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Sample records for human infectious diseases

  1. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  2. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  3. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  4. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  5. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  6. Global rise in human infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine F.; Goldberg, Michael; Rosenthal, Samantha; Carlson, Lynn; Chen, Jane; Chen, Cici; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the change in frequency of infectious disease outbreaks over time worldwide, we encoded and analysed a novel 33-year dataset (1980–2013) of 12 102 outbreaks of 215 human infectious diseases, comprising more than 44 million cases occuring in 219 nations. We merged these records with ecological characteristics of the causal pathogens to examine global temporal trends in the total number of outbreaks, disease richness (number of unique diseases), disease diversity (richness and outbreak evenness) and per capita cases. Bacteria, viruses, zoonotic diseases (originating in animals) and those caused by pathogens transmitted by vector hosts were responsible for the majority of outbreaks in our dataset. After controlling for disease surveillance, communications, geography and host availability, we find the total number and diversity of outbreaks, and richness of causal diseases increased significantly since 1980 (p < 0.0001). When we incorporate Internet usage into the model to control for biased reporting of outbreaks (starting 1990), the overall number of outbreaks and disease richness still increase significantly with time (p < 0.0001), but per capita cases decrease significantly (p = 0.005). Temporal trends in outbreaks differ based on the causal pathogen's taxonomy, host requirements and transmission mode. We discuss our preliminary findings in the context of global disease emergence and surveillance. PMID:25401184

  7. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  8. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  9. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  10. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  11. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... washing also helps protect you from most infectious diseases. Symptoms Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. General ... person who passes the germ may have no symptoms of the disease, but may simply be a carrier. Animal to ...

  12. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  13. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R A

    2001-06-29

    Since time immemorial animals have been a major source of human infectious disease. Certain infections like rabies are recognized as zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission. Others like measles became independently sustained with the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its animal progenitor. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Epidemics of recent animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some retroviruses jump into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they oscillate between being inherited Mendelian traits or infectious agents in different species. Will new procedures like animal-to-human transplants unleash further infections? Do microbes become more virulent upon cross-species transfer? Are animal microbes a threat as biological weapons? Will the vast reservoir of immunodeficient hosts due to the HIV pandemic provide conditions permissive for sporadic zoonoses to take off as human-to-human transmissible diseases? Do human infections now pose a threat to endangered primates? These questions are addressed in this lecture.

  14. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  15. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chastain, Daniel B; King, Travis S; Stover, Kayla R

    2016-01-01

    Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

  16. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Elinor K; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2014-06-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology.

  17. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  18. Human genome variability, natural selection and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-10-01

    The recent availability of large-scale sequencing DNA data allowed researchers to investigate how genomic variation is distributed among populations. While demographic factors explain genome-wide population genetic diversity levels, scans for signatures of natural selection pinpointed several regions under non-neutral evolution. Recent studies found an enrichment of immune-related genes subjected to natural selection, suggesting that pathogens and infectious diseases have imposed a strong selective pressure throughout human history. Pathogen-mediated selection often targeted regulatory sites of genes belonging to the same biological pathway. Results from these studies have the potential to identify mutations that modulate infection susceptibility by integrating a population genomic approach with molecular immunology data and large-scale functional annotations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2016-01-01

    The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.

  20. Recurrent infectious diseases in human CD53 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Mollinedo, F; Fontán, G; Barasoain, I; Lazo, P A

    1997-01-01

    We report a familiar syndrome of recurrent heterogeneous infectious diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which has as its only detectable defect the lack of CD53 antigen expression in neutrophils. All other assays ruled out known causes of recurrent infectious diseases due to either leukocyte adhesion or phagocytosis defects. CD53 belongs to the transmembrane-4 superfamily of proteins, which are a novel group of membrane proteins implicated in growth regulation and cell motility and possibly cell adhesion. We postulate that defects in these membrane proteins can be clinically manifested as complex recurrent infections. PMID:9067662

  1. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases. PMID:19729848

  3. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  4. [Mice are not Men and yet… how humanized mice inform us about human infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Cachat, Anne; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    The study of human pathologies is often limited by the absence of animal models which are robust, cost-effective and reproduce the hallmarks of human infections. While mice have been frequently employed to study human diseases, many of important pathogens display unique human tropism. These last two decades the graft of human progenitor cells or tissues into -immunodeficient mice has allowed the elaboration of so called humanized mice. Humanized mouse technology has made rapid progress, and it is now possible to achieve high levels of human chimerism in various organs and tissues, particularly the immune system and the liver. The review briefly summarizes the different models of humanized mice available for in vivo experiments. With a focus on lymphotropic, monocytotropic and hepatotropic viruses, we here discuss the current status and future prospects of these models for studying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Furthermore, they provide a powerful tool for the development of innovative therapies.

  5. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

  6. A genome-wide perspective of human diversity and its implications in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Manry, Jérémy; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Progress in genomic technologies, such as DNA arrays and next-generation sequencing, is allowing systematic characterization of the degree of human genetic variation at the scale of individual genomes. Public efforts, such as the International HapMap Project and the 1000 Genomes Project, have provided a realistic picture of the levels of genetic diversity in individuals and populations. These genomic techniques are also making it possible to evaluate the contribution of host genetic diversity to differences in susceptibility to both rare and common infectious diseases. Recent studies have revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing for dissecting the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe, rare infectious diseases. Likewise, genome-wide association studies on common viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections have shed light on the host genetic basis of susceptibility to infectious diseases and, in some cases, of disease progression and drug responses.

  7. [Renaissance of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gładysz, Andrzej; Fleischer-Stepniewska, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us--humans.

  8. Human infectious disease burdens decrease with urbanization but not with biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; McInturff, Alex; Young, Hillary S; Kim, DoHyung; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2017-06-05

    Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet380, 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationships between DALYs lost to infectious disease and potential demographic, economic, environmental and biotic drivers, for the 60 intermediate-sized countries where data were available and comparable. Most drivers had unique associations with each disease. For example, temperature was positively associated with some diseases and negatively associated with others, perhaps due to differences in disease agent thermal optima, transmission modes and host species identities. Biodiverse countries tended to have high disease burdens, consistent with the expectation that high diversity of potential hosts should support high disease transmission. Contrary to the dilution effect hypothesis, increases in biodiversity over time were not correlated with improvements in human health, and increases in forestation over time were actually associated with increased disease burden. Urbanization and wealth were associated with lower burdens for many diseases, a pattern that could arise from increased access to sanitation and healthcare in cities and increased investment in healthcare. The importance of urbanization and wealth helps to explain why most infectious diseases have become less burdensome over the past three decades, and points to possible levers for further progress in improving global public health.This article is part

  9. Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Funk, Sebastian; Salathé, Marcel; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-09-06

    Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour on the spread of diseases can be key to improving control efforts. While behavioural responses to the spread of a disease have often been reported anecdotally, there has been relatively little systematic investigation into how behavioural changes can affect disease dynamics. Mathematical models for the spread of infectious diseases are an important tool for investigating and quantifying such effects, not least because the spread of a disease among humans is not amenable to direct experimental study. Here, we review recent efforts to incorporate human behaviour into disease models, and propose that such models can be broadly classified according to the type and source of information which individuals are assumed to base their behaviour on, and according to the assumed effects of such behaviour. We highlight recent advances as well as gaps in our understanding of the interplay between infectious disease dynamics and human behaviour, and suggest what kind of data taking efforts would be helpful in filling these gaps.

  10. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  11. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  12. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

    2013-03-19

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing.

  13. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  14. Bedbugs and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Pascal; Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-15

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

  15. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  16. Coupled microbial and human systems: evidence for a relationship between infectious disease and gross national product.

    PubMed

    Bromage, T G

    2009-01-01

    We provide evidence that maternal metabolic energy is diverted to increased birth rates in nations experiencing high infectious disease risk. The "economic stoichiometry" of such situations limits the availability and distribution of metabolic resources available for national production. Lowering disease risk, and thus the metabolic energy required for replacement human biomass production, makes energy available for national production during the demographic transition, and increases the national GDP.

  17. Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Bernin, Hannah; Lotter, Hanna

    2014-07-15

    Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions. To date, only very few studies conducted have fulfilled these criteria. Herein, we introduce tropical infectious diseases, including amebiasis, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, in which hormones are suspected to play a role in disease processes. We summarize the most recent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and from hormone replacement studies in animal models, as well as data regarding the influence of hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  19. Coupling infectious diseases, human preventive behavior, and networks--a conceptual framework for epidemic modeling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Human-disease interactions involve the transmission of infectious diseases among individuals and the practice of preventive behavior by individuals. Both infectious diseases and preventive behavior diffuse simultaneously through human networks and interact with one another, but few existing models have coupled them together. This article proposes a conceptual framework to fill this knowledge gap and illustrates the model establishment. The conceptual model consists of two networks and two diffusion processes. The two networks include: an infection network that transmits diseases and a communication network that channels inter-personal influence regarding preventive behavior. Both networks are composed of same individuals but different types of interactions. This article further introduces modeling approaches to formulize such a framework, including the individual-based modeling approach, network theory, disease transmission models and behavioral models. An illustrative model was implemented to simulate a coupled-diffusion process during an influenza epidemic. The simulation outcomes suggest that the transmission probability of a disease and the structure of infection network have profound effects on the dynamics of coupled-diffusion. The results imply that current models may underestimate disease transmissibility parameters, because human preventive behavior has not been considered. This issue calls for a new interdisciplinary study that incorporates theories from epidemiology, social science, behavioral science, and health psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. In 2006, MIDAS ...

  1. Human infectious disease burdens decrease with urbanization but not with biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; McInturff, Alex; Young, Hillary S.; Kim, DoHyung; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    nfectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al. 2012 Lancet 380, 2197–2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationships between DALYs lost to infectious disease and potential demographic, economic, environmental and biotic drivers, for the 60 intermediate-sized countries where data were available and comparable. Most drivers had unique associations with each disease. For example, temperature was positively associated with some diseases and negatively associated with others, perhaps due to differences in disease agent thermal optima, transmission modes and host species identities. Biodiverse countries tended to have high disease burdens, consistent with the expectation that high diversity of potential hosts should support high disease transmission. Contrary to the dilution effect hypothesis, increases in biodiversity over time were not correlated with improvements in human health, and increases in forestation over time were actually associated with increased disease burden. Urbanization and wealth were associated with lower burdens for many diseases, a pattern that could arise from increased access to sanitation and healthcare in cities and increased investment in healthcare. The importance of urbanization and wealth helps to explain why most infectious diseases have become less burdensome over the past three decades, and points to possible levers for further progress in improving global public health.

  2. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  3. Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. J.; Lindsay, D. S.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are indigenous in many countries in the world. These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. In Canada, an outbreak of trichinellosis was linked to the consumption of wild boar meat. The incidence of tuberculosis owing to Mycobacterium bovis has increased in wild boars, thus posing a potential concern for infections in livestock and humans. It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. This article discusses the prevalence and risk of infectious agents in wild boars and their potential transmission to livestock and humans. PMID:19687039

  4. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  5. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control. PMID:27526868

  6. Insights into the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases through empirical human contact networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunlin; Liu, Xingwu; Sun, Shiwei; Li, Shuai Cheng; Deng, Minghua; He, Guangxue; Zhang, Haicang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Yanlin; Bu, Dongbo

    2016-08-16

    In this study, we present representative human contact networks among Chinese college students. Unlike schools in the US, human contacts within Chinese colleges are extremely clustered, partly due to the highly organized lifestyle of Chinese college students. Simulations of influenza spreading across real contact networks are in good accordance with real influenza records; however, epidemic simulations across idealized scale-free or small-world networks show considerable overestimation of disease prevalence, thus challenging the widely-applied idealized human contact models in epidemiology. Furthermore, the special contact pattern within Chinese colleges results in disease spreading patterns distinct from those of the US schools. Remarkably, class cancelation, though simple, shows a mitigating power equal to quarantine/vaccination applied on ~25% of college students, which quantitatively explains its success in Chinese colleges during the SARS period. Our findings greatly facilitate reliable prediction of epidemic prevalence, and thus should help establishing effective strategies for respiratory infectious diseases control.

  7. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  8. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  9. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  10. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  12. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  13. Gene Therapy Approaches to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Cannon, Paula M

    2017-10-01

    Advances in gene therapy technologies, particularly in gene editing, are suggesting new avenues for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and other infectious diseases. This article outlines recent developments in antiviral gene therapies, including those based on the disruption of entry receptors or that target viral genomes using targeted nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In addition, new ways to express circulating antiviral factors, such as antibodies, and approaches to harness and engineer the immune system to provide an antiviral effect that is not naturally achieved are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tai-You

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

  15. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. PMID:22346770

  16. Atypical memory B cells in human chronic infectious diseases: An interim report.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Silvia; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Moir, Susan; Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K

    2017-07-11

    Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments. A common feature of these diseases appears to be a large expansion of what have been termed exhausted B cells, tissue-like memory B cells or atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) that, for simplicity's sake, we refer to here as aMBCs. It has been suggested that chronic immune activation and inflammation drive the expansion of aMBCs and that in some way aMBCs contribute to deficiencies in the acquisition of immunity in chronic infectious diseases. Although aMBCs are heterogeneous both within individuals and between diseases, they have several features in common including low expression of the cell surface markers that define classical MBCs in humans including CD21 and CD27 and high expression of genes not usually expressed by classical MBCs including T-bet, CD11c and a variety of inhibitory receptors, notably members of the FcRL family. Another distinguishing feature is their greatly diminished ability to be stimulated through their B cell receptors to proliferate, secrete cytokines or produce antibodies. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the phenotypic markers of aMBCs, their specificity in relation to the disease-causing pathogen, their functionality, the drivers of their expansion in chronic infections and their life span. We briefly summarize the features of a

  17. Dynamics of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology--the SIS and SIR type models--before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  18. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  19. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Development of an Antimicrobial Stewardship-based Infectious Diseases Elective that Incorporates Human Patient Simulation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design an elective for pharmacy students that facilitates antimicrobial stewardship awareness, knowledge, and skill development by solving clinical cases, using human patient simulation technology. Design. The elective was designed for PharmD students to describe principles and functions of stewardship programs, select, evaluate, refine, or redesign patient-specific plans for infectious diseases in the context of antimicrobial stewardship, and propose criteria and stewardship management strategies for an antimicrobial class at a health care institution. Teaching methods included active learning and lectures. Cases of bacterial endocarditis and cryptococcal meningitis were developed that incorporated human patient simulation technology. Assessment. Forty-five pharmacy students completed an antimicrobial stewardship elective between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes were assessed using student perceptions of and performance on rubric-graded assignments. Conclusion. A PharmD elective using active learning, including novel cases conducted with human patient simulation technology, enabled outcomes consistent with those desired of pharmacists assisting in antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID:25386016

  1. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  2. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meentemeyer, Ross K; Haas, Sarah E; Václavík, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: Our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales, whereas pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macroscale lens of landscape ecology, enabling examination of disease across spatiotemporal scales in complex environmental settings. We review the state of the field and describe analytical frontiers that show promise for advancement, focusing on natural and human-altered ecosystems. Concepts fundamental to practicing landscape epidemiology are discussed, including spatial scale, static versus dynamic modeling, spatially implicit versus explicit approaches, selection of ecologically meaningful variables, and inference versus prediction. We highlight studies that have advanced the field by incorporating multiscale analyses, landscape connectivity, and dynamic modeling. Future research directions include understanding disease as a component of interacting ecological disturbances, scaling up the ecological impacts of disease, and examining disease dynamics as a coupled human-natural system.

  3. Biobanking and translation of human genetics and genomics for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Branković, Ivan; Malogajski, Jelena; Morré, Servaas A

    2014-06-01

    Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the integration of genome-based knowledge into clinical practice. It also examines various networks and biobanks that specialize in infectious diseases (including HIV, HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis), and provides examples of successful research and clinical uptake stemming from these biobanks. Finally, it outlines key issues with respect to data privacy in infectious disease genomics, as well as the utility of adequately designed and maintained electronic health records. We maintain that the public should be able to easily access a clear and detailed outline of regulations and procedures for sample and data utilization by academic or commercial investigators, and also should be able to understand the precise roles of relevant governing bodies. This would ultimately facilitate uptake by researchers and clinics. As a result of the efforts and resources invested by several networks and consortia, there is an increasing awareness of the prospective uses of biobanks in advancing infectious disease genomic research, diagnostics and their clinical management.

  4. Infectious Diseases: An Ethical Challenge for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Edward J

    2017-02-01

    Infectious diseases are different. Not only are there more of them than other types of disease, but also more is known about them. Of all human afflictions, those that can be cured are, for the most part, infectious diseases. The outstanding authors contributing to the Symposium on Infectious Diseases in Medicine provide a big-picture perspective relevant to physicians practicing in every specialty of medicine.

  5. The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Johanna F.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating viruses are more common among the emerging pathogens. The climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate changes and environmental changes, such as increased irrigation. This review lists the factors within pathogens that make them prone to emergence, and the modes of transmission that are affected. The anthropogenic changes contributing to disease emergence are described, as well as how they directly and indirectly cause either increased numbers of susceptible or exposed individuals, or cause increased infectivity. Many actions may have multiple direct or indirect effects, and it may be difficult to assess what the consequences may be. In addition, most anthropogenic drivers are related to desired activities, such as logging, irrigation, trade, and travelling, which the society is requiring. It is important to research more about the indirect and direct effects of the different actions to understand both the benefits and the risks. PMID:26615822

  6. The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Johanna F; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating viruses are more common among the emerging pathogens. The climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate changes and environmental changes, such as increased irrigation. This review lists the factors within pathogens that make them prone to emergence, and the modes of transmission that are affected. The anthropogenic changes contributing to disease emergence are described, as well as how they directly and indirectly cause either increased numbers of susceptible or exposed individuals, or cause increased infectivity. Many actions may have multiple direct or indirect effects, and it may be difficult to assess what the consequences may be. In addition, most anthropogenic drivers are related to desired activities, such as logging, irrigation, trade, and travelling, which the society is requiring. It is important to research more about the indirect and direct effects of the different actions to understand both the benefits and the risks.

  7. TLR4 polymorphisms, infectious diseases, and evolutionary pressure during migration of modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Ferwerda, Bart; McCall, Matthew B. B.; Alonso, Santos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Izagirre, Neskuts; Syafruddin, Din; Kibiki, Gibson; Cristea, Tudor; Hijmans, Anneke; Hamann, Lutz; Israel, Shoshana; ElGhazali, Gehad; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Kumpf, Oliver; Maiga, Boubacar; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; van Crevel, Reinout; Brunner, Han G.; Oh, Djin-Ye; Schumann, Ralf R.; de la Rúa, Concepcion; Sauerwein, Robert; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Ven, André J. A. M.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Genetic and functional studies are compatible with a model in which the nonsynonymous polymorphism Asp299Gly has evolved as a protective allele against malaria, explaining its high prevalence in subSaharan Africa. However, the same allele could have been disadvantageous after migration of modern humans into Eurasia, putatively because of increased susceptibility to severe bacterial infections. In contrast, the Asp299Gly allele, when present in cosegregation with Thr399Ile to form the Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile haplotype, shows selective neutrality. Polymorphisms in TLR4 exemplify how the interaction between our innate immune system and the infectious pressures in particular environments may have shaped the genetic variations and function of our immune system during the out-of-Africa migration of modern humans. PMID:17925445

  8. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  9. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY... exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore... your request to: (781) 674-7200, and label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder...

  10. Controlling Infectious Diseases in Nurseries

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1968-01-01

    At least 300 publications have been written about non-infectious and infectious diseases of tree seedlings. I will outline some of the progress that is being made in finding ways to control infectious diseases, those caused by pathogens. I will touch upon pre- and post-emergence damping-off, root rots, leaf spots, and fusiform rust, which are the most serious diseases...

  11. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  12. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Sarah E. Haas; Tomas. Vaclavik

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: Our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales, whereas pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the...

  13. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Sarah Haas; Tomáš Václavík

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales while pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macro-scale lens...

  14. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  15. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Howes, Rosalind E; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W; Dowell, Scott F; Farag, Tamer H; Garcia, Andres J; Kimball, Ann M; Krause, L Kendall; Smith, Craig H; Brooker, Simon J; Kyu, Hmwe H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moyes, Catherine L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited.

  16. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Gordon L.; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542

  17. European monitoring systems and data for assessing environmental and climate impacts on human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-04-09

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  18. [Liver diseases of infectious aetiology].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P

    2007-01-01

    Review article is dealing with the problems of infectious diseases of the liver. Attention is paid to the basic infectious agents, jaundice accompanying infectious diseases and focal infections of the liver. Specific infections of the liver are supplemented by brief pathological and anatomical characteristics.

  19. Platelets in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Elizabeth; Rondina, Matthew T

    2016-12-02

    Sepsis is a dynamic, acute, infectious disease syndrome characterized by dysregulated thrombo-inflammatory responses. The high mortality associated with sepsis has been recognized since the earliest clinicians' writings. Despite this, advances in the treatment of sepsis have been more modest. This is limited, in part, by the heterogeneity in the definition, population, presentation, and causal factors of infectious syndromes. Given the persistently high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, a better understanding of the dysregulated cellular biology underpinning sepsis is needed. Platelets are small, anucleate cells that have hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune-mediating properties. Platelets are the second most common circulating blood cell, and emerging evidence suggests that platelets serve as sentinel and effector cells during infectious syndromes. Nevertheless, the molecular and functional changes that occur in platelets during sepsis, and their impact on the clinical course of infected patients, remain incompletely understood. In this review, we first highlight the complex and dynamic pathophysiology characteristics of acute, systemic infections and we then discuss established and emerging evidence of the roles of platelets in sepsis. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  20. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  1. Infectious disease and worldwide declines of amphibian populations, with comments on emerging diseases in coral reef organisms and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, C

    2000-01-01

    Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated. PMID:10698730

  2. Infectious disease and worldwide declines of amphibian populations, with comments on emerging diseases in coral reef organisms and in humans.

    PubMed

    Carey, C

    2000-03-01

    Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated.

  3. Dynamics of endemic infectious diseases of animal and human importance on three dairy herds in the northeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endemic infectious diseases in dairy cattle are of significant concern to the industry as well as for public health due to their potential impact on animal and human health, milk and meat production, food safety, and economics. We sought to provide insight into the dynamics of important endemic infe...

  4. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  5. Relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human TLR genes to infectious and inflammatory diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Trejo-de la O, A; Hernández-Sancén, P; Maldonado-Bernal, C

    2014-04-01

    Innate and adaptive immune responses in humans have evolved as protective mechanisms against infectious microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the recognition of invading microorganisms. TLRs are the first receptors to detect potential pathogens and to initiate the immune response, and they form the crucial link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs also have an important role in the pathophysiology of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Increasing data suggest that the ability of certain individuals to respond properly to TLR ligands may be impaired by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TLR genes, resulting in an altered susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory disease that might contribute to the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as cancer. The associations between diseases and SNPs are in the early stage of discovery. Important clinical insights are emerging, and these polymorphisms provide new understanding of common diseases. This review summarizes and discusses the studies that shed light on the relevance of these polymorphisms in human infectious and inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  6. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  7. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed thalassogenic--caused by the sea. Until recently these human health effects have been viewed primarily as local phenomena, not generally included in the world agenda of marine scientists dealing with global marine pollution problems. The massive global scale of the problem can be visualized when one considers that the wastewater and human body wastes of a significant portion of the world's population who reside along the coastline or in the vicinity of the sea are discharged daily, directly or indirectly, into the marine coastal waters, much of it with little or no treatment. Every cubic metre of raw domestic wastewater discharged into the sea can carry millions of infectious doses of pathogenic microorganisms. It is estimated that globally, foreign and local tourists together spend some 2 billion man-days annually at coastal recreational resorts and many are often exposed there to coastal waters polluted by wastewater. Annually some 800 million meals of potentially contaminated filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves and other sea foods, harvested in polluted waters are consumed, much of it raw or lightly steamed. A number of scientific studies have shown that swimmers swallow significant amounts of polluted seawater and can become ill with gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases from the pathogens they ingest. Based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) and academic research sources the present study has made an estimate that globally, each year, there are in excess of 120 million cases of gastrointestinal disease and in excess of 50 million cases of more severe respiratory diseases caused by swimming and

  8. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  9. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  10. Microparticles and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

    2012-08-01

    Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  12. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shuman, E K

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  13. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  14. The return of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  15. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  16. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Human Immune...

  17. Gene Therapy for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bunnell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy is being investigated as an alternative treatment for a wide range of infectious diseases that are not amenable to standard clinical management. Approaches to gene therapy for infectious diseases can be divided into three broad categories: (i) gene therapies based on nucleic acid moieties, including antisense DNA or RNA, RNA decoys, and catalytic RNA moieties (ribozymes); (ii) protein approaches such as transdominant negative proteins and single-chain antibodies; and (iii) immunotherapeutic approaches involving genetic vaccines or pathogen-specific lymphocytes. It is further possible that combinations of the aforementioned approaches will be used simultaneously to inhibit multiple stages of the life cycle of the infectious agent. PMID:9457428

  18. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Disease...

  19. Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-05-01

    Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. Such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. Classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Other important causes include canine distemper virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline infectious peritonitis virus; rickettsial organisms that infect leukocytes; Leishmania; and fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus. Considerable research effort has been invested in understanding the mechanisms of pathogen-induced immunosuppression, with the hope that effective therapies may be developed that reverse the immunodeficiencies developed and in turn assist the host to clear persistent or life-threatening infectious diseases.

  20. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  1. Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Ross D E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  2. Using GPS Technology to Quantify Human Mobility, Dynamic Contacts and Infectious Disease Dynamics in a Resource-Poor Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Bisanzio, Donal; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C.; Elder, John P.; Ramirez-Paredes, Jhon; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    Empiric quantification of human mobility patterns is paramount for better urban planning, understanding social network structure and responding to infectious disease threats, especially in light of rapid growth in urbanization and globalization. This need is of particular relevance for developing countries, since they host the majority of the global urban population and are disproportionally affected by the burden of disease. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers to track the fine-scale (within city) mobility patterns of 582 residents from two neighborhoods from the city of Iquitos, Peru. We used ∼2.3 million GPS data-points to quantify age-specific mobility parameters and dynamic co-location networks among all tracked individuals. Geographic space significantly affected human mobility, giving rise to highly local mobility kernels. Most (∼80%) movements occurred within 1 km of an individual’s home. Potential hourly contacts among individuals were highly irregular and temporally unstructured. Only up to 38% of the tracked participants showed a regular and predictable mobility routine, a sharp contrast to the situation in the developed world. As a case study, we quantified the impact of spatially and temporally unstructured routines on the dynamics of transmission of an influenza-like pathogen within an Iquitos neighborhood. Temporally unstructured daily routines (e.g., not dominated by a single location, such as a workplace, where an individual repeatedly spent significant amount of time) increased an epidemic’s final size and effective reproduction number by 20% in comparison to scenarios modeling temporally structured contacts. Our findings provide a mechanistic description of the basic rules that shape human mobility within a resource-poor urban center, and contribute to the understanding of the role of fine-scale patterns of individual movement and co-location in infectious disease dynamics. More generally, this study emphasizes the need

  3. Using GPS technology to quantify human mobility, dynamic contacts and infectious disease dynamics in a resource-poor urban environment.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Bisanzio, Donal; Stoddard, Steven T; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C; Elder, John P; Ramirez-Paredes, Jhon; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Scott, Thomas W; Kitron, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    Empiric quantification of human mobility patterns is paramount for better urban planning, understanding social network structure and responding to infectious disease threats, especially in light of rapid growth in urbanization and globalization. This need is of particular relevance for developing countries, since they host the majority of the global urban population and are disproportionally affected by the burden of disease. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers to track the fine-scale (within city) mobility patterns of 582 residents from two neighborhoods from the city of Iquitos, Peru. We used ∼2.3 million GPS data-points to quantify age-specific mobility parameters and dynamic co-location networks among all tracked individuals. Geographic space significantly affected human mobility, giving rise to highly local mobility kernels. Most (∼80%) movements occurred within 1 km of an individual's home. Potential hourly contacts among individuals were highly irregular and temporally unstructured. Only up to 38% of the tracked participants showed a regular and predictable mobility routine, a sharp contrast to the situation in the developed world. As a case study, we quantified the impact of spatially and temporally unstructured routines on the dynamics of transmission of an influenza-like pathogen within an Iquitos neighborhood. Temporally unstructured daily routines (e.g., not dominated by a single location, such as a workplace, where an individual repeatedly spent significant amount of time) increased an epidemic's final size and effective reproduction number by 20% in comparison to scenarios modeling temporally structured contacts. Our findings provide a mechanistic description of the basic rules that shape human mobility within a resource-poor urban center, and contribute to the understanding of the role of fine-scale patterns of individual movement and co-location in infectious disease dynamics. More generally, this study emphasizes the need for

  4. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  5. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  6. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  7. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...OSHA requests information and comment on occupational exposure to infectious agents in settings where healthcare is provided, (e.g., hospitals, outpatient clinics, clinics in schools and correctional facilities), and healthcare-related settings (e.g., laboratories that handle potentially infectious biological materials, medical examiner offices and mortuaries). OSHA is interested in strategies that are being used in such healthcare and other healthcare-related work settings to mitigate the risk of occupationally-acquired infectious diseases. As such, OSHA would like to collect information and data on the facilities and the tasks potentially exposing workers to this risk; successful employee infection control programs; control methodologies being utilized (including engineering, work practice, and administrative controls and personal protective equipment); medical surveillance programs; and training. OSHA will use the information received in response to this request to determine what action, if any, the Agency may take to further limit the spread of occupationally- acquired infectious diseases in these types of settings.

  8. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  9. Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches.

  11. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Marta; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Desole, Giovanna; Berto, Alessandro; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance. PMID:26184286

  12. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society.

  13. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  14. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  15. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  16. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  17. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  18. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  19. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-05-13

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  20. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-11

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  1. 76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  3. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Therapeutics for Neurotropic Biodefense Toxins...

  4. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  5. 78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 76 FR 53691 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

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  7. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  8. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-01-21

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  9. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

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    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation... Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety'' (EID public... of risk from, and prioritization of response to, emerging infectious diseases relevant to blood...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeting Inflammation and Immune Activations in... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September 24, 2012. David Clary...

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  17. 76 FR 9030 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

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  18. 78 FR 19276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

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  20. 78 FR 23771 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

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  1. 76 FR 56206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

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  2. 75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

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  3. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

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  4. 78 FR 13360 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

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  5. 77 FR 8269 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

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  6. 76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...

  7. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  8. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  9. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  10. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Statement of the Advisory Committee of Immunizations on behalf of the Chilean Infectious Diseases Society. September 2008].

    PubMed

    Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Vergara, Rodrigo; Luchsinger, Vivian; Muñoz, Alma; Jiménez de la J, Jorge; Ripoll, Erna; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated diseases globally and in Chile, and the scientific information of the licensed HPV vaccines: Gardasil and Cervari. Considering the available information, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases recommends vaccination of teenage girls, ideally before initiating sexual activity, i.e., approximately at the age of 12 to 13 years and vaccination of women of any age if they have not started sexual activity. If women are vaccinated after initiating sexual activity, they should be informed of the lower efficacy of immunization if HPV infection has occurred. Education on responsible sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases should be maintained as a priority. Vaccination should be highly considered for inclusion in the National Immunization Program.

  11. Agricultural Applications for Antimicrobials. A Danger to Human Health: An Official Position Statement of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Samuel L; Dilworth, Thomas J; Heil, Emily L; Nailor, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture, particularly in food-producing animals, is pervasive and represents the overwhelming majority of antibiotic use worldwide. The link between antibiotic use in animals and antibiotic resistance in humans is unequivocal. Transmission can occur by ingesting undercooked meats harboring resistant bacteria, by direct contact of animals by animal handlers, and by various other means. Antibiotics used in aquaculture and antifungals used in horticulture are also an evolving threat to human health. Regulations aimed at decreasing the amount of antibiotics used in food production to limit the development of antibiotic resistance have recently been implemented. However, further action is needed to minimize antibiotic use in agriculture. This article describes the extent of this current problem and serves as the official position of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists on this urgent threat to human health.

  12. Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Sally F; Rook, Graham AW; Scott, Elizabeth A; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanwell-Smith, Rosalind; Turner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To review the burden of allergic and infectious diseases and the evidence for a link to microbial exposure, the human microbiome and immune system, and to assess whether we could develop lifestyles which reconnect us with exposures which could reduce the risk of allergic disease while also protecting against infectious disease. Methods: Using methodology based on the Delphi technique, six experts in infectious and allergic disease were surveyed to allow for elicitation of group judgement and consensus view on issues pertinent to the aim. Results: Key themes emerged where evidence shows that interaction with microbes that inhabit the natural environment and human microbiome plays an essential role in immune regulation. Changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure, rapid urbanisation, altered diet and antibiotic use have had profound effects on the human microbiome, leading to failure of immunotolerance and increased risk of allergic disease. Although evidence supports the concept of immune regulation driven by microbe–host interactions, the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ is a misleading misnomer. There is no good evidence that hygiene, as the public understands, is responsible for the clinically relevant changes to microbial exposures. Conclusion: Evidence suggests a combination of strategies, including natural childbirth, breast feeding, increased social exposure through sport, other outdoor activities, less time spent indoors, diet and appropriate antibiotic use, may help restore the microbiome and perhaps reduce risks of allergic disease. Preventive efforts must focus on early life. The term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ must be abandoned. Promotion of a risk assessment approach (targeted hygiene) provides a framework for maximising protection against pathogen exposure while allowing spread of essential microbes between family members. To build on these findings, we must change public, public health and professional perceptions about the microbiome and about

  13. Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Sally F; Rook, Graham Aw; Scott, Elizabeth A; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanwell-Smith, Rosalind; Turner, Paul

    2016-07-01

    To review the burden of allergic and infectious diseases and the evidence for a link to microbial exposure, the human microbiome and immune system, and to assess whether we could develop lifestyles which reconnect us with exposures which could reduce the risk of allergic disease while also protecting against infectious disease. Using methodology based on the Delphi technique, six experts in infectious and allergic disease were surveyed to allow for elicitation of group judgement and consensus view on issues pertinent to the aim. Key themes emerged where evidence shows that interaction with microbes that inhabit the natural environment and human microbiome plays an essential role in immune regulation. Changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure, rapid urbanisation, altered diet and antibiotic use have had profound effects on the human microbiome, leading to failure of immunotolerance and increased risk of allergic disease. Although evidence supports the concept of immune regulation driven by microbe-host interactions, the term 'hygiene hypothesis' is a misleading misnomer. There is no good evidence that hygiene, as the public understands, is responsible for the clinically relevant changes to microbial exposures. Evidence suggests a combination of strategies, including natural childbirth, breast feeding, increased social exposure through sport, other outdoor activities, less time spent indoors, diet and appropriate antibiotic use, may help restore the microbiome and perhaps reduce risks of allergic disease. Preventive efforts must focus on early life. The term 'hygiene hypothesis' must be abandoned. Promotion of a risk assessment approach (targeted hygiene) provides a framework for maximising protection against pathogen exposure while allowing spread of essential microbes between family members. To build on these findings, we must change public, public health and professional perceptions about the microbiome and about hygiene. We need to restore public

  14. How to find and access information on emerging infectious diseases: Chapter 7 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesenberg, Katherine; Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, and continuing today, there has been a global emergence and resurgence of infectious disease of humans and other species. The “exotic” nature and serious consequences of many of these diseases results in media attention and public interest, in addition to the scientific exploration and efforts associated with combating these diseases. Finding and accessing information about diseases and keeping informed about current events and new discoveries is a daunting task because of the diversity of information sources and the great volume of published materials. This chapter provides guidance for effectively traveling the information highway and efficiently negotiating the information maze.

  15. [Infectious bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Tiemann, A H; Krenn, V; Krukemeyer, M G; Seyfert, C; Jakobs, M; Baumhoer, D; Hofmann, G O

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial infection of the bone is a severe disease with complications, potentially including long-term physical disability. The diagnosis and therapy of osteomyelitis include several elements: histopathology, microbiology, radiologic imagining, as well as antibiotic and surgical therapy. Histopathologists differentiate between acute osteomyelitis (infiltration of cancellous bone with neutrophil granulocytes); specific osteomyelitis (epithelioid-like granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis, mycotic infections); primary/secondary chronic osteomyelitis (lymphocytic infiltration); and special forms of chronic osteomyelitis (varying histomorphology, Brodie abscess, SAPHO syndrome). Another important task in the histopathological diagnosis of inflammatory bone diseases is to differentiate osteomyelitis from malignant entities (sarcoma, lymphoma). Therefore, biopsy samples should be of sufficient size for safe diagnosis. Clinical information and imaging as well as interdisciplinary teamwork between radiologists, microbiologists, orthopedic surgeons and pathologists is mandatory to verify these diagnoses.

  16. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hughes, David

    2014-04-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health.

  17. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  18. Infectious disease and boxing.

    PubMed

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  19. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  20. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  1. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Operationalising Factors That Explain the Emergence of Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the Human Campylobacteriosis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Norval J. C.; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance) to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990–2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990–2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future. PMID:24278127

  3. Operationalising factors that explain the emergence of infectious diseases: a case study of the human campylobacteriosis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Norval J C; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C J; Forbes, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance) to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990-2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990-2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future.

  4. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  5. 76 FR 5596 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  6. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  7. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  8. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  9. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases. PMID:28286767

  10. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  11. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

    1996-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for

  12. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease.

  13. Eradicating infectious disease using weakly transmissible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nuismer, Scott L; Althouse, Benjamin M; May, Ryan; Bull, James J; Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom

    2016-10-26

    Viral vaccines have had remarkable positive impacts on human health as well as the health of domestic animal populations. Despite impressive vaccine successes, however, many infectious diseases cannot yet be efficiently controlled or eradicated through vaccination, often because it is impossible to vaccinate a sufficient proportion of the population. Recent advances in molecular biology suggest that the centuries-old method of individual-based vaccine delivery may be on the cusp of a major revolution. Specifically, genetic engineering brings to life the possibility of a live, transmissible vaccine. Unfortunately, releasing a highly transmissible vaccine poses substantial evolutionary risks, including reversion to high virulence as has been documented for the oral polio vaccine. An alternative, and far safer approach, is to rely on genetically engineered and weakly transmissible vaccines that have reduced scope for evolutionary reversion. Here, we use mathematical models to evaluate the potential efficacy of such weakly transmissible vaccines. Our results demonstrate that vaccines with even a modest ability to transmit can significantly lower the incidence of infectious disease and facilitate eradication efforts. Consequently, weakly transmissible vaccines could provide an important tool for controlling infectious disease in wild and domestic animal populations and for reducing the risks of emerging infectious disease in humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Will the damage be done before we feel the heat? Infectious disease emergence and human response.

    PubMed

    Kock, R A

    2013-12-01

    The global political economy is facing extreme challenges against a backdrop of large-scale expansion of human and domestic animal populations and related impacts on the biosphere. Significant global socio-ecological changes have occurred in the period of a single lifetime, driven by increased technology and access to physical and biological resources through open markets and globalization. Current resource consumption rates are not sustainable and ecological tipping points are being reached and one of the indicators of these may be a changing balance between hosts and pathogens. A period of extraordinary progress in reducing infection risk and disease impact on humans and domestic animals in the 20th Century is reversing in the 21st, but not always and not everywhere. Drivers for this shift are discussed in terms of demographics, agroecology, biodiversity decline and loss of resilience in ecosystems, climate change and increasing interconnectedness between species globally. Causality of disease emergence remains highly speculative, but patterns and data are emerging to commend a precautionary approach, while reassessing our global political, social and economic systems.

  15. Infectious Disease and National Security: Strategic Information Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    reemerging diseases once thought to be in decline. The world now faces the threat of a human influenza pandemic aris- ing from the recently emerged...avian influenza H5N1 virus. It has been increasingly recognized that infectious disease can have significant effects on U.S. and world security...Infectious Disease Threat: Avian Influenza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Responses

  16. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  17. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  18. Dynamics of endemic infectious diseases of animal and human importance on three dairy herds in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A K; Van Kessel, J S; Karns, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Hovingh, E; Nelen, K A; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Fyock, T; Ladely, S; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Schukken, Y H

    2009-04-01

    Endemic infectious diseases in dairy cattle are of significant concern to the industry as well as for public health because of their potential impact on animal and human health, milk and meat production, food safety, and economics. We sought to provide insight into the dynamics of important endemic infectious diseases in 3 northeastern US dairy herds. Fecal samples from individual cows and various environmental samples from these farms were tested for the presence of major zoonotic pathogens (i.e., Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria) as well as commensal bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Additionally, the presence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was tested in fecal and serum samples from individual cows. Test results and health and reproductive records were maintained in a database, and fecal, plasma, DNA, and tissue samples were kept in a biobank. All bacteria of interest were detected on these farms and their presence was variable both within and between farms. The prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in individual fecal samples within farm A ranged from 0 to 68.2% and 0 to 25.5%, respectively, over a period of 3 yr. Within farm B, continuous fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. was observed with a prevalence ranging from 8 to 88%; Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serotype. Farm C appeared less contaminated with Salmonella and Listeria, although in the summer of 2005, 50 and 19.2% of fecal samples were positive for Listeria and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The high prevalence of E. coli (89 to 100%), Enterococcus (75 to 100%), and Campylobacter (0 to 81%) in feces suggested they were ubiquitous throughout the farm environment. Fecal culture and ELISA results indicated a low prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in these farms (0 to 13.6% and 0 to 4.9% for culture-positive and ELISA-positive, respectively), although the occasional presence of high shedders was observed. Results have major

  19. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  20. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Bocaviruses 1-4 in Pediatric Patients with Various Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Zhu, Runan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Huijin; Liu, Liying; Jia, Liping; Zhao, Linqing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Viral infections caused by human bocaviruses 1–4 (HBoV1-4) are more complicated than previously believed. A retrospective, large-scale study was undertaken to explore the prevalence of HBoV1-4 in pediatric patients with various infectious diseases and delineate their phylogenetic characteristics. Methods Clinical samples from four specimen types, including 4,941 respiratory, 2,239 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 2,619 serum, and 1,121 fecal specimens, collected from pediatric patients with various infectious diseases were screened for HBoV1-4. A 690-nt fragment in each specimen was then amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Clinical characteristics of HBoV-positive patients with different specimen types available were evaluated. Results Approximately 1.2% of patients were confirmed as HBoV-positive, with the highest positive rate in patients with gastrointestinal infection (2.2%), followed by respiratory (1.65%), central nervous system (0.8%), and hematological infections (0.2%). A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 circulated among children over the 8-year period, while a new cluster of HBoV2, via intra-genotype recombination between HBoV2A and HBoV2B, was prevalent. Some patients had HBoV1-positive respiratory and serum specimens or fecal specimens. Several cases became HBoV1-positive following the appearance of respiratory infection, while several cases were positive for HBoV2 only in CSF and serum specimens, rather than respiratory specimens. Conclusions A single genetic lineage of HBoV1 is speculated as a viral pathogen of respiratory infection and causes both comorbid infection and acute gastroenteritis. Additionally, a new cluster of HBoV2 is prevalent in China, which may infect the host through sites other than the respiratory tract. PMID:27490242

  1. The immunology and inflammatory responses of human melanocytes in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Gasque, Philippe; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine

    2015-10-01

    Melanin is a canonical and major defense molecule in invertebrates but its role in mammalian immunity remains unexplored. In contrast, several recent studies have highlighted the emerging innate immune activities of human melanin-producing cells which can sense and respond to bacterial and viral infections. Indeed, the skin is a major portal of entry for pathogens such as arboviruses (Chikungunya, Dengue) and bacteria (mycobacterium leprae, Leptospira spirochetes). Melanocytes of the epidermis could contribute to the phagocytosis of these invading pathogens and to present antigens to competent immune cells. Melanocytes are known to produce key cytokines such as IL-1β, IL6 and TNF-α as well as chemokines. These molecules will subsequently alert macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and keratinocytes through unique crosstalk mechanisms. The infection and the inflammatory responses will control melanocyte's immune and metabolic functions and could contribute to skin manifestations (rash, hyper or de-pigmentation, epidermolysis and psoriasis-like lesions). This review will address the potential role of melanocytes in immunity, inflammation and infection of the skin in health and diseases.

  2. Surgical techniques and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Story, R D

    1991-10-01

    Dentists are at risk of acquiring blood-borne infectious diseases by accidental inoculation whilst performing oral surgical procedures. These risks have been well discussed in the literature and by most assessments are considered to be minimal. They are, however, very real to those at risk. One response to these risks is to cease practice although many would see this as an extreme response. Another response is to modify surgical techniques in such a way that surgical procedures become safer without also becoming more complicated.

  3. Asthma: a chronic infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Contoli, Marco; Marku, Brunilda; Forini, Giacomo; Pauletti, Alessia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    There are increasing data to support the "hygiene" and "microbiota" hypotheses of a protective role of infections in modulating the risk of subsequent development of asthma. There is less evidence that respiratory infections can actually cause the development of asthma. There is some evidence that rhinovirus respiratory infections are associated with the development of asthma, particularly in childhood, whereas these infections in later life seem to have a weaker association with the development of asthma. The role of bacterial infections in chronic asthma remains unclear. This article reviews the available evidence indicating that asthma may be considered as a chronic infectious disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  5. Modeling relapse in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Driessche, P; Zou, Xingfu

    2007-05-01

    An integro-differential equation is proposed to model a general relapse phenomenon in infectious diseases including herpes. The basic reproduction number R(0) for the model is identified and the threshold property of R(0) established. For the case of a constant relapse period (giving a delay differential equation), this is achieved by conducting a linear stability analysis of the model, and employing the Lyapunov-Razumikhin technique and monotone dynamical systems theory for global results. Numerical simulations, with parameters relevant for herpes, are presented to complement the theoretical results, and no evidence of sustained oscillatory solutions is found.

  6. The carrying pigeons of the cell: exosomes and their role in infectious diseases caused by human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Adam; Sampey, Gavin; Chung, Myung-Chul; Bailey, Charles; van Hoek, Monique L; Kashanchi, Fatah; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes have recently been classified as the newest family members of 'bioactive vesicles' that function to promote intercellular communication. Long ignored and thought to be only a mechanism by which cellular waste is removed, exosomes have garnered a huge amount of interest in recent years as their critical functions in maintaining homeostasis through intercellular communication and also in different types of diseases have been demonstrated. Many groundbreaking studies of exosome functions have been performed in the cancer field and the infectious disease areas of study, revealing the importance and also the fascinating complexity of exosomal packaging, targeting, and functions. Selective packaging of exosomes in response to the type of infection, exosomal modulation of the immune response and host signaling pathways, exosomal regulation of pathogen spread, and effects of exosomes on the degree of pathogenesis have all been well documented. In this review, we provide a synthesis of the current understanding of the role of exosomes during infections caused by human pathogens and discuss the implications of these findings for a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  7. Climate change and human infectious diseases: A synthesis of research findings from global and spatio-temporal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng

    2017-06-01

    The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing. A feature of the research tendency is the focus on temperature and insect-borne diseases at the local and decadal scale. Geographically, regions experiencing higher temperature anomalies have been given more research attention; unfortunately, the Earth's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and extreme events have been less studied. From local to global scales, agreements on the response of infectious diseases to climate change tend to converge. So far, an abundance of findings have been based on statistical methods, with the number of mechanistic studies slowly growing. Research gaps and trends identified in this study should be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. System pharmacogenomics application in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Vineetha; Kabra, Ritika; Singh, Shailza

    2017-03-21

    The new era in systems pharmacology has revolutionized the human biology. Its applicability, precise treatment, adequate response and safety measures fit into all the paradigm of medical/clinical practice. The importance of mathematical models in understanding the disease pathology and epideomology is now being realized. The advent of high-throughput technologies and the emergence of systems biology have resulted in the creation of systems pharmacogenomics and the focus is now on personalized medicine. However, there are some regulatory issues that need to be addresssed; are we ready for this universal adoption? This article details some of the infectious disease pharmacogenomics to the developments in this area.

  9. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  10. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships for Biodefense-- Diagnostics 1. Date: September 13, 2012... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  11. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    PubMed

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group.

  12. Infectious diseases in disaster areas/catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Kalavsky, E; Miklosko, Jozef; Rudinsky, B; Taziarova, M; McKenzie, F

    2007-06-01

    There is very little data and no prospective research possible in the field of catastrophic medicine (disaster medicine) including infectious diseases. This minireview tries to contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases in areas after anthropogenic (war, genocide, terrorist attack, industrial disasters) and non anthropogenic (natural) catastrophes (earthquake, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions). Therefore ISC received a proposal to create a working group on infectious diseases in areas after catastrophes, better to understand epidemiology, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases occurring in conjunction to various anthropogenic and non anthropogenic (natural) disasters.

  13. [The infectious diseases experiments conducted on human guinea pigs by Nazis in concentration camps].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    The author systematically examined all available publications and web documents, with regard to scientifically documented experiments carried out by Nazi physicians in their concentration camps during World War II. This research focused on human experiments dealing with: malaria, tuberculosis, petechial typhus, viral hepatitis, and those regarding sulphonamides as antimicrobial agents. The concentration camps involved by experimental programmes on human guinea pigs were: Natzweiler Struthof, Dachau, Mauthausen, Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen and Auschwitz. Overall, around 7,200 deported prisoners went to their deaths during or because of these experiments (also considering human trials other than previously quoted ones). At the end of the war several physicians were charged with war crimes in two trials (Nuremberg and Dachau), and those found guilty were sentenced to death, or years of imprisonment. Some of them, including the notorious Josef Mengele, succeeded in escaping capture and being brought to justice. Thanks to these trials, partial light has been shed on these crimes, which not infrequently had children as designated victims, selected with excruciating cruelty in special segregation sections. The SS was the key structure which ensured maximum efficiency for these experimental programmes, from both logistic planning through to an operative control system carried out in concentration camps, and thanks to an autonomous, dedicated medical structure, which included a rigid hierarchy of physicians directly dependent on the head of SS forces (Reichsführer), i.e. Dr. Heinrich Himmler. Moreover, it is worth noting that also physicians who were not part of the SS corps collaborated in the above experiments on human guinea pigs: these included military personnel belonging to the Wehrmacht, academic physicians from German universities, and researchers who worked in some German pharmaceutical industries, such as IG Farben, Bayer and Boehring.

  14. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments.

  15. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  16. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

  17. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration – will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts – including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  18. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  19. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  20. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0–9 years) and adults (25–54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak. PMID:26193480

  1. Quantitative assessment of human whole blood RNA as a potential biomarker for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire L; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Khondoker, Mizanur; Craigon, Marie; Ross, Alan; Storm, Petter; Burgess, Stewart; Lacaze, Paul; Stenson, Benjamin J; Ghazal, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in newborn infants. Analytical methods for diagnosing infection are severely limited in terms of sensitivity and specificity and require relatively large samples. It is proposed that stringent regulation of the human transcriptome affords a new molecular diagnostic approach based on measuring a highly specific systemic inflammatory response to infection, detectable at the RNA level. This proposition raises a number of as yet poorly characterised technical and biological variation issues that urgently need to be addressed. Here we report a quantitative assessment of methodological approaches for processing and extraction of RNA from small samples of infant whole blood and applying analysis of variation from biochip measurements. On the basis of testing and selection from a battery of assays we show that sufficient high quality RNA for analysis using multiplex array technology can be obtained from small neonatal samples. These findings formed the basis of implementing a set of robust clinical and experimental standard operating procedures for whole blood RNA samples from 58 infants. Modelling and analysis of variation between samples revealed significant sources of variation from the point of sample collection to processing and signal generation. These experiments further permitted power calculations to be run indicating the tractability and requirements of using changes in RNA expression profiles to detect different states between patient groups. Overall the results of our investigation provide an essential first step toward facilitating an alternative way for diagnosing infection from very small neonatal blood samples, providing methods and requirements for future chip-based studies.

  2. Molecular properties of human IgG subclasses and their implications for designing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Irani, Vashti; Guy, Andrew J; Andrew, Dean; Beeson, James G; Ramsland, Paul A; Richards, Jack S

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are being developed as therapeutics to complement drugs and vaccines or to fill the gap where no drugs or vaccines exist. These therapeutic antibodies (ThAb) may be especially important for infectious diseases in which there is antibiotic resistance, toxin-mediated pathogenesis, or for emerging pathogens. The unique structure of antibodies determines the specific nature of the effector function, so when developing ThAb, the desired effector functions need to be considered and integrated into the design and development processes to ensure maximum efficacy and safety. Antibody subclass is a critical consideration, but it is noteworthy that almost all ThAb that are licenced or currently in development utilise an IgG1 backbone. This review outlines the major structural properties that vary across subclasses, how these properties affect functional immunity, and discusses the various approaches used to study subclass responses to infectious diseases. We also review the factors associated with the selection of antibody subclasses when designing ThAb and highlight circumstances where different subclass properties might be beneficial when applied to particular infectious diseases. These approaches are critical to the future design of ThAb and to the study of naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity.

  3. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  4. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  5. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Research Program (MIDRP) Insect Vector ControlDiagnostics Prevention Treatment Infectious diseases adversely impact military operations. Vaccines...appropriate treatment and aids commanders in the field. Most militarily relevant infectious diseases are transmitted by biting insects and other...based Insect Repellent (1946) Vaccines Protectants Antiparasitic Drugs Research Effort Advanced Development Fielded Products Malaria Rapid

  6. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  7. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  9. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  10. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed.

  11. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  12. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  13. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 20,...

  14. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  15. 76 FR 3919 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 14,...

  16. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...

  17. 75 FR 13558 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  18. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  19. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 10, 2012. David...

  20. 75 FR 48977 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  1. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  2. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  3. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  4. 78 FR 60294 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  5. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-18

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  6. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-10-25

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  7. 75 FR 65021 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  8. 76 FR 61719 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  9. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  10. 75 FR 49498 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  11. 77 FR 31628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  12. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host-Pathogen...

  13. 78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

  14. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnership for Development of New Therapeutics Classes for select Viral and Bacterial...

  15. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnership for Development of New Therapeutics Classes for Select Viral and Bacterial...

  16. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  17. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  18. New technique: Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-10-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories.

  19. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  20. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-14

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  1. The infectious etiology of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sochocka, Marta; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Leszek, Jerzy

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades. It is suggested that chronic viral, bacterial and fungal infections might be causative factors for the inflammatory pathway for AD. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis of the role of neurotropic viruses from the Herpesviridae family, especially Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), in AD neuropathology. Recent investigations also indicate the association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and dementia. Among bacteria special attention is focused on spirochetes family and on periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola that could cause chronic periodontitis and possibly contribute to the clinical onset of AD. This review discusses whether infections could be a causative factor that promotes the progression of AD and summarizes recent investigations associating infectious agents and chronic inflammation with AD. Preventive and therapeutic approaches to AD in the context of an infectious etiology of the disease are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. [Global warming and spread of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ebert, B; Fleischer, B

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global warming of 1.4-5.8 degrees C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socioeconomic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious disease than climate.

  3. Infectious Disease Issues in Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel Neil; Miller, John Paul

    2017-03-01

    Infectious disease has a major impact on the health outcomes of underserved populations and is reported at significantly higher rates among these populations compared with the general population. Overcoming barriers and obstacles to health care access is key to addressing the disparity regarding the prevalence of infectious disease. Enhancing cultural competency and educating practitioners about underserved populations' basic health needs; optimizing health insurance for the underserved; increasing community resources; and improving access to comprehensive, continuous, compassionate, and coordinated health care are strategies for diminishing the burden of infectious disease in underserved populations.

  4. [Current infectious disease care in Spain].

    PubMed

    Almirante, Benito; Colmenero, Juan Dios; Fortún, Jesús; Oteo, José Antonio; Santamaría, Juan Mari; Sola, Julio

    2008-12-01

    Despite the specialist activity of Infectious Diseases not being officially recognised, the majority of the hospitals in the autonomous communities of Spain are equipped with structures, with significant heterogeneity among them, to be able to offer high quality care in these diseases. The main characteristics of and Infectious Diseases Department is its important healthcare activity, more than in other officially recognised medical specialities, and also its important interrelationship with other services in the hospital which is clearly horizontal healthcare. Furthermore, the aforementioned infectious disease care units have developed important activities in the arena of community and public health and, in collaboration with health authorities, contribute to the rational use of antimicrobials and the relationship with Primary Care. The future of specialists in infectious diseases, when they are officially recognised, will be the creation of clinical management units in every health institution with the objective of coordinating all the specialised health care, both in the hospital environment and in its health area of influence.

  5. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  6. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  7. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  8. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  9. Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen L; Smith, Carl S

    2016-03-01

    Globally, infectious diseases are responsible for a significant burden on human health. Drivers of disease transmission depend on interactions between humans, the environment, vectors, carriers, and pathogens; transmission dynamics are therefore potentially highly complex. Research in infectious disease eco-epidemiology has been rapidly gaining momentum because of the rising global importance of disease emergence and outbreaks, and growing understanding of the intimate links between human health and the environment. The scientific community is increasingly recognising the need for multidisciplinary translational research, integrated approaches, and innovative methods and tools to optimise risk prediction and control measures. Environmental health experts have also identified the need for more advanced analytical and biostatistical approaches to better determine causality, and deal with unknowns and uncertainties inherent in complex systems. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology, and the potential for developing dynamic tools for public health decision-making and improving intervention strategies.

  10. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  11. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-12-12

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health.

  12. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  13. Impact of infectious diseases on war.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2004-06-01

    Wartime epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and nonbelligerent states. This article summarizes the principal factors that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases in past wars and reviews the associated demographic losses in military and civil populations. Drawing on the detailed epidemiologic records for the United States Army, case studies of the spread of infectious diseases in relation to military mobilization are presented for the American Civil War, Spanish-American War,and World War I. The article concludes with a brief overview of infectious disease activity in high- and low-intensity conflicts of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

  14. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-03-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dendrimers--revolutionary drugs for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lazniewska, Joanna; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years innovative nanomolecules in a form of dendrimers have been gaining increasing interest. These compounds can be designed and modified in many ways giving a molecule which meets required expectations. For this reason dendrimers are the object of intensive studies in many fields of nanoscience including one of the most thriving--biomedicine. Numerous studies provide evidence that some dendrimers exhibit activities against many species/strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions. These types of dendritic nanostructures which are distinguished by antipathogenic properties and low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells may be potentially applied in medicine as novel drugs for various infectious diseases, especially those which are persistent, marked by high mortality rate, or untreatable. Dendrimers can exert their effect via different mechanisms of action, which are, in most cases, related to multivalency of the nanomolecule. The application of dendrimers is likely to be a breakthrough in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases which still beset humanity and may significantly improve the quality of people's life.

  16. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  17. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  18. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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  9. [Stochastic model of infectious diseases transmission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Juan; Hernández-Rodríguez, Gabriela Eréndira

    2009-01-01

    Propose a mathematic model that shows how population structure affects the size of infectious disease epidemics. This study was conducted during 2004 at the University of Colima. It used generalized small-world network topology to represent contacts that occurred within and between families. To that end, two programs in MATLAB were conducted to calculate the efficiency of the network. The development of a program in the C programming language was also required, that represents the stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed model, and simultaneous results were obtained for the number of infected people. An increased number of families connected by meeting sites impacted the size of the infectious diseases by roughly 400%. Population structure influences the rapid spread of infectious diseases, reaching epidemic effects.

  10. Infectious disease emergencies in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kwitkowski, V E; Demko, S G

    1999-01-01

    Infectious disease emergencies can be described as infectious processes that, if not recognized and treated immediately, can lead to significant morbidity or mortality. These emergencies can present as common or benign infections, fooling the primary care provider into using more conservative treatment strategies than are required. This review discusses the pathophysiology, history and physical findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies for the following infectious disease emergencies: acute bacterial meningitis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, necrotizing soft tissue infections, toxic shock syndrome, food-borne illnesses, and infective endocarditis. Because most of the discussed infectious disease emergencies require hospital care, the primary care clinician must be able to judge when a referral to a specialist or a higher-level care facility is indicated.

  11. Infectious diseases and parasites of ratites.

    PubMed

    Shane, S M

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses infectious and parasitic disease conditions in the three ratite species. Diseases and parasitic conditions are reviewed in relation to etiology, transmission, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To ensure optimum reproduction and growth of birds on large production units, a veterinarian must understand management in relation to biosecurity and disease problems.

  12. Managed care and the infectious diseases specialist.

    PubMed

    Tice, A D; Slama, T G; Berman, S; Braun, P; Burke, J P; Cherney, A; Gross, P A; Harris, P; Reid-Hatton, M; Hoffman, R; Joseph, P; Lawton, S; Massanari, R M; Miller, Z I; Osheroff, W J; Poretz, D; Shalowitz, M; Simmons, B; Turner, J P; Wade, B; Nolet, B R

    1996-08-01

    There is growing demand to contain health care costs and to reassess the value of medical services. The traditional hospital, academic, and research roles of the infectious disease (ID) specialist are threatened, yet there is an increasing need for expertise because of growing antimicrobial resistance and emerging pathogens. Opportunities exist to develop and expand services for the care of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in infection control, epidemiology, outcomes research, outpatient intravenous therapy, and resource management. It is important for ID physicians to appreciate the principles involved in managed care and the areas in which ID services can be valuable. To be effective, physicians need to know about tools such as practice guidelines, physician profiling, outcomes monitoring, computerized information management, risk sharing, networking, and marketing, as well as related legal issues. With a positive attitude toward learning, application, and leadership, ID physicians can redefine their role and expand their services through managed care.

  13. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  14. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-12-05

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  15. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-08-13

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  16. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.

  17. Joint spatial analysis of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Held, Leonhard; Graziano, Giusi; Frank, Christina; Rue, Håvard

    2006-10-01

    A major obstacle in the spatial analysis of infectious disease surveillance data is the problem of under-reporting. This article investigates the possibility of inferring reporting rates through joint statistical modelling of several infectious diseases with different aetiologies. Once variation in under-reporting can be estimated, geographic risk patterns for infections associated with specific food vehicles may be discerned. We adopt the shared component model, proposed by Knorr-Held and Best for two chronic diseases and further extended by (Held L, Natario I, Fenton S, Rue H, Becker N. Towards joint disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005b; 14: 61-82) for more than two chronic diseases to the infectious disease setting. Our goal is to estimate a shared component, common to all diseases, which may be interpreted as representing the spatial variation in reporting rates. Additional components are introduced to describe the real spatial variation of the different diseases. Of course, this interpretation is only allowed under specific assumptions, in particular, the geographical variation in under-reporting should be similar for the diseases considered. In addition, it is vital that the data do not contain large local outbreaks, so adjustment based on a time series method recently proposed by (Held L, Höhle M, Hofmann M. A statistical framework for the analysis of multivariate infectious disease surveillance data. Statistical Modelling 2005a; 5: 187-99) is made at a preliminary stage. We will illustrate our approach through the analysis of gastrointestinal diseases notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin.

  18. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  19. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  20. Health systems perspectives – infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal’s first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  1. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne Disease Sexually Transmitted Diseases Vaccine Information Resources 2017 NFID Annual News Conference William Schaffner, MD, Patricia ... vaccines View NFID Public Service Announcements CONFERENCES & COURSES 2017 Fall Clinical Vaccinology Course November 3-4, 2017 ...

  2. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Parra, J P; Kamil, M; Chakib, S O; Cope, S E

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases.

  3. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

  4. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  5. The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    The projected global increase in the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases with climate change suggests a pending societal crisis. The subject is increasingly attracting the attention of health professionals and climate-change scientists, particularly with respect to malaria and other vector-transmitted human diseases. The result has been the emergence of a crisis discipline, reminiscent of the early phases of conservation biology. Latitudinal, altitudinal, seasonal, and interannual associations between climate and disease along with historical and experimental evidence suggest that climate, along with many other factors, can affect infectious diseases in a nonlinear fashion. However, although the globe is significantly warmer than it was a century ago, there is little evidence that climate change has already favored infectious diseases. While initial projections suggested dramatic future increases in the geographic range of infectious diseases, recent models predict range shifts in disease distributions, with little net increase in area. Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate.

  6. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...-2639, poeky@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  7. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

  8. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  9. Infectious and zoonotic disease testing in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn

    2011-03-01

    Pet bird ownership and the veterinary diagnostic market for avian and exotic species testing have grown markedly during the past 20 years. Birds present with both unique infectious diseases and other diseases that are known to the human medical community, including aspergillosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydophilosis, and bornavirus infection, some of which have clear zoonotic implications. Although diagnostic testing for these avian infectious diseases has grown considerably and includes the newer technology of polymerase chain reaction as well as traditional serologic testing, guidelines for the use and interpretation of these tests and standardization of tests among veterinary laboratories remains an unmet challenge.

  10. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests.

  11. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  12. Stability of infectious human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Florek, Dominik; Burmistrz, Michal; Potempa, Jan; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 and subsequent studies showed its worldwide distribution. Infection with this pathogen is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract diseases of mild to moderate severity. Furthermore, HCoV-NL63 is the main cause of croup in children. Within this study an optimal protocol for freeze-drying that allows safe and effective preservation of HCoV-NL63 infectious material was developed. Lyophilized virus preparations can be stored either at ambient temperature or at +4°C. In the latter case samples may be stored for at least two months. Surprisingly, conducted analysis showed that HCoV-NL63 virions are exquisitely stable in liquid media and can be stored also without preservatives at ambient temperature for up to 14 days.

  13. Careers in Infectious Diseases: Public Health.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Arjun

    2017-09-15

    Public health offers infectious disease physicians a variety of rewarding career options. Our training and skills make us well suited to a variety of roles in public health. This article summarizes some of the options for careers in public health and describes why ID physicians are so well suited to them. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Anshul; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin. These antibiotics had been helpful in treatment of infectious diseases considered dread for centuries. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. This review focuses on major alternatives to antibiotics on which preliminary work had been carried out. These promising anti-microbial include: phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  16. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  17. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  18. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  19. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain.

    PubMed

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants.

  20. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus–positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P < 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants. PMID:26880782

  1. Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen J; Garner, Trenton W J; Cunningham, Andrew A; Langton, Tom E S; Nichols, Richard A

    2016-09-28

    There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease reports in the UK: that outbreaks were being reported more frequently, that climate change had altered the interaction between hosts and a previously widespread pathogen, and that disease was emerging due to spatial spread of a novel pathogen. Our analysis characterized localized spread from nearby ponds, consistent with amphibian dispersal, but also revealed a highly significant trend for elevated rates of additional outbreaks in localities with higher human population density-pointing to human activities in also spreading the virus. Phylogenetic analyses of pathogen genomes support the inference of at least two independent introductions into the UK. Together these results point strongly to humans repeatedly translocating ranaviruses into the UK from other countries and between UK ponds, and therefore suggest potential control measures. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Langton, Tom E. S.

    2016-01-01

    There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease reports in the UK: that outbreaks were being reported more frequently, that climate change had altered the interaction between hosts and a previously widespread pathogen, and that disease was emerging due to spatial spread of a novel pathogen. Our analysis characterized localized spread from nearby ponds, consistent with amphibian dispersal, but also revealed a highly significant trend for elevated rates of additional outbreaks in localities with higher human population density—pointing to human activities in also spreading the virus. Phylogenetic analyses of pathogen genomes support the inference of at least two independent introductions into the UK. Together these results point strongly to humans repeatedly translocating ranaviruses into the UK from other countries and between UK ponds, and therefore suggest potential control measures. PMID:27683363

  3. DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Watts, A M; Kennedy, R C

    1999-08-01

    DNA immunisation represents a novel approach to vaccine and immunotherapeutic development. Injection of plasmid DNA encoding a foreign gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of the foreign gene products and the induction of an immune response within a host. This is relevant to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies when the foreign gene represents a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent demonstration by a number of laboratories that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against some infectious diseases and cancers provides support for the use of this approach. In this article, we attempt to present an informative and unbiased representation of the field of DNA immunisation. The focus is on studies that impart information on the development of vaccination strategies against a number of human and animal pathogens. Investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity induced by DNA immunisation highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to developing vaccines within a given system. A variety of systems in which DNA vaccination has resulted in the induction of protective immunity, as well as the correlates associated with these protective immune responses, will be described. Particular attention will focus on systems involving parasitic diseases. Finally, the potential of DNA immunisation is discussed as it relates to veterinary medicine and its role as a possible vaccine strategy against animal coccidioses.

  4. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices.

  5. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, R.R.

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  7. Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2017-09-29

    A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex differences in pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J R

    2014-07-15

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori potential drug targets and analyze the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of test-able pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmocology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

  10. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-03-17

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good.

  11. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  12. Infectious diseases mortality in central Serbia.

    PubMed Central

    Vlajinac, H D; Marinković, J M; Kocev, N I; Adanja, B J; Pekmezović, T D; Sipetić, S B; Jovanović, D J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence and the effect of the war in the former Yugoslavia and of the United Nations economic sanctions on mortality from infectious diseases. DESIGN: This was a descriptive study analysing mortality data time series. SETTING: Central Serbia, Yugoslavia. PARTICIPANTS: The population of central Serbia was the subject of the study (about six million inhabitants). MEASUREMENTS: Mortality rates were standardised directly, using the "European population" as the standard. Regression analysis and analysis of covariance were undertaken. MAIN RESULTS: During the period 1973-93, mortality from infectious diseases showed a decreasing trend. From 1987-90, and infectious diseases was significantly higher than expected on the basis of the trend for the preceding period (p = 0.020 and p = 0.00). In addition, there was a statistically significant departure from the preceding trend (p = 0.036) in men between 1991 and 1993 (the period of the war and UN sanctions)--the main effect being in younger age groups. CONCLUSION: The economic crisis in the former Yugoslavia during the 1980s followed by the outbreak of the war and the damaging effects of UN economic sanctions had a distinctly adverse effect on mortality from infectious diseases. PMID:9196647

  13. Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

    1997-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

  14. Infectious diseases in end-stage liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. These defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. Providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. Patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. There should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid samples and discussing possible causes with an infectious diseases consultant or a microbiology laboratory. These maneuvers will maximize therapy in patients at high risk for death due to infectious disease.

  15. Waterborne infectious disease in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The incidence of waterborne typhoid fever and other intestinal infections in Britain since 1937 is reviewed. In the light of the current very low incidence of indigenous typhoid fever, it is suggested that the examination of relevant waterworks staff and prospective employees for carriage of the agents of potentially waterborne disease should be done selectively by appropriate laboratory tests only when indications for them are revealed by medical assessment. PMID:99473

  16. [Imported infectious diseases in tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Rius Gordillo, N; Martín Nalda, A; Otero Romero, S; Soler-Palacín, P; Sulleiro Igual, E; Espiau Guarner, M; Fernández-Polo, A; Figueras Nadal, C

    2014-08-01

    An Imported Diseases Clinic was created in the hospital in 2009. The aim of this study was to asses its contribution in terms of capacity, quality of care and teaching offered. A retrospective study was conducted from 2009 to 2011, analyzing: A) development of knowledge by means of protocols and publications created, and subject taught; B) capacity and quality of care offered by the analysis of patients seen, the adequacy of the protocols and accessibility. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1: immigrant patient screening, group 2: patient consultation after tropical or sub-tropical travel, group 3: screening of vertical transmission of imported disease. Six protocols have been developed and disseminated on the unit website, as well as 5 scientific publications. A total of 316 patients were evaluated: 191 included in group 1 (29 Adopted and 162 Immigrants), 57 in group 2 (94.7% Visiting Friends and Relatives and 81.5% without a pre-travel consultation). They consulted due to, gastrointestinal symptoms (52.6%) and fever (43.8%), with 68 included in group 3 at risk of imported disease by vertical transmission (62 Trypanosoma cruzi, 1 Human T Lymphotropic Virus and 5 Plasmodium spp.). The overall adherence to the protocols was about 77.1%. Infectious Diseases Units must adapt to the reality of the population and be flexible in its structure. Periodic assessment of the quality of care offered is essential, as well as an evaluation on the need for additional studies. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Infectious Disease Issues in Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Boneva, Roumiana S.; Folks, Thomas M.; Chapman, Louisa E.

    2001-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, the transplantation of living organs, tissues, or cells from one species to another, is viewed as a potential solution to the existing shortage of human organs for transplantation. While whole-organ xenotransplantation is still in the preclinical stage, cellular xenotransplantation and extracorporeal perfusion applications are showing promise in early clinical trials. Advances in immunosuppressive therapy, gene engineering, and cloning of animals bring a broader array of xenotransplantation protocols closer to clinical trials. Despite several potential advantages over allotransplantation, xenotransplantation encompasses a number of problems. Immunologic rejection remains the primary hindrance. The potential to introduce infections across species barriers, another major concern, is the main focus of this review. Nonhuman primates are unlikely to be a main source for xenotransplantation products despite their phylogenetic proximity to humans. Genetically engineered pigs, bred under special conditions, are currently envisaged as the major source. Thus far, there has been no evidence for human infections caused by pig xenotransplantation products. However, the existence of xenotropic endogenous retroviruses and the clinical evidence of long-lasting porcine cell microchimerism indicate the potential for xenogeneic infections. Thus, further trials should continue under regulatory oversight, with close clinical and laboratory monitoring for potential xenogeneic infections. PMID:11148000

  18. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Carla F.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  19. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bruce, M; Zulz, T; Koch, A

    2016-08-01

    This study reviews how social and environmental issues affect health in Arctic populations and describes infectious disease surveillance in Arctic Nations with a special focus on the activities of the International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project. We reviewed the literature over the past 2 decades looking at Arctic living conditions and their effects on health and Arctic surveillance for infectious diseases. In regards to other regions worldwide, the Arctic climate and environment are extreme. Arctic and sub-Arctic populations live in markedly different social and physical environments compared to those of their more southern dwelling counterparts. A cold northern climate means people spending more time indoors, amplifying the effects of household crowding, smoking and inadequate ventilation on the person-to-person spread of infectious diseases. The spread of zoonotic infections north as the climate warms, emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens, the re-emergence of tuberculosis, the entrance of HIV into Arctic communities, the specter of pandemic influenza or the sudden emergence and introduction of new viral pathogens pose new challenges to residents, governments and public health authorities of all Arctic countries. ICS is a network of hospitals, public health agencies, and reference laboratories throughout the Arctic working together for the purposes of collecting, comparing and sharing of uniform laboratory and epidemiological data on infectious diseases of concern and assisting in the formulation of prevention and control strategies (Fig. 1). In addition, circumpolar infectious disease research workgroups and sentinel surveillance systems for bacterial and viral pathogens exist. The ICS system is a successful example of collaborative surveillance and research in an extreme environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  1. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  2. Forecasting infectious disease emergence subject to seasonal forcing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M

    2017-09-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.

  3. [Biotechnologic drugs and chemotherapy for infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Honorato, J

    2007-09-01

    Developments in biotechnology in recent years have enabled the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The agents obtained from these biotechnological procedures possess specific characteristics which significantly distinguish them from drugs obtained by chemical synthesis. These properties cover the entire development process, from investigation and production up to their administration to patients. The pharmokinetics of these preparations influence their administration routes and dosage regimens. The discovery of these drugs has led to major advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious processes which until very recently had no effective treatment. The investigation and production of these drugs requires the use of highly technical resources resulting in high costs and therefore a more expensive drug on the market compared to other drugs. Nevertheless, well documented pharmoeconomic studies show that the use of this type of drug for certain symptoms may be highly cost effective. This article includes some of the possible applications of biotechnology in the infectious disease field, although the current situation indicates that more detailed and broader applications may be elaborated on in ensuing issues. The future of these drugs in chemical therapy for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases is exceedingly promising and many of these drugs are currently under laboratory investigation, more so than those under development from a chemical synthesis approach.

  4. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases.

  5. [Trends in infectious diseases mortality in Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Hoz, K; de Mateo, S; Regidor, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the trend and geographical distribution of mortality by infectious diseases in Spain between 1980 and 1993. Deaths caused by infectious diseases ocurred in Spain between 1980-1993 were studied. Data were obtained from the national mortality registry from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Deaths included in the International Diseases Classification (ICD-9) in group I were included, and also deaths by infectious diseases included in other groups. The trend in mortality risk was evaluated by means of a log-lineal Poisson model. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) by age for each Spanish province in 1980-83 and 1990-93, were calculated to identify geographical differences in mortality. These SMR were compared using Spearman correlation coefficient. Between 1980 and 1993, the adjusted mortality rate by infectious diseases decreased around 1.4% each year. In 1980 and also in 1993 respiratory tract infections were the first cause of death, 29.6 and 20.3 deaths for 105 inhabitants, respectively. The second cause of death was tuberculosis in 1980, 3.9 x 10⁵ and HIV infection in 1993, 10.7 x 10⁵. This decrease in infectious diseases mortality during the studied period was shown in all age groups, except for the 25 to 44 age group, were mortality rate increased by seven times. The geographical distribution showed that the provinces with the highest mortality rate were the same in 1980-83 and in 1990-93 (Spearman coefficient: 0.49; p < 0.001). Because deaths by infectious diseases are distributed in different groups in the ICD-9, their impact on mortality is underestimated, although they are the fourth cause of death in Spain. However, between 1980 and 1993 it has been shown a decrease in mortality by these diseases, except for the 25-44 age group where an impressive increase ocurred due to HIV infection. No differences between provinces have been shown.

  6. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  7. 78 FR 18355 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Operation of a Facility for Testing Malaria Vaccine in Human Subjects. Date: April 19, 2013....

  8. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members ... site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and contains official ...

  9. Selected emerging infectious diseases of squamata.

    PubMed

    Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James

    2013-05-01

    It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  11. Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Jiménez, B. Carolina; Pérez-Molina, José A.; Norman, Francesca; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Herrero, Juan M.; Zamarrón, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases. To determine which infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of Ramón y Cajal Hospital over a 20-year period. The most frequent diagnoses were for latent tuberculosis (716 patients [32.6%]), filariasis (421 [19.2%]), hepatropic virus chronic infection (262 [19.2%]), intestinal parasites (242 [11.0%]), and malaria (212 [9.6%]). Health screening of immigrant populations is needed to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of potentially transmissible infections. PMID:19891861

  12. Infectious Diseases Physician Compensation: An Improved Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jethro Trees; Lynch, John B.; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Trotman, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating physician compensation can be complicated because many factors now influence the ways in which physicians can be compensated. Infectious diseases (ID) specialists typically provide a wide array of services, ranging from patient care to administrative leadership. Compensation surveys from national organizations have produced results based on small samples and often are not congruent with ID physicians’ perceptions. In July of 2015, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) conducted a compensation survey to assess current compensation earned by the diverse ID specialists within its membership. Members of IDSA's Clinical Affairs Committee report the results from the 2015 IDSA Physician Compensation survey, with a particular focus on the findings from respondents who indicate “patient care” as their primary responsibility and present a discussion that compares and contrasts results against other survey data. PMID:27419159

  13. [Infectious diseases in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2009-01-01

    The fact that incidence of infectious diseases in Poland is quite stable and, as compared with many noninfectious diseases relatively better, should not lead to underestimation of the problem. Despite in many diseases long term trends indicate decreasing incidence, in some important diseases increase of incidence was noted. Significant decrease was noted in incidence of some diseases for which vaccination program was modified. It concerns mumps, Hib infections, and to some extend also pertussis. Serious problem remains with accumulated through several years high prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Also low vaccine coverage of influenza is a measure of weakness of prevention against this disease, which is one of the most important causes of job and school absence and despite low mortality, is one of important caused of increased mortality in winter season. Next important epidemiological problem cause bacterial and viral foodborne infections, which despite some improvement place Poland below average of EU. Also relative stabilization of the incidence of tuberculosis does not look good if compared with leading countries of EU. With HIV infections particular concern is brought by the number of late diagnoses and drastic decline of data on the probable risk factor of infection. Infectious diseases mortality in 2007 was 6.6/100,000 (3.5 in Podlaskie Voivodeship and 9.3 in Slaskie) and it was higher in cities (7.1) then in rural areas. As in previous years i man mortality (8.6) was higher then in women (4.9). Highest mortality from infectious diseases was noted among elderly people above 74 (30.6).

  14. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  15. Microbiology and epidemiology of infectious spinal disease.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Choi, Seung-Won; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C

  16. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery. PMID:27802859

  17. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  18. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  19. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease (BTPID) Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    This modification enabled advanced simulation- based training on-site during the 2005 APMMC held in Vietnam. The project in its entirety represents...related infectious disease research in Thailand and SEA in general. This modification enabled advanced simulation- based training on-site during the 2005...establishment of (1) a Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC) in Thailand and (2) Advanced Simulation Based Training for the Asia Pacific Military Medicine

  20. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, Hamid Reza; Van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-02-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptococci are important organisms in the initiation and progression of dental caries. Recent evidence demonstrates that these bacteria are found in the mouths of pre-dentate infants and are acquired via vertical and/or horizontal transmission from human reservoirs. This information should facilitate the focusing of clinical interventions that prevent or delay infant infection, thereby reducing the prevalence of dental caries (ECC) in babies and toddlers.

  1. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  2. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  3. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

  4. 75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Date: April 30, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

  5. 77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Cooperative Study Group for Autoimmune Disease Prevention (UO1). Date: March 12-13, 2012. Time: 8... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

  6. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  7. The Infectious Disease Manpower Crisis: Finding the Cure.

    PubMed

    Berk, Steven L

    2017-02-01

    The challenges of infectious diseases, including new pathogens, dangerous outbreaks, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the perils of international travel have never been more publically appreciated. These challenges require a well-trained workforce of infectious disease specialists. Just when the need appears to be greatest, however, the interest in infectious diseases among today's young physicians is at its lowest point.

  8. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  9. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  10. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in infectious diseases-common but neglected.

    PubMed

    van Lunzen, Jan; Altfeld, Marcus

    2014-07-15

    Women and men are different-and this fundamental observation extends to their susceptibility and response to different diseases, including autoimmune and infectious diseases. Apart from cultural and behavioral differences between the sexes that play a prominent role in the exposure to pathogens, increasing data show that women and men also differ in their immune responses to infections. This applies to infections with viruses, bacteria, and parasites, including the pathogens most relevant for human health, causing malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, hepatitis, and influenza. Only recently, the biological pathways responsible for these sex-based differences in the manifestations of infectious diseases have been started to be unveiled. These include immunological pathways affected by sex hormones, as well as consequences of differential expression of X-chromosome-encoded genes on immune responses to pathogens. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the differences in immunity to infections between women and men in order to develop individualized treatment concepts in infectious diseases that take sex-specific host factors into account. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  13. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  14. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  15. Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2014-09-12

    Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places.

  16. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  17. [These infectious diseases imported with food].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

    2008-10-01

    People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method.

  18. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority.

  20. Pathogenic factors in Candida biofilm-related infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirota, K; Yumoto, H; Sapaar, B; Matsuo, T; Ichikawa, T; Miyake, Y

    2017-02-01

    Candida albicans is a commonly found member of the human microflora and is a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various micro-organisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases. In addition, extracellular DNA (eDNA) also plays a crucial role in Candida biofilm formation and its structural integrity and induces the morphological transition from yeast to the hyphal growth form during C. albicans biofilm development. This review focuses on pathogenic factors such as eDNA in Candida biofilm formation and its ECM production and provides meaningful information for future studies to develop a novel strategy to battle infectious diseases elicited by Candida-formed biofilm.

  1. The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

  2. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  3. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  4. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

    1999-01-01

    Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10210687

  5. Use of telemedicine technologies in the management of infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Parmvir; Mackie, David; Varghese, Sunil; Cooper, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine technologies are rapidly being integrated into infectious diseases programs with the aim of increasing access to infectious diseases specialty care for isolated populations and reducing costs. We summarize the utility and effectiveness of telemedicine in the evaluation and treatment of infectious diseases patients. The use of telemedicine in the management of acute infectious diseases, chronic hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and active pulmonary tuberculosis is considered. We recapitulate and evaluate the advantages of telemedicine described in other studies, present challenges to adopting telemedicine, and identify future opportunities for the use of telemedicine within the realm of clinical infectious diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identifying climate drivers of infectious disease dynamics: recent advances and challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Katharine S.; Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O.; Shevliakova, Elena; Tatem, Andrew J.; Boos, William R.; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Pitzer, Virginia E.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is likely to profoundly modulate the burden of infectious diseases. However, attributing health impacts to a changing climate requires being able to associate changes in infectious disease incidence with the potentially complex influences of climate. This aim is further complicated by nonlinear feedbacks inherent in the dynamics of many infections, driven by the processes of immunity and transmission. Here, we detail the mechanisms by which climate drivers can shape infectious disease incidence, from direct effects on vector life history to indirect effects on human susceptibility, and detail the scope of variation available with which to probe these mechanisms. We review approaches used to evaluate and quantify associations between climate and infectious disease incidence, discuss the array of data available to tackle this question, and detail remaining challenges in understanding the implications of climate change for infectious disease incidence. We point to areas where synthesis between approaches used in climate science and infectious disease biology provide potential for progress. PMID:28814655

  7. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage and

  8. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  10. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care.

  11. Serendipity and new drugs for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C

    2005-01-01

    Serendipity, in various shades of semantic legitimacy, is abundantly evident in the history of the chemotherapy of infectious disease. We may be on the threshold of a new era of rational drug design, but most medications for infectious diseases have arisen, and continue to arise, from chance observation, clinical experience, and the empirical search for substances active against pathogens. Chance does not produce drugs; but where chance has played a pivotal role in drug discovery, the event may be considered serendipitous to a greater or lesser degree. In a deliberate search for new drugs, it is often difficult to assess the degree to which any resulting discovery is serendipitous, and the usefulness of the term becomes debatable. Many therapeutic advances emerge from research involving animals, and a triggering "happy accident" may reside in the most basic aspects of animal care or in the most arcane knowledge of animals. The examples discussed in this article deal mostly with parasitic disease and the use of animal models in the discovery of antiparasitic agents. In this area, as in others, chance has laid the groundwork for scientific advancement and practical benefit. Although the applicability of the word serendipity to drug discovery may often be uncertain, the role played by chance should be recognized and welcomed.

  12. Measuring Spatial Dependence for Infectious Disease Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Salje, Henrik; Grabowski, M Kate; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-01-01

    Global spatial clustering is the tendency of points, here cases of infectious disease, to occur closer together than expected by chance. The extent of global clustering can provide a window into the spatial scale of disease transmission, thereby providing insights into the mechanism of spread, and informing optimal surveillance and control. Here the authors present an interpretable measure of spatial clustering, τ, which can be understood as a measure of relative risk. When biological or temporal information can be used to identify sets of potentially linked and likely unlinked cases, this measure can be estimated without knowledge of the underlying population distribution. The greater our ability to distinguish closely related (i.e., separated by few generations of transmission) from more distantly related cases, the more closely τ will track the true scale of transmission. The authors illustrate this approach using examples from the analyses of HIV, dengue and measles, and provide an R package implementing the methods described. The statistic presented, and measures of global clustering in general, can be powerful tools for analysis of spatially resolved data on infectious diseases.

  13. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in International Adoption.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care. PMID:1641446

  15. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed Central

    McSweegan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  16. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    McSweegan, E

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks.

  17. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  18. 78 FR 75357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  19. 78 FR 64964 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 23, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 24,...

  20. 78 FR 20933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...- 7616, 301-496-2550, pjackson@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy...

  1. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., ec17w@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  2. 78 FR 65344 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 30, 2013, 9:00 a.m. to October 30, 2013,...

  3. 78 FR 64962 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 22, 2013,...

  4. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  5. 78 FR 65343 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to October 15,...

  6. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...-6891, poonb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855,...

  7. 78 FR 65348 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October 31, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to November 1,...

  8. 78 FR 63998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  9. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@niaid.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  10. 78 FR 66026 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, October 15, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 15, 2013, 05:00 p.m., Hilton...

  11. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26, 2012...

  12. 77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  7. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell

  8. Wild great apes as sentinels and sources of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, S; Leendertz, S A J; Gillespie, T R; Leendertz, F H

    2012-06-01

    Emerging zoonotic infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global health. This is especially true in relation to the great apes, whose close phylogenetic relationship with humans results in a high potential for microorganism exchange. In this review, we show how studies of the microorganisms of wild great apes can lead to the discovery of novel pathogens of importance for humans. We also illustrate how these primates, living in their natural habitats, can serve as sentinels for outbreaks of human disease in regions with a high likelihood of disease emergence. Greater sampling efforts and improvements in sample preservation and diagnostic capacity are rapidly improving our understanding of the diversity and distribution of microorganisms in wild great apes. Linking non-invasive diagnostic data with observational health data from great apes habituated to human presence is a promising approach for the discovery of pathogens of high relevance for humans. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  10. Lyme disease: an infectious and postinfectious syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asch, E S; Bujak, D I; Weiss, M; Peterson, M G; Weinstein, A

    1994-03-01

    To determine chronic morbidity and the variables that influence recovery in patients who had been treated for Lyme disease. Retrospective evaluation of 215 patients from Westchester County, NY, who fulfilled Centers for Disease Control case definition for Lyme disease, were anti-Borrelia antibody positive and were diagnosed and treated at least one year before our examination. Erythema migrans had occurred in 70% of patients, neurological involvement in 29%, objective cardiac problems in 6%, arthralgia in 78% and arthritis in 41%. Patients were seen at a mean of 3.2 years after initial treatment. A history of relapse with major organ involvement had occurred in 28% and a history of reinfection in 18%. Anti-Borrelia antibodies, initially present in all patients, were still positive in 32%. At followup, 82 (38%) patients were asymptomatic and clinically active Lyme disease was found in 19 (9%). Persistent symptoms of arthralgia, arthritis, cardiac or neurologic involvement with or without fatigue were present in 114 (53%) patients. Persistent symptoms correlated with a history of major organ involvement or relapse but not the continued presence of anti-Borrelial antibodies. Thirty-five of the 114 (31%) patients with persistent symptoms had predominantly arthralgia and fatigue. Antibiotic treatment within 4 weeks of disease onset was more likely to result in complete recovery. Children did not significantly differ from adults in disease manifestations or in the frequency of relapse, reinfection or complete recovery. Despite recognition and treatment, Lyme disease is associated with significant infectious and postinfectious sequelae.

  11. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  12. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  13. The changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Plano, L R W

    2010-10-01

    To understand the changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease, one must first be familiar with the history, the variety of organisms and the progression of change of neonatal infections over the years. As progressively more immature neonates are surviving, the spectrum of infectious disease has changed in response to current medical practice responsible for this success and to selective pressures on the microorganisms. The surviving very low birth weight infants are at a significant risk for contracting infections from this expanding repertoire of pathogens. Microorganisms once thought seemingly benign and nonpathogenic are now commonly accepted as pathogens and are among the most likely organisms to cause infections in this extremely vulnerable patient population. When considering the possible identity of infecting organisms and attempting to tailor specific therapies to decrease unwanted consequences, one must consider the level of maturity and the age of neonate, as well as the intensity of care necessary for a successful outcome. This brief review focuses primarily on the changing spectrum of bacterial and fungal infections and will not substantially address viral infections.

  14. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  15. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  17. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  18. Tracking the Remodeling of SNOMED CT's Bacterial Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Case, James T; Perl, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    SNOMED CT's content undergoes many changes from one release to the next. Over the last year SNOMED CT's Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy has undergone significant editing to bring consistent modeling to its concepts. In this paper we analyze the stated and inferred structural modifications that affected the Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy between the Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 SNOMED CT releases using a two-phased approach. First, we introduce a methodology for creating a human readable list of changes. Next, we utilize partial-area taxonomies, which are compact summaries of SNOMED CT's content and structure, to identify the "big picture" changes that occurred in the subhierarchy. We illustrate how partial-area taxonomies can be used to help identify groups of concepts that were affected by these editing operations and the nature of these changes. Modeling issues identified using our two-phase methodology are discussed.

  19. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  20. Eco-social processes influencing infectious disease emergence and spread.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Betson, Martha; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalization and urbanization, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.

  1. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  2. Case Report: Infectious Diseases in Pilgrims Visiting the Holy Land.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Orna; Blum, Arnon; Marva, Esther; Katz, Adina; Tzadok, Bat-Sheva; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad; Peretz, Avi

    2017-08-01

    Every year Christian pilgrims from around the world visit the holy sites located around the Sea of Galilee. Some become ill during their stay with infectious diseases that were acquired in their country of origin, and are hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center. They pose a diagnostic challenge due to language barriers, the rarity of these infections in Israel, and the fact that diagnostic tests are not readily available. All patient records from 2015 of Holy Land tourists hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center were screened for the diagnosis of imported zoonotic diseases that are not commonly diagnosed in Israel. Three patients who were on a Holy Land tour were hospitalized during 2015 with laboratory-confirmed diagnostically challenging zoonotic infectious diseases: a 91-year-old priest from Ethiopia diagnosed with relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis, an 85-year-old retired mountaineer from New Hampshire diagnosed with human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and a 57-year-old farmer from central Brazil diagnosed with leptospirosis. These case reports emphasize the importance of considering imported zoonotic infectious diseases and obtaining appropriate diagnostic tests when treating Holy Land travelers to Israel.

  3. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  4. The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    The Bug Stops Here Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases Donald F. Thompson, Joel...2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases 5a...Anthony J. McMichael, “ Social and Environmental Risk Factors in the Emergence of Infectious Diseases,” Nature Medicine, December 2004, vol. 10, no. 12

  5. Temporally Varying Relative Risks for Infectious Diseases: Implications for Infectious Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Edward; Pitzer, Virginia E; O'Hagan, Justin J; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, although they are often modified by other, nontemporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent studies suggest that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection). Patterns of change in the age groups affected over the course of seasonal outbreaks can provide clues to the types of pathogens that could be responsible for diseases for which an infectious cause is suspected. Changing apparent efficacy of vaccines during trials may provide clues to the vaccine's mode of action and/or indicate risk heterogeneity in the trial population. Declining importance of unusual behavioral risk factors may be a signal of increased local transmission of an infection. We review these developments and the related public health implications.

  6. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  7. A Primer on Infectious Disease Bacterial Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Petkau, Aaron; Knox, Natalie; Graham, Morag; Van Domselaar, Gary

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of large-scale genomics projects is increasing due to the availability of affordable high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. The use of HTS for bacterial infectious disease research is attractive because one whole-genome sequencing (WGS) run can replace multiple assays for bacterial typing, molecular epidemiology investigations, and more in-depth pathogenomic studies. The computational resources and bioinformatics expertise required to accommodate and analyze the large amounts of data pose new challenges for researchers embarking on genomics projects for the first time. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of a bacterial genomics projects from beginning to end, with a particular focus on the planning and computational requirements for HTS data, and provide a general understanding of the analytical concepts to develop a workflow that will meet the objectives and goals of HTS projects. PMID:28590251

  8. Improving vaccine trials in infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lipsitch, Marc; Eyal, Nir

    2017-07-14

    Unprecedented global effort is under way to facilitate the testing of countermeasures in infectious disease emergencies. Better understanding of the various options for trial design is needed in advance of outbreaks, as is preliminary global agreement on the most suitable designs for the various scenarios. What would enhance the speed, validity, and ethics of clinical studies of such countermeasures? Focusing on studies of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in emergencies, we highlight three needs: for formal randomized trials-even in most emergencies; for individually randomized trials-even in many emergencies; and for six areas of innovation in trial methodology. These needs should inform current updates of protocols and roadmaps. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis.

  10. Confidentiality. 13: The notification of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimond, B

    Jenny Rose was a paediatric community nurse who regularly visited a child with a chronic lung condition who was being nursed at home. On one visit she noticed that the child's mother, Jane, appeared to be very pale and thin and was told that the mother had a severe gastric disorder with diarrhoea. From the description of the illness, Jenny thought that Jane might be suffering from typhoid. Jane worked as a cook in a restaurant, was unwilling to seek medical advice and intended going to work that night. Jenny was concerned that Jane could have a serious notifiable infectious disease and therefore be a danger to customers in the restaurant. Jane insisted that Jenny should keep the information confidential. Where does Jenny stand?

  11. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  12. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  13. Sex differences in immune responses to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Julia; Jung, Norma; Robinson, Nirmal; Lehmann, Clara

    2015-08-01

    The influence of sex hormones is recognized to account for the susceptibility and distinct outcomes of diverse infectious diseases. This review discusses several variables including differences in behavior and exposure to pathogens, genetic, and immunological factors. Understanding sex-based differences in immunity during different infectious diseases is crucial in order to provide optimal disease management for both sexes.

  14. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  15. Preparation of commercial quantities of a hyperimmune human intravenous immunoglobulin preparation against an emerging infectious disease: the example of pandemic H1N1 influenza.

    PubMed

    Kreil, Thomas R; Mc Vey, John K; Lei, Laura Shau-Ping; Camacho, Laureano; Wodal, Walter; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Segura, Edy; Vandamme, Etienne; Gavit, Patrick; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Barrett, P Noel; Baker, Donald A

    2012-04-01

    The recent H1N1 pandemic provided an opportunity to conceptually assess the possibility of rapidly providing a "hyperimmune" human immunoglobulin (H-IVIG) to an emerging infectious disease, in useful quantities with respect to public health. Commercial-scale H-IVIG production from plasma collected from donors convalescent from or vaccinated against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus is described. A special protocol was implemented for the collection, processing, and shipment of plasma from previously qualified source plasma donors, self-identifying as convalescent from or vaccinated against H1N1 influenza. A licensed IVIG manufacturing process was utilized for the preparation of two commercial lots of approximately 50 kg 10% human IVIG preparation in total. The H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization antibody titers of the resulting H-IVIG preparations were determined and compared with standard preparations. Twenty-six plasma collection centers participated in the protocol. Donor enrollment exceeded 300 donors per week and within 30 days of protocol deployment plasma was being collected at a rate of more than 2000 L/week. Manufacture of both H-IVIG lots was unremarkable and both lots met the requirements for commercial release and the bulk of the product was distributed in normal commercial channels. Examination of plasma pools and final IVIG product confirmed pandemic H1N1 antibody titers substantially higher than those collected before the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 virus. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing a H-IVIG preparation at large scale relatively rapidly, with a significant enrichment in antibodies to the H1N1 influenza, achieved by donor self-identification. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Significant publications on infectious diseases pharmacotherapy in 2014.

    PubMed

    Phe, Kady; Cadle, Richard M; Guervil, David J; Guzman, Oscar E; Lockwood, Ashley M; Perez, Katherine K; Vuong, Nancy N; Aitken, Samuel L

    2015-08-15

    The most important articles on infectious diseases (ID) pharmacotherapy published in the peer-reviewed literature in 2014, as nominated and selected by panels of pharmacists and others with ID expertise, are summarized. Members of the Houston Infectious Diseases Network were asked to nominate articles published in 2014 from prominent peer-reviewed journals that were felt to have a major impact in the field of ID pharmacotherapy. A list of 19 nominated articles on general ID-related topics and 9 articles specifically related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was compiled. In a national online survey, members of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) were asked to select from the list 10 general ID articles believed to have made a significant contribution to the field of ID pharmacotherapy and 1 article contributing to HIV/AIDS pharmacotherapy. Of the 291 SIDP members surveyed, 134 (46%) and 56 (19%) participated in the selection of general ID-related articles and HIV/AIDS-related articles, respectively. The 11 highest-ranked papers (10 general ID-related articles, 1 HIV/AIDS-related article) are summarized here. With the vast number of articles published each year, it is difficult to remain up-to-date on current, significant ID pharmacotherapy publications. This review of significant publications in 2014 may be helpful by lessening this burden. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of global climate on infectious disease: the cholera model.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2002-10-01

    Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks.

  18. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  19. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  20. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  1. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  2. The bovine model for elucidating the role of γδ T cells in controlling infectious diseases of importance to cattle and humans.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Cynthia L; Telfer, Janice C

    2015-07-01

    There are several instances of co-investigation and related discoveries and achievements in bovine and human immunology; perhaps most interesting is the development of the BCG vaccine, the tuberculin skin test and the more recent interferon-gamma test that were developed first in cattle to prevent and diagnosis bovine tuberculosis and then applied to humans. There are also a number of immune-physiological traits that ruminant share with humans including the development of their immune systems in utero which increases the utility of cattle as a model for human immunology. These are reviewed here with a particular focus on the use of cattle to unravel γδ T cell biology. Based on the sheer number of γδ T cells in this γδ T cell high species, it is reasonable to expect γδ T cells to play an important role in protective immune responses. For that reason alone cattle may provide good models for elucidating at least some of the roles γδ T cells play in protective immunity in all species. This includes fundamental research on γδ T cells as well as the responses of ruminant γδ T cells to a variety of infectious disease situations including to protozoan and bacterial pathogens. The role that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) play in the activation of γδ T cells may be unique relative to αβ T cells. Here we focus on that of the γδ T cell specific family of molecules known as WC1 or T19 in ruminants, which are part of the CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) family that includes SCART1 and SCART2 expressed on murine γδ T cells. We review the evidence for WC1 being a PRR as well as an activating co-receptor and the role that γδ T cells bearing these receptors play in immunity to leptospirosis and tuberculosis. This includes the generation of memory responses to vaccines, thereby continuing the tradition of co-discovery between cattle and humans.

  3. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  4. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  5. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones.

  6. Synthetic Biology-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics for Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting-Yen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-09-22

    Infectious diseases outpace all other causes of death in low-income countries, posing global health risks, laying stress on healthcare systems and societies, and taking an avoidable human toll. One solution to this crisis is early diagnosis of infectious disease, which represents a powerful way to optimize treatment, increase patient survival rate, and decrease healthcare costs. However, conventional early diagnosis methods take a long time to generate results, lack accuracy, and are known to seriously underperform with regard to fungal and viral infections. Synthetic biology offers a fast and highly accurate alternative to conventional infectious disease diagnosis. In this review, we outline obstacles to infectious disease diagnostics and discuss two emerging alternatives: synthetic viral diagnostic systems and biosensors. We argue that these synthetic biology-based approaches may overcome diagnostic obstacles in infectious disease and improve health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Immune responses to infectious diseases in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Raftos, David

    2015-10-01

    Many species of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) are important in fisheries and aquaculture, whilst others are critical to ecosystem structure and function. These crucial roles mean that considerable attention has been paid to the immune responses of bivalves such as oysters, clams and mussels against infectious diseases that can threaten the viability of entire populations. As with many invertebrates, bivalves have a comprehensive repertoire of immune cells, genes and proteins. Hemocytes represent the backbone of the bivalve immune system. However, it is clear that mucosal tissues at the interface with the environment also play a critical role in host defense. Bivalve immune cells express a range of pattern recognition receptors and are highly responsive to the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns. Their responses to infection include chemotaxis, phagolysosomal activity, encapsulation, complex intracellular signaling and transcriptional activity, apoptosis, and the induction of anti-viral states. Bivalves also express a range of inducible extracellular recognition and effector proteins, such as lectins, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins, thioester bearing proteins, lipopolysaccharide and β1,3-glucan-binding proteins, fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and antimicrobial proteins. The identification of FREPs and other highly diversified gene families in bivalves leaves open the possibility that some of their responses to infection may involve a high degree of pathogen specificity and immune priming. The current review article provides a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, description of these factors and how they are regulated by infectious agents. It concludes that one of the remaining challenges is to use new "omics" technologies to understand how this diverse array of factors is integrated and controlled during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough

    PubMed Central

    Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Contact tracing (also known as partner notification) is a primary means of controlling infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little work has been done to determine the optimal level of investment in contact tracing. In this paper, we present a methodology for evaluating the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing. We develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among a network of individuals in order to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different levels of contact tracing. We show that contact tracing is likely to have diminishing returns to scale in investment: incremental investments in contact tracing yield diminishing reductions in disease prevalence. In conjunction with a cost-effectiveness threshold, we then determine the optimal amount that should be invested in contact tracing. We first assume that the only incremental disease control is contact tracing. We then extend the analysis to consider the optimal allocation of a budget between contact tracing and screening for exogenous infection, and between contact tracing and screening for endogenous infection. We discuss how a simulation model of this type, appropriately tailored, could be used as a policy tool for determining the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing for a specific disease in a specific population. We present an example application to contact tracing for chlamydia control. PMID:18074967

  10. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  11. [Effectiveness of cefotaxime in pediatric infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Takimoto, M; Tasaki, T; Kusunoki, Y; Yoshioka, H; Hiramoto, A; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Maruyama, S; Mukai, N; Takahashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Cefotaxime (CTX) was administered to 117 pediatric patients. Although 26 of these patients were excluded from the clinical evaluation of the study because other antimicrobial agents were given concomitantly with CTX or because no infectious diseases were proved, these cases were evaluated for adverse effects of the drug. The remaining 91 cases were evaluated for clinical effect; pneumonia in 56 cases, septicemia in 5, suspected septicemia in 5, meningitis (aseptic cases included) in 3, urinary tract infection in 5 and other diseases in 17. No pathogenic organisms were identified in any of the pneumonia cases, even either by bacterial culture or other laboratory test methods. Pathogens of septicemia were E. coli in 3 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 and E. agglomerans in 1. Those of urinary tract infections were E. coli in 3 cases, a mixed infection of S. aureus and an unidentified species of Gram-negative rods in 1, and unknown in 1. Clinical effectiveness rates of CTX were 78.6% in pneumonia and 100% in septicemia, suspected septicemia and urinary tract infections. One patient with purulent meningitis caused by H. influenzae was also treated with CTX successfully. Adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 12 cases (12/117 = 10.3%); rash in 2 cases, vomiting in 1, abdominal pain in 1, diarrhea in 5, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in 1, eosinophilia in 3 and elevation of liver enzymes (GOT and LDH) in 1.

  12. Spontaneous generation of infectious prion disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan-María; Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrP(C) causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrP(C) sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrP(C) sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrP(C) mutations.

  13. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  14. Assessing cyber-user awareness of an emerging infectious disease: evidence from human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biyao; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xingqin; Chen, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cyber-user awareness of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 in Zhejiang, China. Daily Baidu index values were compared for different keywords, different periods (epidemic and non-epidemic), different levels of epidemic publicity (whether new cases were publicized), and different cities (divided into high, medium, low, and zero groups according to the number of cases). Furthermore, the correlation between the daily Baidu index values and the daily number of new cases was analyzed. Three epidemic periods (periods A/C/E) and three non-epidemic periods (periods B/D/F) were identified from April 2013 to May 2015 according to the curves of daily new cases. Each epidemic period was followed by a non-epidemic period. Baidu index values using 'H7N9' as a keyword were higher than the values using the keyword '' (avian influenza in Chinese) in earlier periods, but the situation reversed in later periods. Index values for 'H7N9' in the epidemic periods were higher than in the non-epidemic periods. In the first epidemic period (period A), the Baidu index values for 'H7N9' showed no difference between the different levels of epidemic publicity and had no correlation with the daily number of new cases. The index values in cities without reported cases showed no difference from the values recorded in the medium and low groups. However, a difference and a correlation were found in a later epidemic period. The Baidu index would be a useful tool for assessing cyber-user awareness of an emerging infectious disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  16. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  17. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  18. Climate change and the geographic distribution of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua

    2009-12-01

    Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants, will be a major influence on human disease distributions are useful to help identify research needs but are probably artificially polarized. We have at least identified many of the critical geophysical constraints, transport opportunities, biotic requirements for some disease systems, and some of the socioeconomic factors that govern the process of migration and establishment of parasites and pathogens. Furthermore, we are beginning to develop a mechanistic understanding of many of these variables at specific sites. Better predictive understanding will emerge in the coming years from analyses regarding how these variables interact with each other.

  19. Infectious disease, the innate immune response, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Meneghin, Alessia; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    The unrelenting and destructive progression of most fibrotic responses in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, integumentary, and alimentary systems remains a major medical challenge for which therapies are desperately needed. The pathophysiology of fibrosis remains an enigma, but considerable research and debate surrounds the question of whether chronic inflammation is the key driver of unrestrained wound healing (i.e., the fibrotic response) in these and other organ systems. This Review describes how infectious pathogens, chronic inflammation, and unrestrained fibroproliferation are likely to be part of a dynamic, unrelenting process propelling human fibrotic diseases. PMID:17332880

  20. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  1. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  2. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  3. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Infectious Diseases and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Satish K.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN. PMID:24403542

  4. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    PubMed

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  5. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

  6. The Lancet Infectious Diseases HIV Prevention Resource Center.

    PubMed

    McConnell, John

    2016-10-01

    In collaboration with the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), The Lancet Infectious Diseases has launched a free HIV prevention resource centre (http://hivprevent.thelancet.com). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infectiousness of malaria-endemic human populations to vectors.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Gerry F; Ross, Amanda; Smith, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Despite its key role in determining the stability and intensity of malaria transmission, the infectiousness of human populations to mosquitoes has rarely been estimated. Field-based analyses of malaria transmission have frequently relied on the prevalence of asexual parasites or gametocytes as proxies for infectiousness. We now summarize empirical data on human infectiousness from Africa and Papua New Guinea. Over a wide range of transmission intensities there is little relationship between the infectiousness of human populations to vector mosquitoes and mosquito-to-human transmission intensity. We compare these data with the predictions of a stochastic simulation model of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology. This model predicted little variation in the infectiousness of the human population for entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) greater than approximately 10 infectious bites per year, demonstrating that the lack of relationship between the EIR and the infectious reservoir can be explained without invoking any effects of acquired transmission-blocking immunity. The near absence of field data from areas with an EIR < 10 per year precluded validation of the model predictions for low EIR values. These results suggest that interventions reducing mosquito-to-human transmission will have little or no effect on human infectiousness at the levels of transmission found in most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Unless very large reductions in transmission can be achieved, measures to prevent mosquito-to-human transmission need to be complemented with interventions that reduce the density or infectiousness of blood stage parasites.

  8. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-15

    and hepatitis. Leishmaniasis Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease transmitted to man by human-biting female phlebotomine sandflies . Many...develop in the gut of female sandflies and are transmitted to the vertebrate host during a blood meal. Promastigotes rapidly parasitize macrophages...The density of mosquitoes depends upon the environmental conditions. In the rainy weather, the temperature decreases and humidity increases, therefore

  9. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  10. [Treatment of infectious diseases in al-Andalus].

    PubMed

    Casal, M T; Casal, M

    2004-12-01

    The treatment used in Islamic Spain, al-Andalus, for a number of infectious diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, gonococcal disease, diarrhea, smallpox, measles, parasitic diseases, etc., is reviewed briefly. The different remedies of plant, animal and mineral extracts employed by renowned physicians of the time, such as Isaac, Arib ibn Said, Abulcasis, al-Gafiqi and Averroes among others, are analyzed briefly to provide an understanding of the approach to the treatment of infectious diseases nowadays known to be caused by microorganisms.

  11. Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Matthew H.; Keenan, Donald C.; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization. PMID:20007179

  12. Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bonds, Matthew H; Keenan, Donald C; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2010-04-22

    While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

  13. Are there characteristics of infectious diseases that raise special ethical issues?

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles B; Battin, Margaret P; Jacobson, Jay A; Francis, Leslie P; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Asplund, Emily P; Domek, Gretchen J; Hawkins, Beverly

    2004-05-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of infectious diseases that raise special medical and social ethical issues, and explores ways of integrating both current bioethical and classical public health ethics concerns. Many of the ethical issues raised by infectious diseases are related to these diseases' powerful ability to engender fear in individuals and panic in populations. We address the association of some infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates, the sense that infectious diseases are caused by invasion or attack on humans by foreign micro-organisms, the acute onset and rapid course of many infectious diseases, and, in particular, the communicability of infectious diseases. The individual fear and community panic associated with infectious diseases often leads to rapid, emotionally driven decision making about public health policies needed to protect the community that may be in conflict with current bioethical principles regarding the care of individual patients. The discussion includes recent examples where dialogue between public health practitioners and medical-ethicists has helped resolve ethical issues that require us to consider the infected patient as both a victim with individual needs and rights and as a potential vector of disease that is of concern to the community.

  14. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  15. Fatal Infectious Disease Surveillance in a Medical Examiner Database1

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Kurt B.; Yoon, Steven S.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing infectious disease deaths, the emergence of new infections, and bioterrorism have made surveillance for infectious diseases a public health concern. Medical examiners and coroners certify approximately 20% of all deaths that occur within the United States and can be a key source of information regarding infectious disease deaths. We hypothesized that a computer-assisted search tool (algorithm) could detect infectious disease deaths from a medical examiner database, thereby reducing the time and resources required to perform such surveillance manually. We developed two algorithms, applied them to a medical examiner database, and verified the cases identified against the opinion of a panel of experts. The algorithms detected deaths with infectious components with sensitivities from 67% to 94%, and predictive value positives ranging from 8% to 49%. Algorithms can be useful for surveillance in medical examiner offices that have limited resources or for conducting surveillance across medical examiner jurisdictions. PMID:15078596

  16. Unusual climatic conditions and infectious diseases: observations made by Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kosmidis, John; Daikos, George K

    2010-12-01

    About 2500 years ago, Hippocrates made noteworthy observations about the influence of climate on public health. He believed that people living in cities with different climate may suffer from different diseases. Hippocrates also observed that abrupt climatic changes or unusual weather conditions affect public health, especially the incidence and severity of various infectious diseases, including gastrointestinal infections, tuberculosis, and central nervous system infections. We believe that Hippocrates' scientific observations are great early historic examples that stress to modern infectious diseases researchers and clinicians the need to study intensively the effect of the occurring global climate changes to infectious diseases in order to help in the prevention of possible epidemics of infections.

  17. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S.; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  18. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  19. Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Fishman, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease transmission through organ and tissue transplantation has been associated with severe complications in recipients. Determination of donor-derived infectious risk associated with organ and tissue transplantation is challenging and limited by availability and performance characteristics of current donor epidemiologic screening (e.g., questionnaire) and laboratory testing tools. Common methods and standards for evaluating potential donors of organs and tissues are needed to facilitate effective data collection for assessing the risk for infectious disease transmission. Research programs can use advanced microbiological technologies to define infectious risks posed by pathogens that are known to be transplant transmissible and provide insights into transmission potential of emerging infectious diseases for which transmission characteristics are unknown. Key research needs are explored. Stakeholder collaboration for surveillance and research infrastructure is required to enhance transplant safety. PMID:22840823