was identified from suspension cell cultures treated with DON. It shares conserved aminoacylation catalytic and tRNA anticodon binding domains with human MetRS and with the only previously characterized plant MetRS, suggesting that it functions in aminoacylation in the cytoplasm. However, the TaMetRS comprises a typical nuclear localization signal and cellular localization studies with a TaMetRS::GFP fusion protein showed that TaMetRS is localized in the nucleus. Expression of TaMetRS was activated by DON treatment and by infection with a DON-producing F. graminearum strain in wheat spikes. No such activation was observed following infection with a non-DON-producing F. graminearum strain. Expression of TaMetRS in Arabidopsis plants conferred significant resistance to DON and F. graminearum. These results indicated that this DON-activated TaMetRS gene may encode a novel type of MetRS in plants that has a role in defense and detoxification.

  4. C-terminal Domain of Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pathogenic Candida albicans Recognizes both tRNASer and tRNALeu*

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Quan-Quan; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes Leu-tRNALeu formation and is classified into bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic types with significant diversity in the C-terminal domain (CTD). CTDs of both bacterial and archaeal LeuRSs have been reported to recognize tRNALeu through different modes of interaction. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, the cytoplasmic LeuRS (CaLeuRS) is distinguished by its capacity to recognize a uniquely evolved chimeric tRNASer (CatRNASer(CAG)) in addition to its cognate CatRNALeu, leading to CUG codon reassignment. Our previous study showed that eukaryotic but not archaeal LeuRSs recognize this peculiar tRNASer, suggesting the significance of their highly divergent CTDs in tRNASer recognition. The results of this study provided the first evidence of the indispensable function of the CTD of eukaryotic LeuRS in recognizing non-cognate CatRNASer and cognate CatRNALeu. Three lysine residues were identified as involved in mediating enzyme-tRNA interaction in the leucylation process: mutation of all three sites totally ablated the leucylation activity. The importance of the three lysine residues was further verified by gel mobility shift assays and complementation of a yeast leuS gene knock-out strain. PMID:26677220

  5. Oxidative stress diverts tRNA synthetase to nucleus for protection against DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Shi, Yi; Truong, Lan N; Fisch, Kathleen M; Xu, Tao; Gardiner, Elisabeth; Fu, Guangsen; Hsu, Yun-Shiuan Olivia; Kishi, Shuji; Su, Andrew I; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2014-10-23

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Here we report a function for TyrRS in DNA damage protection. We found that oxidative stress, which often downregulates protein synthesis, induces TyrRS to rapidly translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus. We also found that angiogenin mediates or potentiates this stress-induced translocalization. The nuclear-localized TyrRS activates transcription factor E2F1 to upregulate the expression of DNA damage repair genes such as BRCA1 and RAD51. The activation is achieved through direct interaction of TyrRS with TRIM28 to sequester this vertebrate-specific epigenetic repressor and its associated HDAC1 from deacetylating and suppressing E2F1. Remarkably, overexpression of TyrRS strongly protects against UV-induced DNA double-strand breaks in zebrafish, whereas restricting TyrRS nuclear entry completely abolishes the protection. Therefore, oxidative stress triggers an essential cytoplasmic enzyme used for protein synthesis to translocate to the nucleus to protect against DNA damage.

  6. Genome mining unearths a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like-pteridine synthase biosynthetic gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Bong; Perez, Corey E; Barber, Karl W; Rinehart, Jesse; Crawford, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptides represent a large class of metabolites with pharmaceutical relevance. Pteridines, such as pterins, folates, and flavins, are heterocyclic metabolites that often serve as redox-active cofactors. The biosynthetic machineries for construction of these distinct classes of small molecules operate independently in the cell. Here, we discovered an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like-pteridine synthase hybrid biosynthetic gene cluster in Photorhabdus luminescens using genome synteny analysis. P. luminescens is a Gammaproteobacterium that undergoes phenotypic variation and can have both pathogenic and mutualistic roles. Through extensive gene deletion, pathway-targeted molecular networking, quantitative proteomic analysis, and NMR, we show that the genetic locus affects the regulation of quorum sensing and secondary metabolic enzymes and encodes new pteridine metabolites functionalized with cis-amide acyl-side chains, termed pepteridine A (1) and B (2). The pepteridines are produced in the pathogenic phenotypic variant and represent the first reported metabolites to be synthesized by a hybrid NRPS-pteridine pathway. These studies expand our view of the combinatorial biosynthetic potential available in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25229.001

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, V. I. Abramchik, Yu. A. Zhukhlistova, N. E. Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-09-15

    Enzymes of the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family (PRPPS, EC 2.7.6.1) catalyze the formation of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (5-PRPP) from adenosine triphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. 5-Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is an important intermediate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, and pyridine nucleotides, as well as of the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. The crystallization conditions for E. coli PRPPS were found by the vapor-diffusion technique and were optimized to apply the capillary counter-diffusion technique. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected from the crystals grown by the counter-diffusion technique using a synchrotron radiation source to 3.1-Å resolution. The crystals of PRPPS belong to sp. gr. P6{sub 3}22 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 104.44 Å, c = 124.98 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. The collected X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for the solution of the three-dimensional structure of PRPPS at 3.1-Å resolution.

  8. The Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on the Cellular Localization of Glutamine Synthetase Isoforms in Barley Roots.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, L. J.; Tobin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) was detected by immunogold localization in the cytosol and plastids of roots of 7-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klaxon) seedlings grown in the presence or absence of NO3- (15 mM) or NH4+ (30 mM). The number of GS polypeptides changed during root development, and this was affected by N nutrition. There was no evidence of a NO3--inducible root plastid GS.In apical 5- to 10-mm regions of the root the concentration of immunogold labeling of cytosolic GS was higher in the cortical parenchyma than in the vascular cells of the stele, irrespective of N nutrition. This labeling was at least 50% higher in both cell types in N-free compared with N-grown (either NO3- or NH4+) seedlings. In contrast, GS specific activity was highest in roots of NO3--grown seedlings. It is suggested that this indicates the presence of inactive GS in roots grown without N. This study has identified both cell- and development-specific responses of GS to N nutrition. PMID:12226350

  9. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  10. Chitin synthetases in Candida albicans: a review on their subcellular distribution and biological function.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J P; Gozalbo, D

    1994-09-01

    In the light of recent genetic advances, some results regarding chitin biosynthetic activities are reviewed in this paper. Genes coding for distinct enzymes displaying chitin synthetase activities have been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as in other fungal species including Candida albicans. Several activities seem to exist in the cells: (i) one zymogenic, located in cytoplasmic vesicles called chitosomes, although the presence of other types of vesicles with zymogenic activity cannot be completely discarded, and (ii) plasma membrane associated activities (the active enzyme and probably two distinct pools of zymogenic activity). Possible relationships between these activities, if any, remain to be determined. These multiplicity of enzymes is not surprising taking into account that chitin biosynthesis is required during very well defined temporal and spatial events of the cell cycle. A general repair function for one of the chitin biosynthetic activities is proposed as a possible salvage mechanism to warrant cell survival after wall damage has been caused, since chitin appears to be the most suitable polymer to carry out this function due to its particular physico-chemical properties.

  11. Deletion of Type I glutamine synthetase deregulates nitrogen metabolism and increases ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Rydzak, Thomas; Garcia, David; Stevenson, David M; Sladek, Margaret; Klingeman, Dawn M; Holwerda, Evert K; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M

    2017-04-08

    Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. While recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum. To investigate approaches to decrease amino acid secretion, we attempted to reduce ammonium assimilation by deleting the Type I glutamine synthetase (glnA) in an essentially wild type strain of C. thermocellum. Deletion of glnA reduced levels of secreted valine and total amino acids by 53% and 44% respectively, and increased ethanol yields by 53%. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes encoding the RNF-complex were more highly expressed in ΔglnA and may have a role in improving NADH-availability for ethanol production. While a significant up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and urea uptake suggested that deletion of glnA induces a nitrogen starvation response, metabolomic analysis showed an increase in intracellular glutamine levels indicative of nitrogen-rich conditions. We propose that deletion of glnA causes deregulation of nitrogen metabolism, leading to overexpression of nitrogen metabolism genes and, in turn, elevated glutamine levels. Here we demonstrate that perturbation of nitrogen assimilation is a promising strategy to redirect flux from the production of nitrogenous compounds toward biofuels in C. thermocellum.

  12. A unique insertion in the CP1 domain of Giardia lamblia leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; Yao, Peng; Ruan, Liang-Liang; Zhu, Bin; Luo, Jun; Qu, Liang-Hu; Wang, En-Duo

    2009-02-17

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) catalyzes the esterification of the tRNA(Leu) isoacceptor with leucine. It contains a large insertion domain, connective peptide 1 (CP1), for amino acid editing. Here, we cloned the gene encoding LeuRS from Giardia lamblia (GlLeuRS), one of the most ancient eukaryotes. GlLeuRS was purified from an Escherichia coli overproduction strain, and its properties were investigated. The isolated CP1 domain of GlLeuRS (GlLeuRS-CP1) was an active protein for editing mischarged G. lamblia tRNA(Leu)(AAG) (GltRNA(Leu)). Insertion of 49 amino acid residues within the CP1 domain (the so-called 49-amino acid motif) was important for the optimal aminoacylation activity of GlLeuRS and was crucial for the editing capacity of GlLeuRS-CP1. Additionally, the motif can confer editing activity on the editing-defective isolated CP1 domain from E. coli LeuRS (EcLeuRS-CP1). We also found that GlLeuRS could not rescue a Saccharomyces cerevisiae leuS null strain, suggesting different recognition modes for these two LeuRSs with respect to tRNA(Leu).

  13. Structural characterization of antibiotic self-immunity tRNA synthetase in plant tumour biocontrol agent

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Shaileja; Palencia, Andrés; Virus, Cornelia; Schulwitz, Sarah; Temple, Brenda R.; Cusack, Stephen; Reader, John

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-producing microbes evolved self-resistance mechanisms to avoid suicide. The biocontrol Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 secretes the Trojan Horse antibiotic agrocin 84 that is selectively transported into the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens and processed into the toxin TM84. We previously showed that TM84 employs a unique tRNA-dependent mechanism to inhibit leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), while the TM84-producer prevents self-poisoning by expressing a resistant LeuRS AgnB2. We now identify a mechanism by which the antibiotic-producing microbe resists its own toxin. Using a combination of structural, biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that AgnB2 evolved structural changes so as to resist the antibiotic by eliminating the tRNA-dependence of TM84 binding. Mutagenesis of key resistance determinants results in mutants adopting an antibiotic-sensitive phenotype. This study illuminates the evolution of resistance in self-immunity genes and provides mechanistic insights into a fascinating tRNA-dependent antibiotic with applications for the development of anti-infectives and the prevention of biocontrol emasculation. PMID:27713402

  14. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  15. Physiological Studies of Glutamine Synthetases I and III from Synechococcus sp. WH7803 Reveal Differential Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 6.3.1.2), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation. PMID:27446010

  16. Ornithine decarboxylase or gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase overexpression protects Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis against antimony.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Maisa S; Comini, Marcelo A; Resende, Bethânia V; Santi, Ana Maria M; Zoboli, Antônio P; Moreira, Douglas S; Murta, Silvane M F

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosomatids present a unique mechanism for detoxification of peroxides that is dependent on trypanothione (bisglutathionylspermidine). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) produce molecules that are direct precursors of trypanothione. In this study, Leishmania guyanensis odc and gsh1 overexpressor cell lines were generated to investigate the contribution of these genes to the trivalent antimony (Sb(III))-resistance phenotype. The ODC- or GSH1-overexpressors parasites presented an increase of two and four-fold in Sb(III)-resistance index, respectively, when compared with the wild-type line. Pharmacological inhibition of ODC and GSH1 with the specific inhibitors α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), respectively, increased the antileishmanial effect of Sb(III) in all cell lines. However, the ODC- and GSH1-overexpressor were still more resistant to Sb(III) than the parental cell line. Together, our data shows that modulation of ODC and GSH1 levels and activity is sufficient to affect L. guyanensis susceptibility to Sb(III), and confirms a role of these genes in the Sb(III)-resistance phenotype.

  17. Glutamine Synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Tardito, Saverio; Oudin, Anaïs; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Fack, Fred; Keunen, Olivier; Zheng, Liang; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Øystein; Weinstock, Adam; Wagner, Allon; Lindsay, Susan L.; Hock, Andreas K.; Barnett, Susan C.; Ruppin, Eytan; Mørkve, Svein Harald; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) functions physiologically to balance tissue requirements of carbon and nitrogen. It has been proposed that in cancer cells undergoing aerobic glycolysis, accelerated anabolism is sustained by Gln-derived carbons, which replenish the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). However, it is shown here that in glioblastoma (GBM) cells, almost half of the Gln-derived glutamate (Glu) is secreted and does not enter the TCA cycle and, that inhibiting glutaminolysis does not affect proliferation. Moreover, Gln-starved cells are not rescued by TCA cycle replenishment. Instead, the conversion of Glu to Gln by Glutamine Synthetase (GS) (cataplerosis) confers Gln prototrophy, and fuels de novo purine biosynthesis. In both orthotopic GBM models and in patients, 13C-glucose tracing showed that GS produces Gln from TCA cycle-derived carbons. Finally, while it is contributed only marginally by the circulation, the Gln required for the growth of GBM tumours is either autonomously synthesized by GS-positive glioma cells, or supplied by astrocytes. PMID:26595383

  18. Glutamine synthetase and nitrogen cycling in colonies of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, E J; Bergman, B; Dawson, R; Siddiqui, P J; Söderbäck, E; Capone, D G

    1992-01-01

    We examined freshly collected samples of the colonial planktonic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii to determine the pathways of recently fixed N within and among trichomes. High concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were found in colonies. Glutamate and glutamine uptake rates and concentrations in cells were low in the early morning and increased in the late morning to reach maxima near midday; then uptake and concentration again fell to low values. This pattern followed that previously observed for T. thiebautii nitrogenase activity. Our results suggest that recently fixed nitrogen is incorporated into glutamine in the N2-fixing trichomes and may be passed as glutamate to non-N2-fixing trichomes. The high transport rates and concentrations of glutamate may explain the previously observed absence of appreciable uptake of NH4+, NO3-, or urea by Trichodesmium spp. Immunolocalization, Western blots (immunoblots), and enzymatic assays indicated that glutamine synthetase (GS) was present in all cells during both day and night. GS appeared to be primarily contained in cells of T. thiebautii rather than in associated bacteria or cyanobacteria. Double immunolabeling showed that cells with nitrogenase (Fe protein) contained levels of the GS protein that were twofold higher than those in cells with little or no nitrogenase. GS activity and the uptake of glutamine and glutamate dramatically decreased in the presence of the GS inhibitor methionine sulfoximine. Since no glutamate dehydrogenase activity was detected in this species, GS appears to be the primary enzyme responsible for NH3 incorporation. Images PMID:1359837

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. Coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes of the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family (PRPPS, EC 2.7.6.1) catalyze the formation of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (5-PRPP) from adenosine triphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. 5-Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is an important intermediate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, and pyridine nucleotides, as well as of the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. The crystallization conditions for E. coli PRPPS were found by the vapor-diffusion technique and were optimized to apply the capillary counter-diffusion technique. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected from the crystals grown by the counter-diffusion technique using a synchrotron radiation source to 3.1-Å resolution. The crystals of PRPPS belong to sp. gr. P6322 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 104.44 Å, c = 124.98 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. The collected X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for the solution of the three-dimensional structure of PRPPS at 3.1-Å resolution.

  20. Cloning and expression of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans glutamine synthetase gene in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, M.E.C.; Rawlings, D.E.; Woods, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    The glutamine synthetase (GS) gene glnA of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned on recombinant plasmid pMEB100 which enabled Escherichia coli glnA deletion mutants to utilize (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as the sole source of nitrogen. High levels of GS-specific activity were obtained in the E. coli glnA deletion mutants containing the T. ferrooxidans GS gene. The cloned T. ferrooxidans DNA fragment containing the glnA gene activated histidase activity in an E. coli glnA glnL glnG deletion mutant containing the Klebsiella aerogenes hut operon. Plasmid pMEB100 also enabled the E. coli glnA glnL glnG deletion mutant to utilize arginine or low levels of glutamine as the sole source of nitrogen. There was no detectable DNA homology between the T. ferrooxidans glnA gene and the E. coli glnA gene.

  1. Production of Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS)- Dependent Siderophore by Aeromonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Amsaveni, Ramasamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy; Aravinth, Arthanari; Mary, Joseph Reshma; Vivekanandhan, Govindasami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas species are Gram-negative ubiquitous bacteria, facultative anaerobic rods that infect both invertebrates and vertebrates. Various fish species develop hemorrhagic disease and furunculosis due to Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas strains generate certain active compounds such as siderophores, which are the final products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) activity. The present study attempted to investigate the prevalence of Aeromonas isolates in marketed fish sources. We also examined the siderophore production ability of these isolates. Methods: Among the molecular tools, 16S rRNA analysis was used to identify Aeromonas species and their epidemiological distributions. The hemolytic activity of the strains and biochemical assays were used to confirm the identity of the isolates. We also determined the chemical nature of siderophores in these strains. Results: A total of seven Aeromonas isolates obtained from fish were included to determine the siderophore production. Of 7 isolates, 4 produced siderophore, and their chemical nature was also determined. The siderophore produced by Aeromonas was invariably found to be of hydroxamate. Four Aeromonas isolates were selected for PCR identification of NRPS-encoding gene. The conserved sequence was present in all four selected isolates. Furthermore, siderophores were qualitatively tested for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and a significant level of inhibitory activity was observed in siderophores from the four isolates. Conclusion: Our results showed the ability of the isolated strains in production of siderophores with a high level of activity against Salmonella paratyphi. These siderophores could find applications in biomedical industries. PMID:27155016

  2. Molecular evolution of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase proteins in the early history of life.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Gregory P; Andam, Cheryl P; Alm, Eric J; Gogarten, J Peter

    2011-12-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) consist of several families of functionally conserved proteins essential for translation and protein synthesis. Like nearly all components of the translation machinery, most aaRS families are universally distributed across cellular life, being inherited from the time of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). However, unlike the rest of the translation machinery, aaRS have undergone numerous ancient horizontal gene transfers, with several independent events detected between domains, and some possibly involving lineages diverging before the time of LUCA. These transfers reveal the complexity of molecular evolution at this early time, and the chimeric nature of genomes within cells that gave rise to the major domains. Additionally, given the role of these protein families in defining the amino acids used for protein synthesis, sequence reconstruction of their pre-LUCA ancestors can reveal the evolutionary processes at work in the origin of the genetic code. In particular, sequence reconstructions of the paralog ancestors of isoleucyl- and valyl- RS provide strong empirical evidence that at least for this divergence, the genetic code did not co-evolve with the aaRSs; rather, both amino acids were already part of the genetic code before their cognate aaRSs diverged from their common ancestor. The implications of this observation for the early evolution of RNA-directed protein biosynthesis are discussed.

  3. Molecular Evolution of Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Proteins in the Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Andam, Cheryl P.; Alm, Eric J.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) consist of several families of functionally conserved proteins essential for translation and protein synthesis. Like nearly all components of the translation machinery, most aaRS families are universally distributed across cellular life, being inherited from the time of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). However, unlike the rest of the translation machinery, aaRS have undergone numerous ancient horizontal gene transfers, with several independent events detected between domains, and some possibly involving lineages diverging before the time of LUCA. These transfers reveal the complexity of molecular evolution at this early time, and the chimeric nature of genomes within cells that gave rise to the major domains. Additionally, given the role of these protein families in defining the amino acids used for protein synthesis, sequence reconstruction of their pre-LUCA ancestors can reveal the evolutionary processes at work in the origin of the genetic code. In particular, sequence reconstructions of the paralog ancestors of isoleucyl- and valyl- RS provide strong empirical evidence that at least for this divergence, the genetic code did not co-evolve with the aaRSs; rather, both amino acids were already part of the genetic code before their cognate aaRSs diverged from their common ancestor. The implications of this observation for the early evolution of RNA-directed protein biosynthesis are discussed.

  4. Inactivation of a glycyl-tRNA synthetase leads to an arrest in plant embryo development.

    PubMed Central

    Uwer, U; Willmitzer, L; Altmann, T

    1998-01-01

    Embryo formation is the first patterning process during vegetative plant growth. Using transposons as insertional mutagens in Arabidopsis, we identified the mutant edd1 that shows embryo-defective development. The insertion mutation is lethal, arresting embryo growth between the globular and heart stages of embryonic development. The mutant phenotype cosegregates with a transposed Dissociation element. Sequences flanking the transposed element were isolated and used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone representing the wild-type EDD1 gene. Complementation of the mutant through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer of an EDD1 wild-type copy as well as loss of the transposon concomitant with phenotypic reversion demonstrated that the transposon had caused the mutation. Based on homology to Escherichia coli, the EDD1 gene is predicted to encode a novel glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) that has not been identified previously in higher plants. An N-terminal portion of the plant protein is able to direct a marker protein into pea chloroplasts. Thus, the gene identified by the embryo-defective insertion mutation encodes a GlyRS homolog, probably acting within the plastidic compartment. PMID:9707529

  5. Adenosine kinase, glutamine synthetase and EAAT2 as gene therapy targets for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Young, D; Fong, D M; Lawlor, P A; Wu, A; Mouravlev, A; McRae, M; Glass, M; Dragunow, M; During, M J

    2014-12-01

    Astrocytes are an attractive cell target for gene therapy, but the validation of new therapeutic candidates is needed. We determined whether adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated overexpression of glutamine synthetase (GS) or excitatory amino-acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), or expression of microRNA targeting adenosine kinase (miR-ADK) in hippocampal astrocytes in the rat brain could modulate susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures and neuronal cell loss. Transgene expression was found predominantly in astrocytes following direct injection of glial-targeting AAV9 vectors by 3 weeks postinjection. ADK expression in miR-ADK vector-injected rats was reduced by 94-96% and was associated with an ~50% reduction in the duration of kainate-induced seizures and greater protection of dentate hilar neurons but not CA3 neurons compared with miR-control vector-injected rats. In contrast, infusion of AAV-GS and EAAT2 vectors did not afford any protection against seizures or neuronal damage as the level of transcriptional activity of the glial fibrillary acidic promoter was too low to drive any significant increase in transgenic GS or EAAT2 relative to the high endogenous levels of these proteins. Our findings support ADK as a prime therapeutic target for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy and suggest that alternative approaches including the use of stronger glial promoters are needed to increase transgenic GS and EAAT2 expression to levels that may be required to affect seizure induction and propagation.

  6. Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene diversity in the guts of higher termites with different diets and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examine gene diversity for formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS), a key enzyme in homoacetogenesis, recovered from the gut microbiota of six species of higher termites. The "higher" termites (family Termitidae), which represent the majority of extant termite species and genera, engage in a broader diversity of feeding and nesting styles than the "lower" termites. Previous studies of termite gut homoacetogenesis have focused on wood-feeding lower termites, from which the preponderance of FTHFS sequences recovered were related to those from acetogenic treponemes. While sequences belonging to this group were present in the guts of all six higher termites examined, treponeme-like FTHFS sequences represented the majority of recovered sequences in only two species (a wood-feeding Nasutitermes sp. and a palm-feeding Microcerotermes sp.). The remaining four termite species analyzed (a Gnathamitermes sp. and two Amitermes spp. that were recovered from subterranean nests with indeterminate feeding strategies and a litter-feeding Rhynchotermes sp.) yielded novel FTHFS clades not observed in lower termites. These termites yielded two distinct clusters of probable purinolytic Firmicutes and a large group of potential homoacetogens related to sequences previously recovered from the guts of omnivorous cockroaches. These findings suggest that the gut environments of different higher termite species may select for different groups of homoacetogens, with some species hosting treponeme-dominated homoacetogen populations similar to those of wood-feeding, lower termites while others host Firmicutes-dominated communities more similar to those of omnivorous cockroaches.

  7. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase. Mechanistic studies of the 1'-4 coupling reaction with 2-fluorogeranyl pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Poulter, C D; Argyle, J C; Mash, E A

    1978-10-25

    The mechanism of the 1'-4 coupling reaction between isopentenyl pyrophosphate and geranyl pyrophosphate catalyzed by farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase from porcine liver was studied with the allylic substrate analogue 2-fluorogeranyl pyrophosphate. 2-Fluorogeranyl pyrophosphate is an alternate substrate for the enzyme, yielding 6-fluorofarnesyl pyrophosphate upon condensation with isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The Michaelis constant for the fluoroanalogue, Km = 1.1 micron, is similar to that measured for geranyl pyrophosphate, Km = 0.7 micron. However, the rate of condensation with the fluoroanalogue was only 8.4 X 10(-4) that of the normal reaction. A similar rate of depression (4.4 X 10(-3)) was found for solvolysis of geranyl methanesulfonate and the corresponding 2-fluoro derivative, reactions known to proceed via cationic intermediates. In contrast, displacement of chlorine from geranyl chloride and 2-fluorogeranyl chloride by cyanide showed a small (2-fold) rate enhancement for the fluoro compound. Finally, 2-fluorogeranyl pyrophosphate is a competitive inhibitor against geranyl pyrophosphate. These data are interpreted in terms of an ionization-condensation-elimination mechanism for the 1'-4 coupling reaction.

  8. The inactivating factor of glutamine synthetase, IF7, is a "natively unfolded" protein

    PubMed Central

    Muro-Pastor, M. Isabel; Barrera, Francisco N.; Reyes, José C.; Florencio, Francisco J.; Neira, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme responsible for the primary assimilation of ammonium in all living organisms, and it catalyses the synthesis of glutamine from glutamic acid, ATP, and ammonium. One of the recently discovered mechanisms of GS regulation involves protein-protein interactions with a small 65-residue-long protein named IF7. Here, we study the structure and stability of IF7 and its binding properties to GS, by using several biophysical techniques (fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and gel filtration chromatography) which provide complementary structural information. The findings show that IF7 has a small amount of residual secondary structure, but lacks a well defined tertiary structure, and is not compact. Thus, all of the studies indicate that IF7 is a "natively unfolded" protein. The binding of IF7 to GS, its natural binding partner, occurs with an apparent dissociation constant of KD = 0.3 ± 0.1 μM, as measured by fluorescence. We discuss the implications for the GS regulation mechanisms of IF7 being unfolded. PMID:12824490

  9. Pyrazinamide inhibits the eukaryotic-like fatty acid synthetase I (FASI) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zimhony, O; Cox, J S; Welch, J T; Vilchèze, C; Jacobs, W R

    2000-09-01

    Tuberculosis treatment is shortened to six months by the indispensable addition of pyrazinamide (PZA) to the drug regimen that includes isoniazid and rifampin. PZA is a pro-drug of pyrazinoic acid (POA) (ref. 3), whose target of action has never been identified. Although PZA is active only against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the PZA analog 5-chloro-pyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) displays a broader range of anti-mycobacterial activity. We have found that the eukaryotic-like fas1 gene (encoding fatty acid synthetase I, FASI) from M. avium, M. bovis BCG or M. tuberculosis confers resistance to 5-Cl-PZA when present on multi-copy vectors in M. smegmatis. 5-Cl-PZA and PZA markedly inhibited the activity of M. tuberculosis FASI, the biosynthesis of C16 to C24/C26 fatty acids from acetyl-CoA (ref. 6). Importantly, PZA inhibited FASI in M. tuberculosis in correlation with PZA susceptibility. These results indicate that FASI is a primary target of action for PZA in M. tuberculosis. Further characterization of FASI as a drug target for PZA may allow the development of new drugs to shorten the therapy against M. tuberculosis and may provide more options for treatment against M. bovis, M. avium and drug resistant M. tuberculosis.

  10. Zinc-mediated amino acid discrimination in cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Mei; Christian, Thomas; Newberry, Kate J; Perona, John J; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2003-04-11

    Escherichia coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) achieves a high level of amino acid specificity without an editing reaction. The crystal structure of CysRS bound to substrate cysteine suggested that direct thiol coordination to a tightly bound zinc ion at the base of the active site is the primary determinant of selectivity against non-cognate amino acids. This hypothesis has now been supported by spectroscopic studies of cobalt-substituted CysRS. Binding of cysteine, but not non-cognate amino acids, induces high absorption in the ligand-to-metal charge transfer region, providing evidence for formation of a metal-thiolate bond. In addition, mutations in the zinc ligands alter the absorption spectrum without reducing the discrimination against non-cognate amino acids. These results argue strongly for a major role for the zinc ion in amino acid discrimination by CysRS, where the tight zinc-thiolate interaction and the strict structural geometry of the metal ion are sufficient to reject serine by more than 20,000-fold at the binding step.

  11. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Fongying; Coruzzi, G. )

    1991-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a normal light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants.

  12. Detection of polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic genes from antimicrobial coral-associated actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Dong, Jun-De; Yang, Jian; Luo, Xiong-Ming; Zhang, Si

    2014-10-01

    The diversity and properties of actinobacteria, predominant residents in coral holobionts, have been rarely documented. In this study, we aimed to explore the species diversity, antimicrobial activities and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes within the tissues of the scleractinian corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora from the South China Sea. A total of 70 strains representing 13 families and 15 genera of actinobacteria were isolated. The antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential of fifteen representative filamentous actinomycetes were estimated. Crude fermentation extracts of 6 strains exhibited comparable or greater activities against Vibrio alginolyticus than ciprofloxacin. Seven of the 15 actinomycetes strains possess type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) genes. Nine tested strains possess type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these PKS and NRPS gene screening positive strains belong to genera Nocardiopsis, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Amycolatopsis and Prauserella. One PKS-I and four NRPS fragments showed <70% similarity to their closest relatives, which suggested the novelty of these genes. This study helps uncover the genetic capacity of stony coral-associated actinomycetes to produce bioactive molecules.

  13. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: β-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  14. No rosetta stone for a sense-antisense origin of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase classes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tom A; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Fares, Mario A

    2009-02-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are crucial enzymes that join amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, thereby implementing the genetic code. These enzymes fall into two unrelated structural classes whose evolution has not been explained. The leading hypothesis, proposed by Rodin and Ohno, is that the two classes originated as a pair of sense-antisense genes encoded on opposite strands of a single DNA molecule. This unusual idea obtained its main support from reports of a "Rosetta stone": a locus where genes for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and an Nicotinamide adenine dinulecotide-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH), which are structurally homologous to the two classes of aaRS, overlap extensively on complementary DNA strands. This remarkable locus was first characterized in the oomycete Achlya klebsiana and has since been reported in many other species. Here we present evidence that the open reading frames on the antisense strand of HSP70 genes are spurious, and we identify a more probable candidate for the gene encoding the oomycete NAD-GDH enzyme. These results cast extensive doubt on the Rosetta Stone argument.

  15. Partial Purification and Characterization of Dihydrodipicolinic Acid Synthetase from Sporulating Bacillus megaterium1

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Francis H.; Lechowich, Richard V.

    1970-01-01

    Sporulation of Bacillus megaterium Km (ATCC 13632) was synchronized by a technique employing three 10% transfers. The culture was harvested when 60% of the cells contained spore forms. Dihydrodipicolinic acid synthetase was purified 150-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation at pH 6.5, heating for 15 min at 45 C at pH 6.0, ammonium sulfate fractionation at pH 6.0, and subsequent chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose. During the final stage of the purification procedure, the enzyme exhibited sensitivity to refrigeration temperatures. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.65 in imidazole buffer. The apparent Km values were 4.6 × 10−4 and 5.0 × 10−4m for β-aspartyl semialdehyde and pyruvate, respectively. All attempts to demonstrate cofactor requirements were unsuccessful. Sulfhydryl inhibiting reagents and lysine did not inhibit the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme exhibited maximal thermal resistance at pH 10.5. The thermal stability of the enzyme at 75 C was increased more than 1,800-fold by the addition of 0.3 m pyruvate. The Ea was 67,300 cal/mole for the thermal denaturation of the enzyme. At 60 C, the ΔF, ΔH, and ΔS values for the thermal denaturation of the enzyme were 22,250, 66,700, and 133 cal per mole per degree, respectively. PMID:4983642

  16. The mitochondrial folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene is required for nitrogen utilization during early seedling development in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Liu, Yanyan; Sun, Hong; Han, Yueting; Li, Jinglai; Li, Changkun; Guo, Wenzhu; Meng, Hongyan; Li, Sha; Fan, Yunliu; Zhang, Chunyi

    2013-02-01

    Investigations into the biochemical processes and regulatory mechanisms of nitrogen (N) utilization can aid in understanding how N is used efficiently in plants. This report describes a deficiency in N utilization in an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion mutant of the mitochondrial folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene DFC, which catalyzes the conjugation of glutamate residues to the tetrahydrofolate during folate synthesis. The mutant seedlings displayed several metabolic changes that are typical of plant responses to low-N stress, including increased levels of starch and anthocyanin synthesis as well as decreased levels of soluble protein and free amino acid, as compared with those in wild-type seedlings when external N was sufficient. More striking changes were observed when dfc seedlings were grown under N-limited conditions, including shorter primary roots, fewer lateral roots, higher levels of glycine and carbon-N ratios, and lower N content than those in wild-type seedlings. Gene expression studies in mutant seedlings revealed altered transcript levels of several genes involved in folate biosynthesis and N metabolism. The biochemical and metabolic changes also suggested that N assimilation is drastically perturbed due to a loss of DFC function. The observation that elevated CO(2) partly rescued the dfc phenotypes suggests that the alterations in N metabolism in dfc may be mainly due to a defect in photorespiration. These results indicate that DFC is required for N utilization in Arabidopsis and provide new insight into a potential interaction between folate and N metabolism.

  17. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis surfactin synthetase knockout and antimicrobial activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Xiaoxu; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Shengming; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2016-11-10

    Gene knockout is an important approach to improve the production of antimicrobial compounds. B. subtilis PB2-LS10, derived from B. subtilis PB2-L by a surfactin synthetase (srf) genes knockout, exhibits stronger inhibitory action than its parental strain against all tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial extracts produced by B. subtilis PB2-L and B. subtilis PB2-LS10 respectively were characterized by the high-resolution LC-ESI-MS. To provide further insight into the distinct antimicrobial activities, we investigated the impact of the srf genes deletion on the growth and gene transcriptional profile of the strains. The mutant strain grew quickly and reached stationary phase 2h earlier than the wild-type. Prominent expression changes in the modified strain involved genes that were essential to metabolic pathways and processes. Genes related to amino acid transport, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and protein export were up-regulated in strain PB2-LS10. However, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were repressed. Because of its excellent antimicrobial activity, strain PB2-LS10 has potential for use in food preservation.

  18. Impaired novelty acquisition and synaptic plasticity in congenital hyperammonemia caused by hepatic glutamine synthetase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chepkova, Aisa N.; Sergeeva, Olga A.; Görg, Boris; Haas, Helmut L.; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Häussinger, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission. Corticostriatal but not hippocampal slices from LGS-ko brains demonstrated also significant alterations in long-lasting effects evoked by pharmacological activation of glutamate receptors. Real-time RT-PCR revealed distinct patterns of dysregulated gene expression in the hippocampus and striatum of LGS-ko mice: LGS-ko hippocampus showed significantly modified expression of mRNAs for mGluR1, GluN2B subunit of NMDAR, and A1 adenosine receptors while altered expression of mRNAs for D1 dopamine receptors, the M1 cholinoreceptor and the acetylcholine-synthetizing enzyme choline-acetyltransferase was observed in LGS-ko striatum. Thus, inborn systemic hyperammonemia resulted in significant deficits in novelty acquisition and disturbed synaptic plasticity in corticostriatal and hippocampal pathways involved in learning and goal-directed behavior. PMID:28067279

  19. Lanthionine Synthetase C-Like 2 Modulates Immune Responses to Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leber, Andrew; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Victoria; Lu, Pinyi; Godfrey, Victoria; Kale, Shiv; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Broad-based, host-targeted therapeutics have the potential to ameliorate viral infections without inducing antiviral resistance. We identified lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2) as a new therapeutic target for immunoinflammatory diseases. To examine the therapeutic efficacy of oral NSC61610 administration on influenza, we infected C57BL/6 mice with influenza A H1N1pdm virus and evaluated influenza-related mortality, lung inflammatory profiles, and pulmonary histopathology. Oral treatment with NSC61610 ameliorates influenza virus infection by down-modulating pulmonary inflammation through the downregulation of TNF-α and MCP-1 and reduction in the infiltration of neutrophils. NSC61610 treatment increases IL10-producing CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the lungs during the resolution phase of disease. The loss of LANCL2 or neutralization of IL-10 in mice infected with influenza virus abrogates the ability of NSC61610 to accelerate recovery and induce IL-10-mediated regulatory responses. These studies validate that oral treatment with NSC61610 ameliorates morbidity and mortality and accelerates recovery during influenza virus infection through a mechanism mediated by activation of LANCL2 and subsequent induction of IL-10 responses by CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the lungs. PMID:28270815

  20. Pristinamycin I biosynthesis in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis: molecular characterization of the first two structural peptide synthetase genes.

    PubMed Central

    de Crécy-Lagard, V; Blanc, V; Gil, P; Naudin, L; Lorenzon, S; Famechon, A; Bamas-Jacques, N; Crouzet, J; Thibaut, D

    1997-01-01

    Two genes involved in the biosynthesis of the depsipeptide antibiotics pristinamycins I (PI) produced by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis were cloned and sequenced. The 1.7-kb snbA gene encodes a 3-hydroxypicolinic acid:AMP ligase, and the 7.7-kb snbC gene encodes PI synthetase 2, responsible for incorporating L-threonine and L-aminobutyric acid in the PI macrocycle. snbA and snbC, which encode the two first structural enzymes of PI synthesis, are not contiguous. Both genes are located in PI-specific transcriptional units, as disruption of one gene or the other led to PI-deficient strains producing normal levels of the polyunsaturated macrolactone antibiotic pristinamycin II, also produced by S. pristinaespiralis. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the SnbA protein is a member of the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily and that the SnbC protein contains two amino acid-incorporating modules and a C-terminal epimerization domain. A model for the initiation of PI synthesis analogous to the established model of initiation of fatty acid synthesis is proposed. PMID:9006024

  1. Occurrence of Only One Form of Glutamine Synthetase in the Green Alga Monoraphidium braunii.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Fernandez, J. M.; Lopez-Ruiz, A.; Toribio, F.; Roldan, J. M.; Diez, J.

    1994-01-01

    Anion-exchange chromatography of crude extracts from the green alga Monoraphidium braunii yielded two glutamine synthetase (GS) activities. The ratio of activities was markedly different when crude extracts were subjected to various processing conditions but was not influenced by environmental factors of cell cultures. However, high performance liquid chromatography anion-exchange chromatograms showed only one GS if the crude extracts were processed immediately after cell disruption. Moreover, standard chromatography of crude extracts obtained in the absence of dithioerythritol, a reductant generally used in disruption buffers, yielded a single activity peak. Enzyme samples from the two activities obtained in the presence of dithioerythritol were purified for physicochemical characterization and antibody production. Both enzyme samples exhibited similar reactions to different inactivating agents and were undistinguishable by size-exclusion chromatography and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Additionally, the two GS preparations showed absolute antigenic identity as demonstrated by immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments. Immunocytochemistry of M. braunii cryosections evidenced a chloroplast-specific distribution of the enzyme, which rules out the existence of a cytoplasmic counterpart. All these results support the proposal that M. braunii possesses only one form of GS. PMID:12232093

  2. Activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

    2012-07-30

    A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH(4)(+) showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO(3)(-) (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (≥0.97mg CN L(-1)) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mg CN L(-1), suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition.

  3. Identification of a phosphinothricin-resistant mutant of rice glutamine synthetase using DNA shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To date, only bar/pat gene derived from Streptomyces has been used to generate the commercial PPT-resistant crops currently available in the market. The limited source of bar/pat gene is probably what has caused the decrease in PPT-tolerance, which has become the main concern of those involved in field management programs. Although glutamine synthetase (GS) is the target enzyme of PPT, little study has been reported about engineering PPT-resisitant plants with GS gene. Then, the plant-optimized GS gene from Oryza sativa (OsGS1S) was chemically synthesized in the present study by PTDS to identify a GS gene for developing PPT-tolerant plants. However, OsGS1S cannot be directly used for developing PPT-tolerant plants because of its poor PPT-resistance. Thus, we performed DNA shuffling on OsGS1S, and one highly PPT-resistant mutant with mutations in four amino acids (A63E, V193A, T293A and R295K) was isolated after three rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Among the four amino acids substitutions, only R295K was identified as essential in altering PPT resistance. The R295K mutation has also never been previously reported as an important residue for PPT resistance. Furthermore, the mutant gene has been transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis to confirm its potential in developing PPT-resistant crops. PMID:26492850

  4. Oxidative modification of glutamine synthetase by 2,2'-azobis(2- amidinopropane) dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y S; Chao, C C; Stadtman, E R

    1999-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the pattern of protein modification elicited by alkylperoxyl radicals and alkylperoxides. To this end, we exposed glutamine synthetase (GS) and the peptide melittin to solutions containing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which is known to decompose in aqueous, aerobic solutions to yield alkyl radicals and alkylperoxides. Under our conditions, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C, the AAPH-dependent formation of alkylhydroperoxide increased linearly with time and led to 40% inactivation of GS in 1 h and to complete inactivation in 4 h. Complete inactivation was associated with the loss of 2 of 16 histidine residues, 6 of 17 tyrosine residues, 5 of 16 methionine residues, and all of the tryptophan residues (2 residues) per subunit. Inactivation of GS was associated also with some protein fragmentation and the formation of some higher molecular weight aggregates. Exposure of GS to AAPH led also to the generation of protein carbonyl derivatives (0.34 mol/mol subunit) and to formation of a significant amount (0.038 mol/mol subunits) of quinoprotein derivatives. To investigate the mechanism of tryptophan modification, the 26-amino-acid peptide, melittin, which contains one tryptophan but no histidine, tyrosine, or methionine residues, was treated with AAPH. N-Formylkynurenine was identified as the major product of tryptophan oxidation in melittin.

  5. A Nondiscriminating Glutamyl-tRNA Synthetase in the Plasmodium Apicoplast

    PubMed Central

    Mailu, Boniface M.; Ramasamay, Gowthaman; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Li, Ling; Lindner, Scott E.; Peterson, Megan J.; DeRocher, Amy E.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Gardner, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related organisms possess a relict plastid known as the apicoplast. Apicoplast protein synthesis is a validated drug target in malaria because antibiotics that inhibit translation in prokaryotes also inhibit apicoplast protein synthesis and are sometimes used for malaria prophylaxis or treatment. We identified components of an indirect aminoacylation pathway for Gln-tRNAGln biosynthesis in Plasmodium that we hypothesized would be essential for apicoplast protein synthesis. Here, we report our characterization of the first enzyme in this pathway, the apicoplast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). We expressed the recombinant P. falciparum enzyme in Escherichia coli, showed that it is nondiscriminating because it glutamylates both apicoplast tRNAGlu and tRNAGln, determined its kinetic parameters, and demonstrated its inhibition by a known bacterial GluRS inhibitor. We also localized the Plasmodium berghei ortholog to the apicoplast in blood stage parasites but could not delete the PbGluRS gene. These data show that Gln-tRNAGln biosynthesis in the Plasmodium apicoplast proceeds via an essential indirect aminoacylation pathway that is reminiscent of bacteria and plastids. PMID:24072705

  6. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases: Identifying the cryptic gene clusters and decoding the natural product.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sareen, Dipti

    2017-03-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) present in bacteria and fungi are the major multi-modular enzyme complexes which synthesize secondary metabolites like the pharmacologically important antibiotics and siderophores. Each of the multiple modules of an NRPS activates a different amino or aryl acid, followed by their condensation to synthesize a linear or cyclic natural product. The studies on NRPS domains, the knowledge of their gene cluster architecture and tailoring enzymes have helped in the in silico genetic screening of the ever-expanding sequenced microbial genomic data for the identification of novel NRPS/PKS clusters and thus deciphering novel non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs). Adenylation domain is an integral part of the NRPSs and is the substrate selecting unit for the final assembled NRP. In some cases, it also requires a small protein, the MbtH homolog, for its optimum activity. The presence of putative adenylation domain and MbtH homologs in a sequenced genome can help identify the novel secondary metabolite producers. The role of the adenylation domain in the NRPS gene clusters and its characterization as a tool for the discovery of novel cryptic NRPS gene clusters are discussed.

  7. Glutamine synthetase in the phloem plays a major role in controlling proline production

    PubMed Central

    Brugiere, N; Dubois, F; Limami, AM; Lelandais, M; Roux, Y; Sangwan, RS; Hirel, B

    1999-01-01

    To inhibit expression specifically in the phloem, a 274-bp fragment of a cDNA (Gln1-5) encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) from tobacco was placed in the antisense orientation downstream of the cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase promoter of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. After Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, two transgenic N. tabacum lines exhibiting reduced levels of GS1 mRNA and GS activity in midribs, stems, and roots were obtained. Immunogold labeling experiments allowed us to verify that the GS protein content was markedly decreased in the phloem companion cells of transformed plants. Moreover, a general decrease in proline content in the transgenic plants in comparison with wild-type tobacco was observed when plants were forced to assimilate large amounts of ammonium. In contrast, no major changes in the concentration of amino acids used for nitrogen transport were apparent. A (15)NH(4)(+)-labeling kinetic over a 48-hr period confirmed that in leaves of transgenic plants, the decrease in proline production was directly related to glutamine availability. After 2 weeks of salt treatment, the transgenic plants had a pronounced stress phenotype, consisting of wilting and bleaching in the older leaves. We conclude that GS in the phloem plays a major role in regulating proline production consistent with the function of proline as a nitrogen source and as a key metabolite synthesized in response to water stress. PMID:10521528

  8. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress.

  9. The role of glutamine synthetase in energy production and glutamine metabolism during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Aldarini, Nohaiah; Alhasawi, Azhar A; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2017-01-17

    Oxidative stress is known to severely impede aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, the metabolically-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens survives this challenge by invoking alternative ATP-generating networks. When grown in a medium with glutamine as the sole organic nutrient in the presence of H2O2, the microbe utilizes glutamine synthetase (GS) to modulate its energy budget. The activity of this enzyme that mediates the release of energy stored in glutamine was sharply increased in the stressed cells compared to the controls. The enhanced activities of such enzymes as acetate kinase, adenylate kinase and nucleotide diphosphate kinase ensured the efficacy of this ATP producing-machine by transferring the high energy phosphate. The elevated amounts of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase recorded in the H2O2 exposed cells provided another route to ATP independent of the reduction of O2. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic pathway involving GS dedicated to ATP synthesis. The phospho-transfer network that is pivotal to the survival of the microorganism under oxidative stress may reveal therapeutic targets against infectious microbes reliant on glutamine for their proliferation.

  10. Carnosine modulates glutamine synthetase expression in senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojie; Wang, Bingyu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Yuyan; Cao, Pei; Shen, Yao; Lyu, Jianxin

    2017-01-20

    Carnosine is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. However, few reports concern its function on senescent astrocytes during cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on cell damage and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in D-galactose-induced senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R). The results showed that OGD/R caused massive cell damage and a significant decrease in GS expression both in the young and senescent astrocytes. The GS expression level was partly recovered whereas it continued to decline in the recovery stage in the young and senescent astrocytes, respectively. Decreased GS expression significantly inhibited glutamate uptake and glutamine production and release. Carnosine prevented the cell damage, rescued the expression of GS and reversed the glutamate uptake activity and glutamine production in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R. The modulatory effect of carnosine on GS expression was partly antagonized by pyrilamine, a selective histamine H1 receptors antagonist, but not bestatin. Bisindolylmaleimide II, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PKC could also reverse the action of carnosine on GS expression. Thus, histamine H1 receptors and PKC pathway may be involved in the modulatory action of carnosine in GS expression in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R.

  11. Glutamine synthetase in Medicago truncatula, unveiling new secrets of a very old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Ana R; Carvalho, Helena G

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the first step at which nitrogen is brought into cellular metabolism and is also involved in the reassimilation of ammonium released by a number of metabolic pathways. Due to its unique position in plant nitrogen metabolism, GS plays essential roles in all aspects of plant development, from germination to senescence, and is a key component of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and plant yield. Understanding the mechanisms regulating GS activity is therefore of utmost importance and a great effort has been dedicated to understand how GS is regulated in different plant species. The present review summarizes exciting recent developments concerning the structure and regulation of GS isoenzymes, using the model legume Medicago truncatula. These include the understanding of the structural determinants of both the cytosolic and plastid located isoenzymes, the existence of a seed-specific GS gene unique to M. truncatula and closely related species and the discovery that GS isoenzymes are regulated by nitric oxide at the post-translational level. The data is discussed and integrated with the potential roles of the distinct GS isoenzymes within the whole plant context.

  12. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  13. Influence of different host associations on glutamine synthetase activity and ammonium transporter in Santalumalbum L.

    PubMed

    Deepa, P; Yusuf, A

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed at understanding the role of different hosts in ammonium transporter1;2 expressions and glutamine synthetase(GS) activity and their effects on the growth parameters in the sandal. Sandal plant associated with leguminous host expressed better growth parameters. GS activity of leguminous hosts alone and in host associated sandals was analyzed using GS transferase assay. Highest GS activity was expressed in Mimosa pudica-sandal association compared to other leguminous and non-leguminous host associations. The association of N2 fixing host with sandal enhanced C and N levels in order to maintain the C/N value. The role of ammonium transporters in N nutrition of sandal-host association was elucidated by cloning AMT1;2 from the leaves, haustoria and roots of host associated sandal and quantifying the relative expression by the [Formula: see text] method. SaAMT1;2 was strongly up-regulated in leaves, roots and haustoria of leguminous host associated sandal compared to non-leguminous host associations. The relative increase in SaAMT1;2 expressions and up-regulated GS activity positively affected the growth parameters in sandal when associated with leguminous hosts.

  14. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Lamers, Wouter H; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2016-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na(+)-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression.

  15. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  16. Tandem promoters determine regulation of the Klebsiella pneumoniae glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R

    1984-01-01

    Transcription of the structural gene for glutamine synthetase (glnA) in Klebsiella pneumoniae is controlled by the nitrogen regulatory genes ntrA, ntrB and ntrC. The nucleotide sequence of the regulatory region upstream of the glnA gene is reported here. High resolution S1 mapping of in vivo transcripts indicates that the regulatory region contains tandem promoters separated by 100 nucleotides. Measurements of beta-galactosidase activities determined in vivo from glnA-lac fusions suggest that the upstream promoter (for RNA2) is negatively regulated by the ntrBC gene products whereas transcription from the downstream promoter (for RNA1) is positively activated by the ntrA gene product in the presence of either the ntrBC or the nifA genes. The nucleotide sequence of the upstream promoter resembles the consensus sequence for E. coli promoters, whereas the downstream promoter shows homology with the nitrogen fixation (nif) promoters of K. pneumoniae. Images PMID:6149519

  17. Chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.I.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1982-04-01

    The chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum has been examined relative to enzymatic activity and reactivity of these groups in the native protein. 4,4'-Dipyridyl disulfide, dansylaziridine, and fluorescein mercuric acetate all reacted with just one of six sulfhydryls per enzyme subunit, resulting in activities of 100, 95 and 70%, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for MgATP, formate, and tetrahydrofolate were unaltered in the modified enzymes. ATP did produce a 2.5-fold reduction in the rate of reaction between the enzyme and 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide. Tetranitromethane reacted most rapidly with a single sulfhydryl group per subunit to produce a 20 to 30% loss in activity. Subsequent additions of tetranitromethane modified 2.2 tyrosines per subunit which was proportional to the loss of the remaining enzymatic activity. Folic acid, a competitive inhibitor, protected against modification of the tyrosines and the associated activity losses; however, the oxidation of the single sulfhydryl group and the initial 20 to 30% activity loss were unaffected. In the presence of folic acid, higher concentrations of tetranitromethane produced a loss of the remaining activity proportional to the modification of 1.2 tyrosines per subunit. It is proposed that at least 1 tyrosine critical for enzymatic activity is located at or near the folic acid/tetrahydrofolate binding site.

  18. Reculation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.B.; Galivan, J.; Nair, M.G. )

    1987-05-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells was assayed using 250 {mu}M methotrexate (MTX) as the substrate under conditions where ({sup 3}H)glutamate incorporation was linear with respect to time and rotein concentration. Extracts from confluent cultures with reduced cellular folates exhibited nearly 1.7-fold higher FPGS specific activity than extracts of control cultures (600 pmol/hr/mg). Extracts of rapidly dividing cells (72 hrs) showed nearly a 2.3-fold increase. The addition of reduced exogenous folates such as folinic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (20 {mu}M, 24 hrs) to confluent cultures of folate-depleted cells typically lowered the FPGS activity in the resultant extracts by 40%, while a 42-hour exclusion of methionine from the media reduced the activity by half. The combination of methionine exclusion and folate addition for 42 hrs resulted in 75% lower FPGS activity vs extracts of control cultures of folate-depleted cells. These data suggest that the change sin the glutamylation rate of MTX in whole cells due to culture conditions such as folate restriction, reduced folate addition, methionine exclusion, and growth state are at least in part a consequence of alterations in FPGS activity. Using MTX or N{sup 10}-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717) as the starting substrate under appropriate assay conditions, FPGS from extracts catalyzed the formation of similar polyglutamate products as seen in analogous whole cell experiments.

  19. Large-scale filament formation inhibits the activity of CTP synthetase.

    PubMed

    Barry, Rachael M; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Lorestani, Alexander; Charles, Emeric J; Habrian, Chris H; Hansen, Jesse M; Li, Hsin-Jung; Baldwin, Enoch P; Wingreen, Ned S; Kollman, Justin M; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-07-16

    CTP Synthetase (CtpS) is a universally conserved and essential metabolic enzyme. While many enzymes form small oligomers, CtpS forms large-scale filamentous structures of unknown function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. By simultaneously monitoring CtpS polymerization and enzymatic activity, we show that polymerization inhibits activity, and CtpS's product, CTP, induces assembly. To understand how assembly inhibits activity, we used electron microscopy to define the structure of CtpS polymers. This structure suggests that polymerization sterically hinders a conformational change necessary for CtpS activity. Structure-guided mutagenesis and mathematical modeling further indicate that coupling activity to polymerization promotes cooperative catalytic regulation. This previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism is important for cellular function since a mutant that disrupts CtpS polymerization disrupts E. coli growth and metabolic regulation without reducing CTP levels. We propose that regulation by large-scale polymerization enables ultrasensitive control of enzymatic activity while storing an enzyme subpopulation in a conformationally restricted form that is readily activatable.

  20. In vivo selection of lethal mutations reveals two functional domains in arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Geslain, R; Martin, F; Delagoutte, B; Cavarelli, J; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    2000-01-01

    Using random mutagenesis and a genetic screening in yeast, we isolated 26 mutations that inactivate Saccharomyces cerevisiae arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS). The mutations were identified and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding proteins were tested after purification of the expression products in Escherichia coli. The effects were interpreted in the light of the crystal structure of ArgRS. Eighteen functional residues were found around the arginine-binding pocket and eight others in the carboxy-terminal domain of the enzyme. Mutations of these residues all act by strongly impairing the rates of tRNA charging and arginine activation. Thus, ArgRS and tRNA(Arg) can be considered as a kind of ribonucleoprotein, where the tRNA, before being charged, is acting as a cofactor that activates the enzyme. Furthermore, by using different tRNA(Arg) isoacceptors and heterologous tRNA(Asp), we highlighted the crucial role of several residues of the carboxy-terminal domain in tRNA recognition and discrimination. PMID:10744027

  1. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Simonsen, Mette; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined but only in brain was an increased incorporation of (15)N-ammonia into alanine observed. Liver and kidney were important for metabolizing blood-borne ammonia.

  2. The trimer interface in the quaternary structure of the bifunctional prokaryotic FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sebastián, María; Arilla-Luna, Sonia; Baquedano, Silvia; Herguedas, Beatriz; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros

    2017-03-24

    Bifunctional FAD synthetases (FADSs) fold in two independent modules; The C-terminal riboflavin kinase (RFK) catalyzes the RFK activity, while the N-terminal FMN-adenylyltransferase (FMNAT) exhibits the FMNAT activity. The search for macromolecular interfaces in the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS (CaFADS) crystal structure predicts a dimer of trimers organization. Within each trimer, a head-to-tail arrangement causes the RFK and FMNAT catalytic sites of the two neighboring protomers to approach, in agreement with active site residues of one module influencing the activity at the other. We analyze the relevance of the CaFADS head-to-tail macromolecular interfaces to stabilization of assemblies, catalysis and ligand binding. With this aim, we evaluate the effect of point mutations in loop L1c-FlapI, loop L6c, and helix α1c of the RFK module (positions K202, E203, F206, D298, V300, E301 and L304), regions at the macromolecular interface between two protomers within the trimer. Although none of the studied residues is critical in the formation and dissociation of assemblies, residues at L1c-FlapI and helix α1c particularly modulate quaternary architecture, as well as ligand binding and kinetic parameters involved with RFK and FMNAT activities. These data support the influence of transient oligomeric structures on substrate accommodation and catalysis at both CaFADS active sites.

  3. Drosophila selenophosphate synthetase 1 regulates vitamin B6 metabolism: prediction and confirmation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are two selenophosphate synthetases (SPSs) in higher eukaryotes, SPS1 and SPS2. Of these two isotypes, only SPS2 catalyzes selenophosphate synthesis. Although SPS1 does not contain selenophosphate synthesis activity, it was found to be essential for cell growth and embryogenesis in Drosophila. The function of SPS1, however, has not been elucidated. Results Differentially expressed genes in Drosophila SL2 cells were identified using two-way analysis of variance methods and clustered according to their temporal expression pattern. Gene ontology analysis was performed against differentially expressed genes and gene ontology terms related to vitamin B6 biosynthesis were found to be significantly affected at the early stage at which megamitochondria were not formed (day 3) after SPS1 knockdown. Interestingly, genes related to defense and amino acid metabolism were affected at a later stage (day 5) following knockdown. Levels of pyridoxal phosphate, an active form of vitamin B6, were decreased by SPS1 knockdown. Treatment of SL2 cells with an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate synthesis resulted in both a similar pattern of expression as that found by SPS1 knockdown and the formation of megamitochondria, the major phenotypic change observed by SPS1 knockdown. Conclusions These results indicate that SPS1 regulates vitamin B6 synthesis, which in turn impacts various cellular systems such as amino acid metabolism, defense and other important metabolic activities. PMID:21864351

  4. A non-canonical peptide synthetase adenylates 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid for auriculamide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Daniel; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Auriculamide is the first natural product known from the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus. It is composed of three unusual building blocks, including the non-proteinogenic amino acid 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, the α-hydroxy acid L-isoleucic acid, and a methylmalonyl-CoA-derived ethane unit. A candidate genetic locus for auriculamide biosynthesis was identified and encodes four enzymes. Among them, the non-canonical 199 kDa four-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase, AulA, is extraordinary in that it features two consecutive adenylation domains. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinantly produced AulA. The observed activation of 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid by the enzyme supports the hypothesis that it participates in the biosynthesis of auriculamide. An artificially truncated version of AulA that lacks the first adenylation domain activated this substrate like the full-length enzyme which shows that the first adenylation domain is dispensable. Additionally, we provide evidence that the enzyme tolerates structural variation of the substrate. α-Carbon substituents significantly affected the substrate turnover. While all tested aliphatic α-keto acids were accepted by the enzyme and minor differences in chain size and branches did not interfere with the enzymatic activity, molecules with methylene α-carbons led to low turnover. Such enzymatic plasticity is an important attribute to help in the perpetual search for novel molecules and to access a greater structural diversity by mutasynthesis. PMID:28144348

  5. Glutamine synthetase stabilizes the binding of GlnR to nitrogen fixation gene operators.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gabriela de C; Hauf, Ksenia; Sant'Anna, Fernando H; Forchhammer, Karl; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2017-03-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a high energy demanding process carried out by diazotrophic microorganisms that supply combined nitrogen to the biosphere. The genes related to BNF are strictly regulated, but these mechanisms are poorly understood in gram-positive bacteria. The transcription factor GlnR was proposed to regulate nitrogen fixation-related genes based on Paenibacillus comparative genomics. In order to validate this proposal, we investigated BNF regulatory sequences in Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T) genome. We identified GlnR-binding sites flanking σ(A) -binding sites upstream from BNF-related genes. GlnR binding to these sites was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. GlnR-DNA affinity is greatly enhanced when GlnR is in complex with feedback-inhibited (glutamine-occupied) glutamine synthetase (GS). GlnR-GS complex formation is also modulated by ATP and AMP. Thereby, gene repression exerted by the GlnR-GS complex is coupled with nitrogen (glutamine levels) and energetic status (ATP and AMP). Finally, we propose a DNA-looping model based on multiple operator sites that represents a strong and strict regulation for these genes.

  6. Regulation of glutamine synthetase II activity in Rhizobium meliloti 104A14.

    PubMed Central

    Shatters, R G; Somerville, J E; Kahn, M L

    1989-01-01

    Most rhizobia contain two glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes: GSI, encoded by glnA, and GSII, encoded by glnII. We have found that WSU414, a Rhizobium meliloti 104A14 glutamine auxotroph derived from a glnA parental strain, is an ntrA mutant. The R. meliloti glnII promoter region contains DNA sequences similar to those found in front of other genes that require ntrA for their transcription. No GSII was found in the glnA ntrA mutant, and when a translational fusion of glnII to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene was introduced into WSU414, no beta-galactosidase was expressed. These results indicate that ntrA is required for glnII expression. The ntrA mutation did not prevent the expression of GSI. In free-living culture, the level of GSII and of the glnII-lacZ fusion protein was regulated by altering transcription in response to available nitrogen. No GSII protein was detected in alfalfa, pea, or soybean nodules when anti-GSII-specific antiserum was used. Images PMID:2570059

  7. Cell contacts are required for induction by cortisol of glutamine synthetase gene transcription in the retina.

    PubMed Central

    Vardimon, L; Fox, L L; Degenstein, L; Moscona, A A

    1988-01-01

    In embryonic neural retina the enzyme glutamine synthetase [GS; L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2] is a glia-specific differentiation marker inducible with cortisol. We show that cortisol elicits GS mRNA accumulation by stimulating transcription of the GS gene and that this stimulation requires cell contacts: in dissociated and separated retina cells GS gene transcription was not induced; when the separated cells were reassembled into multicellular aggregates, restoring cell contacts, accumulation of GS mRNA was again inducible. In cells dissociated from retina tissue that had been preinduced with cortisol, GS gene transcription rapidly declined, despite continued hormone availability. In the separated cells transcription of the histone H3.3 gene and accumulation of carbonic anhydrase II mRNA were unaffected; therefore, cell separation selectively precluded induction of the GS gene. These findings provide direct evidence for the regulatory role of cell contacts in hormonal control of gene transcription. Images PMID:2901094

  8. Specific disulfide cross-linking to constrict the mobile carrier domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Tarry, Michael J.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, multi-domain enzymes that produce peptide molecules with important biological activity such as antibiotic, antiviral, anti-tumor, siderophore and immunosuppressant action. The adenylation (A) domain catalyzes two reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. In the first reaction, it activates the substrate amino acid by adenylation and in the second reaction it transfers the amino acid onto the phosphopantetheine arm of the adjacent peptide carrier protein (PCP) domain. The conformation of the A domain differs significantly depending on which of these two reactions it is catalyzing. Recently, several structures of A–PCP di-domains have been solved using mechanism-based inhibitors to trap the PCP domain in the A domain active site. Here, we present an alternative strategy to stall the A–PCP di-domain, by engineering a disulfide bond between the native amino acid substrate and the A domain. Size exclusion studies showed a significant shift in apparent size when the mutant A–PCP was provided with cross-linking reagents, and this shift was reversible in the presence of high concentrations of reducing agent. The cross-linked protein crystallized readily in several of the conditions screened and the best crystals diffracted to ≈8 Å. PMID:25713404

  9. In vitro characterization of the NAD+ synthetase NadE1 from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Kerly; Santos, Adrian R S; Bonatto, Ana C; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2016-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase enzyme (NadE) catalyzes the amination of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) to form NAD(+). This reaction represents the last step in the majority of the NAD(+) biosynthetic routes described to date. NadE enzymes typically use either glutamine or ammonium as amine nitrogen donor, and the reaction is energetically driven by ATP hydrolysis. Given the key role of NAD(+) in bacterial metabolism, NadE has attracted considerable interest as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. The plant-associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae encodes two putative NadE, namely nadE1 and nadE2. The nadE1 gene is linked to glnB encoding the signal transduction protein GlnB. Here we report the purification and in vitro characterization of H. seropedicae NadE1. Gel filtration chromatography analysis suggests that NadE1 is an octamer. The NadE1 activity was assayed in vitro, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for substrates NaAD, ATP, glutamine and ammonium were determined. Enzyme kinetic and in vitro substrate competition assays indicate that H. seropedicae NadE1 uses glutamine as a preferential nitrogen donor.

  10. The function of Glu338 in the catalytic triad of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase amidotransferase domain.

    PubMed

    Hewagama, A; Guy, H I; Chaparian, M; Evans, D R

    1998-11-10

    The synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate by the mammalian multifunctional protein, CAD, involves the concerted action of the 40 kDa amidotransferase domain (GLN), that hydrolyzes glutamine and the 120 kDa synthetase (CPS) domain that uses the ammonia, thus produced, ATP and bicarbonate to make carbamoyl phosphate. The separately cloned GLN domain has very low activity due to a reduction in kcat and an increase in Km but forms a hybrid complex with the isolated Escherichia coli CPS subunit. The hybrid has full glutamine-dependent catalytic activity and a functional interdomain linkage. The mammalian-E. coli hybrid was used to investigate the functional consequence of replacing His336 and Glu338, two residues postulated to participate in catalysis as part of a catalytic triad. The mutant mammalian GLN domains formed stable complexes with the E. coli CPS subunit, but the catalytic activity was severely impaired. While the His336Asn mutant does not form measurable amounts of the gamma-glutamyl thioester, the steady state concentration of the intermediate with the Glu338Gly mutant was comparable to the wild type hybrid because both the rate of formation and breakdown of the thioester are reduced. This result is consistent with the postulated role of Glu338 in maintaining His336 in the optimal orientation for catalysis and suggests a mechanism for the GLN CPS functional linkage.

  11. A dispensable peptide from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase affects tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Roberto; Salazar, Juan; Canales, Mauricio; Orellana, Omar

    2002-12-18

    The activation domain of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which contains the Rossmann fold and the signature sequences HIGH and KMSKS, is generally split into two halves by the connective peptides (CP1, CP2) whose amino acid sequences are idiosyncratic. CP1 has been shown to participate in the binding of tRNA as well as the editing of the reaction intermediate aminoacyl-AMP or the aminoacyl-tRNA. No function has been assigned to CP2. The amino acid sequence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans TrpRS was predicted from the genome sequence. Protein sequence alignments revealed that A. ferrooxidans TrpRS contains a 70 amino acids long CP2 that is not found in any other bacterial TrpRS. However, a CP2 in the same relative position was found in the predicted sequence of several archaeal TrpRSs. A. ferrooxidans TrpRS is functional in vivo in Escherichia coli. A deletion mutant of A. ferrooxidans trpS lacking the coding region of CP2 was constructed. The in vivo activity of the mutant TrpRS in E. coli, as well as the kinetic parameters of the in vitro activation of tryptophan by ATP, were not altered by the deletion. However, the K(m) value for tRNA was seven-fold higher upon deletion, reducing the efficiency of aminoacylation. Structural modeling suggests that CP2 binds to the inner corner of the L shape of tRNA.

  12. In Situ Glutamine Synthetase Activity in a Marine Unicellular Alga (Development of a Sensitive Colorimetric Assay and the Effects of Nitrogen Status on Enzyme Activity).

    PubMed Central

    Rees, TAV.; Larson, T. R.; Heldens, JWG.; Huning, FGJ.

    1995-01-01

    A malachite green colorimetric assay for glutamine synthetase is described. Glutamine synthetase activity was determined in situ in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin using cells permeabilized by freeze/thawing. Higher activities were obtained with cells permeabilized in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N[prime]-2-ethanesulfonic acid compared with N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or imidazole, and the optimum pH was 7.9. Activities were higher in cells permeabilized in the presence of reductant, particularly dithiothreitol. Glutamine synthetase activities were markedly decreased in the presence of methionine sulfoximine. In the presence of saturating concentrations of glutamate and ATP, the apparent Km for ammonia was 320 [mu]M, but this value decreased to 110 [mu]M with subsaturating concentrations of glutamate and ATP. The apparent Km values for glutamate and ATP, in the presence of saturating concentrations of ammonia, were 9.7 and 2.9 mM, respectively. Ammonia-grown cells had lower glutamine synthetase activities than did nitrate-grown cells. During nitrogen starvation of both ammonia- and nitrate-grown cells, glutamine synthetase activities increased rapidly during the first 8 h, reaching maximum values after 24 to 48 h. Moreover, the time course for the increases in glutamine synthetase activities and rate of methylamine uptake following the transfer of nitrate-grown cells to nitrogen-deficient medium were very similar. In nitrate-grown cells and cells deprived of combined nitrogen, glutamine synthetase activities and maximum rates of ammonia uptake gave comparable values when measured at the same temperature (20[deg]C). PMID:12228676

  13. Probing the global and local dynamics of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases using all-atom and coarse-grained simulations.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander M; Fehling, Samuel C; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep; Hati, Sanchita

    2014-05-01

    Coarse-grained simulations have emerged as invaluable tools for studying conformational changes in biomolecules. To evaluate the effectiveness of computationally inexpensive coarse-grained models in studying global and local dynamics of large protein systems like aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, we have performed coarse-grained normal mode analysis, as well as principle component analysis on trajectories of all-atom and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations for three aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases--Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase, Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase, and Enterococcus faecium prolyl-tRNA synthetase. In the present study, comparison of predicted dynamics based on B-factor and overlap calculations revealed that coarse-grained methods are comparable to the all-atom simulations in depicting the intrinsic global dynamics of the three enzymes. However, the principal component analyses of the motions obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations provide a superior description of the local fluctuations of these enzymes. In particular, the all-atom model was able to capture the functionally relevant substrate-induced dynamical changes in prolyl-tRNA synthetase. The alteration in the coupled dynamics between the catalytically important proline-binding loop and its neighboring structural elements due to substrate binding has been characterized and reported for the first time. Taken together, the study portrays comparable and contrasting situations in studying the functional dynamics of large multi-domain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases using coarse-grained and all-atom simulation methods.

  14. Cloning of three human multifunctional de novo purine biosynthetic genes by functional complementation of yeast mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Schild, D; Brake, A J; Kiefer, M C; Young, D; Barr, P J

    1990-01-01

    Functional complementation of mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to clone three multifunctional human genes involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. A HepG2 cDNA library constructed in a yeast expression vector was used to transform yeast strains with mutations in adenine biosynthetic genes. Clones were isolated that complement mutations in the yeast ADE2, ADE3, and ADE8 genes. The cDNA that complemented the ade8 (phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, GART) mutation, also complemented the ade5 (phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase) and ade7 [phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase (AIRS; also known as PAIS)] mutations, indicating that it is the human trifunctional GART gene. Supporting data include homology between the AIRS and GART domains of this gene and the published sequence of these domains from other organisms, and localization of the cloned gene to human chromosome 21, where the GART gene has been shown to map. The cDNA that complemented ade2 (phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase) also complemented ade1 (phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase), supporting earlier data suggesting that in some organisms these functions are part of a bifunctional protein. The cDNA that complemented ade3 (formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase) is different from the recently isolated human cDNA encoding this enzyme and instead appears to encode a related mitochondrial enzyme. Images PMID:2183217

  15. Dynamics of the Active Sites of Dimeric Seryl tRNA Synthetase from Methanopyrus kandleri.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Saheb; Nandi, Nilashis

    2015-08-27

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) carry out the first step of protein biosynthesis. Several aaRSs are multimeric, and coordination between the dynamics of active sites present in each monomer is a prerequisite for the fast and accurate aminoacylation. However, important lacunae of understanding exist concerning the conformational dynamics of multimeric aaRSs. Questions remained unanswered pertaining to the dynamics of the active site. Little is known concerning the conformational dynamics of the active sites in response to the substrate binding, reorganization of the catalytic residues around reactants, time-dependent changes at the reaction center, which are essential for facilitating the nucleophilic attack, and interactions at the interface of neighboring monomers. In the present work, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of dimeric (mk)SerRS from Methanopyrus kandleri bound with tRNA using an explicit solvent system. Two dimeric states of seryl tRNA synthetase (open, substrate bound, and adenylate bound) and two monomeric states (open and substrate bound) are simulated with bound tRNA. The aim is to understand the conformational dynamics of (mk)SerRS during its reaction cycle. While the present results provide a clear dynamical perspective of the active sites of (mk)SerRS, they corroborate with the results from the time-averaged experimental data such as crystallographic and mutation analysis of methanogenic SerRS from M. kandleri and M. barkeri. It is observed from the present simulation that the motif 2 loop gates the active site and its Glu351 and Arg360 stabilizes ATP in a bent state favorable for nucleophilic attack. The flexibility of the walls of the active site gradually reduces near reaction center, which is a more organized region compared to the lid region. The motif 2 loop anchors Ser and ATP using Arg349 in a hydrogen bonded geometry crucial for nucleophilic attack and favorably influences the electrostatic potential at the

  16. Arabidopsis Plastidial Folylpolyglutamate Synthetase Is Required for Seed Reserve Accumulation and Seedling Establishment in Darkness

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hongyan; Jiang, Ling; Xu, Bosi; Guo, Wenzhu; Li, Jinglai; Zhu, Xiuqing; Qi, Xiaoquan; Duan, Lixin; Meng, Xianbin; Fan, Yunliu; Zhang, Chunyi

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among metabolic pathways are important in plant biology. At present, not much is known about how folate metabolism affects other metabolic pathways in plants. Here we report a T-DNA insertion mutant (atdfb-3) of the plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene (AtDFB) was defective in seed reserves and skotomorphogenesis. Lower carbon (C) and higher nitrogen (N) content in the mutant seeds than that of the wild type were indicative of an altered C and N partitioning capacity. Higher levels of organic acids and sugars were detected in the mutant seeds compared with the wild type. Further analysis revealed that atdfb-3 seeds contained less total amino acids and individual Asn and Glu as well as NO3−. These results indicate significant changes in seed storage in the mutant. Defects in hypocotyl elongation were observed in atdfb-3 in darkness under sufficient NO3− conditions, and further enhanced under NO3− limited conditions. The strong expression of AtDFB in cotyledons and hypocotyl during early developmental stage was consistent with the mutant sensitivity to limited NO3− during a narrow developmental window. Exogenous 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate completely restored the hypocotyl length in atdfb-3 seedlings with NO3− as the sole N source. Further study demonstrated that folate profiling and N metabolism were perturbed in atdfb-3 etiolated seedlings. The activity of enzymes involved in N reduction and assimilation was altered in atdfb-3. Taken together, these results indicate that AtDFB is required for seed reserves, hypocotyl elongation and N metabolism in darkness, providing novel insights into potential associations of folate metabolism with seed reserve accumulation, N metabolism and hypocotyl development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25000295

  17. Glutamine synthetase. IX. Purification and characterization of the enzyme from sheep spleen.

    PubMed

    Wu, C

    1977-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2) has been purified about 550-fold from sheep spleen. The subunit weight of the enzyme is estimated to be 48 000. Sedimentation coefficient determination by density gradient centrifugation gives a value of 15.0 S. The approximate molecular weight calculated from the S value is 378500. In addition, electron micrographs of the enzyme show an "H" shape. Hence, the protein appears to have eight subunits. In sheep spleen, the enzyme resides chiefly in the soluble fraction of the cell. The amino acid composition of the enzyme from spleen shows similarity to that from other sources. The enzyme activity is nearly five times as high in Mg2+ as in Mn2+. ATP inhibits the enzyme; the inhibition is competitive with respect to Mg2+ATP. A number of compounds, such as D-alanine, AMP, creatine phosphate, arsenite in combination with 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate, also inhibit the enzyme. The inhibition by the last compound is competitive with respect to glutamate. D-Glutamate and alpha-methyl-DL-glutamate can serve as substrates in the synthesis reaction, but N-methyl-DL-glutamate cannot. On the other hand, neither D-glutamine nor N-acetyl-L-glutamine can replace L-glutamine as a substrate in the gamma-glutamyl transfer reaction of the enzyme. Inhibition of Mn2+ and ATP and its reversal by Mg2+ have been discussed as a means of regulating the enzyme activity in mammalian tissues.

  18. Metabolic indicators of drought stress tolerance in wheat: glutamine synthetase isoenzymes and Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zoltán; Németh, Edit; Guóth, Adrienn; Bona, Lajos; Wodala, Barnabás; Pécsváradi, Attila

    2013-06-01

    Drought stress has a considerable impact on the ecosystem and agriculture. Continuous water deficit induces early leaf senescence in plants. During this process, chloroplasts are degraded and photosynthesis drastically drops. The objective of this investigation was to look into the regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolism during water deficit. Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) and the total protein contents inform us of the sink-source relation in plants. Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) isoenzymes are good markers of plastid status (GS2) and the nitrogen metabolism (GS1). Tolerant and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were tested, which are widely used in agriculture. The amount of protein, Rubisco and GS isoforms in leaves were measured during the grain filling period, as indicative traits that ultimately determine the onset and stage of senescence. The symptoms of senescence first appeared on the oldest and finally on the youngest leaves. Drought stress disrupted the sequentiality of senescence in the sensitive varieties. An untimely senescence appeared in flag leaves, earlier than in the older leaves. Total protein and Rubisco contents decreased and the GS2 isoenzyme declined considerably in the youngest leaves. In the tolerant varieties, however, these physiological parameters did not change under drought, only the sequential senescence of leaf levels accelerated in some cases compared to the control, well-watered plants. Our results revealed that GS is a good indicator of drought stress, which can be applied for the characterization of wheat cultivars in terms of drought stress tolerance.

  19. Contributions of two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isozymes to ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Noriyuki; Ishiyama, Keiki; Beier, Marcel Pascal; Inoue, Eri; Kanno, Keiichi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Hideki; Kojima, Soichi

    2016-12-21

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes a reaction that incorporates ammonium into glutamate and yields glutamine in the cytosol and chloroplasts. Although the enzymatic characteristics of the GS1 isozymes are well known, their physiological functions in ammonium assimilation and regulation in roots remain unclear. In this study we show evidence that two cytosolic GS1 isozymes (GLN1;2 and GLN1;3) contribute to ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis roots. Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines for GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 (i.e. gln1;2 and gln1;3 single-mutants), the gln1;2:gln1;3 double-mutant, and the wild-type accession (Col-0) were grown in hydroponic culture with variable concentrations of ammonium to compare their growth, and their content of nitrogen, carbon, ammonium, and amino acids. GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 promoter-dependent green fluorescent protein was observed under conditions with or without ammonium supply. Loss of GLN1;2 caused significant suppression of plant growth and glutamine biosynthesis under ammonium-replete conditions. In contrast, loss of GLN1;3 caused slight defects in growth and Gln biosynthesis that were only visible based on a comparison of the gln1;2 single- and gln1;2:gln1;3 double-mutants. GLN1;2, being the most abundantly expressed GS1 isozyme, markedly increased following ammonium supply and its promoter activity was localized at the cortex and epidermis, while GLN1;3 showed only low expression at the pericycle, suggesting their different physiological contributions to ammonium assimilation in roots. The GLN1;2 promoter-deletion analysis identified regulatory sequences required for controlling ammonium-responsive gene expression of GLN1;2 in Arabidopsis roots. These results shed light on GLN1 isozyme-specific regulatory mechanisms in Arabidopsis that allow adaptation to an ammonium-replete environment.

  20. Phylogenetic aspects of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase in lungfish: a transitional enzyme in transitional fishes.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Tammy; Walsh, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) catalyses the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine or ammonia, bicarbonate and ATP. There are three different isoforms of CPS that play vital roles in two metabolic pathways, pyrimidine biosynthesis (CPS II) and arginine/urea biosynthesis (CPS I and CPS III). Gene duplication has been proposed as the evolutionary mechanism creating this gene family with CPS II likely giving rise to the CPS I/III clade. In the evolutionary history of this gene family it is still undetermined when CPS I diverged from CPS III on the path to terrestriality in the vertebrates. Transitional organisms such as lungfishes are of particular interest because they are capable of respiring via gills and with lungs and therefore can be found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Notably, enzymatic characterization of the mitochondrial CPS isoforms in this transitional group has not led to clear conclusions. In order to determine which CPS isoform is present in transitional animals, we examined partial sequences for liver CPS amplified from five species of lungfish, and a larger fragment of CPS from one lungfish species (Protopterus annectens) and compared them to CPS isoforms from other fish and mammals. Enzyme activities for P. annectens liver were also examined. While enzyme activities did not yield a clear distinction between isoforms (virtually equal activities were obtained for either CPS I or III), CPS sequences from the lungfishes formed a monophyletic clade within the CPS I clade and separate from the CPS III clade of other vertebrates. This finding implies that the mitochondrial isoform of CPS in lungfish is derived from CPS I and is likely to have a physiological function similar to CPS I. This finding is important because it supports the hypothesis that lungfish employ a urea cycle similar to terrestrial air-breathing vertebrates.