Science.gov

Sample records for human infectious diseases

  1. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  2. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  3. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  4. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  5. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  6. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R A

    2001-06-29

    Since time immemorial animals have been a major source of human infectious disease. Certain infections like rabies are recognized as zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission. Others like measles became independently sustained with the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its animal progenitor. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Epidemics of recent animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some retroviruses jump into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they oscillate between being inherited Mendelian traits or infectious agents in different species. Will new procedures like animal-to-human transplants unleash further infections? Do microbes become more virulent upon cross-species transfer? Are animal microbes a threat as biological weapons? Will the vast reservoir of immunodeficient hosts due to the HIV pandemic provide conditions permissive for sporadic zoonoses to take off as human-to-human transmissible diseases? Do human infections now pose a threat to endangered primates? These questions are addressed in this lecture.

  7. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  8. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  9. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply Fungi - primitive plants, like mushrooms or mildew Protozoa - one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  10. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2016-01-01

    The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.

  11. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change.

  12. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  13. [Mice are not Men and yet… how humanized mice inform us about human infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Cachat, Anne; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    The study of human pathologies is often limited by the absence of animal models which are robust, cost-effective and reproduce the hallmarks of human infections. While mice have been frequently employed to study human diseases, many of important pathogens display unique human tropism. These last two decades the graft of human progenitor cells or tissues into -immunodeficient mice has allowed the elaboration of so called humanized mice. Humanized mouse technology has made rapid progress, and it is now possible to achieve high levels of human chimerism in various organs and tissues, particularly the immune system and the liver. The review briefly summarizes the different models of humanized mice available for in vivo experiments. With a focus on lymphotropic, monocytotropic and hepatotropic viruses, we here discuss the current status and future prospects of these models for studying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Furthermore, they provide a powerful tool for the development of innovative therapies.

  14. Infectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    was of importance in arresting the disease. On the other hand, tuberculous patients may develop a sarcoidosis -like hypersensitivity to vitamin D; if...action of vitamin D and become hypercalcemic, as in sarcoidosis . Normal quantities of vitamins and other nutrients help to maintain host resistance at

  15. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

  16. A genome-wide perspective of human diversity and its implications in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Manry, Jérémy; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Progress in genomic technologies, such as DNA arrays and next-generation sequencing, is allowing systematic characterization of the degree of human genetic variation at the scale of individual genomes. Public efforts, such as the International HapMap Project and the 1000 Genomes Project, have provided a realistic picture of the levels of genetic diversity in individuals and populations. These genomic techniques are also making it possible to evaluate the contribution of host genetic diversity to differences in susceptibility to both rare and common infectious diseases. Recent studies have revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing for dissecting the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe, rare infectious diseases. Likewise, genome-wide association studies on common viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections have shed light on the host genetic basis of susceptibility to infectious diseases and, in some cases, of disease progression and drug responses.

  17. [Renaissance of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gładysz, Andrzej; Fleischer-Stepniewska, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us--humans.

  18. Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Funk, Sebastian; Salathé, Marcel; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-09-06

    Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour on the spread of diseases can be key to improving control efforts. While behavioural responses to the spread of a disease have often been reported anecdotally, there has been relatively little systematic investigation into how behavioural changes can affect disease dynamics. Mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases are an important tool for investigating and quantifying such effects, not least because the spread of a disease among humans is not amenable to direct experimental study. Here, we review recent efforts to incorporate human behaviour into disease models, and propose that such models can be broadly classified according to the type and source of information which individuals are assumed to base their behaviour on, and according to the assumed effects of such behaviour. We highlight recent advances as well as gaps in our understanding of the interplay between infectious disease dynamics and human behaviour, and suggest what kind of data taking efforts would be helpful in filling these gaps.

  19. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  20. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

    2013-03-19

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing.

  1. Bedbugs and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Pascal; Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-15

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

  2. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  3. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  4. Coupled microbial and human systems: evidence for a relationship between infectious disease and gross national product.

    PubMed

    Bromage, T G

    2009-01-01

    We provide evidence that maternal metabolic energy is diverted to increased birth rates in nations experiencing high infectious disease risk. The "economic stoichiometry" of such situations limits the availability and distribution of metabolic resources available for national production. Lowering disease risk, and thus the metabolic energy required for replacement human biomass production, makes energy available for national production during the demographic transition, and increases the national GDP.

  5. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  6. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... to worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 ...

  7. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. ...

  8. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research.

  9. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  10. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  11. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  12. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control. PMID:27526868

  13. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-08-16

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control.

  14. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  15. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  16. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  17. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  18. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  19. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tai-You

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

  20. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. PMID:22346770

  1. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  2. Dynamics of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology--the SIS and SIR type models--before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  3. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  4. Development of an Antimicrobial Stewardship-based Infectious Diseases Elective that Incorporates Human Patient Simulation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design an elective for pharmacy students that facilitates antimicrobial stewardship awareness, knowledge, and skill development by solving clinical cases, using human patient simulation technology. Design. The elective was designed for PharmD students to describe principles and functions of stewardship programs, select, evaluate, refine, or redesign patient-specific plans for infectious diseases in the context of antimicrobial stewardship, and propose criteria and stewardship management strategies for an antimicrobial class at a health care institution. Teaching methods included active learning and lectures. Cases of bacterial endocarditis and cryptococcal meningitis were developed that incorporated human patient simulation technology. Assessment. Forty-five pharmacy students completed an antimicrobial stewardship elective between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes were assessed using student perceptions of and performance on rubric-graded assignments. Conclusion. A PharmD elective using active learning, including novel cases conducted with human patient simulation technology, enabled outcomes consistent with those desired of pharmacists assisting in antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID:25386016

  5. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meentemeyer, Ross K; Haas, Sarah E; Václavík, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: Our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales, whereas pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macroscale lens of landscape ecology, enabling examination of disease across spatiotemporal scales in complex environmental settings. We review the state of the field and describe analytical frontiers that show promise for advancement, focusing on natural and human-altered ecosystems. Concepts fundamental to practicing landscape epidemiology are discussed, including spatial scale, static versus dynamic modeling, spatially implicit versus explicit approaches, selection of ecologically meaningful variables, and inference versus prediction. We highlight studies that have advanced the field by incorporating multiscale analyses, landscape connectivity, and dynamic modeling. Future research directions include understanding disease as a component of interacting ecological disturbances, scaling up the ecological impacts of disease, and examining disease dynamics as a coupled human-natural system.

  6. Biobanking and translation of human genetics and genomics for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Branković, Ivan; Malogajski, Jelena; Morré, Servaas A

    2014-06-01

    Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the integration of genome-based knowledge into clinical practice. It also examines various networks and biobanks that specialize in infectious diseases (including HIV, HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis), and provides examples of successful research and clinical uptake stemming from these biobanks. Finally, it outlines key issues with respect to data privacy in infectious disease genomics, as well as the utility of adequately designed and maintained electronic health records. We maintain that the public should be able to easily access a clear and detailed outline of regulations and procedures for sample and data utilization by academic or commercial investigators, and also should be able to understand the precise roles of relevant governing bodies. This would ultimately facilitate uptake by researchers and clinics. As a result of the efforts and resources invested by several networks and consortia, there is an increasing awareness of the prospective uses of biobanks in advancing infectious disease genomic research, diagnostics and their clinical management.

  7. The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Johanna F.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating viruses are more common among the emerging pathogens. The climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate changes and environmental changes, such as increased irrigation. This review lists the factors within pathogens that make them prone to emergence, and the modes of transmission that are affected. The anthropogenic changes contributing to disease emergence are described, as well as how they directly and indirectly cause either increased numbers of susceptible or exposed individuals, or cause increased infectivity. Many actions may have multiple direct or indirect effects, and it may be difficult to assess what the consequences may be. In addition, most anthropogenic drivers are related to desired activities, such as logging, irrigation, trade, and travelling, which the society is requiring. It is important to research more about the indirect and direct effects of the different actions to understand both the benefits and the risks. PMID:26615822

  8. The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Johanna F; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating viruses are more common among the emerging pathogens. The climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate changes and environmental changes, such as increased irrigation. This review lists the factors within pathogens that make them prone to emergence, and the modes of transmission that are affected. The anthropogenic changes contributing to disease emergence are described, as well as how they directly and indirectly cause either increased numbers of susceptible or exposed individuals, or cause increased infectivity. Many actions may have multiple direct or indirect effects, and it may be difficult to assess what the consequences may be. In addition, most anthropogenic drivers are related to desired activities, such as logging, irrigation, trade, and travelling, which the society is requiring. It is important to research more about the indirect and direct effects of the different actions to understand both the benefits and the risks.

  9. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  10. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  11. [Liver diseases of infectious aetiology].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P

    2007-01-01

    Review article is dealing with the problems of infectious diseases of the liver. Attention is paid to the basic infectious agents, jaundice accompanying infectious diseases and focal infections of the liver. Specific infections of the liver are supplemented by brief pathological and anatomical characteristics.

  12. European monitoring systems and data for assessing environmental and climate impacts on human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-04-09

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  13. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Gordon L.; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542

  14. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  15. Infectious disease and worldwide declines of amphibian populations, with comments on emerging diseases in coral reef organisms and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, C

    2000-01-01

    Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated. PMID:10698730

  16. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  17. Relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human TLR genes to infectious and inflammatory diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Trejo-de la O, A; Hernández-Sancén, P; Maldonado-Bernal, C

    2014-04-01

    Innate and adaptive immune responses in humans have evolved as protective mechanisms against infectious microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the recognition of invading microorganisms. TLRs are the first receptors to detect potential pathogens and to initiate the immune response, and they form the crucial link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs also have an important role in the pathophysiology of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Increasing data suggest that the ability of certain individuals to respond properly to TLR ligands may be impaired by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TLR genes, resulting in an altered susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory disease that might contribute to the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as cancer. The associations between diseases and SNPs are in the early stage of discovery. Important clinical insights are emerging, and these polymorphisms provide new understanding of common diseases. This review summarizes and discusses the studies that shed light on the relevance of these polymorphisms in human infectious and inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  18. Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future.

  19. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed thalassogenic--caused by the sea. Until recently these human health effects have been viewed primarily as local phenomena, not generally included in the world agenda of marine scientists dealing with global marine pollution problems. The massive global scale of the problem can be visualized when one considers that the wastewater and human body wastes of a significant portion of the world's population who reside along the coastline or in the vicinity of the sea are discharged daily, directly or indirectly, into the marine coastal waters, much of it with little or no treatment. Every cubic metre of raw domestic wastewater discharged into the sea can carry millions of infectious doses of pathogenic microorganisms. It is estimated that globally, foreign and local tourists together spend some 2 billion man-days annually at coastal recreational resorts and many are often exposed there to coastal waters polluted by wastewater. Annually some 800 million meals of potentially contaminated filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves and other sea foods, harvested in polluted waters are consumed, much of it raw or lightly steamed. A number of scientific studies have shown that swimmers swallow significant amounts of polluted seawater and can become ill with gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases from the pathogens they ingest. Based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) and academic research sources the present study has made an estimate that globally, each year, there are in excess of 120 million cases of gastrointestinal disease and in excess of 50 million cases of more severe respiratory diseases caused by swimming and

  20. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  1. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  2. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  3. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shuman, E K

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  4. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  5. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-02-19

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  6. The return of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  7. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-06-16

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  8. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  9. Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Ross D E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  10. Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-05-01

    Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. Such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. Classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Other important causes include canine distemper virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline infectious peritonitis virus; rickettsial organisms that infect leukocytes; Leishmania; and fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus. Considerable research effort has been invested in understanding the mechanisms of pathogen-induced immunosuppression, with the hope that effective therapies may be developed that reverse the immunodeficiencies developed and in turn assist the host to clear persistent or life-threatening infectious diseases.

  11. Using GPS technology to quantify human mobility, dynamic contacts and infectious disease dynamics in a resource-poor urban environment.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Bisanzio, Donal; Stoddard, Steven T; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C; Elder, John P; Ramirez-Paredes, Jhon; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Scott, Thomas W; Kitron, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    Empiric quantification of human mobility patterns is paramount for better urban planning, understanding social network structure and responding to infectious disease threats, especially in light of rapid growth in urbanization and globalization. This need is of particular relevance for developing countries, since they host the majority of the global urban population and are disproportionally affected by the burden of disease. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers to track the fine-scale (within city) mobility patterns of 582 residents from two neighborhoods from the city of Iquitos, Peru. We used ∼2.3 million GPS data-points to quantify age-specific mobility parameters and dynamic co-location networks among all tracked individuals. Geographic space significantly affected human mobility, giving rise to highly local mobility kernels. Most (∼80%) movements occurred within 1 km of an individual's home. Potential hourly contacts among individuals were highly irregular and temporally unstructured. Only up to 38% of the tracked participants showed a regular and predictable mobility routine, a sharp contrast to the situation in the developed world. As a case study, we quantified the impact of spatially and temporally unstructured routines on the dynamics of transmission of an influenza-like pathogen within an Iquitos neighborhood. Temporally unstructured daily routines (e.g., not dominated by a single location, such as a workplace, where an individual repeatedly spent significant amount of time) increased an epidemic's final size and effective reproduction number by 20% in comparison to scenarios modeling temporally structured contacts. Our findings provide a mechanistic description of the basic rules that shape human mobility within a resource-poor urban center, and contribute to the understanding of the role of fine-scale patterns of individual movement and co-location in infectious disease dynamics. More generally, this study emphasizes the need for

  12. Using GPS Technology to Quantify Human Mobility, Dynamic Contacts and Infectious Disease Dynamics in a Resource-Poor Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Bisanzio, Donal; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C.; Elder, John P.; Ramirez-Paredes, Jhon; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    Empiric quantification of human mobility patterns is paramount for better urban planning, understanding social network structure and responding to infectious disease threats, especially in light of rapid growth in urbanization and globalization. This need is of particular relevance for developing countries, since they host the majority of the global urban population and are disproportionally affected by the burden of disease. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers to track the fine-scale (within city) mobility patterns of 582 residents from two neighborhoods from the city of Iquitos, Peru. We used ∼2.3 million GPS data-points to quantify age-specific mobility parameters and dynamic co-location networks among all tracked individuals. Geographic space significantly affected human mobility, giving rise to highly local mobility kernels. Most (∼80%) movements occurred within 1 km of an individual’s home. Potential hourly contacts among individuals were highly irregular and temporally unstructured. Only up to 38% of the tracked participants showed a regular and predictable mobility routine, a sharp contrast to the situation in the developed world. As a case study, we quantified the impact of spatially and temporally unstructured routines on the dynamics of transmission of an influenza-like pathogen within an Iquitos neighborhood. Temporally unstructured daily routines (e.g., not dominated by a single location, such as a workplace, where an individual repeatedly spent significant amount of time) increased an epidemic’s final size and effective reproduction number by 20% in comparison to scenarios modeling temporally structured contacts. Our findings provide a mechanistic description of the basic rules that shape human mobility within a resource-poor urban center, and contribute to the understanding of the role of fine-scale patterns of individual movement and co-location in infectious disease dynamics. More generally, this study emphasizes the need

  13. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  14. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  15. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  16. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  17. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  18. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches.

  19. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Marta; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Desole, Giovanna; Berto, Alessandro; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance. PMID:26184286

  20. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

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  19. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  20. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  1. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  2. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  3. Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Sally F; Rook, Graham AW; Scott, Elizabeth A; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanwell-Smith, Rosalind; Turner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To review the burden of allergic and infectious diseases and the evidence for a link to microbial exposure, the human microbiome and immune system, and to assess whether we could develop lifestyles which reconnect us with exposures which could reduce the risk of allergic disease while also protecting against infectious disease. Methods: Using methodology based on the Delphi technique, six experts in infectious and allergic disease were surveyed to allow for elicitation of group judgement and consensus view on issues pertinent to the aim. Results: Key themes emerged where evidence shows that interaction with microbes that inhabit the natural environment and human microbiome plays an essential role in immune regulation. Changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure, rapid urbanisation, altered diet and antibiotic use have had profound effects on the human microbiome, leading to failure of immunotolerance and increased risk of allergic disease. Although evidence supports the concept of immune regulation driven by microbe–host interactions, the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ is a misleading misnomer. There is no good evidence that hygiene, as the public understands, is responsible for the clinically relevant changes to microbial exposures. Conclusion: Evidence suggests a combination of strategies, including natural childbirth, breast feeding, increased social exposure through sport, other outdoor activities, less time spent indoors, diet and appropriate antibiotic use, may help restore the microbiome and perhaps reduce risks of allergic disease. Preventive efforts must focus on early life. The term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ must be abandoned. Promotion of a risk assessment approach (targeted hygiene) provides a framework for maximising protection against pathogen exposure while allowing spread of essential microbes between family members. To build on these findings, we must change public, public health and professional perceptions about the microbiome and about

  4. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Statement of the Advisory Committee of Immunizations on behalf of the Chilean Infectious Diseases Society. September 2008].

    PubMed

    Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Vergara, Rodrigo; Luchsinger, Vivian; Muñoz, Alma; Jiménez de la J, Jorge; Ripoll, Erna; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated diseases globally and in Chile, and the scientific information of the licensed HPV vaccines: Gardasil and Cervari. Considering the available information, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases recommends vaccination of teenage girls, ideally before initiating sexual activity, i.e., approximately at the age of 12 to 13 years and vaccination of women of any age if they have not started sexual activity. If women are vaccinated after initiating sexual activity, they should be informed of the lower efficacy of immunization if HPV infection has occurred. Education on responsible sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases should be maintained as a priority. Vaccination should be highly considered for inclusion in the National Immunization Program.

  5. How to find and access information on emerging infectious diseases: Chapter 7 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesenberg, Katherine; Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, and continuing today, there has been a global emergence and resurgence of infectious disease of humans and other species. The “exotic” nature and serious consequences of many of these diseases results in media attention and public interest, in addition to the scientific exploration and efforts associated with combating these diseases. Finding and accessing information about diseases and keeping informed about current events and new discoveries is a daunting task because of the diversity of information sources and the great volume of published materials. This chapter provides guidance for effectively traveling the information highway and efficiently negotiating the information maze.

  6. Agricultural Applications for Antimicrobials. A Danger to Human Health: An Official Position Statement of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Samuel L; Dilworth, Thomas J; Heil, Emily L; Nailor, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture, particularly in food-producing animals, is pervasive and represents the overwhelming majority of antibiotic use worldwide. The link between antibiotic use in animals and antibiotic resistance in humans is unequivocal. Transmission can occur by ingesting undercooked meats harboring resistant bacteria, by direct contact of animals by animal handlers, and by various other means. Antibiotics used in aquaculture and antifungals used in horticulture are also an evolving threat to human health. Regulations aimed at decreasing the amount of antibiotics used in food production to limit the development of antibiotic resistance have recently been implemented. However, further action is needed to minimize antibiotic use in agriculture. This article describes the extent of this current problem and serves as the official position of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists on this urgent threat to human health.

  7. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  8. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  9. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease.

  10. [Infectious bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Tiemann, A H; Krenn, V; Krukemeyer, M G; Seyfert, C; Jakobs, M; Baumhoer, D; Hofmann, G O

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial infection of the bone is a severe disease with complications, potentially including long-term physical disability. The diagnosis and therapy of osteomyelitis include several elements: histopathology, microbiology, radiologic imagining, as well as antibiotic and surgical therapy. Histopathologists differentiate between acute osteomyelitis (infiltration of cancellous bone with neutrophil granulocytes); specific osteomyelitis (epithelioid-like granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis, mycotic infections); primary/secondary chronic osteomyelitis (lymphocytic infiltration); and special forms of chronic osteomyelitis (varying histomorphology, Brodie abscess, SAPHO syndrome). Another important task in the histopathological diagnosis of inflammatory bone diseases is to differentiate osteomyelitis from malignant entities (sarcoma, lymphoma). Therefore, biopsy samples should be of sufficient size for safe diagnosis. Clinical information and imaging as well as interdisciplinary teamwork between radiologists, microbiologists, orthopedic surgeons and pathologists is mandatory to verify these diagnoses.

  11. Infectious disease and boxing.

    PubMed

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  12. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

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  13. 76 FR 5596 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-02-01

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  14. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-19

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  15. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-11-10

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  16. Operationalising Factors That Explain the Emergence of Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the Human Campylobacteriosis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Norval J. C.; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance) to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990–2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990–2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future. PMID:24278127

  17. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases. PMID:28286767

  18. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  19. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

    1996-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for

  20. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease.

  1. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  2. Will the damage be done before we feel the heat? Infectious disease emergence and human response.

    PubMed

    Kock, R A

    2013-12-01

    The global political economy is facing extreme challenges against a backdrop of large-scale expansion of human and domestic animal populations and related impacts on the biosphere. Significant global socio-ecological changes have occurred in the period of a single lifetime, driven by increased technology and access to physical and biological resources through open markets and globalization. Current resource consumption rates are not sustainable and ecological tipping points are being reached and one of the indicators of these may be a changing balance between hosts and pathogens. A period of extraordinary progress in reducing infection risk and disease impact on humans and domestic animals in the 20th Century is reversing in the 21st, but not always and not everywhere. Drivers for this shift are discussed in terms of demographics, agroecology, biodiversity decline and loss of resilience in ecosystems, climate change and increasing interconnectedness between species globally. Causality of disease emergence remains highly speculative, but patterns and data are emerging to commend a precautionary approach, while reassessing our global political, social and economic systems.

  3. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  4. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  5. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Bocaviruses 1-4 in Pediatric Patients with Various Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Zhu, Runan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Huijin; Liu, Liying; Jia, Liping; Zhao, Linqing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Viral infections caused by human bocaviruses 1–4 (HBoV1-4) are more complicated than previously believed. A retrospective, large-scale study was undertaken to explore the prevalence of HBoV1-4 in pediatric patients with various infectious diseases and delineate their phylogenetic characteristics. Methods Clinical samples from four specimen types, including 4,941 respiratory, 2,239 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 2,619 serum, and 1,121 fecal specimens, collected from pediatric patients with various infectious diseases were screened for HBoV1-4. A 690-nt fragment in each specimen was then amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Clinical characteristics of HBoV-positive patients with different specimen types available were evaluated. Results Approximately 1.2% of patients were confirmed as HBoV-positive, with the highest positive rate in patients with gastrointestinal infection (2.2%), followed by respiratory (1.65%), central nervous system (0.8%), and hematological infections (0.2%). A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 circulated among children over the 8-year period, while a new cluster of HBoV2, via intra-genotype recombination between HBoV2A and HBoV2B, was prevalent. Some patients had HBoV1-positive respiratory and serum specimens or fecal specimens. Several cases became HBoV1-positive following the appearance of respiratory infection, while several cases were positive for HBoV2 only in CSF and serum specimens, rather than respiratory specimens. Conclusions A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 is speculated as a viral pathogen of respiratory infection and causes both comorbid infection and acute gastroenteritis. Additionally, a new cluster of HBoV2 is prevalent in China, which may infect the host through sites other than the respiratory tract. PMID:27490242

  6. The immunology and inflammatory responses of human melanocytes in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Gasque, Philippe; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine

    2015-10-01

    Melanin is a canonical and major defense molecule in invertebrates but its role in mammalian immunity remains unexplored. In contrast, several recent studies have highlighted the emerging innate immune activities of human melanin-producing cells which can sense and respond to bacterial and viral infections. Indeed, the skin is a major portal of entry for pathogens such as arboviruses (Chikungunya, Dengue) and bacteria (mycobacterium leprae, Leptospira spirochetes). Melanocytes of the epidermis could contribute to the phagocytosis of these invading pathogens and to present antigens to competent immune cells. Melanocytes are known to produce key cytokines such as IL-1β, IL6 and TNF-α as well as chemokines. These molecules will subsequently alert macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and keratinocytes through unique crosstalk mechanisms. The infection and the inflammatory responses will control melanocyte's immune and metabolic functions and could contribute to skin manifestations (rash, hyper or de-pigmentation, epidermolysis and psoriasis-like lesions). This review will address the potential role of melanocytes in immunity, inflammation and infection of the skin in health and diseases.

  7. Modeling relapse in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Driessche, P; Zou, Xingfu

    2007-05-01

    An integro-differential equation is proposed to model a general relapse phenomenon in infectious diseases including herpes. The basic reproduction number R(0) for the model is identified and the threshold property of R(0) established. For the case of a constant relapse period (giving a delay differential equation), this is achieved by conducting a linear stability analysis of the model, and employing the Lyapunov-Razumikhin technique and monotone dynamical systems theory for global results. Numerical simulations, with parameters relevant for herpes, are presented to complement the theoretical results, and no evidence of sustained oscillatory solutions is found.

  8. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-03-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  9. The carrying pigeons of the cell: exosomes and their role in infectious diseases caused by human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Adam; Sampey, Gavin; Chung, Myung-Chul; Bailey, Charles; van Hoek, Monique L; Kashanchi, Fatah; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes have recently been classified as the newest family members of 'bioactive vesicles' that function to promote intercellular communication. Long ignored and thought to be only a mechanism by which cellular waste is removed, exosomes have garnered a huge amount of interest in recent years as their critical functions in maintaining homeostasis through intercellular communication and also in different types of diseases have been demonstrated. Many groundbreaking studies of exosome functions have been performed in the cancer field and the infectious disease areas of study, revealing the importance and also the fascinating complexity of exosomal packaging, targeting, and functions. Selective packaging of exosomes in response to the type of infection, exosomal modulation of the immune response and host signaling pathways, exosomal regulation of pathogen spread, and effects of exosomes on the degree of pathogenesis have all been well documented. In this review, we provide a synthesis of the current understanding of the role of exosomes during infections caused by human pathogens and discuss the implications of these findings for a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Climate change and human infectious diseases: A synthesis of research findings from global and spatio-temporal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng

    2017-03-22

    The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing. A feature of the research tendency is the focus on temperature and insect-borne diseases at the local and decadal scale. Geographically, regions experiencing higher temperature anomalies have been given more research attention; unfortunately, the Earth's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and extreme events have been less studied. From local to global scales, agreements on the response of infectious diseases to climate change tend to converge. So far, an abundance of findings have been based on statistical methods, with the number of mechanistic studies slowly growing. Research gaps and trends identified in this study should be addressed in the future.

  11. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships for Biodefense-- Diagnostics 1. Date: September 13, 2012... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  12. System pharmacogenomics application in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Vineetha; Kabra, Ritika; Singh, Shailza

    2017-03-21

    The new era in systems pharmacology has revolutionized the human biology. Its applicability, precise treatment, adequate response and safety measures fit into all the paradigm of medical/clinical practice. The importance of mathematical models in understanding the disease pathology and epideomology is now being realized. The advent of high-throughput technologies and the emergence of systems biology have resulted in the creation of systems pharmacogenomics and the focus is now on personalized medicine. However, there are some regulatory issues that need to be addresssed; are we ready for this universal adoption? This article details some of the infectious disease pharmacogenomics to the developments in this area.

  13. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  14. Infectious diseases in disaster areas/catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Kalavsky, E; Miklosko, Jozef; Rudinsky, B; Taziarova, M; McKenzie, F

    2007-06-01

    There is very little data and no prospective research possible in the field of catastrophic medicine (disaster medicine) including infectious diseases. This minireview tries to contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases in areas after anthropogenic (war, genocide, terrorist attack, industrial disasters) and non anthropogenic (natural) catastrophes (earthquake, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions). Therefore ISC received a proposal to create a working group on infectious diseases in areas after catastrophes, better to understand epidemiology, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases occurring in conjunction to various anthropogenic and non anthropogenic (natural) disasters.

  15. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  16. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments.

  17. [The infectious diseases experiments conducted on human guinea pigs by Nazis in concentration camps].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    The author systematically examined all available publications and web documents, with regard to scientifically documented experiments carried out by Nazi physicians in their concentration camps during World War II. This research focused on human experiments dealing with: malaria, tuberculosis, petechial typhus, viral hepatitis, and those regarding sulphonamides as antimicrobial agents. The concentration camps involved by experimental programmes on human guinea pigs were: Natzweiler Struthof, Dachau, Mauthausen, Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen and Auschwitz. Overall, around 7,200 deported prisoners went to their deaths during or because of these experiments (also considering human trials other than previously quoted ones). At the end of the war several physicians were charged with war crimes in two trials (Nuremberg and Dachau), and those found guilty were sentenced to death, or years of imprisonment. Some of them, including the notorious Josef Mengele, succeeded in escaping capture and being brought to justice. Thanks to these trials, partial light has been shed on these crimes, which not infrequently had children as designated victims, selected with excruciating cruelty in special segregation sections. The SS was the key structure which ensured maximum efficiency for these experimental programmes, from both logistic planning through to an operative control system carried out in concentration camps, and thanks to an autonomous, dedicated medical structure, which included a rigid hierarchy of physicians directly dependent on the head of SS forces (Reichsführer), i.e. Dr. Heinrich Himmler. Moreover, it is worth noting that also physicians who were not part of the SS corps collaborated in the above experiments on human guinea pigs: these included military personnel belonging to the Wehrmacht, academic physicians from German universities, and researchers who worked in some German pharmaceutical industries, such as IG Farben, Bayer and Boehring.

  18. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  19. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration – will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts – including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  20. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0–9 years) and adults (25–54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak. PMID:26193480

  1. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  2. Quantitative assessment of human whole blood RNA as a potential biomarker for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire L; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Khondoker, Mizanur; Craigon, Marie; Ross, Alan; Storm, Petter; Burgess, Stewart; Lacaze, Paul; Stenson, Benjamin J; Ghazal, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in newborn infants. Analytical methods for diagnosing infection are severely limited in terms of sensitivity and specificity and require relatively large samples. It is proposed that stringent regulation of the human transcriptome affords a new molecular diagnostic approach based on measuring a highly specific systemic inflammatory response to infection, detectable at the RNA level. This proposition raises a number of as yet poorly characterised technical and biological variation issues that urgently need to be addressed. Here we report a quantitative assessment of methodological approaches for processing and extraction of RNA from small samples of infant whole blood and applying analysis of variation from biochip measurements. On the basis of testing and selection from a battery of assays we show that sufficient high quality RNA for analysis using multiplex array technology can be obtained from small neonatal samples. These findings formed the basis of implementing a set of robust clinical and experimental standard operating procedures for whole blood RNA samples from 58 infants. Modelling and analysis of variation between samples revealed significant sources of variation from the point of sample collection to processing and signal generation. These experiments further permitted power calculations to be run indicating the tractability and requirements of using changes in RNA expression profiles to detect different states between patient groups. Overall the results of our investigation provide an essential first step toward facilitating an alternative way for diagnosing infection from very small neonatal blood samples, providing methods and requirements for future chip-based studies.

  3. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Research Program (MIDRP) Insect Vector ControlDiagnostics Prevention Treatment Infectious diseases adversely impact military operations. Vaccines...appropriate treatment and aids commanders in the field. Most militarily relevant infectious diseases are transmitted by biting insects and other...based Insect Repellent (1946) Vaccines Protectants Antiparasitic Drugs Research Effort Advanced Development Fielded Products Malaria Rapid

  4. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  5. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  6. Molecular properties of human IgG subclasses and their implications for designing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Irani, Vashti; Guy, Andrew J; Andrew, Dean; Beeson, James G; Ramsland, Paul A; Richards, Jack S

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are being developed as therapeutics to complement drugs and vaccines or to fill the gap where no drugs or vaccines exist. These therapeutic antibodies (ThAb) may be especially important for infectious diseases in which there is antibiotic resistance, toxin-mediated pathogenesis, or for emerging pathogens. The unique structure of antibodies determines the specific nature of the effector function, so when developing ThAb, the desired effector functions need to be considered and integrated into the design and development processes to ensure maximum efficacy and safety. Antibody subclass is a critical consideration, but it is noteworthy that almost all ThAb that are licenced or currently in development utilise an IgG1 backbone. This review outlines the major structural properties that vary across subclasses, how these properties affect functional immunity, and discusses the various approaches used to study subclass responses to infectious diseases. We also review the factors associated with the selection of antibody subclasses when designing ThAb and highlight circumstances where different subclass properties might be beneficial when applied to particular infectious diseases. These approaches are critical to the future design of ThAb and to the study of naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity.

  7. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  9. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  10. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host-Pathogen...

  11. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnership for Development of New Therapeutics Classes for select Viral and Bacterial...

  12. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnership for Development of New Therapeutics Classes for Select Viral and Bacterial...

  13. 77 FR 31628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  14. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  15. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  17. 78 FR 60294 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-10-01

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  18. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

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  19. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

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  20. 75 FR 65021 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-21

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  1. 76 FR 61719 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  2. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  3. 75 FR 49498 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  4. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  5. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed.

  6. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  7. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-14

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  8. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  9. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... healthcare linens, transporting medical specimens, disposing of medical waste, reprocessing medical equipment); maintaining, servicing or repairing medical equipment that is contaminated with infectious agents; conducting... laboratories (e.g., clinical, biomedical research, production laboratories) that result in...

  10. Infectious Disease Issues in Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel Neil; Miller, John Paul

    2017-03-01

    Infectious disease has a major impact on the health outcomes of underserved populations and is reported at significantly higher rates among these populations compared with the general population. Overcoming barriers and obstacles to health care access is key to addressing the disparity regarding the prevalence of infectious disease. Enhancing cultural competency and educating practitioners about underserved populations' basic health needs; optimizing health insurance for the underserved; increasing community resources; and improving access to comprehensive, continuous, compassionate, and coordinated health care are strategies for diminishing the burden of infectious disease in underserved populations.

  11. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  12. Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunisation Regimens Against Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunisation Regimens Against Infectious Diseases Susan Shahin and David Proll Human Protection and... diseases (such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV) has been hindered by the lack of effective immunisation strategies that induce the cellular arm of...different animal and disease models. Since several intracellular pathogens are considered potential biowarfare threats, the objective of this review

  13. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  14. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  15. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  16. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  17. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  18. Impact of infectious diseases on war.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2004-06-01

    Wartime epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and nonbelligerent states. This article summarizes the principal factors that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases in past wars and reviews the associated demographic losses in military and civil populations. Drawing on the detailed epidemiologic records for the United States Army, case studies of the spread of infectious diseases in relation to military mobilization are presented for the American Civil War, Spanish-American War,and World War I. The article concludes with a brief overview of infectious disease activity in high- and low-intensity conflicts of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

  19. Dendrimers--revolutionary drugs for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lazniewska, Joanna; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years innovative nanomolecules in a form of dendrimers have been gaining increasing interest. These compounds can be designed and modified in many ways giving a molecule which meets required expectations. For this reason dendrimers are the object of intensive studies in many fields of nanoscience including one of the most thriving--biomedicine. Numerous studies provide evidence that some dendrimers exhibit activities against many species/strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions. These types of dendritic nanostructures which are distinguished by antipathogenic properties and low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells may be potentially applied in medicine as novel drugs for various infectious diseases, especially those which are persistent, marked by high mortality rate, or untreatable. Dendrimers can exert their effect via different mechanisms of action, which are, in most cases, related to multivalency of the nanomolecule. The application of dendrimers is likely to be a breakthrough in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases which still beset humanity and may significantly improve the quality of people's life.

  20. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  1. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  2. 78 FR 31952 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., zhuqing.li@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical...

  3. 75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NHP Viral RNA Core. Date: September 27, 2010. Time... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  4. 76 FR 34086 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

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  5. 75 FR 6043 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  6. 78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 31, 2012. Melanie J....

  7. 78 FR 27409 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 77 FR 37422 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 14, 2012. Jennifer S....

  9. 75 FR 51280 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

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  10. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

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  11. 78 FR 25753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 26, 2013....

  12. 76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

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  13. 75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31, Room 4A30, Bethesda,...

  14. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  15. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date:...

  16. 77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., lr228v@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 78 FR 70065 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

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  19. Infectious disease emergencies in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kwitkowski, V E; Demko, S G

    1999-01-01

    Infectious disease emergencies can be described as infectious processes that, if not recognized and treated immediately, can lead to significant morbidity or mortality. These emergencies can present as common or benign infections, fooling the primary care provider into using more conservative treatment strategies than are required. This review discusses the pathophysiology, history and physical findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies for the following infectious disease emergencies: acute bacterial meningitis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, necrotizing soft tissue infections, toxic shock syndrome, food-borne illnesses, and infective endocarditis. Because most of the discussed infectious disease emergencies require hospital care, the primary care clinician must be able to judge when a referral to a specialist or a higher-level care facility is indicated.

  20. Infectious diseases and parasites of ratites.

    PubMed

    Shane, S M

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses infectious and parasitic disease conditions in the three ratite species. Diseases and parasitic conditions are reviewed in relation to etiology, transmission, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To ensure optimum reproduction and growth of birds on large production units, a veterinarian must understand management in relation to biosecurity and disease problems.

  1. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  2. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  3. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  4. Managed care and the infectious diseases specialist.

    PubMed

    Tice, A D; Slama, T G; Berman, S; Braun, P; Burke, J P; Cherney, A; Gross, P A; Harris, P; Reid-Hatton, M; Hoffman, R; Joseph, P; Lawton, S; Massanari, R M; Miller, Z I; Osheroff, W J; Poretz, D; Shalowitz, M; Simmons, B; Turner, J P; Wade, B; Nolet, B R

    1996-08-01

    There is growing demand to contain health care costs and to reassess the value of medical services. The traditional hospital, academic, and research roles of the infectious disease (ID) specialist are threatened, yet there is an increasing need for expertise because of growing antimicrobial resistance and emerging pathogens. Opportunities exist to develop and expand services for the care of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in infection control, epidemiology, outcomes research, outpatient intravenous therapy, and resource management. It is important for ID physicians to appreciate the principles involved in managed care and the areas in which ID services can be valuable. To be effective, physicians need to know about tools such as practice guidelines, physician profiling, outcomes monitoring, computerized information management, risk sharing, networking, and marketing, as well as related legal issues. With a positive attitude toward learning, application, and leadership, ID physicians can redefine their role and expand their services through managed care.

  5. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transition 2017 Hepatitis C Immunization Influenza Lyme Disease Zika Manage Your Practice Patient Care ID Physician Leadership ... Transition 2017 Hepatitis C Immunization Influenza Lyme Disease Zika Manage Your Practice Patient Care ID Physician Leadership ...

  6. Joint spatial analysis of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Held, Leonhard; Graziano, Giusi; Frank, Christina; Rue, Håvard

    2006-10-01

    A major obstacle in the spatial analysis of infectious disease surveillance data is the problem of under-reporting. This article investigates the possibility of inferring reporting rates through joint statistical modelling of several infectious diseases with different aetiologies. Once variation in under-reporting can be estimated, geographic risk patterns for infections associated with specific food vehicles may be discerned. We adopt the shared component model, proposed by Knorr-Held and Best for two chronic diseases and further extended by (Held L, Natario I, Fenton S, Rue H, Becker N. Towards joint disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005b; 14: 61-82) for more than two chronic diseases to the infectious disease setting. Our goal is to estimate a shared component, common to all diseases, which may be interpreted as representing the spatial variation in reporting rates. Additional components are introduced to describe the real spatial variation of the different diseases. Of course, this interpretation is only allowed under specific assumptions, in particular, the geographical variation in under-reporting should be similar for the diseases considered. In addition, it is vital that the data do not contain large local outbreaks, so adjustment based on a time series method recently proposed by (Held L, Höhle M, Hofmann M. A statistical framework for the analysis of multivariate infectious disease surveillance data. Statistical Modelling 2005a; 5: 187-99) is made at a preliminary stage. We will illustrate our approach through the analysis of gastrointestinal diseases notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin.

  7. Health systems perspectives – infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal’s first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  8. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...-2639, poeky@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  9. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

  10. The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    The projected global increase in the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases with climate change suggests a pending societal crisis. The subject is increasingly attracting the attention of health professionals and climate-change scientists, particularly with respect to malaria and other vector-transmitted human diseases. The result has been the emergence of a crisis discipline, reminiscent of the early phases of conservation biology. Latitudinal, altitudinal, seasonal, and interannual associations between climate and disease along with historical and experimental evidence suggest that climate, along with many other factors, can affect infectious diseases in a nonlinear fashion. However, although the globe is significantly warmer than it was a century ago, there is little evidence that climate change has already favored infectious diseases. While initial projections suggested dramatic future increases in the geographic range of infectious diseases, recent models predict range shifts in disease distributions, with little net increase in area. Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate.

  11. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Parra, J P; Kamil, M; Chakib, S O; Cope, S E

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases.

  12. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  13. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

  14. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  15. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  16. Infectious and zoonotic disease testing in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn

    2011-03-01

    Pet bird ownership and the veterinary diagnostic market for avian and exotic species testing have grown markedly during the past 20 years. Birds present with both unique infectious diseases and other diseases that are known to the human medical community, including aspergillosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydophilosis, and bornavirus infection, some of which have clear zoonotic implications. Although diagnostic testing for these avian infectious diseases has grown considerably and includes the newer technology of polymerase chain reaction as well as traditional serologic testing, guidelines for the use and interpretation of these tests and standardization of tests among veterinary laboratories remains an unmet challenge.

  17. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  18. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests.

  19. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  20. Use of telemedicine technologies in the management of infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Parmvir; Mackie, David; Varghese, Sunil; Cooper, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine technologies are rapidly being integrated into infectious diseases programs with the aim of increasing access to infectious diseases specialty care for isolated populations and reducing costs. We summarize the utility and effectiveness of telemedicine in the evaluation and treatment of infectious diseases patients. The use of telemedicine in the management of acute infectious diseases, chronic hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and active pulmonary tuberculosis is considered. We recapitulate and evaluate the advantages of telemedicine described in other studies, present challenges to adopting telemedicine, and identify future opportunities for the use of telemedicine within the realm of clinical infectious diseases.

  1. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  2. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  3. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus–positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P < 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants. PMID:26880782

  4. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain.

    PubMed

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants.

  5. Stability of infectious human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Florek, Dominik; Burmistrz, Michal; Potempa, Jan; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 and subsequent studies showed its worldwide distribution. Infection with this pathogen is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract diseases of mild to moderate severity. Furthermore, HCoV-NL63 is the main cause of croup in children. Within this study an optimal protocol for freeze-drying that allows safe and effective preservation of HCoV-NL63 infectious material was developed. Lyophilized virus preparations can be stored either at ambient temperature or at +4°C. In the latter case samples may be stored for at least two months. Surprisingly, conducted analysis showed that HCoV-NL63 virions are exquisitely stable in liquid media and can be stored also without preservatives at ambient temperature for up to 14 days.

  6. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  7. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, R.R.

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Langton, Tom E. S.

    2016-01-01

    There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease reports in the UK: that outbreaks were being reported more frequently, that climate change had altered the interaction between hosts and a previously widespread pathogen, and that disease was emerging due to spatial spread of a novel pathogen. Our analysis characterized localized spread from nearby ponds, consistent with amphibian dispersal, but also revealed a highly significant trend for elevated rates of additional outbreaks in localities with higher human population density—pointing to human activities in also spreading the virus. Phylogenetic analyses of pathogen genomes support the inference of at least two independent introductions into the UK. Together these results point strongly to humans repeatedly translocating ranaviruses into the UK from other countries and between UK ponds, and therefore suggest potential control measures. PMID:27683363

  9. DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Watts, A M; Kennedy, R C

    1999-08-01

    DNA immunisation represents a novel approach to vaccine and immunotherapeutic development. Injection of plasmid DNA encoding a foreign gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of the foreign gene products and the induction of an immune response within a host. This is relevant to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies when the foreign gene represents a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent demonstration by a number of laboratories that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against some infectious diseases and cancers provides support for the use of this approach. In this article, we attempt to present an informative and unbiased representation of the field of DNA immunisation. The focus is on studies that impart information on the development of vaccination strategies against a number of human and animal pathogens. Investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity induced by DNA immunisation highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to developing vaccines within a given system. A variety of systems in which DNA vaccination has resulted in the induction of protective immunity, as well as the correlates associated with these protective immune responses, will be described. Particular attention will focus on systems involving parasitic diseases. Finally, the potential of DNA immunisation is discussed as it relates to veterinary medicine and its role as a possible vaccine strategy against animal coccidioses.

  10. Infectious diseases in end-stage liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. These defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. Providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. Patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. There should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid samples and discussing possible causes with an infectious diseases consultant or a microbiology laboratory. These maneuvers will maximize therapy in patients at high risk for death due to infectious disease.

  11. Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

    1997-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

  12. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices.

  13. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-03-17

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good.

  14. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  15. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  16. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography Pap Tests Disability ... 3.9 million Source: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2011 Outpatient Department Summary Tables, table 10 [PDF ... Transmitted Diseases Viral hepatitis Whooping cough/Pertussis ...

  17. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Carla F.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  18. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  19. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  20. Waterborne infectious disease in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The incidence of waterborne typhoid fever and other intestinal infections in Britain since 1937 is reviewed. In the light of the current very low incidence of indigenous typhoid fever, it is suggested that the examination of relevant waterworks staff and prospective employees for carriage of the agents of potentially waterborne disease should be done selectively by appropriate laboratory tests only when indications for them are revealed by medical assessment. PMID:99473

  1. [Biotechnologic drugs and chemotherapy for infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Honorato, J

    2007-09-01

    Developments in biotechnology in recent years have enabled the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The agents obtained from these biotechnological procedures possess specific characteristics which significantly distinguish them from drugs obtained by chemical synthesis. These properties cover the entire development process, from investigation and production up to their administration to patients. The pharmokinetics of these preparations influence their administration routes and dosage regimens. The discovery of these drugs has led to major advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious processes which until very recently had no effective treatment. The investigation and production of these drugs requires the use of highly technical resources resulting in high costs and therefore a more expensive drug on the market compared to other drugs. Nevertheless, well documented pharmoeconomic studies show that the use of this type of drug for certain symptoms may be highly cost effective. This article includes some of the possible applications of biotechnology in the infectious disease field, although the current situation indicates that more detailed and broader applications may be elaborated on in ensuing issues. The future of these drugs in chemical therapy for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases is exceedingly promising and many of these drugs are currently under laboratory investigation, more so than those under development from a chemical synthesis approach.

  2. 78 FR 18355 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Operation of a Facility for Testing Malaria Vaccine in Human Subjects. Date: April 19, 2013....

  3. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members ... site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and contains official ...

  4. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  5. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases.

  6. Infectious Diseases Physician Compensation: An Improved Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jethro Trees; Lynch, John B.; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Trotman, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating physician compensation can be complicated because many factors now influence the ways in which physicians can be compensated. Infectious diseases (ID) specialists typically provide a wide array of services, ranging from patient care to administrative leadership. Compensation surveys from national organizations have produced results based on small samples and often are not congruent with ID physicians’ perceptions. In July of 2015, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) conducted a compensation survey to assess current compensation earned by the diverse ID specialists within its membership. Members of IDSA's Clinical Affairs Committee report the results from the 2015 IDSA Physician Compensation survey, with a particular focus on the findings from respondents who indicate “patient care” as their primary responsibility and present a discussion that compares and contrasts results against other survey data. PMID:27419159

  7. [Infectious diseases in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2009-01-01

    The fact that incidence of infectious diseases in Poland is quite stable and, as compared with many noninfectious diseases relatively better, should not lead to underestimation of the problem. Despite in many diseases long term trends indicate decreasing incidence, in some important diseases increase of incidence was noted. Significant decrease was noted in incidence of some diseases for which vaccination program was modified. It concerns mumps, Hib infections, and to some extend also pertussis. Serious problem remains with accumulated through several years high prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Also low vaccine coverage of influenza is a measure of weakness of prevention against this disease, which is one of the most important causes of job and school absence and despite low mortality, is one of important caused of increased mortality in winter season. Next important epidemiological problem cause bacterial and viral foodborne infections, which despite some improvement place Poland below average of EU. Also relative stabilization of the incidence of tuberculosis does not look good if compared with leading countries of EU. With HIV infections particular concern is brought by the number of late diagnoses and drastic decline of data on the probable risk factor of infection. Infectious diseases mortality in 2007 was 6.6/100,000 (3.5 in Podlaskie Voivodeship and 9.3 in Slaskie) and it was higher in cities (7.1) then in rural areas. As in previous years i man mortality (8.6) was higher then in women (4.9). Highest mortality from infectious diseases was noted among elderly people above 74 (30.6).

  8. 75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Date: April 30, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  9. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  10. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery. PMID:27802859

  11. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  12. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  13. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  14. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  15. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  16. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

  17. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  18. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  19. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  20. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  1. Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2014-09-12

    Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places.

  2. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  3. [These infectious diseases imported with food].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

    2008-10-01

    People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method.

  4. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority.

  5. The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

  6. Pathogenic factors in Candida biofilm-related infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirota, K; Yumoto, H; Sapaar, B; Matsuo, T; Ichikawa, T; Miyake, Y

    2017-02-01

    Candida albicans is a commonly found member of the human microflora and is a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various micro-organisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases. In addition, extracellular DNA (eDNA) also plays a crucial role in Candida biofilm formation and its structural integrity and induces the morphological transition from yeast to the hyphal growth form during C. albicans biofilm development. This review focuses on pathogenic factors such as eDNA in Candida biofilm formation and its ECM production and provides meaningful information for future studies to develop a novel strategy to battle infectious diseases elicited by Candida-formed biofilm.

  7. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

    1999-01-01

    Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10210687

  8. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  9. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  10. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed Central

    McSweegan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  11. Wild great apes as sentinels and sources of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, S; Leendertz, S A J; Gillespie, T R; Leendertz, F H

    2012-06-01

    Emerging zoonotic infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global health. This is especially true in relation to the great apes, whose close phylogenetic relationship with humans results in a high potential for microorganism exchange. In this review, we show how studies of the microorganisms of wild great apes can lead to the discovery of novel pathogens of importance for humans. We also illustrate how these primates, living in their natural habitats, can serve as sentinels for outbreaks of human disease in regions with a high likelihood of disease emergence. Greater sampling efforts and improvements in sample preservation and diagnostic capacity are rapidly improving our understanding of the diversity and distribution of microorganisms in wild great apes. Linking non-invasive diagnostic data with observational health data from great apes habituated to human presence is a promising approach for the discovery of pathogens of high relevance for humans.

  12. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage and

  13. 78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Drug Target Development and Validation for Antimicrobial Resistant Pathogens (R21/R33)....

  14. 77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships for Biodefense-- Diagnostics 2. Date: September 21, 2012. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 5:00...

  15. 77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Cooperative Study Group for Autoimmune Disease Prevention (UO1). Date: March 12-13, 2012. Time: 8... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  16. 78 FR 66026 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, October 15, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 15, 2013, 05:00 p.m.,...

  17. 77 FR 53206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., 301-594-1009, fdesilva@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and...

  18. 78 FR 75357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  19. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory...

  20. 78 FR 64964 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 23, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 24,...

  1. 78 FR 20933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...- 7616, 301-496-2550, pjackson@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy...

  2. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory...

  3. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., ec17w@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  4. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-402-1464. eb237e@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy...

  5. 77 FR 28396 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  6. 78 FR 65344 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 30, 2013, 9:00 a.m. to October 30, 2013,...

  7. 78 FR 64962 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 22, 2013,...

  8. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  9. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  10. 75 FR 36426 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...-402-3938. lr228v@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855,...

  11. 78 FR 65343 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to October 15,...

  12. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...-6891, poonb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855,...

  13. 78 FR 65348 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 31, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to November 1,...

  14. 78 FR 63998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  15. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@niaid.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  16. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  17. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care. PMID:1641446

  18. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care.

  19. Wild animals as reservoirs of infectious diseases in the UK.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R

    2002-03-01

    This review aims to illustrate the extent to which wildlife act as reservoirs of infectious agents that cause disease in domestic stock, pet and captive animals and humans. More than 40 agents are described. In the case of some of these, e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli O157 and malignant catarrhal fever, the current evidence is that wildlife either does not act as a reservoir or is of limited importance. However, in the case of many important diseases, including bovine tuberculosis, Weil's disease, Lyme disease, avian influenza, duck virus enteritis and louping ill, wild animals are considered to be the principal source of infection. Wildlife may be involved in the epidemiology of other major diseases, such as neosporosis, Johne's disease, mucosal disease and foot and mouth disease, but further studies are needed. The UK would benefit from a more positive approach to the study of wildlife and the infections they harbour.

  20. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  1. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  2. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  3. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  4. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-02-16

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts.

  5. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  6. Tracking the Remodeling of SNOMED CT's Bacterial Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Case, James T; Perl, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    SNOMED CT's content undergoes many changes from one release to the next. Over the last year SNOMED CT's Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy has undergone significant editing to bring consistent modeling to its concepts. In this paper we analyze the stated and inferred structural modifications that affected the Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy between the Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 SNOMED CT releases using a two-phased approach. First, we introduce a methodology for creating a human readable list of changes. Next, we utilize partial-area taxonomies, which are compact summaries of SNOMED CT's content and structure, to identify the "big picture" changes that occurred in the subhierarchy. We illustrate how partial-area taxonomies can be used to help identify groups of concepts that were affected by these editing operations and the nature of these changes. Modeling issues identified using our two-phase methodology are discussed.

  7. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  8. Eco-social processes influencing infectious disease emergence and spread.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Betson, Martha; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalization and urbanization, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.

  9. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  10. Assessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises.

    PubMed

    Sands, Peter; El Turabi, Anas; Saynisch, Philip A; Dzau, Victor J

    2016-11-12

    Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund's Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks.

  11. Temporally Varying Relative Risks for Infectious Diseases: Implications for Infectious Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Edward; Pitzer, Virginia E; O'Hagan, Justin J; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, although they are often modified by other, nontemporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent studies suggest that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection). Patterns of change in the age groups affected over the course of seasonal outbreaks can provide clues to the types of pathogens that could be responsible for diseases for which an infectious cause is suspected. Changing apparent efficacy of vaccines during trials may provide clues to the vaccine's mode of action and/or indicate risk heterogeneity in the trial population. Declining importance of unusual behavioral risk factors may be a signal of increased local transmission of an infection. We review these developments and the related public health implications.

  12. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  13. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  14. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  15. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  16. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis.

  17. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  18. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  19. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  20. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  1. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  2. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  3. 76 FR 3919 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  4. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  5. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... visit. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  6. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  7. Synthetic Biology-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics for Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting-Yen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-09-22

    Infectious diseases outpace all other causes of death in low-income countries, posing global health risks, laying stress on healthcare systems and societies, and taking an avoidable human toll. One solution to this crisis is early diagnosis of infectious disease, which represents a powerful way to optimize treatment, increase patient survival rate, and decrease healthcare costs. However, conventional early diagnosis methods take a long time to generate results, lack accuracy, and are known to seriously underperform with regard to fungal and viral infections. Synthetic biology offers a fast and highly accurate alternative to conventional infectious disease diagnosis. In this review, we outline obstacles to infectious disease diagnostics and discuss two emerging alternatives: synthetic viral diagnostic systems and biosensors. We argue that these synthetic biology-based approaches may overcome diagnostic obstacles in infectious disease and improve health outcomes.

  8. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  9. The bovine model for elucidating the role of γδ T cells in controlling infectious diseases of importance to cattle and humans.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Cynthia L; Telfer, Janice C

    2015-07-01

    There are several instances of co-investigation and related discoveries and achievements in bovine and human immunology; perhaps most interesting is the development of the BCG vaccine, the tuberculin skin test and the more recent interferon-gamma test that were developed first in cattle to prevent and diagnosis bovine tuberculosis and then applied to humans. There are also a number of immune-physiological traits that ruminant share with humans including the development of their immune systems in utero which increases the utility of cattle as a model for human immunology. These are reviewed here with a particular focus on the use of cattle to unravel γδ T cell biology. Based on the sheer number of γδ T cells in this γδ T cell high species, it is reasonable to expect γδ T cells to play an important role in protective immune responses. For that reason alone cattle may provide good models for elucidating at least some of the roles γδ T cells play in protective immunity in all species. This includes fundamental research on γδ T cells as well as the responses of ruminant γδ T cells to a variety of infectious disease situations including to protozoan and bacterial pathogens. The role that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) play in the activation of γδ T cells may be unique relative to αβ T cells. Here we focus on that of the γδ T cell specific family of molecules known as WC1 or T19 in ruminants, which are part of the CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) family that includes SCART1 and SCART2 expressed on murine γδ T cells. We review the evidence for WC1 being a PRR as well as an activating co-receptor and the role that γδ T cells bearing these receptors play in immunity to leptospirosis and tuberculosis. This includes the generation of memory responses to vaccines, thereby continuing the tradition of co-discovery between cattle and humans.

  10. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  11. Immune responses to infectious diseases in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Raftos, David

    2015-10-01

    Many species of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) are important in fisheries and aquaculture, whilst others are critical to ecosystem structure and function. These crucial roles mean that considerable attention has been paid to the immune responses of bivalves such as oysters, clams and mussels against infectious diseases that can threaten the viability of entire populations. As with many invertebrates, bivalves have a comprehensive repertoire of immune cells, genes and proteins. Hemocytes represent the backbone of the bivalve immune system. However, it is clear that mucosal tissues at the interface with the environment also play a critical role in host defense. Bivalve immune cells express a range of pattern recognition receptors and are highly responsive to the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns. Their responses to infection include chemotaxis, phagolysosomal activity, encapsulation, complex intracellular signaling and transcriptional activity, apoptosis, and the induction of anti-viral states. Bivalves also express a range of inducible extracellular recognition and effector proteins, such as lectins, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins, thioester bearing proteins, lipopolysaccharide and β1,3-glucan-binding proteins, fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and antimicrobial proteins. The identification of FREPs and other highly diversified gene families in bivalves leaves open the possibility that some of their responses to infection may involve a high degree of pathogen specificity and immune priming. The current review article provides a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, description of these factors and how they are regulated by infectious agents. It concludes that one of the remaining challenges is to use new "omics" technologies to understand how this diverse array of factors is integrated and controlled during infection.

  12. Spontaneous generation of infectious prion disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan-María; Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrP(C) causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrP(C) sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrP(C) sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrP(C) mutations.

  13. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  14. [Effectiveness of cefotaxime in pediatric infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Takimoto, M; Tasaki, T; Kusunoki, Y; Yoshioka, H; Hiramoto, A; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Maruyama, S; Mukai, N; Takahashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Cefotaxime (CTX) was administered to 117 pediatric patients. Although 26 of these patients were excluded from the clinical evaluation of the study because other antimicrobial agents were given concomitantly with CTX or because no infectious diseases were proved, these cases were evaluated for adverse effects of the drug. The remaining 91 cases were evaluated for clinical effect; pneumonia in 56 cases, septicemia in 5, suspected septicemia in 5, meningitis (aseptic cases included) in 3, urinary tract infection in 5 and other diseases in 17. No pathogenic organisms were identified in any of the pneumonia cases, even either by bacterial culture or other laboratory test methods. Pathogens of septicemia were E. coli in 3 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 and E. agglomerans in 1. Those of urinary tract infections were E. coli in 3 cases, a mixed infection of S. aureus and an unidentified species of Gram-negative rods in 1, and unknown in 1. Clinical effectiveness rates of CTX were 78.6% in pneumonia and 100% in septicemia, suspected septicemia and urinary tract infections. One patient with purulent meningitis caused by H. influenzae was also treated with CTX successfully. Adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 12 cases (12/117 = 10.3%); rash in 2 cases, vomiting in 1, abdominal pain in 1, diarrhea in 5, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in 1, eosinophilia in 3 and elevation of liver enzymes (GOT and LDH) in 1.

  15. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  16. Climate change and the geographic distribution of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua

    2009-12-01

    Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants, will be a major influence on human disease distributions are useful to help identify research needs but are probably artificially polarized. We have at least identified many of the critical geophysical constraints, transport opportunities, biotic requirements for some disease systems, and some of the socioeconomic factors that govern the process of migration and establishment of parasites and pathogens. Furthermore, we are beginning to develop a mechanistic understanding of many of these variables at specific sites. Better predictive understanding will emerge in the coming years from analyses regarding how these variables interact with each other.

  17. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  18. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  19. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  20. [Treatment of infectious diseases in al-Andalus].

    PubMed

    Casal, M T; Casal, M

    2004-12-01

    The treatment used in Islamic Spain, al-Andalus, for a number of infectious diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, gonococcal disease, diarrhea, smallpox, measles, parasitic diseases, etc., is reviewed briefly. The different remedies of plant, animal and mineral extracts employed by renowned physicians of the time, such as Isaac, Arib ibn Said, Abulcasis, al-Gafiqi and Averroes among others, are analyzed briefly to provide an understanding of the approach to the treatment of infectious diseases nowadays known to be caused by microorganisms.

  1. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-15

    and hepatitis. Leishmaniasis Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease transmitted to man by human-biting female phlebotomine sandflies . Many...develop in the gut of female sandflies and are transmitted to the vertebrate host during a blood meal. Promastigotes rapidly parasitize macrophages...The density of mosquitoes depends upon the environmental conditions. In the rainy weather, the temperature decreases and humidity increases, therefore

  2. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  3. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  4. Fatal Infectious Disease Surveillance in a Medical Examiner Database1

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Kurt B.; Yoon, Steven S.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing infectious disease deaths, the emergence of new infections, and bioterrorism have made surveillance for infectious diseases a public health concern. Medical examiners and coroners certify approximately 20% of all deaths that occur within the United States and can be a key source of information regarding infectious disease deaths. We hypothesized that a computer-assisted search tool (algorithm) could detect infectious disease deaths from a medical examiner database, thereby reducing the time and resources required to perform such surveillance manually. We developed two algorithms, applied them to a medical examiner database, and verified the cases identified against the opinion of a panel of experts. The algorithms detected deaths with infectious components with sensitivities from 67% to 94%, and predictive value positives ranging from 8% to 49%. Algorithms can be useful for surveillance in medical examiner offices that have limited resources or for conducting surveillance across medical examiner jurisdictions. PMID:15078596

  5. Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonds, Matthew H; Keenan, Donald C; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2010-04-22

    While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

  6. Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Matthew H.; Keenan, Donald C.; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization. PMID:20007179

  7. Unusual climatic conditions and infectious diseases: observations made by Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kosmidis, John; Daikos, George K

    2010-12-01

    About 2500 years ago, Hippocrates made noteworthy observations about the influence of climate on public health. He believed that people living in cities with different climate may suffer from different diseases. Hippocrates also observed that abrupt climatic changes or unusual weather conditions affect public health, especially the incidence and severity of various infectious diseases, including gastrointestinal infections, tuberculosis, and central nervous system infections. We believe that Hippocrates' scientific observations are great early historic examples that stress to modern infectious diseases researchers and clinicians the need to study intensively the effect of the occurring global climate changes to infectious diseases in order to help in the prevention of possible epidemics of infections.

  8. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S.; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  9. Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Fishman, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease transmission through organ and tissue transplantation has been associated with severe complications in recipients. Determination of donor-derived infectious risk associated with organ and tissue transplantation is challenging and limited by availability and performance characteristics of current donor epidemiologic screening (e.g., questionnaire) and laboratory testing tools. Common methods and standards for evaluating potential donors of organs and tissues are needed to facilitate effective data collection for assessing the risk for infectious disease transmission. Research programs can use advanced microbiological technologies to define infectious risks posed by pathogens that are known to be transplant transmissible and provide insights into transmission potential of emerging infectious diseases for which transmission characteristics are unknown. Key research needs are explored. Stakeholder collaboration for surveillance and research infrastructure is required to enhance transplant safety. PMID:22840823

  10. Aging and infectious diseases in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Herrmann, Francois; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2004-07-01

    Although demographic aging does not remain restricted to industrialized countries, the medical challenge arising from the aging population will be distinct in the developing world. This is particularly true with respect to infectious diseases, which have a distinct spectrum in the elderly population, as well as a greater overall relevance in the developing world. Tropical diseases have a specific presentation and epidemiology in elderly patients. Infectious diseases with a worldwide distribution impact elderly patients in the developing world in a specific manner, which is most obvious with respect to human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis but is also true with respect to "trivial" manifestations of infection, such as diarrhea and pneumonia. Malnutrition contributes in a major way to the immunodeficiency of elderly patients in the developing world. Poorly controlled use of antimicrobial drugs leads to multidrug-resistant microorganisms, which, together with the limited resources available for drug treatment, makes appropriate treatment of infections in elderly patients in developing countries very difficult. Infections in elderly patients will have an increasing impact on the public health and economy of developing countries.

  11. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: June 12, 2012..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11,...

  12. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID

  13. A disease management case study in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Wert, S M

    1996-01-01

    One of the earliest attempts at risk sharing between a managed-care organization and a pharmaceutical company is the infectious disease management program developed since late 1993 by Intergroup of Arizona and Eli Lilly and Company (Indianapolis, Indiana) in conjunction with the Center for Pharmaceutical Economics at The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona) and other entities. In the first phase of the program, protocols were built around eight infectious disease states, and it was recognized that second-line antibiotics were often prescribed when more economical first-line antibiotics would be equally effective. The second phase of the program emphasized developing treatment algorithms focused on patient outcomes, using merged medical and pharmacy claims databases to determine the effects of the antibiotic changes. To implement the program successfully, some significant shifts in corporate, medical, and patient mind-sets had to be addressed. A primary goal was to encourage a movement from a rebate, volume-driven, cost structure to a shared-risk, appropriate-use, reimbursement method in which both managed-care and the pharmaceutical company incentives could mesh as far as possible. Over the long term, it is hoped that this project will lay the groundwork for other disease management programs for high-impact, frequently occurring diseases.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity, nonlinear dynamics and chaos in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, B T; Kleczkowski, A; Gilligan, C A; Bolker, B M

    1995-06-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the role of nonlinear phenomena in the population dynamics of infectious diseases. Childhood diseases such as measles are particularly well documented dynamically, and have recently been the subject of analyses (of both models and notification data) to establish whether the pattern of epidemics is chaotic. Though the spatial dynamics of measles have also been extensively studied, spatial and nonlinear dynamics have only recently been brought together. The present review concentrates mainly on describing this synthesis. We begin with a general review of the nonlinear dynamics of measles models, in a spatially homogeneous environment. Simple compartmental models (specifically the SEIR model) can behave chaotically, under the influence of strong seasonal 'forcing' of infection rate associated with patterns of schooling. However, adding observed heterogeneities such as age structure can simplify the deterministic dynamics back to limit cycles. By contrast all current strongly seasonally forced stochastic models show large amplitude irregular fluctuations, with many more 'fadeouts' of infection that is observed in real communities of similar size. This indicates that (social and/or geographical) spatial heterogeneity is needed in the models. We review the exploration of this problem with nonlinear spatiotemporal models. The few studies to date indicate that spatial heterogeneity can help to increase the realism of models. However, a review of nonlinear analyses of spatially subdivided measles data show that more refinements of the models (particularly in representing the impact of human demographic changes on infection dynamics) are required. We conclude with a discussion of the implication of these results for the dynamics of infectious diseases in general and, in particular, the possibilities of cross fertilization between human disease epidemiology and the study of plant and animal diseases.

  15. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  16. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting...

  17. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  18. 78 FR 13678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  19. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  20. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  1. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  2. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  3. 75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  4. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Doc No: 2010-28581] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  5. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  6. 75 FR 66772 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  7. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air.

    PubMed

    Issarow, Chacha M; Mulder, Nicola; Wood, Robin

    2015-05-07

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by infectors contains airborne infectious particles that cause airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in confined spaces. Since not all infectious particles can reach the target infection site, we took into account that the infectious particles that commence the infection are determined by respiratory deposition fraction, which is the probability of each infectious particle reaching the target infection site of the respiratory tracts and causing infection. Furthermore, we compute the quantity of carbon dioxide as a marker of exhaled air, which can be inhaled in the room with high likelihood of causing airborne infectious disease given the presence of infectors. We demonstrated mathematically and schematically the correlation between TB transmission probability and airborne infectious particle generation rate, ventilation rate, average volume fraction of exhaled air, TB prevalence and duration of exposure to infectors in a confined space.

  8. Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk

  9. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  10. Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies (IFN-γ AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-γ AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-γ AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

  11. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  12. 76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  13. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  14. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 76 FR 8753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  17. 76 FR 21754 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Panel; Preclinical Services for the Development of Biopharmaceutical Products for Infectious Diseases... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  18. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  19. Nanotechnology and pulmonary delivery to overcome resistance in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fernanda; Rafael, Diana; Videira, Mafalda; Ferreira, Domingos; Sosnik, Alejandro; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Used since ancient times especially for the local treatment of pulmonary diseases, lungs and airways are a versatile target route for the administration of both local and systemic drugs. Despite the existence of different platforms and devices for the pulmonary administration of drugs, only a few formulations are marketed, partly due to physiological and technological limitations. Respiratory infections represent a significant burden to health systems worldwide mainly due to intrahospital infections that more easily affect immune-compromised patients. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic infectious disease in many developing nations and it has resurged in the developed world associated with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Currently, medicine faces the specter of antibiotic resistance. Besides the development of new anti-infectious drugs, the development of innovative and more efficient delivery systems for drugs that went off patent appears as a promising strategy pursued by the pharmaceutical industry to improve the therapeutic outcomes and to prolong the utilities of their intellectual property portfolio. In this context, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) emerged as a promising approach to circumvent the limitations of conventional formulations and to treat drug resistance, opening the hypothesis for new developments in this area.

  20. Nine challenges in incorporating the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases models.

    PubMed

    Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.

  1. Views towards infectious diseases shape control strategies. Behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    1999-02-08

    To successfully implement infectious disease control programs that rely on meaningful community participation, infection control strategies must consider the views of lay people about contagion, the extent to which diseases are considered infectious, and the relationship between these perceptions and preventive practices. Ethnographic studies in the Ivory Coast and Brazil have revealed that these interpretations involve empirical and analogical thinking, symbolic factors and social organization, concepts of person and body elements, ideas about natural and supernatural powers, and individual and contextual factors.

  2. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  3. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise. PMID:20224767

  4. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  5. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'.

  6. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  7. Land-use change and emerging infectious disease on an island continent.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Rosemary A; Sleigh, Adrian C; McMichael, Anthony J

    2013-06-28

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history--continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973-2010) and historical (1788-1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  8. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  9. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults.

  10. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Viboud, Cécile

    2012-12-07

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  11. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  12. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  13. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  14. In an interconnected world: joint research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Butler, Colin D; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-28

    In 2008 the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) commissioned ten think-tanks to work on disease-specific and thematic reference groups to identify top research priorities that would advance the research agenda on infectious diseases of poverty, thus contributing to improvements in human health. The first of the thematic reference group reports - on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty - was recently released. In this article we review, from an insider perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of this thematic reference group report and highlight key messages for policy-makers, funders and researchers.

  15. Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease research: the missing link?

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, N. D.; Escalante, A. A.; Karesh, W. B.; Kilbourn, A.; Spielman, A.; Lal, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance. PMID:9621185

  16. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  17. Biomarkers of endothelial activation/dysfunction in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrea V; Liles, W Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of potentially serious infectious diseases and syndromes, including sepsis and septic shock, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, severe malaria, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Because endothelial activation often precedes overt endothelial dysfunction, biomarkers of the activated endothelium in serum and/or plasma may be detectable before classically recognized markers of disease, and therefore, may be clinically useful as biomarkers of disease severity or prognosis in systemic infectious diseases. In this review, the current status of mediators of endothelial cell function (angiopoietins-1 and -2), components of the coagulation pathway (von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13, and thrombomodulin), soluble cell-surface adhesion molecules (soluble E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1), and regulators of vascular tone and permeability (VEGF and sFlt-1) as biomarkers in severe infectious diseases is discussed in the context of sepsis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, malaria, and dengue virus infection. PMID:23669075

  18. Examining the relationship between infectious diseases and flooding in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa; Murray, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many infectious diseases are sensitive to climatic changes; specifically, flooding. This systematic literature review aimed to strengthen the quality and completeness of evidence on infectious diseases following flooding, relevant to Europe. Methods A systematic literature review from 2004–2012 was performed. Focused searches of the following databases were conducted: Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Evidence Aid. Personal communications with key informants were also reviewed. Results Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence suggested that water-borne, rodent-borne, and vector-borne diseases have been associated with flooding in Europe, although at a lower incidence than developing countries. Conclusion Disease surveillance and early warning systems, coupled with effective prevention and response capabilities, can reduce current and future vulnerability to infectious diseases following flooding. PMID:28228994

  19. The evolution of sex-specific virulence in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Úbeda, Francisco; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fatality rates of infectious diseases are often higher in men than women. Although this difference is often attributed to a stronger immune response in women, we show that differences in the transmission routes that the sexes provide can result in evolution favouring pathogens with sex-specific virulence. Because women can transmit pathogens during pregnancy, birth or breast-feeding, pathogens adapt, evolving lower virulence in women. This can resolve the long-standing puzzle on progression from Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection to lethal Adult T-cell Leukaemia (ATL); a progression that is more likely in Japanese men than women, while it is equally likely in Caribbean women and men. We argue that breastfeeding, being more prolonged in Japan than in the Caribbean, may have driven the difference in virulence between the two populations. Our finding signifies the importance of investigating the differences in genetic expression profile of pathogens in males and females. PMID:27959327

  20. Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, A

    1996-01-01

    In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as antiinfective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens.

  1. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Natasha M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Wright, Scott M.; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186

  2. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-07

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  3. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  4. Molecular diagnostic assays for infectious diseases in cats.

    PubMed

    Veir, Julia K; Lappin, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    With the advent of more accessible polymerase chain reaction panels, the use of molecular techniques for the detection of infectious organisms has become more routine in veterinary medicine. The use of molecular diagnostics is best reserved for the detection of organisms that are difficult to detect or identify expediently. In this article, the fundamentals of molecular techniques are reviewed along with an examination of specific feline infectious diseases in which diagnosis via molecular techniques is advantageous.

  5. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  6. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  7. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B... 20892-7616, 301-451-7383, nancy.ernst@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: October...

  8. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  9. Infectious disease and the extreme sport athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Gottschlich, Laura M; Peterson, Charles S; Gammons, Matthew R

    2007-07-01

    Extreme sport competition often takes place in locations that may harbor atypical diseases. This article discusses infections that may be more likely to occur in the extreme sport athlete, such as selected parasitic infections, marine infections, freshwater-borne diseases, tick-borne disease, and zoonoses. Epidemiology, presentation, treatment, complications, and return-to-sport issues are discussed for each of these diseases.

  10. Connecting human behavior and infectious disease spreading. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Wang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination against measles is one of the great success stories of 20th century medicine. In the USA, before the introduction of the vaccine in 1963, three to four million adolescents were infected annually, around 500 died, around 5000 got serious complications (primarily encephalitis, swelling of the brain), and around 50,000 were hospitalized [7]. With the vaccine, measles virtually vanished and by 2000 it was declared extinct from the USA. This was, however, not the end of the story. There is still a small fraction of parents who do not let their children be vaccinated. The reasons vary-fear of side effects, an aversion of exposing children to something ;unnatural;, and a large number of other ideas. (For a non-academic account of the psychology of vaccination, we recommend Eula Biss's On Immunity[3].) The last few decades, anti-vaccination ideas have been spreading in social media and united people opposing vaccination into something of a movement [4]. In December 2014 there was a first larger outbreak (over 500 cases) of the century, centered around Disneyland (Anaheim, California) [10], and the anti-vaccination movement got much of the blame [4]. This example illustrates how ideas and opinions-that just like diseases are spreading over networks of people-can facilitate outbreaks. The reverse is, thankfully, more common-people, aware of an emerging outbreak, try to lower the chance of contagion by improving hygiene etc., which impedes the outbreak.

  11. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  12. Multinational Disease Surveillance Programs: Promoting Global Information Exchange for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varan, Aiden K.; Bruniera-Oliveira, Robson; Peter, Christopher R.; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Waterman, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border surveillance for emerging diseases such as Ebola and other infectious diseases requires effective international collaboration. We surveyed representatives from 12 multinational disease surveillance programs between January 2013 and April 2014. Our survey identified programmatic similarities despite variation in health priorities, geography, and socioeconomic context, providing a contemporary perspective on infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:26033019

  13. Multinational Disease Surveillance Programs: Promoting Global Information Exchange for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Varan, Aiden K; Bruniera-Oliveira, Robson; Peter, Christopher R; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Waterman, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    Cross-border surveillance for emerging diseases such as Ebola and other infectious diseases requires effective international collaboration. We surveyed representatives from 12 multinational disease surveillance programs between January 2013 and April 2014. Our survey identified programmatic similarities despite variation in health priorities, geography, and socioeconomic context, providing a contemporary perspective on infectious disease surveillance networks.

  14. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-12-22

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications.

  15. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  16. Seasonal Population Movements and the Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Buckee, Caroline O; Tatem, Andrew J; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2017-01-01

    National policies designed to control infectious diseases should allocate resources for interventions based on regional estimates of disease burden from surveillance systems. For many infectious diseases, however, there is pronounced seasonal variation in incidence. Policy-makers must routinely manage a public health response to these seasonal fluctuations with limited understanding of their underlying causes. Two complementary and poorly described drivers of seasonal disease incidence are the mobility and aggregation of human populations, which spark outbreaks and sustain transmission, respectively, and may both exhibit distinct seasonal variations. Here we highlight the key challenges that seasonal migration creates when monitoring and controlling infectious diseases. We discuss the potential of new data sources in accounting for seasonal population movements in dynamic risk mapping strategies.

  17. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  18. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found.

  19. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  20. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  1. Urbanisation and infectious diseases in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Alirol, Emilie; Getaz, Laurent; Stoll, Beat; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis

    2011-02-01

    The world is becoming urban. The UN predicts that the world's urban population will almost double from 3·3 billion in 2007 to 6·3 billion in 2050. Most of this increase will be in developing countries. Exponential urban growth is having a profound effect on global health. Because of international travel and migration, cities are becoming important hubs for the transmission of infectious diseases, as shown by recent pandemics. Physicians in urban environments in developing and developed countries need to be aware of the changes in infectious diseases associated with urbanisation. Furthermore, health should be a major consideration in town planning to ensure urbanisation works to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the future.

  2. Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

    2014-12-01

    Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases.

  3. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  4. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  5. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  6. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  7. The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance: A One Health Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Mmbuji, Peter; Karimuribo, Esron; Paweska, Janusz; Kambarage, Dominic; Neves, Luis; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Mweene, Aaron; Matee, Mecky

    2013-01-01

    Formed in 2008, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) is a One Health consortium of academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals. Operating in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries, its mission is to harness innovations in science and technology for improving southern Africa's capacity to detect, identify, monitor (DIM) and manage the risk posed by infectious diseases of humans, animals, and ecosystems. The consortium's major capacity development activities include a series of One Health-based Master of Science (MSc) courses and a five-year DIM-driven research program. Additionally, SACIDS organized Africa's first One Health conference, in July 2011. This paper describes these and other major activities that SACIDS has undertaken to improve infectious disease surveillance across southern Africa. The paper also describes the role and collaboration of SACIDS with other national, regional and international consortia/networks that share a vision and interest in promoting novel approaches to infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response. PMID:23362417

  8. The Southern African Centre for infectious disease surveillance: a one health consortium.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, Mark M; Mmbuji, Peter; Karimuribo, Esron; Paweska, Janusz; Kambarage, Dominic; Neves, Luis; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Mweene, Aaron; Matee, Mecky

    2013-01-01

    Formed in 2008, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) is a One Health consortium of academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals. Operating in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries, its mission is to harness innovations in science and technology for improving southern Africa's capacity to detect, identify, monitor (DIM) and manage the risk posed by infectious diseases of humans, animals, and ecosystems. The consortium's major capacity development activities include a series of One Health-based Master of Science (MSc) courses and a five-year DIM-driven research program. Additionally, SACIDS organized Africa's first One Health conference, in July 2011. This paper describes these and other major activities that SACIDS has undertaken to improve infectious disease surveillance across southern Africa. The paper also describes the role and collaboration of SACIDS with other national, regional and international consortia/networks that share a vision and interest in promoting novel approaches to infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response.

  9. Adenoviral vector-based strategies against infectious disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenoviral vectors are widely employed against infectious diseases or cancers, as they can elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses when they are armed with foreign genes as vaccine carriers, and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells when they are genetically modified for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics of adenovirus (Ad) and the latest development of Ad vector-based strategies for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases or cancers. Strategies to circumvent the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies which dampen the immunogenicity of Ad-based vaccines are also discussed. PMID:27105067

  10. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: the perpetual challenge.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S

    2005-12-01

    Public health officials once suggested that it might someday be possible to "close the book" on the study and treatment of infectious diseases. However, it is now clear that endemic diseases as well as newly emerging ones (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging ones (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax from bioterrorism) continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world. Over the past several decades, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has helped control many endemic diseases. But despite considerable progress, infectious diseases continue to present significant challenges as new microbial threats emerge and reemerge. HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, Marburg virus, and bioterrorism are examples of some of the emerging and reemerging threats. In responding to these ongoing challenges, a new paradigm in countermeasure development is needed. In the past, U.S. government-sponsored biomedical researchers have focused on basic research and concept development, leaving product development to the pharmaceutical industry. Increasingly, however, the government has become involved in more targeted countermeasure development efforts. In this regard, partnerships between government, industry, and academia are necessary as we struggle to maintain and update our armamentarium in the struggle to outwit the microbes that pose a never-ending threat to mankind.

  11. The role of exosomes in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Ghanezadeh, Faezeh

    2013-02-01

    An exosome is a nano vesicle that buds from the endosomal compartment; it is produced and released by all kinds of mammalian cells. This vesicle contains a variety of proteins, lipids, mRNAs and miRNAs. These components are specific to the origin of the exosomes and contribute to cell-cell communications. Recently, it has been reported that a few single cell eukaryotic pathogens such as Cryptoccoccus neoformance and Leishmania major and donovanican secrete an exosome and influence the host immune system. In addition, it has been observed that cells infected by intracellular pathogens are capable of secreting an exosome which is involved in the fate of the infection. Furthermore, retroviruses recruit the host`s endosomal compartments in order to generate viral vesicles which are similar to the exosome. Most of the exosomes involved in infectious biology can either spread or limit an infection based on the type of pathogen and its target cells. Hence, an exosome may be an appropriate candidate for a vaccine therapy in prophylaxis and treatment.

  12. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  13. Impact of genetic variations in C-C chemokine receptors and ligands on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Tabish; Khan, M Y

    2016-10-01

    Chemokine receptors and ligands are crucial for extensive immune response against infectious diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, HIV and tuberculosis and a wide variety of other diseases. Role of chemokines are evidenced in the activation and regulation of immune cell migration which is important for immune response against diseases. Outcome of disease is determined by complex interaction among pathogen, host genetic variability and surrounding milieu. Variation in expression or function of chemokines caused by genetic polymorphisms could be associated with attenuated immune responses. Exploration of chemokine genetic polymorphisms in therapeutic response, gene regulation and disease outcome is important. Infectious agents in human host alter the expression of chemokines via epigenetic alterations and thus contribute to disease pathogenesis. Although some fragmentary data are available on chemokine genetic variations and their contribution in diseases, no unequivocal conclusion has been arrived as yet. We therefore, aim to investigate the association of CCR5-CCL5 and CCR2-CCL2 genetic polymorphisms with different infectious diseases, transcriptional regulation of gene, disease severity and response to therapy. Furthermore, the role of epigenetics in genes related to chemokines and infectious disease are also discussed.

  14. [Epidemiological examples of infectious disease spread].

    PubMed

    Schlüter, H; Kramer, M

    2001-08-01

    The globalisation of trade with animals and animal products and increase of travel transports are very important issues with respect to prevent and control animal diseases or epizootics respectively. The disease control concepts as a complex manner should be established on scientific basis and must be permanently evaluated and updated. Outbreak investigations in order to clarify the source of infection and/or the spread of animal diseases including zoonoses are important fields of activities of veterinary epidemiologists. The application of modern epidemiological methods is the precondition of a successful disease control. On selected examples of animal diseases, the use of these methods is demonstrated. It is urgently necessary to intensify the epidemiological work in applied research and practice.

  15. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society's investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention.

  16. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  17. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  18. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  19. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Mark Eakin, C; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K; Hofmann, Eileen E; Petes, Laura E; Prager, Katherine C; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L; Ford, Susan E; Harvell, C Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked for other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  20. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  1. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  3. [Climate changes and emerging diseases. What new infectious diseases and health problem can be expected?].

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J

    2009-07-01

    Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases.

  4. Cutaneous infectious diseases: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Jinna, Sphoorthi; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Sloan, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The changes in immune response that occur with age play a significant role in disease presentation and patient management. Evolution of the innate and adaptive immune systems throughout life, influenced partly by hormonal changes associated with puberty, plays a role in the differences between pediatric and adult response to disease. We review a series of manifestations of dermatologic infectious diseases spanning bacterial, viral, and fungal origins that can be seen in both pediatric and adult age groups and highlight similarities and differences in presentation and disease course. Therapeutic options are also discussed for these infectious diseases, with particular attention to variations in management between these population subgroups, given differences in pharmacokinetics and side effect profiles.

  5. Integration and visualization of host–pathogen data related to infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Timothy; Gabbard, Joseph L.; Mao, Chunhong; Dalay, Oral; Shukla, Maulik; Freifeld, Clark C.; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Brownstein, John S.; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Infectious disease research is generating an increasing amount of disparate data on pathogenic systems. There is a growing need for resources that effectively integrate, analyze, deliver and visualize these data, both to improve our understanding of infectious diseases and to facilitate the development of strategies for disease control and prevention. Results: We have developed Disease View, an online host–pathogen resource that enables infectious disease-centric access, analysis and visualization of host–pathogen interactions. In this resource, we associate infectious diseases with corresponding pathogens, provide information on pathogens, pathogen virulence genes and the genetic and chemical evidences for the human genes that are associated with the diseases. We also deliver the relationships between pathogens, genes and diseases in an interactive graph and provide the geolocation reports of associated diseases around the globe in real time. Unlike many other resources, we have applied an iterative, user-centered design process to the entire resource development, including data acquisition, analysis and visualization. Availability and Implementation: Freely available at http://www.patricbrc.org; all major web browsers supported. Contact: cmao@vbi.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21712250

  6. Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

  7. Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Bartonella species have been identified as zoonotic pathogens, transmitted by animal bites, scratches, arthropods and even by needle sticks. Considering the diversity of newly discovered Bartonella species and subspecies and the large number and ecologically diverse animal reservoir hosts and the evolving spectrum of arthropod vectors that can transmit these bacteria among animals and humans, the clinical and diagnostic challenges posed by Bartonella transmission in nature are presumably much more complex than is currently appreciated by diagnosticians, vector biologists, ecologists, physicians, or veterinarians. Historically the term "bartonellosis" was attributed to infections with Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by sandflies in the Peruvian Andes. Currently, however, bartonellosis now includes infections caused by any Bartonella sp. anywhere in the world. Potentially, because Bartonella spp. can infect erythrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34(+) progenitor cells, and various macrophage-type cells, including microglial cells, dendritic cells, and circulating monocytes in vitro, the clinical and pathological manifestations of bartonellosis appear to be very diverse in both sick animals and human patients. Because 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, many of which are vector-transmitted by an arthropod, a One Health approach to bartonellosis and other zoonotic infections is needed to properly address animal health, public health, and environmental factors that influence the distribution and transmission of these bacteria. The One Health concept encourages a spirit of cooperation among animal, environmental, and human health professionals and promotes developing integrated solutions for complex problems that impact the health of animals, humans, and the planet. Importantly, substantial research is needed to define the medical importance of this genus as a cause of animal and human illnesses.

  8. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  9. Beyond immunization: travelers' infectious diseases. 1--Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Travelers' diarrhea is the most common illness in persons traveling from resource-rich to resource-poor regions of the world. The fear of developing diarrhea while traveling is common among travelers to any part of the developing world. This concern is realistic; 40 to 60% of travelers to these countries may develop diarrhea. Diarrheal diseases represent one of the five leading causes of death worldwide. Morbidity and mortality are significant even in the United States where diarrhea is more often than not a "nuisance disease" in the normally healthy individual.

  10. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  11. Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

  12. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  13. [Molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases - a primer for general internists].

    PubMed

    Tarr, Philip; Frei, Reno

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA amplification in the early nineties has revolutionized diagnosis of infectious diseases and has provided many fundamental insights regarding their epidemiology and clinical presentation. Compared to serology, PCR-based diagnosis may be more specific and sensitive, and may allow earlier diagnosis. Adequate patient specimens are important. Depending on the clinical setting, PCR amplification can be performed on blood samples, other clinical specimens or directly on histopathologic specimens. PCR detection of pathogen DNA is used to confirm serologic screening tests and to diagnose infections due to pathogens that are difficult to grow in culture. With chronically persistent agents, PCR may allow differentiation between clinically irrelevant and relevant infection. Suppression of viral DNA or RNA is a standard read-out of the efficacy of antiviral agents used to treat chronic hepatitis B, C, or HIV infection. Infectious disease consultation may be useful for interpretation of results. Genetic testing is increasingly being performed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (MRSA, antitubercular treatment) and may in the future contribute to prediction of the host response to infectious disease and of antiretroviral toxicity. Increased future use of PCR-based diagnosis of infectious diseases is likely, based on increasingly automated and multiplex PCR technology.

  14. [Application of artificial neural networks in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-fang; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2011-02-28

    With the development of information technology, artificial neural networks has been applied to many research fields. Due to the special features such as nonlinearity, self-adaptation, and parallel processing, artificial neural networks are applied in medicine and biology. This review summarizes the application of artificial neural networks in the relative factors, prediction and diagnosis of infectious diseases in recent years.

  15. Complete genome assemblies and methylome characterization in infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic basis of infectious diseases is a critical component to effective treatments. Because of the rapid evolution of bacterial strains and frequent horizontal transfer of DNA between them, resequencing of new isolates against known reference strains often provides an incomplete ...

  16. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  17. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  18. Motorcycles, Cell Phones, and Electricity Can Dramatically Change the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-30

    Some observations and recent publications demonstrated, particularly in Africa, the potential influence that low - cost motorcycles, cell phones, and even widespread electrification could have on the evolution of infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. Our reflections support the conclusion that we should focus on the real - time surveillance systems including alerting systems leading to a rapid and flexible response rather than the strongly limited modeling of infectious diseases because of the continuous evolution of microorganisms, as well as changes in the environment and human habits that are unpredictable.

  19. [What changes were introduced by the new law concerning infectious diseases for patients with tuberculosis?].

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2015-01-01

    In July 2012, the act on preventing and counteracting infections and infectious diseases in humans was amended. Many changes concerning duties of physicians looking after patients with tuberculosis were proposed. Particularly important is the requirement of written certification by patients that they were notified by the physician of the obligation to undergo antituberculous treatment. It is also essential that the national sanitary inspector be notified as to which health-care institution the patient with tuberculosis was referred to for treatment, and also about an evasion of antituberculous therapy by the patient. Many paragraphs concerning the control of infectious diseases were formulated more precisely.

  20. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  1. 78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  2. Global climate anomalies and potential infectious disease risks: 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that impacts human infectious disease risk worldwide through droughts, floods, and other climate extremes. Throughout summer and fall 2014, El Niño Watch, issued by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrat...

  3. 75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Evolution of Coronavirus Pathogens. Date: June 15, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  4. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  5. 76 FR 371 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... ] evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  6. 78 FR 24224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the AIDS Research Advisory...

  7. 75 FR 13558 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... 20892-7601, 301-435-3732. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855,...

  8. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  9. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  10. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  11. 75 FR 48977 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., 301-435-3732. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  12. 78 FR 65346 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Allergy,...

  13. 75 FR 19981 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  14. 76 FR 6628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856... Panel; Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Centers. Date: March 9-11, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  15. Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, B. M.; Gupta, J. P.; Pandey, D. P.; Parmar, G. A.; Chaudhari, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne’s disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNA2D1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA­-DRB3.2 alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cells, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically

  16. Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, B M; Gupta, J P; Pandey, D P; Parmar, G A; Chaudhari, J D

    2017-01-01

    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne's disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNA2D1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA--DRB3.2 alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cells, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically

  17. Metagenomics: A New Way to Illustrate the Crosstalk between Infectious Diseases and Host Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Lun, Cheuk-Yin; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

    2015-01-01

    Microbes have co-evolved with human beings for millions of years. They play a very important role in maintaining the health of the host. With the advancement in next generation sequencing technology, the microbiome profiling in the host can be obtained under different circumstances. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the alteration of complex microbial communities upon the infection of different pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, at different body sites. It is believed that the increased understanding of the correlation between infectious disease and the alteration of the microbiome can contribute to better management of disease progression in the future. However, future studies may need to be more integrative so as to establish the exact causality of diseases by analyzing the correlation between microorganisms within the human host and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. PMID:26540050

  18. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.

  19. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  20. Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard precautions Silence the Sounds of Pertussis ... Read more and watch the videos. One day in May, eight families affected by vaccine preventable diseases gathered in a small studio in New Jersey to share their stories, with the hope ...