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Sample records for human intestinal smooth

  1. Smooth Muscle Strips for Intestinal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M.; Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:25486279

  2. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  3. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B; Sweeney, H Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. PMID:26893369

  4. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt. Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. PMID:26893369

  5. Intestinal smooth muscle phenotype determines enteric neuronal survival via GDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Han, T Y; Lourenssen, S; Miller, K G; Blennerhassett, M G

    2015-04-01

    Intestinal inflammation causes initial axonal degeneration and neuronal death, as well as the proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), but subsequent axonal outgrowth leads to re-innervation. We recently showed that expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the critical neurotrophin for the post-natal enteric nervous system (ENS) is upregulated in ISMC by inflammatory cytokines, leading us to explore the relationship between ISMC growth and GDNF expression. In co-cultures of myenteric neurons and ISMC, GDNF or fetal calf serum (FCS) was equally effective in supporting neuronal survival, with neurons forming extensive axonal networks among the ISMC. However, only GDNF was effective in low-density cultures where neurons lacked contact with ISMC. In early-passage cultures of colonic circular smooth muscle cells (CSMC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting showed that proliferation was associated with expression of GDNF, and the successful survival of neonatal neurons co-cultured on CSMC was blocked by vandetanib or siGDNF. In tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, immunocytochemistry showed the selective expression of GDNF in proliferating CSMC, suggesting that smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS in vivo as well as in vitro. However, high-passage CSMC expressed significantly less GDNF and failed to support neuronal survival, while expressing reduced amounts of smooth muscle marker proteins. We conclude that in the inflamed intestine, smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS, and thus its own re-innervation, by expression of GDNF. In chronic inflammation, a compromised smooth muscle phenotype may lead to progressive neural damage. Intestinal stricture formation in human disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), may be an endpoint of failure of this homeostatic mechanism.

  6. Small intestinal submucosa seeded with intestinal smooth muscle cells in a rodent jejunal interposition model

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Harry H.; Dunn, James C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a porcine-derived, acellular, collagen-based matrix that has been tested without seeded smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for intestinal tissue engineering. We examined the expression patterns of contractile proteins of SIS with SMCs implanted in an in vivo rodent model. Materials and methods Intestinal SMCs were isolated from Lewis rat pups. Four-ply tubular SMCs-seeded SIS or blank SIS scaffolds were implanted in an adult rat jejunal interposition model. Recipients were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following the implantation. The retrieved specimens were examined using antibodies against contractile proteins of SMCs. Results Cultured intestinal SMCs expressed α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin, and less smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) in vitro. Cell-seeded SIS scaffolds contracted significantly over 8 weeks of implantation but were comparable to SIS scaffolds without cell seeding. Implanted cell-seeded SIS scaffolds at 2 weeks expressed extensive α-SMA, some calponin, and minimal SM-MHC. At 4 weeks, α-SMA-expressing cells decreased significantly, whereas calponin or SM-MHC expressing cells were rarely detected. A small number of α-SMA-expressing cells were present at 8 weeks, whereas more calponin or SM-MHC expressing cells emerged in proximity with the anastomotic interface. Conclusions Cell-seeded SIS contracted significantly after implantation, but the expressions of contractile proteins were present at the site of SIS interposition. No organized smooth muscle was formed at the site of implantation. A better scaffold design is needed to produce structured smooth muscle. PMID:21937060

  7. Effect of potassium and acetylcholine on canine intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hara, Y; Szurszewski, J H

    1986-03-01

    Mechanical and intracellular electrical activity were recorded simultaneously from small intestinal smooth muscle of the dog. Tonic and phasic contractions due to exogenous acetylcholine and elevated external K+ concentration were spike-dependent in longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers and spike-independent in the outer circular muscle layer. Voltage-tension curves were generated by graded depolarization of the membrane. In spike-dependent longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers the threshold voltage for initiation of spikes and contraction was approximately --53 mV. In spike-independent outer circular muscle layer the voltage threshold for contraction was approximately -42 mV. The resting membrane potential in longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers was close to the voltage threshold for initiation of spikes and contraction. In contrast, in the outer circular muscle it was approximately 20 mV more negative to the voltage threshold for contraction. In the outer circular muscle layer of whole-thickness preparations an increase in the amplitude of phasic contractions caused by acetylcholine was associated with an increase in the amplitude of the slow waves. Tone was related to the resting membrane potential. In preparations of isolated outer circular muscle acetylcholine caused depolarization of the membrane potential, slow waves and phasic contractions; comparable depolarization by increases in external K+ concentration did not induce slow waves or phasic contractions. Comparison of the effect of acetylcholine on outer circular muscle with the voltage-tension curve for this muscle layer showed that the top of the slow wave was associated with just the contractile force predicted by the voltage-tension curve. This suggests that acetylcholine altered the force of phasic contraction of the outer circular muscle through a voltage-dependent mechanism. In non-neural cells located on the serosal side of the outer circular muscle layer of the dog, cat

  8. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  9. Smooth muscle NOS, colocalized with caveolin-1, modulates contraction in mouse small intestine

    PubMed Central

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Cho, Woo Jung; Cena, Jonathan; Schulz, Richard; Daniel, Edwin E

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric neurons is activated during peristalsis to produce nitric oxide which relaxes intestinal smooth muscle. A putative nNOS is also found in the membrane of intestinal smooth muscle cells in mouse and dog. In this study we studied the possible functions of this nNOS expressed in mouse small intestinal smooth muscle colocalized with caveolin-1(Cav-1). Cav-1 knockout mice lacked nNOS in smooth muscle and provided control tissues. 60 mM KCl was used to increase intracellular [Ca2+] through L-type Ca2+ channel opening and stimulate smooth muscle NOS activity in intestinal tissue segments. An additional contractile response to LNNA (100 μM, NOS inhibitor) was observed in KCl-contracted tissues from control mice and was almost absent in tissues from Cav-1 knockout mice. Disruption of caveolae with 40 mM methyl-β cyclodextrin in tissues from control mice led to the loss of Cav-1 and nNOS immunoreactivity from smooth muscle as shown by immunohistochemistry and a reduction in the response of these tissues to N-ω-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA). Reconstitution of membrane cholesterol using water soluble cholesterol in the depleted segments restored the immunoreactivity and the response to LNNA added after KCl. Nicardipine (1 μM) blocked the responses to KCl and LNNA confirming the role of L-type Ca2+ channels. ODQ (1 μM, soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor) had the same effect as inhibition of NOS following KCl. We conclude that the activation of nNOS, localized in smooth muscle caveolae, by calcium entering through L-type calcium channels triggers nitric oxide production which modulates muscle contraction by a cGMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:18400048

  10. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.

  11. Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Alfonso, Zeni; Zhang, Rong; Leung, Joanne; Wu, Benjamin; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. For such strategies to succeed, a reliable source of smooth muscle precursor cells must be identified. Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells. In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. To induce differentiation, PLA cells were cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium. Smooth muscle differentiation of PLA cells induced genetic expression of all smooth muscle markers and further confirmed by increased protein expression of smooth muscle cell-specific α actin (ASMA), calponin, caldesmon, SM22, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and smoothelin. Clonal studies of adipose derived multipotent cells demonstrated differentiation of these cells into smooth muscle cells in addition to trilineage differentiation capacity. Importantly, smooth muscle-differentiated cells, but not their precursors, exhibit the functional ability to contract and relax in direct response to pharmacologic agents. In conclusion, adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role. PMID:16880387

  12. Pasteur effect in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, G; Lundholm, L

    1985-01-01

    The increase in lactate production on changing from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, i.e. the Pasteur effect, has been reported to be small in vascular muscle and especially in aorta. It has been suggested that this may be an artefact caused by damage to the intimal endothelium. We have compared the Pasteur effect in different kinds of pig arteries, but also in rabbit colon. The aerobic lactate production in 60 min was 11-15 mumol/g in the aorta and the carotid artery, but 3 mumol/g in the mesenteric and renal arteries and 4 mumol/g in the rabbit colon. The increase in lactate production under anaerobic conditions was 12-20 mumol/g/60 min in the carotid artery, aorta and rabbit colon and 10 mumol/g/60 min in the mesenteric and renal arteries. When calculated in per cent, the Pasteur effect was greater in the mesenteric artery than in the aorta, but the actual rise in lactate production in mumol/g was higher in the aorta and carotid artery. The high aerobic lactate production of smooth muscle in vitro may be related to its low ability to oxidize glucose; some other substrates may be preferentially oxidized when present in vitro or in vivo.

  13. Laminin alpha5 chain is required for intestinal smooth muscle development.

    PubMed

    Bolcato-Bellemin, Anne Laure; Lefebvre, Olivier; Arnold, Christiane; Sorokin, Lydia; Miner, Jeffrey H; Kedinger, Michèle; Simon-Assmann, Patricia

    2003-08-15

    Laminins (comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma chains) are heterotrimeric glycoproteins integral to all basement membranes. The function of the laminin alpha5 chain in the developing intestine was defined by analysing laminin alpha5(-/-) mutants and by grafting experiments. We show that laminin alpha5 plays a major role in smooth muscle organisation and differentiation, as excessive folding of intestinal loops and delay in the expression of specific markers are observed in laminin alpha5(-/-) mice. In the subepithelial basement membrane, loss of alpha5 expression was paralleled by ectopic or accelerated deposition of laminin alpha2 and alpha4 chains; this may explain why no obvious defects were observed in the villous form and enterocytic differentiation. This compensation process is attributable to mesenchyme-derived molecules as assessed by chick/mouse alpha5(-/-) grafted associations. Lack of the laminin alpha5 chain was accompanied by a decrease in epithelial alpha3beta1 integrin receptor expression adjacent to the epithelial basement membrane and of Lutheran blood group glycoprotein in the smooth muscle cells, indicating that these receptors are likely mediating interactions with laminin alpha5-containing molecules. Taken together, the data indicate that the laminin alpha5 chain is essential for normal development of the intestinal smooth muscle and point to possible mesenchyme-derived compensation to promote normal intestinal morphogenesis when laminin alpha5 is absent.

  14. Direct effect of croton oil on intestinal epithelial cells and colonic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Lan, Mei; Wu, Han-Ping; Shi, Yong-Quan; Lu, Ju; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kai-Cun; Jin, Jian-Ping; Fan, Dai Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the direct effect of croton oil (CO) on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) and guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells in vitro. METHODS: Growth curves of HIEC were drawn by MTT colorimetry. The dynamics of cell proliferation was analyzed with flow cytometry, and morphological changes were observed under light and electron microscopy after long-term (6 weeks) treatment with CO.Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was detected by dot blot in HIEC treated with CO. Genes related to CO were screened by DD-PCR, and the direct effect of CO on the contractility of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was observed. RESULTS: High concentration (20-40 mg·L-1) CO inhibited cell growth significantly (1, 3, 5, 7 d OD sequence: (20 mg·L-1 ) 0.040 ± 0.003, 0.081 ± 0.012, 0.147 ± 0.022,0.024 ± 0.016; (40 mg·L-1) 0.033 ± 0.044, 0.056 ± 0.012, 0.104 ± 0.010, 0.189 ± 0.006; OD control 0.031 ± 0.008, 0.096 ± 0.012, 0.173 ± 0.009, 0.300 ± 0.016, P < 0.01), which appeared to be related directly to the dosage. Compared with the control, the fraction number of cells in G1 phase decreased from 0.60 to 0.58, while that in S phase increased from 0.30 to 0.34 and DNA index also increased after 6 weeks of treatment with CO (the dosage was increased gradually from 4 to 40 mg·L-1). Light microscopic observation revealed that cells had karyomegaly, less plasma and karyoplasm lopsidedness. Electron microscopy also showed an increase in cell proliferation and in the quantity of abnormal nuclei with pathologic mitosis. Expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HIEC treated with CO. Thirteen differential cDNA fragments were cloned from HIEC treated with CO, one of which was 100 percent homologous with human mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II. The length of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was significantly shortened after treatment with CO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: At a high CO concentration ( > 20 mg·L-1

  15. Immortalization of primary human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Reyes, N; Halbert, C L; Smith, P P; Benditt, E P; McDougall, J K

    1992-01-01

    Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no signs of senescence with long-term passage. The first SMC line derived in this study has been maintained in continuous tissue culture for greater than 1 year (greater than 180 population doublings). The immortalized SMCs have decreased cell size and decreased content of muscle-specific alpha-actin filaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Southern blot analysis has demonstrated the stable integration of the E6/E7 ORFs in the retrovirally infected cells, and radioimmunoprecipitation has confirmed the continued expression of the E6 and E7 genes. Cytogenetic studies of the SMC lines have revealed essentially diploid populations except for the myometrial clonal line, which became aneuploid at late passage (greater than 125 doublings). These cell lines were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Images PMID:1311088

  16. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  17. Orthogonally oriented scaffolds with aligned fibers for engineering intestinal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masae; Lei, Nan Ye; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling cellular alignment is critical in engineering intestines with desired structure and function. Although previous studies have examined the directional alignment of cells on the surface (x-y plane) of parallel fibers, quantitative analysis of the cellular alignment inside implanted scaffolds with oriented fibers has not been reported. This study examined the cellular alignment in the x-z and y-z planes of scaffolds made with two layers of orthogonally oriented fibers. The cellular orientation inside implanted scaffolds was evaluated with immunofluorescence. Quantitative analysis of coherency between cell orientation and fiber direction confirmed that cells aligned along the fibers not only on the surface (x-y plane) but also inside the scaffolds (x-z & y-z planes). Our study demonstrated that two layers of orthogonally aligned scaffolds can generate the histological organization of cells similar to that of intestinal circular and longitudinal smooth muscle. PMID:26001072

  18. Resveratrol causes cell cycle arrest, decreased collagen synthesis, and apoptosis in rat intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Schmiedlin-Ren, Phyllissa; Mathias, Jason S; Tang, Huaijing; Christman, Gregory M; Zimmermann, Ellen M

    2012-02-01

    One of the most difficult and treatment-resistant complications of Crohn's disease is the development of fibrotic intestinal strictures due to mesenchymal cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in berries, peanuts, grapes, and red wine, has been shown to inhibit fibrosis in vasculature, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and esophagus in animal models. Resveratrol has also been shown to inhibit oxidation, inflammation, and cell proliferation and to decrease collagen synthesis in several cell types or animal models. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol has antifibrotic effects on intestinal smooth muscle cells. Responses to resveratrol by cultured smooth muscle cells isolated from colons of untreated Lewis rats were examined; this rat strain is used in a model of Crohn's disease with prominent intestinal fibrosis. A relative decrease in cell numbers following treatment with 50 and 100 μM resveratrol was evident at 24 h (P ≤ 0.005). This effect was largely due to cell cycle arrest, with an increase in the percent of cells in S phase from 8 to 25-35% (P < 0.05). Cell viability was unchanged until 2-3 days of treatment when there was a 1.2- to 5.0-fold increase in the percent of apoptotic cells, depending on the assay (P < 0.05). Expression of collagen type I protein was decreased following treatment with resveratrol for 24 h (to 44 and 25% of control levels with 50 and 100 μM resveratrol, respectively; P < 0.05). Expression of procollagen types I and III mRNA was also decreased with resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol (50 μM) diminished the proliferative response to TGF-β₁ (P = 0.02) as well as IGF-I-stimulated collagen production (P = 0.02). Thus resveratrol decreases intestinal smooth muscle cell numbers through its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also decreases collagen synthesis by the cells. These effects could be useful in preventing the smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and collagen

  19. Polyamines transduce the nongenomic, androgen-induced calcium sensitization in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    González-Montelongo, María C; Marín, Raquel; Pérez, José A; Gómez, Tomás; Díaz, Mario

    2013-10-01

    Androgens regulate body development and differentiation through a variety of genotropic mechanisms, mostly in reproductive organs. In recent years a different scenario for sex hormone actions has emerged: the intestinal muscle. Thus, although estrogens relax intestinal muscle, androgens are powerful inducers of mechanical potentiation. This effect of androgens was intriguing because it is observed at physiological concentrations, is mediated by nongenomic mechanisms, and involves a phenomenon of calcium sensitization of contractile machinery by stimulating phosphorylation of 20 kDa myosin light chain by Rho-associated kinase. Here we have deciphered the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium sensitization and mechanical potentiation by androgens in male intestinal muscle as well as its tight relationship to polyamine metabolism. Thus, androgens stimulate polyamine synthesis, and the inhibition of polyamine synthesis abolishes androgen-induced calcium sensitization and 20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation. We demonstrate that the first molecular step in the induction of calcium sensitization is a nonconventional activation of the adaptor protein RhoA, triggered by a transglutaminase-catalyzed polyamination of RhoA, which is then targeted to the membrane to activate Rho-associated kinase. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the physiological levels of androgens, through the modulation of polyamine metabolism and posttanslational modification of RhoA, activate a new signal transduction pathway in the intestinal smooth muscle to induce calcium sensitization. Furthermore, apart from being one of the few physiologically relevant nongenomic effects of androgens, these results might underlie the well-known gender differences in intestinal transits, thus expanding the nature's inventory of sex hormones effects.

  20. Visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

    2014-05-01

    An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle α-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle α-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility. PMID:23774747

  1. Visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

    2014-05-01

    An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle α-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle α-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility.

  2. Involvement of Interleukin-17A-Induced Hypercontractility of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells in Persistent Gut Motor Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Akiho, Hirotada; Tokita, Yohei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Kazuko; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ihara, Eikichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The etiology of post-inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction, after resolution of acute symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal infection, is largely unknown, however, a possible involvement of T cells is suggested. Methods Using the mouse model of T cell activation-induced enteritis, we investigated whether enhancement of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction by interleukin (IL)-17A is involved in postinflammatory GI hypermotility. Results Activation of CD3 induces temporal enteritis with GI hypomotility in the midst of, and hypermotility after resolution of, intestinal inflammation. Prolonged upregulation of IL-17A was prominent and IL-17A injection directly enhanced GI transit and contractility of intestinal strips. Postinflammatory hypermotility was not observed in IL-17A-deficient mice. Incubation of a muscle strip and SMCs with IL-17A in vitro resulted in enhanced contractility with increased phosphorylation of Ser19 in myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC), a surrogate marker as well as a critical mechanistic factor of SMC contractility. Using primary cultured murine and human intestinal SMCs, IκBζ- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated downregulation of the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), which suppresses muscarinic signaling of contraction by promoting inactivation/desensitization of Gαq/11 protein, has been suggested to be involved in IL-17A-induced hypercontractility. The opposite effect of L-1β was mediated by IκBζ and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Conclusions We propose and discuss the possible involvement of IL-17A and its downstream signaling cascade in SMCs in diarrheal hypermotility in various GI disorders. PMID:24796324

  3. Icariin Metabolism by Human Intestinal Microflora.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailong; Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2016-01-01

    Icariin is a major bioactive compound of Epimedii Herba, a traditional oriental medicine exhibiting anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoporosis activities. Recently, the estrogenic activities of icariin drew significant attention, but the published scientific data seemed not to be so consistent. To provide fundamental information for the study of the icaritin metabolism, the biotransformation of icariin by the human intestinal bacteria is reported for the first time. Together with human intestinal microflora, the three bacteria Streptococcus sp. MRG-ICA-B, Enterococcus sp. MRG-ICA-E, and Blautia sp. MRG-PMF-1 isolated from human intestine were reacted with icariin under anaerobic conditions. The metabolites including icariside II, icaritin, and desmethylicaritin, but not icariside I, were produced. The MRG-ICA-B and E strains hydrolyzed only the glucose moiety of icariin, and icariside II was the only metabolite. However, the MRG-PMF-1 strain metabolized icariin further to desmethylicaritin via icariside II and icaritin. From the results, along with the icariin metabolism by human microflora, it was evident that most icariin is quickly transformed to icariside II before absorption in the human intestine. We propose the pharmacokinetics of icariin should focus on metabolites such as icariside II, icaritin and desmethylicaritin to explain the discrepancy between the in vitro bioassay and pharmacological effects. PMID:27589718

  4. Tipping elements in the human intestinal ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Salonen, Anne; Scheffer, Marten; de Vos, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial communities living in the human intestine can have profound impact on our well-being and health. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that control this complex ecosystem. Here, based on a deep phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal microbiota in a thousand western adults, we identify groups of bacteria that exhibit robust bistable abundance distributions. These bacteria are either abundant or nearly absent in most individuals, and exhibit decreased temporal stability at the intermediate abundance range. The abundances of these bimodally distributed bacteria vary independently, and their abundance distributions are not affected by short-term dietary interventions. However, their contrasting alternative states are associated with host factors such as ageing and overweight. We propose that the bistable groups reflect tipping elements of the intestinal microbiota, whose critical transitions may have profound health implications and diagnostic potential. PMID:25003530

  5. Sympathetic axonopathies and hyperinnervation in the small intestine smooth muscle of aged Fischer 344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert J.; Hudson, Cherie N.; Powley, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that the intrinsic enteric nervous system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract sustains neuronal losses and reorganizes as it ages. In contrast, age-related remodeling of the extrinsic sympathetic projections to the wall of the gut is poorly characterized. The present experiment, therefore, surveyed the sympathetic projections to the aged small intestine for axonopathies. Furthermore, the experiment evaluated the specific prediction that catecholaminergic inputs undergo hyperplastic changes. Jejunal tissue was collected from 3-, 8-, 16-, and 24-month-old male Fischer 344 rats, prepared as whole mounts consisting of the muscularis, and processed immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzymatic marker for norepinephrine, and either the protein CD163 or the protein MHCII, both phenotypical markers for macrophages. Four distinctive sympathetic axonopathy profiles occurred in the small intestine of the aged rat: (1) swollen and dystrophic terminals, (2) tangled axons, (3) discrete hyperinnervated loci in the smooth muscle wall, including at the bases of Peyer's patches, and (4) ectopic hyperplastic or hyperinnervating axons in the serosa/subserosal layers. In many cases, the axonopathies occurred at localized and limited foci, involving only a few axon terminals, in a pattern consistent with incidences of focal ischemic, vascular, or traumatic insult. The present observations underscore the complexity of the processes of aging on the neural circuitry of the gut, with age-related GI functional impairments likely reflecting a constellation of adjustments that range from selective neuronal losses, through accumulation of cellular debris, to hyperplasias and hyperinnervation of sympathetic inputs. PMID:24104187

  6. Effects of trimebutine on cytosolic Ca2+ and force transitions in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, M; Kobayashi, T; Tamaki, H

    1991-04-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate on cytosolic free Ca2+ and force transitions in the guinea-pig taenia cecum were studied by fura-2 fluorometry and tension recording. The addition of 80 mM K+ induced a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension, followed by a sustained increase. Trimebutine (10 microM) suppressed both [Ca2+]i elevation and tension development. The tonic responses were more potently inhibited than the phasic responses. Phasic components gradually increased as the added K+ increased (10-40 mM). The relationship between the peak increases in [Ca2+]i and tension was not affected by trimebutine (10 microM). This means that trimebutine does not affect the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile elements. In a high K+ and Ca(2+)-free medium, carbachol (10 microM) or caffeine (30 mM) caused transient [Ca2+]i elevation and tension development in the smooth muscle. Trimebutine (10 microM) decreased the amplitude of both responses. Trimebutine (10 microM) inhibited the spontaneous fluctuations in [Ca2+]i and motility of taenia cecum in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.3 microM). These results suggest that trimebutine has two types of inhibitory actions on intestinal smooth muscle; one, the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels, and the other, the inhibition of Ca2+ release from intracellular storage sites. PMID:1868878

  7. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health.

    PubMed

    Miquel, S; Martín, R; Rossi, O; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Chatel, J M; Sokol, H; Thomas, M; Wells, J M; Langella, P

    2013-06-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved.

  8. The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplified animal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for the molecular interactions that occur at the interface between such microbes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community. The human microbiome project was recently launched as an international collaborative research effort to further promote this newly developing field and to pave the way to a new frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategies for the maintenance of human health. PMID:19147530

  9. Bioengineering functional human sphincteric and non-sphincteric gastrointestinal smooth muscle constructs.

    PubMed

    Rego, Stephen L; Zakhem, Elie; Orlando, Giuseppe; Bitar, Khalil N

    2016-04-15

    Digestion and motility of luminal content through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are achieved by cooperation between distinct cell types. Much of the 3 dimensional (3D) in vitro modeling used to study the GI physiology and disease focus solely on epithelial cells and not smooth muscle cells (SMCs). SMCs of the gut function either to propel and mix luminal contents (phasic; non-sphincteric) or to act as barriers to prevent the movement of luminal materials (tonic; sphincteric). Motility disorders including pyloric stenosis and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) affect sphincteric and non-sphincteric SMCs, respectively. Bioengineering offers a useful tool to develop functional GI tissue mimics that possess similar characteristics to native tissue. The objective of this study was to bioengineer 3D human pyloric sphincter and small intestinal (SI) constructs in vitro that recapitulate the contractile phenotypes of sphincteric and non-sphincteric human GI SMCs. Bioengineered 3D human pylorus and circular SI SMC constructs were developed and displayed a contractile phenotype. Constructs composed of human pylorus SMCs displayed tonic SMC characteristics, including generation of basal tone, at higher levels than SI SMC constructs which is similar to what is seen in native tissue. Both constructs contracted in response to potassium chloride (KCl) and acetylcholine (ACh) and relaxed in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These studies provide the first bioengineered human pylorus constructs that maintain a sphincteric phenotype. These bioengineered constructs provide appropriate models to study motility disorders of the gut or replacement tissues for various GI organs. PMID:26314281

  10. Receptors for substance P on isolated intestinal smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Souquet, J.C.; Bitar, K.N.; Grider, J.R.; Makhlouf, G.M.

    1987-11-01

    Two radioligands, /sup 125/I-labeled substance P (/sup 125/I-SP) and /sup 125/I-labeled substance K (/sup 125/I-SK), were used to characterize the kinetics and stoichiometry of binding of mammalian tachykinins (substance P (SP), substance K (SK), and neuromedin K (NK)) to smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle layer of guinea pig intestine. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-SP and /sup 125/I-SK was rapid, saturable, reversible, and temperature dependent. Binding attained 63-70% of steady-state binding within 1 min, coincidentally with the time of optimal contraction. The order of potency with which mammalian tachykinins and the SP antagonist, (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)SP, inhibited the binding of both radioligands was identical: SP greater than SK greater than NK greater than (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)SP, implying preferential interaction with a site that had highest affinity for SP. SK was 2-3 times, NK 3-4 times, and (D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9)SP 7-23 times less potent than SP (IC50 0.36 nM). Except for NK, the order of potency was similar to that for contraction of isolated muscle cells. The existence of binding sites with even higher affinity was suggested by the ability of muscle cells to contract in response to concentrations as low as 10(-13) M. These binding sites were not detectable at the concentration of radioligands used. It was concluded that a SP receptor is the only tachykinin receptor subtype present on intestinal muscle cells of the guinea pig.

  11. An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant1,2. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds3,4. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)5,6 that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the cryptvillus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response7–9. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies. PMID:25326803

  12. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M.; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments. PMID:26374193

  13. A low-molecular-weight inhibitor of the neutral proteinase from rat intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Carney, I T; Curtis, C G; Kay, J K; Birket, N

    1980-01-01

    1. Rat intestinal smooth muscle was shown to contain endogenous inhibitory activity towards the neutral trypsin-like muscle proteinase described previously [Beynon & Kay (1978) Biochem. J. 173, 291--298]. 2. Comtamination of the muscle tissue by mucosal, blood and pancreatic inhibitors was shown to be unlikely. 3. The inhibitory activity was resolved into high- and low-molecular-weight components. 4. The low-molecular-weight component was purified to homogeneity. It has a molecular weight of approx. 9000 and was stable over the pH range 3--11. 5. It inhibited the muscle proteinase competitively (Ki congruent to t microM), but had no effect on any of the other proteinases tested. 6. Leupeptin also inhibited the muscle proteinase competitively (Ki congruent to 0.3 microM), whereas the low-molecular weight proteins gastrin, glucagon and insulin B-chain had very little effect. 7. A role for a weakly binding inhibitor in modulating the influence of the neutral proteinase on intracellular protein degradation is considered. Images Fig. 4. PMID:7396824

  14. Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans.

    PubMed

    Fried, Bernard; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena

    2004-06-01

    Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of "night soil" (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.

  15. Dynamic efficiency of the human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Turroni, Silvia; Maccaferri, Simone; Figini, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2015-06-01

    The emerging dynamic dimensions of the human intestinal microbiota (IM) are challenging the traditional definition of healthy gut microbiota, principally based on the static concepts of phylogenetic and functional core. On the other hand, recent researches are revealing that the microbiota plasticity is strategic for several aspects of our biology, addressing the different immunological and metabolic needs at various ages, and adjusting the ecosystem services in response to different lifestyle, physiological states or diets. In light of these studies, we propose to revise the traditional concept of healthy human IM, including its degree of plasticity among the fundamental requisites for providing host health. In order to make a model taking into account the relative importance of IM core functions and plasticity for the maintenance of host health, we address to Economics, where the efficiency of a productive system is measured by computing static and dynamic parameters. PMID:25168339

  16. The human intestinal B-cell response.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J; Sollid, L M

    2016-09-01

    The intestinal immune system is chronically challenged by a huge plethora of antigens derived from the lumen. B-cell responses in organized gut-associated lymphoid tissues and regional lymph nodes that are driven chronically by gut antigens generate the largest population of antibody-producing cells in the body: the gut lamina propria plasma cells. Although animal studies have provided insights into mechanisms that underpin this dynamic process, some very fundamental differences in this system appear to exist between species. Importantly, this prevents extrapolation from mice to humans to inform translational research questions. Therefore, in this review we will describe the structures and mechanisms involved in the propagation, dissemination, and regulation of this immense plasma cell population in man. Uniquely, we will seek our evidence exclusively from studies of human cells and tissues. PMID:27461177

  17. Normal and abnormal intestinal absorption by humans

    PubMed Central

    Heizer, William D.

    1979-01-01

    Adults eating a Western diet digest and absorb ingested food containing approximately 100 g fat, 350 g carbohydrate, and 75 g protein daily. Normal fat absorption requires adequate gastric, pancreatic, liver-biliary, mucosal, and lymphatic function. Carbohydrate and protein absorption is much less dependent on liver-biliary and lymphatic function. The intestine has a large reserve capacity for digestion and absorption of nutrients which is due to both excess function and to adaptive changes which increase function in one segment of the digestive-absorptive system when it is decreased or lost in another segment. The large reserve capacity explains why most of the prevalent intestinal diseases seldom cause clinically detectable changes in absorption. However, there are more than 30 less-common human diseases which cause malabsorption of one or more nutrients. Those that cause the malabsorption syndrome, i.e., steatorrhea and weight loss, can be conveniently categorized according to the major deficiency leading to the absorptive defect as follows: insufficient pancreatic enzyme activity, insufficient bile acid, disease of the small intestinal wall, multiple defects, mechanism unknown, and drug-induced malabsorption. A few diseases, most of which are congenital, cause malabsorption of only one or a few related nutrients such as lactose malabsorption in lactase deficiency. Most of the tests currently in use for detecting and diagnosing the cause of malabsorption are relatively insensitive and nonspecific. Chemical analysis of the fat in a three-day stool collection remains the single best test for diagnosing the malabsorption syndrome. However, a breath test using Triolein labeled with either the radioactive or stable isotope of carbon may be an important recent advance. Other breath tests are also currently being investigated for quantitating absorption or malabsorption of various substances including bile acids and various sugars. Studies of the function of the

  18. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1999-01-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the ecology, epidemiology and related morbidity and development of new tools for the control of soil-transmitted helminths. Such knowledge has recognized the impact of helminth infections on the health of infected groups and has created a rational basis for their control. Schoolchildren harbour some of the most intense helminthic infections, which produce adverse effects on health, growth and scholastic performance. However, although great effort has been put into targeting school-age children, women of child-bearing age and pre-school children are two other groups at high risk of morbidity due to intestinal nematode infections. Highly effective and safety-tested, single-dose anthelminthic drugs are now available, permitting periodical deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups at affordable prices. Four anthelminthics against all intestinal nematodes are included in the WHO Essential Drug List (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel). Recently ivermectin has also been registered for use against Strongyloides stercoralis in humans. Several well-monitored country experiences have shown that chemotherapy-based control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminths is possible and highly cost-effective.

  19. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  20. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  1. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Wieck, Minna M.; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  2. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

  3. Grafts of porcine small intestinal submucosa seeded with cultured homologous smooth muscle cells for bladder repair in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to numerous complications associated to gastrointestinal augmented cystoplasty, this study aimed to analyze the anatomic repair of the bladder of 10 female dogs using grafts of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) seeded with cultured homologous smooth muscle cells, and compare them with the acellular SIS grafts. Results We assessed the possible side effects and complications of each type of graft by clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory findings. Anatomic repair of neoformed bladder was assessed by histological staining for H/E and Masson's Trichrome, analyzed with a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to the system of image analysis Image J. Conclusions We propose that SIS associated to homologous smooth cells can improve the quality of tissue repair, and consequently decrease the potential complications inherent to acellular SIS. PMID:23651843

  4. Exploring food effects on indinavir absorption with human intestinal fluids in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Holmstock, Nico; De Bruyn, Tom; Bevernage, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2013-04-11

    Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can be quite challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of fasted and fed state conditions on the intestinal absorption of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using simulated and human intestinal fluids in the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice. Although the solubility of indinavir was 6-fold higher in fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) as compared to fasted state HIF (FaHIF), the intestinal permeation of indinavir was 22-fold lower in FeHIF as compared to FaHIF. Dialysis experiments showed that only a small fraction of indinavir is accessible for absorption in FeHIF due to micellar entrapment, possibly explaining its low intestinal permeation. The presence of ritonavir, a known P-gp inhibitor, increased the intestinal permeation of indinavir by 2-fold in FaHIF, while there was no increase when using FeHIF. These data confirm that drug-food interactions form a complex interplay between solubility and permeability effects. The use of HIF in in situ intestinal perfusions holds great promise for biorelevant absorption evaluation as it allows to directly explore this complex solubility/permeability interplay on drug absorption.

  5. Transdifferentiation of human endothelial progenitors into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, HaYeun; Atchison, Leigh; Chen, Zaozao; Chakraborty, Syandan; Jung, Youngmee; Truskey, George A; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W

    2016-04-01

    Access to smooth muscle cells (SMC) would create opportunities for tissue engineering, drug testing, and disease modeling. Herein we report the direct conversion of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) by induced expression of MYOCD. The EPC undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement resembling that of mesenchymal cells within 3 days post initiation of MYOCD expression. By day 7, the reprogrammed cells show upregulation of smooth muscle markers ACTA2, MYH11, and TAGLN by qRT-PCR and ACTA2 and MYH11 expression by immunofluorescence. By two weeks, they resemble umbilical artery SMC in microarray gene expression analysis. The iSMC, in contrast to EPC control, show calcium transients in response to phenylephrine stimulation and a contractility an order of magnitude higher than that of EPC as determined by traction force microscopy. Tissue-engineered blood vessels constructed using iSMC show functionality with respect to flow- and drug-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction. PMID:26874281

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide Produced by Lactobacilli in Relaxation of Intestinal Smooth Muscles.

    PubMed

    Yarullina, D R; Mikheeva, R O; Sabirullina, G I; Zelenikhin, P V; Ilinskaya, O N; Sitdikova, G F

    2016-01-01

    Application of NO-producing lactobacilli to a rat jejunum segment induced muscle relaxation that was potentiated after activation of bacterial NO production with NO synthase substrate L-arginine. Similar changes in the intestinal contractile activity were observed in response to exogenous NO formed by sodium nitroprusside. These results indicated the involvement of NO synthesized by probiotic lactobacilli in the regulation of the intestinal motor function.

  7. Calcium oscillations in human mesenteric vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Dorado, Jorge; Garcia-Alonso, Mauricio; van Breemen, Cornelis; Tejerina, Teresa; Fameli, Nicola

    2014-02-28

    Phenylephrine (PE)-induced oscillatory fluctuations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) of vascular smooth muscle have been observed in many blood vessels isolated from a wide variety of mammals. Paradoxically, until recently similar observations in humans have proven elusive. In this study, we report for the first time observations of adrenergically-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in human mesenteric artery smooth muscle. In arterial segments preloaded with Fluo-4 AM and mounted on a myograph on the stage of a confocal microscope, we observed PE-induced oscillations in [Ca(2+)]i, which initiated and maintained vasoconstriction. These oscillations present some variability, possibly due to compromised health of the tissue. This view is corroborated by our ultrastructural analysis of the cells, in which we found only (5 ± 2)% plasma membrane-sarcoplasmic reticulum apposition, markedly less than measured in healthy tissue from laboratory animals. We also partially characterized the oscillations by using the inhibitory drugs 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and nifedipine. After PE contraction, all drugs provoked relaxation of the vessel segments, sometimes only partial, and reduced or inhibited oscillations, except CPA, which rarely caused relaxation. These preliminary results point to a potential involvement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the maintenance of the Ca(2+) oscillations observed in human blood vessels. PMID:24508261

  8. Intestinal and hepatic metabolism of glutamine and citrulline in humans.

    PubMed

    van de Poll, Marcel C G; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Boelens, Petra G; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Dejong, Cornelis H C

    2007-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in nitrogen homeostasis and intestinal substrate supply. It has been suggested that glutamine is a precursor for arginine through an intestinal-renal pathway involving inter-organ transport of citrulline. The importance of intestinal glutamine metabolism for endogenous arginine synthesis in humans, however, has remained unaddressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal conversion of glutamine to citrulline and the effect of the liver on splanchnic citrulline metabolism in humans. Eight patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery received a primed continuous intravenous infusion of [2-(15)N]glutamine and [ureido-(13)C-(2)H(2)]citrulline. Arterial, portal venous and hepatic venous blood were sampled and portal and hepatic blood flows were measured. Organ specific amino acid uptake (disposal), production and net balance, as well as whole body rates of plasma appearance were calculated according to established methods. The intestines consumed glutamine at a rate that was dependent on glutamine supply. Approximately 13% of glutamine taken up by the intestines was converted to citrulline. Quantitatively glutamine was the only important precursor for intestinal citrulline release. Both glutamine and citrulline were consumed and produced by the liver, but net hepatic flux of both amino acids was not significantly different from zero. Plasma glutamine was the precursor of 80% of plasma citrulline and plasma citrulline in turn was the precursor of 10% of plasma arginine. In conclusion, glutamine is an important precursor for the synthesis of arginine after intestinal conversion to citrulline in humans.

  9. Isolation of human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells (HUASMC).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maximiano P; Relvas, Ricardo; Chiquita, Samuel; Correia, Ilídio J

    2010-07-03

    The human umbilical cord (UC) is a biological sample that can be easily obtained just after birth. This biological sample is, most of the time, discarded and their collection does not imply any added risk to the newborn or mother s health. Moreover no ethical concerns are raised. The UC is composed by one vein and two arteries from which both endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), two of the main cellular components of blood vessels, can be isolated. In this project the SMCs were obtained after enzymatic treatment of the UC arteries accordingly the experimental procedure previously described by Jaffe et al. After cell isolation they were kept in t-flash with DMEM-F12 supplemented with 5% of fetal bovine serum and were cultured for several passages. Cells maintained their morphological and other phenotypic characteristics in the different generations. The aim of this study was to isolate smooth muscle cells in order to use them as models for future assays with constrictor drugs, isolate and structurally characterize L-type calcium channels, to study cellular and molecular aspects of the vascular function and to use them in tissue engineering.

  10. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…

  11. Three-Dimensional Coculture Of Human Small-Intestine Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David; Spaulding, Glen; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Prewett, Tracy

    1994-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional masses of normal human epithelial and mesenchymal small-intestine cells cocultured in process involving specially designed bioreactors. Useful as tissued models for studies of growth, regulatory, and differentiation processes in normal intestinal tissues; diseases of small intestine; and interactions between cells of small intestine and viruses causing disease both in small intestine and elsewhere in body. Process used to produce other tissue models, leading to advances in understanding of growth and differentiation in developing organisms, of renewal of tissue, and of treatment of myriad of clinical conditions. Prior articles describing design and use of rotating-wall culture vessels include "Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues" (MSC-21559), "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), and "In Vitro, Matrix-Free Formation Of Solid Tumor Spheroids" (MSC-21843).

  12. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2015-01-01

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the present study, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from the jejunum of 18 human donors were used as an ex vivo model to investigate whether DCF intestinal metabolites are responsible for its intestinal toxicity in man. PCIS were incubated with a concentration range of DCF (0-600 µM) up to 24 h. DCF (≥400 µM) caused direct toxicity to the intestine as demonstrated by ATP depletion, morphological damage, caspase 3 activation, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Three main metabolites produced by PCIS (4'-hydroxy DCF, 5-hydroxy DCF, and DCF acyl glucuronide) were detected by HPLC. Protein adducts were detected by immunohistochemical staining and showed correlation with the intestinal metabolites. DCF induced similar toxicity to each of the samples regardless of the variation in metabolism among them. Less metabolites were produced by slices incubated with 400 µM DCF than with 100 µM DCF. The addition of the metabolic inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cimetidine, or borneol decreased the metabolite formation but increased the toxicity. The results suggest that DCF can induce intestinal toxicity in human PCIS directly at therapeutically relevant concentrations, independent of the reactive metabolites 4'-OH DCF, 5-OH DCF, or diclofenac acylglucuronide produced by the liver or formed in the intestine.

  13. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  14. Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Carum carvi on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Al-Essa, Mohammed K; Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faysal I; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the direct effects of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ethanol extract on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMC) of guinea pigs. Effects of the plant extract on SMC and of acetylcholine (Ach) on extract pretreated SMC were measured by micrometric scanning technique. Three different extract concentrations (2.5 mg/mL, 250 mug/mL, and 25 mug/mL) were used. Ethanol extract of C. carvi reduced significantly the response of dispersed SMC to Ach. Pretreatment of SMC with the highest concentration of C. carvi ethanol extract (2.5 mg/mL) has significantly inhibited the response of SMC to Ach. The data obtained indicate a dose-dependent inhibition of the contraction induced by Ach. This response may explain, in part, the beneficial effect of caraway in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dyspepsia.

  15. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity in human vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Janet J; Johnson, Christopher M; Mockridge, James W; Davenport, Anthony P

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the human smooth muscle endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) present in the media of the endothelium-denuded human umbilical vein preparation. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-2 were potent constrictors of umbilical vein with EC50 values of 9.2 nM and 29.6 nM, respectively. ET-1 was at least 30 times more potent than ET-3 suggesting the presence of constrictor ETA receptors. Little or no response was obtained to the ETB-selective agonist sarafotoxin 6c. These data suggest that endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction is via ETA receptors in this preparation. Autoradiographical visualization of endothelin receptors with subtype selective ligands confirmed the predominance of the ETA receptor in the media of umbilical vein. High density of binding was obtained with the ETA selective [125I]-PD151242, with much lower levels detected with the ETB selective [125I]-BQ3020. Big ET-1 (EC50=42.7 nM) and big ET-2(1-38) (EC50=99.0 nM) were less potent than ET-1 and ET-2, respectively. Big ET-2(1-38) was more potent than its isoform big ET-2(1-37) with concentration–response curves to big ET-2(1-37) incomplete at 300 nM. No response was obtained to big ET-3 at concentrations up to 700 nM. The C-terminal fragments, big ET-1(22-38) and big ET-2(22-38) were inactive. Responses to ET-1 were unaffected by either the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor thiorphan (10−5 M) or by the dual NEP/ECE inhibitor phosphoramidon (10−5 M). Big ET-1 was also unaffected by thiorphan but antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by phosphoramidon (10−5 M and 10−4 M). Addition of all four big endothelin peptides to human umbilical vein preparations resulted in detectable amounts of ET-IR in the bathing medium. Therefore, although big ET-3 was functionally inactive this reflects the low potency of ET-3 at the ETA receptor rather than the lack of ability of this smooth muscle ECE to convert big ET-3 to ET-3. To conclude we have demonstrated the presence

  16. Stimulation of Synthesis and Release of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) from Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells by Substance P and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, M.; Alkahtani, R.; Akbarali, H.I.; Murthy, K.S.; Grider, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin present in the intestine where it participates in survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis and propulsion. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal BDNF. The expression and release of BDNF from intestinal smooth muscle and the interaction with enteric neuropeptides has not been studied in gut. Methods The expression and secretion of BDNF from smooth muscle cultured from rabbit longitudinal intestinal muscle in response to substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) was measured by western blot and ELISA. BDNF mRNA was measured by rt-PCR. Key Results The expression of BNDF protein and mRNA was greater in smooth muscle cells from the longitudinal muscle than from circular muscle layer. PACAP and substance P increased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. PACAP and substance P also stimulated the secretion of BDNF from cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA prevented substance P-induced increase in BDNF mRNA and protein expression as well as substance P-induced secretion of BDNF. Conclusions & Inferences Neuropeptides known to be present in enteric neurons innervating the longitudinal layer increase the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in smooth muscle cells and stimulate the release of BDNF. Considering the ability of BDNF to enhance smooth muscle contraction, this autocrine loop may partially explain the characteristic hypercontractility of longitudinal muscle in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26088546

  17. Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Hend Aly

    2015-05-01

    Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents.

  18. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  19. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  20. Human intestinal spirochetosis: right-side preference in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal bacterial infection, and its clinicopathologic features remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine its characteristics. We histologically reviewed paraffin-embedded section slides made in 2001, 2006, and 2011 at a single institution in Japan. Cases histologically exhibiting a distinct fringe formation were considered to have HIS. Information was obtained from pathology request forms. We identified 85 HIS cases among 4930 patients (7 cases [0.5%) in 2001, 29 [1.7%] in 2006, and 49 [2.8%] in 2011]. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 7.1% of HIS cases. Human intestinal spirochetosis was more frequent in the right-side large intestine than in the left side. Among 224 samples from HIS cases, conventional (tubular, tubulovillous, and villous) adenomas were found in 148 samples. These adenomas were more frequent in the right side than in the left side, although neither their size nor morphology differed between the sides. Histopathologic evaluation suggested a year-upon-year increasing prevalence of HIS in Japan. A small number exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms. Both histologic sign of HIS and conventional adenomas were more frequent in the right-side large intestine. Therefore, a right-side preference may be a characteristic of HIS.

  1. Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Fides D.; Triche, Timothy J.; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Su, Sheng-Fang; Martin, Sue Ellen; Daneshmand, Siamak; Skinner, Eila C.; Liang, Gangning; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Jones, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cues play critical roles in the establishment of the epigenome during development and may also contribute to epigenetic perturbations found in disease states. The direct role of the local tissue environment on the post-development human epigenome, however, remains unclear due to limitations in studies of human subjects. Here, we use an isogenic human ileal neobladder surgical model and compare global DNA methylation levels of intestinal epithelial cells pre- and post-neobladder construction using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our study is the first to quantify the effect of environmental cues on the human epigenome and show that the local tissue environment directly modulates DNA methylation patterns in normal differentiated cells in vivo. In the neobladder, the intestinal epithelial cells lose their tissue-specific epigenetic landscape in a time-dependent manner following the tissue’s exposure to a bladder environment. We find that de novo methylation of many intestine-specific enhancers occurs at the rate of 0.41% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = 0.71), while demethylation of primarily non-intestine-specific transcribed regions occurs at the rate of −0.37% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = −0.57). The dynamic resetting of the DNA methylome in the neobladder not only implicates local environmental cues in the shaping and maintenance of the epigenome but also illustrates an unexpected cross-talk between the epigenome and the cellular environment. PMID:24515120

  2. Heterozygous de novo and inherited mutations in the smooth muscle actin (ACTG2) gene underlie megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehman, Efrat Lev; Larson, Austin; Beuten, Joke; Muzny, Donna M; Jhangiani, Shalini; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Beaudet, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease.

  3. Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A.; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehman, Efrat Lev; Larson, Austin; Beuten, Joke; Muzny, Donna M.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Beaudet, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease. PMID:24676022

  4. The effect of cold storage on the adrenergic mechanisms of intestinal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, K.; Kurahashi, K.; Mori, J.; Shibata, S.

    1972-01-01

    1. In the guinea-pig taenia caecum, fluorescent adrenergic fibres terminate in both muscle layers. The density of these fibres is greater in the taenia than in the underlying circular muscle layer. The myenteric plexus and individual ganglion cells are also densely innervated by intensely fluorescent adrenergic nerve fibres. 2. After three days of cold storage, the specific fluorescence disappeared from all tissue layers of the taenia caecum and smooth muscle fibres. In contrast, cholinesterase active substances were still demonstrable in all tissue layers even after seven days of cold storage but the density of these substances was decreased. 3. Cold storage (3-7 days) decreased the tissue noradrenaline content and did not modify the cholinesterase enzyme activity (4 days). 4. In cold stored strips, the inhibitory response to nicotine, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) or electrical transmural stimulation was abolished and enhancement of the contractile response occurred. Cold storage also inhibited the inhibitory action of tyramine. Similar results were observed after reserpine treatment. 5. In fresh taenia, the relaxation produced by nicotine, DMPP and electrical transmural stimulation was inhibited by adrenoceptor blocking agents and bretylium. In cold storage preparations, contraction produced by these stimuli was blocked by parasympathetic blocking agents and potentiated by anti-cholinesterase. These results indicate that the inhibitory response to these stimulants is mediated by stimulation of the adrenergic nerve system more than by non-adrenergic nerves; the excitatory effect is probably due to stimulation of cholinergic nerves. 6. These results suggest that the adrenergic mechanisms of the taenia caecum are more labile in cold storage than the cholinergic mechanisms. Thus, the inhibitory action of cold storage on the relaxation produced by nicotine, DMPP, and transmural stimulation is probably explained by selective physical degeneration of

  5. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  6. Methane and hydrogen production by human intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    McKay, L F; Holbrook, W P; Eastwood, M A

    1982-06-01

    The gas above liquid cultures of a variety of human intestinal anaerobic bacteria was sampled and analysed by headspace gas chromatography. Hydrogen production was greatest with strains of the genus Clostridium, intermediate with anaerobic cocci and least with Bacteroides sp. Very few strains produced methane although small amounts were detected with one strain of B. thetaiotaomicron, C. perfringens and C. histolyticum. There may be a relationship between these anaerobic bacteria and several gastrointestinal disorders in which there is a build up of hydrogen or methane in the intestines.

  7. Metabolism of gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin) by human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    el-Sedawy, A I; Hattori, M; Kobashi, K; Namba, T

    1989-09-01

    As a part of our studies on the metabolism of crude drug components by intestinal bacteria, gentiopicroside (a secoiridoid glucoside isolated from Gentiana lutea), was anaerobically incubated with various defined strains of human intestinal bacteria. Many species had ability to transform it to a series of metabolites. Among them, Veillonella parvula ss parvula produced five metabolites, which were identified as erythrocentaurin, gentiopicral, 5-hydroxymethylisochroman-1-one,5-hydroxymethylisochromen-1- one and trans-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyra n-1-one.

  8. The depolarizing action of acetylcholine or carbachol in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B

    1972-02-01

    1. The membrane potential of the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum was recorded intracellularly with glass micro-electrodes.2. Acetylcholine or carbachol depolarized the membrane. The depolarization produced by 1.4 x 10(-6)M carbachol was only 3.6 mV less than that produced by 5.5 x 10(-5)M.3. When the change in size of the electrotonic potential was used to estimate the increase in membrane conductance produced by different concentrations of carbachol, the increase in conductance was about tenfold at 1.4 x 10(-6)M and about 100-fold at 5.5 x 10(-5)M. There was a significant (P < 0.025) regression of the change in size of the electrotonic potential on the logarithm of the concentration of carbachol over this dose range. This and other observations suggest that it is not the availability of receptors which curtails the depolarization produced by concentrations of carbachol in excess of 1.4 x 10(-6)M.4. Reducing the external sodium concentration shifted the level of peak depolarization produced by carbachol negatively, and increasing the external sodium concentration shifted it positively.5. Reducing the external chloride from 134 to 13 mM had no significant effect on the level of peak depolarization produced by carbachol. Reducing the external chloride to 7 mM shifted the level of peak depolarization 3.1 mV in a positive direction.6. Increasing the external potassium concentration had little effect on the level of peak depolarization produced by carbachol, and decreasing the external potassium shifted the level of peak depolarization positively.7. It was possible to account for the observed relationship between membrane potential and membrane conductance if the assumption was made that carbachol opens additional ion channels in the membrane which have an equilibrium potential of about -9 mV. It is suggested therefore that the depolarizing action of carbachol on this smooth muscle is limited by its equilibrium potential, and that the equilibrium potential

  9. Molecular epidemiology of human intestinal amoebas in iran.

    PubMed

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran. PMID:23193500

  11. Microbial contact during pregnancy, intestinal colonization and human disease.

    PubMed

    Rautava, Samuli; Luoto, Raakel; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-10-01

    Interaction with colonizing intestinal bacteria is essential for healthy intestinal and immunological development in infancy. Advances in understanding early host-microbe interactions indicate that this early microbial programming begins in utero and is substantially modulated by mode of birth, perinatal antibiotics and breastfeeding. Furthermore, it has become evident that this stepwise microbial colonization process, as well as immune and metabolic programming by the microbiota, might have a long-lasting influence on the risk of not only gastrointestinal disease, but also allergic, autoimmune and metabolic disease, in later life. Modulating early host-microbe interaction by maternal probiotic intervention during pregnancy and breastfeeding offers a promising novel tool to reduce the risk of disease. In this Review, we describe the current body of knowledge regarding perinatal microbial contact, initial intestinal colonization and its association with human disease, as well as means of modulating early host-microbe interaction to reduce the risk of disease in the child.

  12. Trimebutine maleate has inhibitory effects on the voltage-dependent Ca2+ inward current and other membrane currents in intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Kurachi, Y; Terano, A; Hamada, E; Sugimoto, T

    1990-04-01

    We examined effects of trimebutine maleate on the membrane currents of the intestinal smooth muscle cells by using the tight-seal whole cell clamp technique. Trimebutine suppressed the Ba2+ inward current through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of trimebutine on the Ba2+ inward current was not use-dependent. It shifted the steady-state inactivation curve to the left along the voltage axis. Trimebutine also had inhibitory effects on the other membrane currents of the cells, such as the voltage-dependent K+ current, the Ca2(+)-activated oscillating K+ current and the acetylcholine-induced inward current. These relatively non-specific inhibitory effects of trimebutine on the membrane currents may explain, at least in part, the dual actions of the drug on the intestinal smooth muscle contractility, i.e. inhibitory as well as excitatory. PMID:2161373

  13. Significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine and quantitative prediction of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nomura, Naruaki; Yabuki, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    The number of new drug candidates that are cleared via non-cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes has increased. However, unlike oxidation by P450, the roles of reductive enzymes are less understood. The metabolism in intestine is especially not well known. The purposes of this study were to investigate the significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine, and to establish a quantitative prediction method of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes, using haloperidol, mebendazole, and ziprasidone. First, we estimated the metabolic activities for these compounds in intestine and liver using subcellular fractions. Metabolic activities were detected in human intestinal cytosol (HIC) for all three compounds, and the intrinsic clearance values were higher than those in human liver cytosol for haloperidol and mebendazole. These metabolic activities in HIC were NADPH- and/or NADH-dependent. Furthermore, the metabolic activities for all three compounds in HIC were largely inhibited by menadione, which has been used as a carbonyl reductase (CBR)-selective chemical inhibitor. Therefore, considering subcellular location, cofactor requirement, and chemical inhibition, these compounds might be metabolized by CBRs in human intestine. Subsequently, we tried to quantitatively predict intestinal availability (F(g)) for these compounds using human intestinal S9 (HIS9). Our prediction model using apparent permeability of parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and metabolic activities in HIS9 could predict F(g) in humans for the three compounds well. In conclusion, CBRs might have higher metabolic activities in human intestine than in human liver. Furthermore, our prediction method of human F(g) using HIS9 is applicable to substrates of cytosolic reductive enzymes.

  14. Regional Intestinal Permeability of Three Model Drugs in Human.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, David; Roos, Carl; Lundqvist, Anders; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Tannergren, Christer; Hellström, Per M; Sjögren, Erik; Lennernäs, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Currently there are only a limited number of determinations of human Peff in the distal small intestine and none in the large intestine. This has hindered the validation of preclinical models with regard to absorption in the distal parts of the intestinal tract, which can be substantial for BCS class II-IV drugs, and drugs formulated into modified-release (MR) dosage forms. To meet this demand, three model drugs (atenolol, metoprolol, and ketoprofen) were dosed in solution intravenously, and into the jejunum, ileum, and colon of 14 healthy volunteers. The Peff of each model drug was then calculated using a validated deconvolution method. The median Peff of atenolol in the jejunum, ileum, and colon was 0.45, 0.15, and 0.013 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The corresponding values for metoprolol were 1.72, 0.72, and 1.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, and for ketoprofen 8.85, 6.53, and 3.37 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. This is the first study where the human Peff of model drugs has been determined in all parts of the human intestinal tract in the same subjects. The jejunal values were similar to directly determined values using intestinal single-pass perfusion, indicating that the deconvolution method is a valid approach for determining regional Peff. The values from this study will be highly useful in the validation of preclinical regional absorption models and in silico tools. PMID:27504798

  15. Smooth Things: The Rockefeller Commission's Report on the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topf, Mel A.

    1981-01-01

    Notes the lack of definition of the term "humanities" and the four-part litany that comprises the usual rhetoric of humanities advocates. Considers the Rockefeller Commission report on the humanities in light of the nondefinition, the four-part litany, and the fragmentation of any argument espousing "more attention to the humanities." (RL)

  16. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J P L; Clevers, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain genetically and phenotypically stable. Here we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted gene modification of four of the most commonly mutated colorectal cancer genes (APC, P53 (also known as TP53), KRAS and SMAD4) in cultured human intestinal stem cells. Mutant organoids can be selected by removing individual growth factors from the culture medium. Quadruple mutants grow independently of all stem-cell-niche factors and tolerate the presence of the P53 stabilizer nutlin-3. Upon xenotransplantation into mice, quadruple mutants grow as tumours with features of invasive carcinoma. Finally, combined loss of APC and P53 is sufficient for the appearance of extensive aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumour progression.

  17. Human intestinal potential difference: recording method and biophysical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, R F; McCormick, P; Ruppin, H; Soergel, K H; Whalen, G E; Wood, C M

    1981-01-01

    1. The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) of the intact human small intestine was recorded with close attention to electrical symmetry, shielding from electro-magnetic waves and correction for junction potentials. 2. The PD is -12 mV (mucosa-negative) in the fasting jejunum and ileum and does not change during perfusion with isotonic NaCl. 3. Absorption of Na and Cl appears to be non-electrogenic and the 'resting' PD is probably generated by active anion secretion of fasting intestinal contents. 4. Diffusion potentials during isotonic D-mannitol perfusion indicated higher cation selectivity in the ileum than in the jejunum. 5. The calculated contribution of a free-solution path to total paracellular permeability is 55% in the jejunum but only 15% in the ileum. 6. No 'streaming' potential was detected during osmotic water flow, suggesting that the cation-selectivity of the channels is temporarily inactivated during dilatation of the lateral intercellular space. PMID:6802960

  18. Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments.

    PubMed

    Skurnik, David; Bonnet, Daniel; Bernède-Bauduin, Claire; Michel, Rémy; Guette, Christian; Becker, Jean-Marie; Balaire, Corinne; Chau, Françoise; Mohler, Jacqueline; Jarlier, Vincent; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Moreau, Brigitte; Guillemot, Didier; Denamur, Erick; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    To investigate if the characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli are changing with the environment of the host, we studied intestinal E. coli from subjects having recently migrated from a temperate to a tropical area. We determined the phylogenetic group, the prevalence of the antibiotic resistance, the presence of integrons and the strain diversity in faecal isolates from 25 subjects originally from metropolitan France and expatriated to French Guyana. These characteristics were compared with those of 25 previously studied Wayampi Amerindian natives of French Guyana and from 25 metropolitan French residents. The three groups of subjects were matched for age and sex, had not taken antibiotics for at least 1 month, nor had been hospitalized within the past year. In all, the characteristics of intestinal E. coli from Expatriates were intermediate between those found in residents from metropolitan France and those found in natives of French Guyana. Prevalence of carriage of resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Expatriates was intermediate between French residents and Wayampi as were the prevalence of integrons in E. coli (12.3% versus 16.3% and 7.8% respectively), and the intra-host diversity of E. coli (2.3 strains/subject versus 1.9 and 3.1, respectively); lastly, in Expatriates, the prevalence of carriage of phylogenetic group B2 strains was lower than in French residents (16% versus 56%, P = 0.005), while carriage of phylogenetic group A strains was lower than in Wayampi (56% versus 88%, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that the composition of the commensal intestinal flora of humans is not static but changes dynamically in response to new environmental conditions.

  19. Clostridium difficile toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Cooke, D L; Hyde, S; Borriello, S P; Long, R G

    1997-11-01

    Clostridium difficile radiolabelled toxin A ([3H]-toxin A) bound to human duodenal and colonic epithelial cells isolated from endoscopic biopsies. Binding was greater at 4 degrees C than 37 degrees C, consistent with the thermal binding characteristic of toxin A to a carbohydrate moiety. At 37 degrees C colonic cells bound significantly more [3H]-toxin A than duodenal cells. The amount of [3H]-toxin A binding varied considerably between individuals. [3H]-toxin A was displaced by unlabelled toxin A by 50% for duodenal cells and 70% for colonic cells with 94.3 nM unlabelled toxin A. Low non-displacable binding was observed in some samples at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C, suggesting that these cells came from individuals incapable of specifically binding toxin. Pre-treating cells with alpha- or beta-galactosidases to cleave terminal alpha- and beta-galactose residues reduced [3H]-toxin A binding. There was also a reduction in [3H]-toxin A binding after heat treating cells, which is suggestive of protein binding. The reduction in binding varied between individuals. The reduction of [3H]-toxin A binding, after the removal of beta-linked galactose units, implicates these as components of the receptor and adds credence to the idea that the Lewis X, Y and I antigens may be involved in toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells. However, because the Lewis antigens do not possess terminal alpha-galactose units, the reduction in binding after alpha-galactosidase treatment suggests that other receptors may be involved in toxin A binding to some human intestinal cells. These data are the first demonstration of direct toxin A binding to human intestinal epithelial cells.

  20. Age-associated modifications of intestinal permeability and innate immunity in human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Man, Angela L; Bertelli, Eugenio; Rentini, Silvia; Regoli, Mari; Briars, Graham; Marini, Mario; Watson, Alastair J M; Nicoletti, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    The physical and immunological properties of the human intestinal epithelial barrier in aging are largely unknown. Ileal biopsies from young (7-12 years), adult (20-40 years) and aging (67-77 years) individuals not showing symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies were used to assess levels of inflammatory cytokines, barrier integrity and cytokine production in response to microbial challenges. Increased expression of interleukin (IL)-6, but not interferon (IFN)γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β was observed during aging; further analysis showed that cluster of differentiation (CD)11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the major sources of IL-6 in the aging gut and expressed higher levels of CD40. Up-regulated production of IL-6 was accompanied by increased expression of claudin-2 leading to reduced transepithelial electric resistance (TEER); TEER could be restored in in vitro and ex vivo cultures by neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody. In contrast, expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and junctional-adhesion molecule-A1 did not vary with age and overall permeability to macromolecules was not affected. Finally, cytokine production in response to different microbial stimuli was assessed in a polarized in vitro organ culture (IVOC). IL-8 production in response to flagellin declined progressively with age although the expression and distribution of toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remained unchanged. Also, flagellin-induced production of IL-6 was less pronounced in aging individuals. In contrast, TNF-α production in response to probiotics (VSL#3) did not decline with age; however, in our experimental model probiotics did not down-regulate the production of IL-6 and expression of claudin-2. These data suggested that aging affects properties of the intestinal barrier likely to impact on age-associated disturbances, both locally and systemically. PMID:25948052

  1. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  2. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya . E-mail: sfukumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maemura, Koji; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-03-31

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs.

  3. Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk.

  4. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

  5. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  6. Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk. PMID:26456581

  7. Functional Characterization of Cholera Toxin Inhibitors Using Human Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Pukin, Aliaksei V; Fu, Ou; Quarles van Ufford, Linda H C; Janssens, Hettie M; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Pieters, Roland J

    2016-07-28

    Preclinical drug testing in primary human cell models that recapitulate disease can significantly reduce animal experimentation and time-to-the-clinic. We used intestinal organoids to quantitatively study the potency of multivalent cholera toxin inhibitors. The method enabled the determination of IC50 values over a wide range of potencies (15 pM to 9 mM). The results indicate for the first time that an organoid-based swelling assay is a useful preclinical method to evaluate inhibitor potencies of drugs that target pathogen-derived toxins. PMID:27347611

  8. [Progress in the knowledge of the intestinal human microbiota].

    PubMed

    Robles-Alonso, Virginia; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    New sequencing technologies together with the development of bio-informatics allow a description of the full spectrum of the microbial communities that inhabit the human intestinal tract, as well as their functional contributions to host health. Most community members belong to the domain Bacteria, but Archaea, Eukaryotes (yeasts and protists), and Viruses are also present. Only 7 to 9 of the 55 known divisions or phyla of the domain Bacteria are detected in faecal or mucosal samples from the human gut. Most taxa belong to just two divisions: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the other divisions that have been consistently found are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium are the most abundant genera but their relative proportion is highly variable across individuals. Full metagenomic analysis has identified more than 5 million non-redundant microbial genes encoding up to 20,000 biological functions related with life in the intestinal habitat. The overall structure of predominant genera in the human gut can be assigned into three robust clusters, which are known as "enterotypes". Each of the three enterotypes is identifiable by the levels of one of three genera: Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). This suggests that microbiota variations across individuals are stratified, not continuous. Next steps include the identification of changes that may play a role in certain disease states. A better knowledge of the contributions of microbial symbionts to host health will help in the design of interventions to improve symbiosis and combat disease.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

  10. Ranolazine inhibits voltage-gated mechanosensitive sodium channels in human colon circular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Neshatian, Leila; Strege, Peter R; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kraichely, Robert E; Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Cima, Robert R; Larson, David W; Dozois, Eric J; Kline, Crystal F; Mohler, Peter J; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-09-15

    Human jejunum smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the SCN5A-encoded voltage-gated, mechanosensitive sodium channel NaV1.5. NaV1.5 contributes to small bowel excitability, and NaV1.5 inhibitor ranolazine produces constipation by an unknown mechanism. We aimed to determine the presence and molecular identity of Na(+) current in the human colon smooth muscle and to examine the effects of ranolazine on Na(+) current, mechanosensitivity, and smooth muscle contractility. Inward currents were recorded by whole cell voltage clamp from freshly dissociated human colon SMCs at rest and with shear stress. SCN5A mRNA and NaV1.5 protein were examined by RT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Ascending human colon strip contractility was examined in a muscle bath preparation. SCN5A mRNA and NaV1.5 protein were identified in human colon circular muscle. Freshly dissociated human colon SMCs had Na(+) currents (-1.36 ± 0.36 pA/pF), shear stress increased Na(+) peaks by 17.8 ± 1.8% and accelerated the time to peak activation by 0.7 ± 0.3 ms. Ranolazine (50 μM) blocked peak Na(+) current by 43.2 ± 9.3% and inhibited shear sensitivity by 25.2 ± 3.2%. In human ascending colon strips, ranolazine decreased resting tension (31%), reduced the frequency of spontaneous events (68%), and decreased the response to smooth muscle electrical field stimulation (61%). In conclusion, SCN5A-encoded NaV1.5 is found in human colonic circular smooth muscle. Ranolazine blocks both peak amplitude and mechanosensitivity of Na(+) current in human colon SMCs and decreases contractility of human colon muscle strips. Our data provide a likely mechanistic explanation for constipation induced by ranolazine. PMID:26185330

  11. Ranolazine inhibits voltage-gated mechanosensitive sodium channels in human colon circular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Neshatian, Leila; Strege, Peter R; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kraichely, Robert E; Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Cima, Robert R; Larson, David W; Dozois, Eric J; Kline, Crystal F; Mohler, Peter J; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-09-15

    Human jejunum smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the SCN5A-encoded voltage-gated, mechanosensitive sodium channel NaV1.5. NaV1.5 contributes to small bowel excitability, and NaV1.5 inhibitor ranolazine produces constipation by an unknown mechanism. We aimed to determine the presence and molecular identity of Na(+) current in the human colon smooth muscle and to examine the effects of ranolazine on Na(+) current, mechanosensitivity, and smooth muscle contractility. Inward currents were recorded by whole cell voltage clamp from freshly dissociated human colon SMCs at rest and with shear stress. SCN5A mRNA and NaV1.5 protein were examined by RT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Ascending human colon strip contractility was examined in a muscle bath preparation. SCN5A mRNA and NaV1.5 protein were identified in human colon circular muscle. Freshly dissociated human colon SMCs had Na(+) currents (-1.36 ± 0.36 pA/pF), shear stress increased Na(+) peaks by 17.8 ± 1.8% and accelerated the time to peak activation by 0.7 ± 0.3 ms. Ranolazine (50 μM) blocked peak Na(+) current by 43.2 ± 9.3% and inhibited shear sensitivity by 25.2 ± 3.2%. In human ascending colon strips, ranolazine decreased resting tension (31%), reduced the frequency of spontaneous events (68%), and decreased the response to smooth muscle electrical field stimulation (61%). In conclusion, SCN5A-encoded NaV1.5 is found in human colonic circular smooth muscle. Ranolazine blocks both peak amplitude and mechanosensitivity of Na(+) current in human colon SMCs and decreases contractility of human colon muscle strips. Our data provide a likely mechanistic explanation for constipation induced by ranolazine.

  12. Smooth muscle in the wall of the developing human urinary bladder and urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A

    1983-01-01

    A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742

  13. Humans, Mice, and Mechanisms of Intestinal Atresias: A Window into Understanding Early Intestinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Peter F.; Reeder, Amy; Botham, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal atresias have long been hypothesized to result from either failure of recanalization of the intestinal lumen or in utero vascular accidents. Recent work in animal models is now calling for a reassessment of these widely held paradigms. Purpose In this review, we will examine the data that led to the original hypotheses and then evaluate more recent work challenging these hypotheses. Furthermore, we will discuss how defining the mechanism of atresia formation in animal models may provide insight into early intestinal development and the mechanism of lengthwise intestinal growth. Conclusion Such insight will be critical in developing regenerative therapies for patients with intestinal failure. PMID:21116726

  14. Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaak, S; Cussac, D; Cayla, C; Devedjian, J; Guyot, R; Paris, H; Denis, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of α2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of α2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human α2A adrenoceptor.
METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic plasmid containing the α2C10 and neomycin phosphotransferase genes. G418 resistant clones were assayed for receptor expression using radioligand binding. Receptor functionality was assessed by testing its ability to couple Gi proteins and to inhibit cAMP production. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was followed by western blot, and cell proliferation was estimated by measuring protein and DNA content.
RESULTS—Permanent transfection of Caco2 cells allowed us to obtain a clone (Caco2-3B) expressing α2A adrenoceptors at a density similar to that found in normal human intestinal epithelium. Caco2-3B retained morphological features and brush border enzyme expression characteristic of enterocytic differentiation. The receptor was coupled to Gi2/Gi3 proteins and its stimulation caused marked diminution of forskolin induced cAMP production. Treatment of Caco2-3B with UK14304 (α2 agonist) induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (Erk1), and 2 (Erk2). This event was totally abolished in pertussis toxin treated cells and in the presence of kinase inhibitors (genistein or PD98059). It was unaffected by protein kinase C downregulation but correlated with a transient increase in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, sustained exposure of Caco2-3B to UK14304 resulted in modest but significant acceleration of cell proliferation. None of these effects was observed in the parental cell line Caco2.

  15. Multiscale analysis of the murine intestine for modeling human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jesse; Herring, Charles A.; Banerjee, Amrita; Simmons, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    When functioning properly, the intestine is one of the key interfaces between the human body and its environment. It is responsible for extracting nutrients from our food and excreting our waste products. It provides an environment for a host of healthful microbes and serves as a first defense against pathogenic ones. These processes require tight homeostatic controls, which are provided by the interactions of a complex mix of epithelial, stromal, neural and immune cells, as well as the resident microflora. This homeostasis can be disrupted by invasive microbes, genetic lesions, and carcinogens, resulting in diseases such Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cancer. Enormous strides have been made in understanding how this important organ functions in health and disease using everything from cell culture systems to animal models to human tissue samples. This has resulted in better therapies for all of these diseases, but there is still significant room for improvement. In the United States alone, 14000 people per year die of C. difficile, up to 1.6 million people suffer from IBD, and more than 50000 people die every year from colon cancer. Because these and other intestinal diseases arise from complex interactions between the different components of the gut ecosystem, we propose that systems approaches that address this complexity in an integrative manner may eventually lead to improved therapeutics that deliver lasting cures. This review will discuss the use of systems biology for studying intestinal diseases in vivo with particular emphasis on mouse models. Additionally, it will focus on established experimental techniques that have been used to drive this systems-level analysis, and emerging techniques that will push this field forward in the future. PMID:26040649

  16. Transgenic Expression of Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor LPA2 in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells Induces Intestinal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Michihiro; He, Peijian; Yun, C. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts on LPA2 receptor to mediate multiple pathological effects that are associated with tumorigenesis. The absence of LPA2 attenuates tumor progression in rodent models of colorectal cancer, but whether overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to malignant transformation in the intestinal tract has not been studied. In this study, we expressed human LPA2 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) under control of the villin promoter. Less than 4% of F1-generation mice had germline transmission of transgenic (TG) human LPA2; as such only 3 F1 mice out of 72 genotyped had TG expression. These TG mice appeared anemic with hematochezia and died shortly after birth. TG mice were smaller in size compared with the wild type mouse of the same age and sex. Morphological analysis showed that TG LPA2 colon had hyper-proliferation of IECs resulting in increased colonic crypt depth. Surprisingly, TG small intestine had villus blunting and decreased IEC proliferation and dysplasia. In both intestine and colon, TG expression of LPA2 compromised the terminal epithelial differentiation, consistent with epithelial dysplasia. Furthermore, we showed that epithelial dysplasia was observed in founder mouse intestine, correlating LPA2 overexpression with epithelial dysplasia. The current study demonstrates that overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to intestinal dysplasia. PMID:27124742

  17. Characterization of human aortic smooth muscle cells expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 open reading frames.

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, S. C.; Hart, C. E.; Perez-Reyes, N.; Giachelli, C. M.; Schwartz, S. M.; McDougall, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of human papillomavirus type 16 E6E7-transfected and normal human aortic smooth muscle cells by morphological, electron microscopic, immunofluorescent, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the E6E7-expressing cells retained much of the phenotype of normal aortic smooth muscle cells, including expression of smooth muscle markers and appropriate growth responses to PDGF and heparin. These cells differed from normal vascular smooth muscle cells in that they had slightly altered morphology and a higher growth rate that was not due to an autocrine response to secreted PDGF, and they contained more polyribosomes than normal smooth muscle cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7677186

  18. Species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Sato, Kimihiko; Mizuki, Yasuyuki; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko

    2011-06-01

    The oral bioavailability of some drugs is markedly lower in cynomolgus monkeys than in humans. One of the reasons for the low bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys may be the higher metabolic activity of intestinal CYP3A; however, the species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of other CYP isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans are not well known. In the present study, we investigated the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values in pooled intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and humans using 25 substrates of human CYP1A2, CYP2J2, CYP2C, and CYP2D6. As in humans, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were low. On the other hand, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were greatly higher than those in humans. Using immunoinhibitory antibodies and chemical inhibitors, we showed that the higher intestinal CL(int) values of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys might be caused by monkey CYP4F and CYP2C subfamily members, respectively. In conclusion, there is a possibility that the greatly higher metabolic activity of CYP2C and CYP4F in cynomolgus monkey intestine is one of the causes of the species difference of intestinal first-pass metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:21383522

  19. Three dimensional human small intestine models for ADME-Tox studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiajie; Carrier, Rebecca L; March, John C; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-10-01

    In vitro human small intestine models play a crucial part in preclinical drug development. Although conventional 2D systems possess many advantages, such as facile accessibility and high-throughput capability, they can also provide misleading results due to their relatively poor recapitulation of in vivo physiology. Significant progress has recently been made in developing 3D human small intestine models, suggesting that more-reliable preclinical results could be obtained by recreating the 3D intestinal microenvironment in vitro. Although there are still many challenges, 3D human small intestine models have the potential to facilitate drug screening and drug development. PMID:24853950

  20. Metabolism of aspartame by human and pig intestinal microvillar peptidases.

    PubMed

    Hooper, N M; Hesp, R J; Tieku, S

    1994-03-15

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine-1-methyl ester; Nutrasweet), its decomposition product alpha Asp-Phe and the related peptide alpha Asp-PheNH2 were rapidly hydrolysed by microvillar membranes prepared from human duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and from pig duodenum and kidney. The metabolism of aspartame by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations was inhibited significantly (> 78%) by amastatin or 1,10-phenanthroline, and partially (> 38%) by actinonin or bestatin, and was activated 2.9-4.5-fold by CaCl2. The inhibition by amastatin and 1,10-phenanthroline, and the activation by CaCl2 are characteristic of the cell-surface ectoenzyme aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7) and a purified preparation of this enzyme hydrolysed aspartame with a Km of 0.25 mM and a Vmax of 126 mumol/min per mg. A purified preparation of aminopeptidase W (EC 3.4.11.16) also hydrolysed aspartame but with a Km of 4.96 mM and a Vmax of 110 mumol/min per mg. However, rentiapril, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase W, caused only slight inhibition (maximally 19%) of the hydrolysis of aspartame by the microvillar membrane preparations. Similar patterns of inhibition and kinetic parameters were observed for alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2. Two other decomposition products of aspartame, beta Asp-PheMe and cyclo-Asp-Phe, were essentially resistant to hydrolysis by both the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations and the purified preparations of aminopeptidases A and W. Although the relatively selective inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), actinonin, partially inhibited the metabolism of aspartame, alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2 by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations, these peptides were not hydrolysed by a purified preparation of aminopeptidase N. Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) only hydrolysed the unblocked dipeptide, alpha Asp-Phe, but the selective inhibitor of this enzyme, cilastatin

  1. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  2. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells.

  3. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Drissi, Fatima; Buffet, Sylvain; Raoult, Didier; Merhej, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes, and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the α-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defense against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy.

  4. Adherence of Bilophila wadsworthia to cultured human embryonic intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, S H; Garcia, M M; Wexler, H M; Finegold, S M

    1998-02-01

    Adherence of Bilophila wadsworthia to the cultured human embryonic intestinal cell line, Intestine 407 (Int 407), varied among the strains tested from strongly adherent (76-100% cells positive for one or more adherent bacteria) to non- or weakly adherent (0-25% positive cells). Although negative staining revealed that infrequent cells of an adherent strain, WAL 9077, the adherent type-strain, WAL 7959, and a non-adherent strain, WAL 8448, expressed loosely associated fimbrial structures, a role for these structures in adhesion could not be confirmed with either scanning or thin-section electron micrography. Ruthenium red staining of thin-section preparations and subsequent electron microscopy failed to reveal an extensive extracellular polysaccharide layer. SDS-PAGE analysis of crude outer membrane fractions of WAL 9077 and WAL 8448 demonstrated clear differences in their major and minor outer membrane protein components. Thus, we postulate that the adherence of B. wadsworthia to Int 407 cells is mediated by an outer membrane or cell wall component. PMID:16887620

  5. Model emulates human smooth pursuit system producing zero-latency target tracking.

    PubMed

    Bahill, A T; McDonald, J D

    1983-01-01

    Humans can overcome the 150 ms time delay of the smooth pursuit eye movement system and track smoothly moving visual targets with zero-latency. Our target-selective adaptive control model can also overcome an inherent time delay and produce zero-latency tracking. No other model or man-made system can do this. Our model is physically realizable and physiologically realistic. The technique used in our model should be useful for analyzing other time-delay systems, such as man-machine systems and robots.

  6. Endothelin B receptors on human endothelial and smooth-muscle cells show equivalent binding pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M A; Haleen, S J; Welch, K M; Cheng, X M; Reynolds, E E

    1998-07-01

    We have described the pharmacologic profiles of endothelin B receptors in human endothelial cells and vascular and nonvascular smooth-muscle cells. First, by amplifying endothelin B receptor numbers through the use of phosphoramidon and intact cell-binding techniques, we demonstrated the presence of these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (100% endothelin B receptors), human aortic smooth-muscle cells (22% endothelin B, 78% endothelin A receptors), and human bronchial smooth-muscle cells (55% endothelin B, 45% endothelin A receptors) by using [125I]-endothelin-1 radioligand binding. The typical binding profiles of the endothelin B receptors were established through competition binding curve analysis with endothelin-1, endothelin-3, sarafotoxin 6c, and the endothelin A receptor-selective antagonist BQ-123. In the presence of BQ-123, a diverse group of antagonists, including PD 142893, BQ-788, SB 209670, and Ro 47-0203, were used to probe for binding differences indicative of multiple endothelin B-receptor subtypes. The results indicate a rank order of potency for the antagonists of BQ-788 > SB 209670 > PD 142893 > Ro 47-0203 for each cell line, and that between any of these human cell lines, measurements of [125I]-endothelin-1-binding antagonism for each of the four test compounds differed by less than twofold. Although this study cannot discount the possibility of more than one endothelin B-receptor subtype in humans, it does indicate that these tissues express receptors that show equivalent binding pharmacology. PMID:9676729

  7. Smooth versus Textured Surfaces: Feature-Based Category Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tootell, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces. These predictions were confirmed using fMRI, for objects and nonobjects. Similar preferences were also found in the fusiform face area (FFA). Consistent with this: (1) FFA and LO responded more strongly to nonfreckled (smooth) faces, compared with otherwise identical freckled (textured) faces; and (2) strong functional connections were found between LO and FFA. Thus, LO and FFA may be part of an information-processing stream distinguished by feature-based category selectivity (smooth > textured).

  8. Smooth versus Textured Surfaces: Feature-Based Category Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tootell, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces. These predictions were confirmed using fMRI, for objects and nonobjects. Similar preferences were also found in the fusiform face area (FFA). Consistent with this: (1) FFA and LO responded more strongly to nonfreckled (smooth) faces, compared with otherwise identical freckled (textured) faces; and (2) strong functional connections were found between LO and FFA. Thus, LO and FFA may be part of an information-processing stream distinguished by feature-based category selectivity (smooth > textured). PMID:27699206

  9. BMP-2 gene expression and effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Willette, R N; Gu, J L; Lysko, P G; Anderson, K M; Minehart, H; Yue, T

    1999-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their serine/threonine kinase receptors have been identified in atherosclerotic arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells, respectively. Thus, BMPs (the largest subfamily of the TGF-beta superfamily) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the origins of BMP biosynthesis and the functional roles of BMP in blood vessels are unclear. The present study explored BMP-2 gene expression in various human blood vessels and vascular cell types. Functional in vitro studies were also performed to determine the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 on migration (transwell assay) and proliferation ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMC). RT-PCR experiments revealed BMP-2 gene expression in normal and atherosclerotic human arteries as well as cultured human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human macrophages. In cellular migration studies, incubation with BMP-2 produced efficacious (smooth muscle cell response to vascular injury. PMID:10213907

  10. Human Intestinal Enteroids: a New Model To Study Human Rotavirus Infection, Host Restriction, and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kapil; Blutt, Sarah E.; Ettayebi, Khalil; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Broughman, James R.; Crawford, Sue E.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Conner, Margaret E.; Opekun, Antone R.; Graham, David Y.; Qureshi, Waqar; Sherman, Vadim; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human gastrointestinal tract research is limited by the paucity of in vitro intestinal cell models that recapitulate the cellular diversity and complex functions of human physiology and disease pathology. Human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures contain multiple intestinal epithelial cell types that comprise the intestinal epithelium (enterocytes and goblet, enteroendocrine, and Paneth cells) and are physiologically active based on responses to agonists. We evaluated these nontransformed, three-dimensional HIE cultures as models for pathogenic infections in the small intestine by examining whether HIEs from different regions of the small intestine from different patients are susceptible to human rotavirus (HRV) infection. Little is known about HRVs, as they generally replicate poorly in transformed cell lines, and host range restriction prevents their replication in many animal models, whereas many animal rotaviruses (ARVs) exhibit a broader host range and replicate in mice. Using HRVs, including the Rotarix RV1 vaccine strain, and ARVs, we evaluated host susceptibility, virus production, and cellular responses of HIEs. HRVs infect at higher rates and grow to higher titers than do ARVs. HRVs infect differentiated enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells, and viroplasms and lipid droplets are induced. Heterogeneity in replication was seen in HIEs from different patients. HRV infection and RV enterotoxin treatment of HIEs caused physiological lumenal expansion detected by time-lapse microscopy, recapitulating one of the hallmarks of rotavirus-induced diarrhea. These results demonstrate that HIEs are a novel pathophysiological model that will allow the study of HRV biology, including host restriction, cell type restriction, and virus-induced fluid secretion. IMPORTANCE Our research establishes HIEs as nontransformed cell culture models to understand human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the epithelial response, including host restriction of

  11. Quantitative prediction of intestinal metabolism in humans from a simplified intestinal availability model and empirical scaling factor.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Keitaro; Akabane, Takafumi; Tabata, Kenji; Gato, Katsuhiko; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to establish a practical and convenient method of predicting intestinal availability (F(g)) in humans for highly permeable compounds at the drug discovery stage, with a focus on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We constructed a "simplified F(g) model," described using only metabolic parameters, assuming that passive diffusion is dominant when permeability is high and that the effect of transporters in epithelial cells is negligible. Five substrates for CYP3A4 (alprazolam, amlodipine, clonazepam, midazolam, and nifedipine) and four for both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (nicardipine, quinidine, tacrolimus, and verapamil) were used as model compounds. Observed fraction of drug absorbed (F(a)F(g)) values for these compounds were calculated from in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, whereas in vitro intestinal intrinsic clearance (CL(int,intestine)) was determined using human intestinal microsomes. The CL(int,intestine) for the model compounds corrected with that of midazolam was defined as CL(m,index) and incorporated into a simplified F(g) model with empirical scaling factor. Regardless of whether the compound was a P-gp substrate, the F(a)F(g) could be reasonably fitted by the simplified F(g) model, and the value of the empirical scaling factor was well estimated. These results suggest that the effects of P-gp on F(a) and F(g) are substantially minor, at least in the case of highly permeable compounds. Furthermore, liver intrinsic clearance (CL(int,liver)) can be used as a surrogate index of intestinal metabolism based on the relationship between CL(int,liver) and CL(m,index). F(g) can be easily predicted using a simplified F(g) model with the empirical scaling factor, enabling more confident selection of drug candidates with desirable PK profiles in humans. PMID:20354105

  12. Direct In Vivo Human Intestinal Permeability (Peff ) Determined with Different Clinical Perfusion and Intubation Methods.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, David; Roos, Carl; Sjögren, Erik; Lennernäs, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Regional in vivo human intestinal effective permeability (Peff ) is calculated by measuring the disappearance rate of substances during intestinal perfusion. Peff is the most relevant parameter in the prediction of rate and extent of drug absorption from all parts of the intestine. Today, human intestinal perfusions are not performed on a routine basis in drug development. Therefore, it would be beneficial to increase the accuracy of the in vitro and in silico tools used to evaluate the intestinal Peff of novel drugs. This review compiles historical Peff data from 273 individual measurements of 80 substances from 61 studies performed in all parts of the human intestinal tract. These substances include: drugs, monosaccharaides, amino acids, dipeptides, vitamins, steroids, bile acids, ions, fatty acids, and water. The review also discusses the determination and prediction of Peff using in vitro and in silico methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationship, Caco-2, Ussing chamber, animal intestinal perfusion, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Finally, we briefly outline how to acquire accurate human intestinal Peff data by deconvolution of plasma concentration-time profiles following regional intestinal bolus dosing. PMID:25410736

  13. Human in vivo regional intestinal permeability: quantitation using site-specific drug absorption data.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Dahlgren, David; Roos, Carl; Lennernäs, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Application of information on regional intestinal permeability has been identified as a key aspect of successful pharmaceutical product development. This study presents the results and evaluation of an approach for the indirect estimation of site-specific in vivo intestinal effective permeability (Peff) in humans. Plasma concentration-time profiles from 15 clinical studies that administered drug solutions to specific intestinal regions were collected and analyzed. The intestinal absorption rate for each drug was acquired by deconvolution, using historical intravenous data as reference, and used with the intestinal surface area and the dose remaining in the lumen to estimate the Peff. Forty-three new Peff values were estimated (15 from the proximal small intestine, 11 from the distal small intestine, and 17 from the large intestine) for 14 active pharmaceutical ingredients representing a wide range of biopharmaceutical properties. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.96, slope = 1.24, intercept = 0.030) was established between these indirect jejunal Peff estimates and jejunal Peff measurements determined directly using the single-pass perfusion double balloon technique. On average, Peff estimates from the distal small intestine and large intestine were 90% and 40%, respectively, of those from the proximal small intestine. These results support the use of the evaluated deconvolution method for indirectly estimating regional intestinal Peff in humans. This study presents the first comprehensive data set of estimated human regional intestinal permeability values for a range of drugs. These biopharmaceutical data can be used to improve the accuracy of gastrointestinal absorption predictions used in drug development decision-making.

  14. Changes in the inhibitory responses to electrical field stimulation of intestinal smooth muscle from Trichinella spiralis infected rats.

    PubMed

    Tanovic, Adnan; Jiménez, Marcel; Fernández, Ester

    2002-11-15

    Functional motor changes and morphological alterations have been associated with intestinal inflammation. The aim of this work was to study functional motor changes in inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal segments of Trichinella spiralis infected rats. Thickness of muscle layers and cell infiltration during infection were also evaluated. Segments of rat jejunum and ileum were placed in organ bath and relaxations of the longitudinal muscle in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded. During the post-infection (PI) period EFS-induced relaxations in ileum were decreased. Maximal decreases in relaxation were found on day 14-23 PI for ileum, whereas non significant changes were observed in jejunal samples throughout the experimental period. The sensitivity of the EFS-induced relaxations to the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and to the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor oxadiazolo-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) was decreased on day 14 PI for jejunum, whereas in the ileum it lasted from day 14-23 PI. The sensitivity of EFS-induced relaxations to apamin (a small conductance calcium activated potassium channel blocker) disappeared between day 6-23 PI for both jejunum and ileum. In contrast, the sensitivity of the EFS-induced relaxations to the K(+) channel blockers tetraethylamonium (TEA) and tetrapenthylammonium (TPEA) chloride was similar for healthy tissue and for tissue obtained form infected animals. Distribution and density of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons was similar in tissue obtained form healthy and infected animals. In conclusion, intestinal inflammation induces functional and structural changes in both worm-free and worm-positive intestinal segments. Increased muscle thickness was similar for both inflamed and noninflamed segments but the most prominent functional changes i.e. a long-lasting decrease of EFS-induced relaxation was found in non-inflamed ileal segments. PMID:12408878

  15. Molluscan visceral muscle fine structure. General structure and sarcolemmal organization in the smooth muscle of the intestinal wall of Buccinum undatum L.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S

    1981-01-01

    Fine structure of intestinal muscle in the gastropod Buccinum undatum is described. Myofibrillar organization is typical of non-pseudostriated molluscan muscles. The dense body system is poorly developed but there are extensive attachments plaques. The sarcolemma is elaborately modified. Deep infoldings of the membrane give the cells an irregular outline. Such infoldings enclose extracellular matrix and are associated with attachment plaques. Arising from these and from the general sarcolemma are numerous tubular membranous invaginations ending blindly at varying depth in the sarcoplasm. These structures have a helical coat of particles on the cytoplasmic face. Associated with both types of invagination are subsarcolemmal vesicles. The possibility that the tubular invaginations are analogues of vertebrate smooth muscle caveolae or striated muscle T-tubules and that the vesicles are the corresponding sarcoplasmic reticulum is discussed. The occurrence of such structures in molluscan muscle and elsewhere is reviewed.

  16. OUABAIN- AND MARINOBUFAGENIN-INDUCED PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN UMBILICAL VEIN SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS AND A RAT VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL LINE, A7R5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the growth-promoting effects of 2 sodium pump-selective cardiotonic steroids, ouabain and marinobufagenin, on cultured cells from vascular smooth muscle (VSMCs) from human umbilical vein and a rat VSMC line, A7r5. Both ouabain and marinobufagenin activated proliferation of these cells in...

  17. GM-CSF production from human airway smooth muscle cells is potentiated by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Sukkar, M B; Hughes, J M; Johnson, P R; Armour, C L

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) actively participate in the airway inflammatory process in asthma. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induce ASMC to release inflammatory mediators in vitro. ASMC mediator release in vivo, however, may be influenced by features of the allergic asthmatic phenotype. We determined whether; (1) allergic asthmatic serum (AAS) modulates ASMC mediator release in response to IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and (2) IL-1beta/TNF-alpha prime ASMC to release mediators in response to AAS. IL-5 and GM-CSF were quantified by ELISA in culture supernatants of; (1) ASMC pre-incubated with either AAS, nonallergic non-asthmatic serum (NAS) or Monomed (a serum substitute) and subsequently stimulated with IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and (2) ASMC stimulated with IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and subsequently exposed to either AAS, NAS or Monomed. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induced GM-CSF release in ASMC pre-incubated with AAS was not greater than that in ASMC pre-incubated with NAS or Monomed. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, however, primed ASMC to release GM-CSF in response to human serum. GM-CSF production following IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and serum exposure (AAS or NAS) was significantly greater than that following IL-1beta/TNF-alpha and Monomed exposure or IL-1beta/TNF-alpha exposure only. Whilst the potentiating effects of human serum were not specific to allergic asthma, these findings suggest that the secretory capacity of ASMC may be up-regulated during exacerbations of asthma, where there is evidence of vascular leakage. PMID:11132773

  18. Metabolism of green tea catechins by the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Markus; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

    2010-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols can be degraded in the colon, and there is abundant knowledge about the metabolites of these substances that appear in urine and plasma after green tea ingestion. However, there is very little information on the extent and nature of intestinal degradation of green tea catechins in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine in detail the microbial metabolism and chemical stability of these polyphenols in the small intestine using a well-established ex vivo model. For this purpose, fresh ileostomy fluids from two probands were incubated for 24 h under anaerobic conditions with (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatchin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA). After lyophilisation and extraction, metabolites were separated, identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Two metabolites of EC and C (3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone and 3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone) were identified. In addition, 3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone was detected as a metabolite of EGC, and (after 24-h incubation) pyrogallol as a degradation product of GA. Cleavage of the GA esters of EGCG and ECG was also observed, with variations dependent on the sources (probands) of the ileal fluids, which differed substantially microbiotically. The results provide new information about the degradation of green tea catechins in the gastrointestinal tract, notably that microbiota-dependent liberation of GA esters may occur before these compounds reach the colon.

  19. Brucella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells elicits a weak proinflammatory response but a significant CCL20 secretion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mariana C; Fossati, Carlos A; Rumbo, Martín; Baldi, Pablo C

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the frequent acquisition of Brucella infection by the oral route in humans, the interaction of the bacterium with cells of the intestinal mucosa has been poorly studied. Here, we show that different Brucella species can invade human colonic epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29), in which only smooth species can replicate efficiently. Infection with smooth strains did not produce a significant cytotoxicity, while the rough strain RB51 was more cytotoxic. Infection of Caco-2 cells or HT-29 cells with either smooth or rough strains of Brucella did not result in an increased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-10 or TGF-β as compared with uninfected controls, whereas all the infections induced the secretion of IL-8 and CCL20 by both cell types. The MCP-1 response to flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium was similar in Brucella-infected or uninfected cells, ruling out a bacterial inhibitory mechanism as a reason for the weak proinflammatory response. Infection did not modify ICAM-1 expression levels in Caco-2 cells, but increased them in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that Brucella induces only a weak proinflammatory response in gut epithelial cells, but produces a significant CCL20 secretion. The latter may be important for bacterial dissemination given the known ability of Brucella to survive in dendritic cells. PMID:22553918

  20. Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine

    PubMed Central

    He, YingYing; Liu, ShuBai; Leone, Serena; Newburg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOS) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOS was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by colostrum HMOS (cHMOS), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOS attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1/2, IL-1β), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. 3’-, 4-, and 6’-galactosyllactoses of cHMOS account for specific immunomodulation of PIC-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOS attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

  1. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, David

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory) of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Microbial communities in the human small intestine: coupling diversity to metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Booijink, Carien C G M; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M

    2007-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the main site where the conversion and absorption of food components takes place. The host-derived physiological processes and the residing microorganisms, especially in the small intestine, contribute to this nutrient supply. To circumvent sampling problems of the small intestine, several model systems have been developed to study microbial diversity and functionality in the small intestine. In addition, metagenomics offers novel possibilities to gain insight into the genetic potential and functional properties of these microbial communities. Here, an overview is presented of the most recent insights into the diversity and functionality of the microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract, with a focus on the small intestine.

  3. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    In, Julie G.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human ‘mini-guts’ has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5+ intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt–villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host pathogen interactions. PMID:27677718

  4. Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102, which is effective for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, is a combination drug of anticancer trifluridine (FTD; which is derived from pyrimidine nucleoside) and FTD-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5. To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of FTD, the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. The uptake and membrane permeability of FTD by HIEC monolayers were saturable, Na(+) -dependent, and inhibited by nucleosides. These transport characteristics are mostly comparable with those of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). Moreover, the uptake of FTD by CNT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was the highest among human CNT transporters. The obtained Km and Vmax values of FTD by CNT1 were 69.0 μM and 516 pmol/oocyte/30 min, respectively. The transcellular transport of FTD by Caco-2 cells, where CNT1 is heterologously expressed, from apical to basolateral side was greater than that by Mock cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FTD exhibits high oral absorption by the contribution of human CNT1.

  5. A Sensitive Medium-Throughput Method to Predict Intestinal Absorption in Humans Using Rat Intestinal Tissue Segments.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Laís Cristina; Da Silva, Taynara Lourenço; Antunes, Alisson Henrique; Rezende, Kênnia Rocha

    2015-09-01

    A range of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches are currently used for drug development. Highly predictive human intestinal absorption models remain lagging behind the times because of numerous variables concerning permeability through gastrointestinal tract in humans. However, there is a clear need for a drug permeability model early in the drug development process that can balance the requirements for high throughput and effective predictive potential. The present study developed a medium throughput screening Snapwell (MTS-Snapwell) ex vivo model to provide an alternative method to classify drug permeability. Rat small intestine tissue segments were mounted in commercial Snapwell™ inserts. Unidirectional drug transport (A-B) was measured by collecting samples at different time points. Viability of intestinal tissue segments was measured by examining transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) and phenol red and caffeine transport. As a result, the apparent permeability (Papp; ×10(-6) cm/s) was determined for atenolol (10.7 ± 1.2), caffeine (17.6 ± 3.1), cimetidine (6.9 ± 0.1), metoprolol (12.6 ± 0.7), theophylline (15.3 ± 1.6) and, ranitidine (3.8 ± 0.4). All drugs were classified in high/low permeability according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System showing high correlation with human data (r = 0.89). These findings showed a high correlation with human data (r = 0.89), suggesting that this model has potential predictive capacity for paracellular and transcellular passively absorbed molecules.

  6. Long-Term Expression of Human Adenosine Deaminase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Rats: A Model for Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Carmel M.; Clowes, Monika M.; Osborne, William R. A.; Clowes, Alexander W.; Dusty Miller, A.

    1992-02-01

    Gene transfer into vascular smooth muscle cells in animals was examined by using recombinant retroviral vectors containing an Escherichia coli β-galactosidase gene or a human adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) gene. Direct gene transfer by infusion of virus into rat carotid arteries was not observed. However, gene transfer by infection of smooth muscle cells in culture and seeding of the transduced cells onto arteries that had been denuded of endothelial cells was successful. Potentially therapeutic levels of human adenosine deaminase activity were detected over 6 months of observation, indicating the utility of vascular smooth muscle cells for gene therapy in humans.

  7. Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1986-03-01

    There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

  8. Human CD8+ T Cells Clear Cryptosporidium parvum from Infected Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pantenburg, Birte; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Dann, Sara M.; Connelly, Rhykka L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Ward, Honorine D.; Clinton White, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium are a major cause of diarrheal illness worldwide, especially in immunocompromised individuals. CD4+ T cells and interferon-gamma are key factors in the control of cryptosporidiosis in human and murine models. Previous studies led us to hypothesize that CD8+ T cells contribute to clearance of intestinal epithelial Cryptosporidium infection in humans. We report here that antigen expanded sensitized CD8+ T cells reduce the parasite load in infected intestinal epithelial cell cultures and lyse infected intestinal epithelial cells. These effects are most likely mediated by the release of cytotoxic granules. Elimination of parasites seems to require antigen presentation through both human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-B. These data suggest that cytotoxic CD8+ T cells play a role in clearing Cryptosporidium from the intestine, a previously unrecognized feature of the human immune response against this parasite. PMID:20348507

  9. The metabolic profile of acteoside produced by human or rat intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzyme in vitro employed UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingling; Pan, Yingni; Xu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Wenjie; Wu, Xiao; Qu, Shouhe; Liu, Xiaoqiu

    2016-03-01

    Acteoside, the main and representative phenylethanoid glycosides of Herba Cistanches, possesses wide bioactivities but low oral bioavailability. It may serve as the prodrug and be converted into the active forms in gastrointestinal tract, which mainly occurred in intestinal tract composed of intestinal bacteria and intestinal enzyme. Intestinal bacteria, a new drug target, take a significant role on exerting pharmacological effects of drugs by oral administration. In this paper, acteoside was incubated with human or rat intestinal bacteria or rat intestinal enzyme for 36 h to seek metabolites responsible for pharmacodynamics. The samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Besides the parent compound, 14 metabolites were detected and identified based on their retention times and fragmentation patterns in their MS spectra including 8 degradation metabolites, 2 isomers in intestinal bacteria and intestinal enzyme samples and 4 parent metabolites only found in intestinal enzymes. The metabolic pathway of acteoside was thus proposed. Identification of these metabolites of acteoside by the intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzyme gave an insight to clarify pharmacological mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines and identify the real active molecules.

  10. Human intestinal tissue antibiotic concentrations. Clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin.

    PubMed

    Thadepalli, H; Lou, M A; Prabhala, R H; Mandal, A K

    1990-11-01

    An antibiotic, to be effective for prophylaxis in abdominal trauma, should quickly achieve high concentrations in the intestinal wall and at enough inhibitory levels to kill most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that are potential contaminants at the site of surgical incision. Therefore, we studied the intestinal tissue levels of clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin to see whether the tissue levels achieved by these antibiotics in the intestinal tissue were adequate. A single dose of mezlocillin, 4 grams; clindamycin, 600 mg and gentamicin, 80 mg; quickly reached the desired concentrations, i.e., 52.3, 9.69 and 6.1 micrograms/gram of intestinal tissue respectively. These levels were high enough to inhibit the growth of most isolates of E. coli and B. fragilis, common pathogens involved in intra-abdominal abscess.

  11. Smooth Muscle Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yan Hui; Wei, Yi; Green, Morgaine; Wani, Prachi; Zhang, Pengbo; Pera, Renee Reijo; Chen, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in using stem cells (SC) to regenerate a deficient urethral sphincter in patients with urinary incontinence. The smooth muscle component of the sphincter is a significant contributor to sphincter function. However, current translational efforts for sphincter muscle restoration focus only on skeletal muscle regeneration because they rely on adult mesenchymal SC as cell source. These adult SC do not yield sufficient smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for transplantation. We may be able to overcome this limitation by using pluripotent stem cell (PSC) to derive SMCs. Hence, we sought to investigate whether smooth muscle precursor cells (pSMCs) derived from human PSCs can restore urethral function in an animal model generated by surgical urethrolysis and ovariectomy. Rats were divided into four groups: control (no intervention), sham saline (surgery + saline injection), bladder SMC (surgery + human bladder SMC injection), and treatment (surgery + pSMC injection, which includes human embryonic stem cell (hESC) H9-derived pSMC, episomal reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived pSMC, or viral reprogrammed iPSC-derived pSMC). pSMCs (2 × 106 cells/rat) were injected periurethrally 3 weeks postsurgery. Leak point pressure (LPP) and baseline external urethral sphincter electromyography were measured 5 weeks postinjection. Both iPSC-derived pSMC treatment groups showed significantly higher LPP compared to the sham saline group, consistent with restoration of urethral sphincter function. While the difference between the H9-derived pSMC treatment and sham saline group was not significant, it did show a trend toward restoration of the LPP to the level of intact controls. Our data indicate that pSMCs derived from human PSCs (hESC and iPSC) can restore sphincter function. PMID:26785911

  12. Nerveless and gutsy: intestinal nutrient sensing from invertebrates to humans.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2012-08-01

    The increasingly recognized role of gastrointestinal signals in the regulation of food intake, insulin production and peripheral nutrient storage has prompted a surge of interest in studying how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutritional information. Identification of metabolically important intestinal nutrient sensors could provide potential new drug targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders. From a more fundamental perspective, the study of intestinal chemosensation is revealing novel, non-neuronal modes of communication involving differentiated epithelial cells. It is also identifying signalling mechanisms downstream of not only canonical receptors but also nutrient transporters, thereby supporting a chemosensory role for "transceptors" in the intestine. This review describes known and proposed mechanisms of intestinal carbohydrate, protein and lipid sensing, best characterized in mammalian systems. It also highlights the potential of invertebrate model systems such as C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster by summarizing known examples of molecular evolutionary conservation. Recently developed genetic tools in Drosophila, an emerging model system for the study of physiology and metabolism, allow the temporal, spatial and high-throughput manipulation of putative intestinal sensors. Hence, fruit flies may prove particularly suited to the study of the link between intestinal nutrient sensing and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:22248674

  13. Robust derivation of epicardium and its differentiated smooth muscle cell progeny from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Dharini; Gambardella, Laure; Bernard, William G; Serrano, Felipe; Mascetti, Victoria L; Pedersen, Roger A; Talasila, Amarnath; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-04-15

    The epicardium has emerged as a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor source with therapeutic potential for coronary smooth muscle cell, cardiac fibroblast (CF) and cardiomyocyte regeneration, owing to its fundamental role in heart development and its potential ability to initiate myocardial repair in injured adult tissues. Here, we describe a chemically defined method for generating epicardium and epicardium-derived smooth muscle cells (EPI-SMCs) and CFs from human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) through an intermediate lateral plate mesoderm (LM) stage. HPSCs were initially differentiated to LM in the presence of FGF2 and high levels of BMP4. The LM was robustly differentiated to an epicardial lineage by activation of WNT, BMP and retinoic acid signalling pathways. HPSC-derived epicardium displayed enhanced expression of epithelial- and epicardium-specific markers, exhibited morphological features comparable with human foetal epicardial explants and engrafted in the subepicardial space in vivo. The in vitro-derived epicardial cells underwent an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition when treated with PDGF-BB and TGFβ1, resulting in vascular SMCs that displayed contractile ability in response to vasoconstrictors. Furthermore, the EPI-SMCs displayed low density lipoprotein uptake and effective lowering of lipoprotein levels upon treatment with statins, similar to primary human coronary artery SMCs. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that HPSC-derived epicardium and EPI-SMCs could serve as important tools for studying human cardiogenesis, and as a platform for vascular disease modelling and drug screening.

  14. Inhibitory effects of SKF96365 on the activities of K+ channels in mouse small intestinal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    TANAHASHI, Yasuyuki; WANG, Ban; MURAKAMI, Yuri; UNNO, Toshihiro; MATSUYAMA, Hayato; NAGANO, Hiroshi; KOMORI, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of SKF96365 (SKF), which is a non-selective cationic channel blocker, on K+ channel currents, we recorded currents through ATP sensitive K+ (IKATP), voltage-gated K+ (IKv) and Ca2+ activated K+ channels (IBK) in the absence and presence of SKF in single small intestinal myocytes of mice with patch-clamp techniques. SKF (10 µM) reversibly abolished IKATP that was induced by cromakalim (10 µM), which is a selective ATP sensitive K+ channel opener. These inhibitory effects were induced in a concentration-dependent and voltage-independent manner. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.85 µM, which was obviously lower than that reported for the muscarinic cationic current. In addition, SKF (1 µM ≈ the IC50 value in IKATP suppression) reversibly inhibited the IKv that was induced by repetitive depolarizing pulses from −80 to 20 mV. However, the extent of the inhibitory effects was only ~30%. In contrast, SKF (1 µM) had no significant effects on spontaneous transient IBK and caffeine-induced IBK. These results indicated that SKF inhibited ATP sensitive K+ channels and voltage-gated K+ channels, with the ATP sensitive K+ channels being more sensitive than the voltage-gated K+ channels. These inhibitory effects on K+ channels should be considered when SKF is used as a cationic channel blocker. PMID:26498720

  15. Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Voreades, Noah; Kozil, Anne; Weir, Tiffany L.

    2014-01-01

    The important role of the gut microbiome in maintaining human health has necessitated a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of intestinal microbial communities as well as the host and environmental factors driving these dynamics. Genetics, mode of birth, infant feeding patterns, antibiotic usage, sanitary living conditions and long term dietary habits contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiome. This review focuses primarily on diet, as it is one of the most pivotal factors in the development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to the elderly. The infant gut microbiota is characterized by a high degree of instability, only reaching a state similar to that of adults by 2–3 years of age; consistent with the establishment of a varied solid food diet. The diet-related factors influencing the development of the infant gut microbiome include whether the child is breast or formula-fed as well as how and when solid foods are introduced. In contrast to the infant gut, the adult gut microbiome is resilient to large shifts in community structure. Several studies have shown that dietary changes induce transient fluctuations in the adult microbiome, sometimes in as little as 24 h; however, the microbial community rapidly returns to its stable state. Current knowledge of how long-term dietary habits shape the gut microbiome is limited by the lack of long-term feeding studies coupled with temporal gut microbiota characterization. However, long-term weight loss studies have been shown to alter the ratio of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two major bacterial phyla residing in the human gastrointestinal tract. With aging, diet-related factors such as malnutrition are associated with microbiome shifts, although the cause and effect relationship between these factors has not been established. Increased pharmaceutical usage is also more prevalent in the elderly and can contribute to reduced gut microbiota stability and diversity. Foods containing

  16. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibits human renal cell carcinoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Eva; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Schally, Andrew V; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-10-01

    Clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is an aggressive and fatal neoplasm. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exposure on non-tumoral (HK2) and tumoral (A498, cRCC) human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. Reverse transcription and semiquantitative PCR was used at the VIP mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at the protein level. Both renal cell lines expressed VIP as well as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VPAC) receptors whereas only HK2 cells expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL-1). Receptors were functional, as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Treatment with 0.1μM VIP (24h) inhibited proliferation of A498 but not HK2 cells as based on a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine and BrdU (5'-Br-2'-deoxyuridine), PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) expression and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and activation. VPAC(1)-receptor participation was established using JV-1-53 antagonist and siRNA transfection. Growth-inhibitory response to VIP was related to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling systems as shown by studies on adenylate cyclase stimulation, and using the EPAC-specific compound 8CPT-2Me-cAMP and specific kinase inhibitors such as H89, wortmannin and PD98059. The efficacy of VIP on the prevention of tumor progression was confirmed in vivo using xenografted athymic mouse. These actions support a potential role of this peptide and its agonists in new therapies for cRCC.

  17. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  18. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  19. Practical techniques for detection of Toll-like receptor-4 in the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Ryan; Abreu, Maria T; Fukata, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    The human intestine has evolved in the presence of a diverse array of luminal microorganisms. In order to maintain intestinal homeostasis, mucosal immune responses to theses microorganisms must be tightly regulated. The intestine needs to be able to respond to pathogenic organisms while at the same time maintain tolerance to normal commensal flora. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in this delicate balance. TLRs are transmembrane noncatalytic receptor proteins that induce activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms by recognizing structurally conserved molecular patterns of microbes. Expression of TLRs by intestinal epithelial cell is normally down-regulated to maintain immune tolerance to the luminal microorganisms.One of the challenges of TLR research in the human intestine is that it is difficult for many experimental methods to detect very low expression of TLRs within the intestinal mucosa. Quantitative methods such as PCR are limited in their ability to detect TLR expression by specific cell types within a tissue sample, which can be important when studying the contribution of TLR signaling to pathological conditions. In this regard, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is advantageous in that one can visualize the distribution and localization of target proteins within both normal and pathologic parts of a given tissue sample. We found that a subset of human colorectal cancers over-express TLR4 by means of immunofluorescence (IF) and IHC methods. Localization of TLR4 within cancer tissue often appears to be patchy, making IHC an appropriate way to examine these changes. We will describe our current techniques to detect TLR4 in paraffin-embedded human large intestine sections. Establishing a practical IHC technique that may provide consistent results between laboratories will significantly enhance understanding of the role of TLRs in human intestinal health and disease.

  20. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-10-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans.

  1. Lidocaine and structure-related mexiletine induce similar contractility-enhancing effects in ischaemia-reperfusion injured equine intestinal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tappenbeck, Karen; Hoppe, Susanne; Hopster, Klaus; Kietzmann, Manfred; Feige, Karsten; Huber, Korinna

    2013-06-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a severe complication following small intestinal surgery in horses. It was hypothesised that prokinetic effects of lidocaine, the most commonly chosen drug for treatment of POI, resulted from drug integration into smooth muscle (SM) cell membranes, thereby modulating cell membrane properties. This would probably depend on the structural and lipophilic characteristics of lidocaine. To assess the influence of molecular structure and lipophilicity on prokinetic effects in vitro, the current study compared the effects of lidocaine with four structure-related drugs, namely, mexiletine, bupivacaine, tetracaine and procaine. The response to cumulative drug administration and reversibility of effects were tested by measuring isometric contractile performance of equine jejunal circular SM strips, challenged by a standardised, artificial in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A second set of SM strips were incubated with the different drugs to determine changes in creatine kinase (CK) release. All drugs caused a drug-specific increase in contractility, although only lidocaine and mexiletine induced similar concentration-dependent curve progressions, significantly reduced CK release, and featured shorter recovery times of tissue contractility after washing, compared to bupivacaine and tetracaine. In was concluded that the structural and lipophilic similarity of mexiletine and lidocaine were responsible for the similar effects of these drugs on SM contractility and cell membrane permeability, which supported the hypothesis that prokinetic effects of lidocaine are based on interactions with SM cell membranes modulated by these features. PMID:23265867

  2. The prevalence of human intestinal protozoa in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunba, E O

    1977-09-01

    This study shows that the two intestinal protozoa, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli in addition to Entamoeba histolytica are prevalent in the Ibadan population and are responsible for many of the non-bacterial diarrhoea seen in patients. A high seasonal prevalence of the intestinal protozoa in the dry months of the year was associated with the use of contaminated water. Both the high infection rates recorded in adults and children under five years old, and the high frequency of association involving Trichomonas hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were discussed. PMID:563477

  3. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in normal human intestine do not express proteins associated with cytolytic function.

    PubMed Central

    Chott, A.; Gerdes, D.; Spooner, A.; Mosberger, I.; Kummer, J. A.; Ebert, E. C.; Blumberg, R. S.; Balk, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Human small intestine contains a very large population of intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IELs) that are oligoclonal, appear functionally to be cytolytic T cells, and may contribute to the normal and pathological turnover of intestinal epithelial cells. This report addresses the cytolytic function of IELs in normal small intestine by examining their expression of molecules that carry out cell-mediated cytolysis. Immunohistochemical analyses of granzyme B, perforin, Fas ligand, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha demonstrated these proteins were not expressed by small intestinal IELs in situ. These proteins also were not expressed by colonic IELs or by lamina propria lymphocytes in the small or large intestine. Granzyme A, however, was expressed by a large fraction of IELs. In contrast to these in situ results, isolated and in vitro activated IELs were shown to express effector proteins consistent with cytolytic T cells, including granzyme B, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma. These results are most consistent with the vast majority of IELs in normal human small intestine being resting cytolytic T cells and suggest that these cells do not contribute to the apoptotic cell death of epithelial cells in normal intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9250156

  4. The role of K+ conductances in regulating membrane excitability in human gastric corpus smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Ko, Eun-ju; Ahn, Ki Duck; Kim, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) regulate membrane excitability. K+ conductance(s) are one of the main factors in regulating RMP. The functional role of K+ conductances has not been studied the in human gastric corpus smooth muscles (HGCS). To examine the role of K+ channels in regulation of RMP in HGCS we employed microelectrode recordings, patch-clamp, and molecular approaches. Tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin did not affect the RMP, suggesting that BK channels are not involved in regulating RMP. Apamin, a selective small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK) blocker, did not show a significant effect on the membrane excitability. 4-Aminopyridine, a Kv channel blocker, caused depolarization and increased the duration of slow wave potentials. 4-Aminopyridine also inhibited a delayed rectifying K+ current in isolated smooth muscle cells. End-product RT-PCR gel detected Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 in human gastric corpus muscles. Glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker, did not induce depolarization, but nicorandil, a KATP opener, hyperpolarized HGCS, suggesting that KATP are expressed but not basally activated. Kir6.2 transcript, a pore-forming subunit of KATP was expressed in HGCS. A low concentration of Ba2+, a Kir blocker, induced strong depolarization. Interestingly, Ba2+-sensitive currents were minimally expressed in isolated smooth muscle cells under whole-cell patch configuration. KCNJ2 (Kir2.1) transcript was expressed in HGCS. Unique K+ conductances regulate the RMP in HGCS. Delayed and inwardly rectifying K+ channels are the main candidates in regulating membrane excitability in HGCS. With the development of cell dispersion techniques of interstitial cells, the cell-specific functional significance will require further analysis. PMID:25591864

  5. Prostanoid receptors mediating contraction in rat, macaque and human bladder smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Root, James A; Davey, Dorren A; Af Forselles, Kerry J

    2015-12-15

    Selective prostaglandin EP1 antagonists have been suggested for the treatment of bladder dysfunction. This study assessed the contractile prostanoid receptor subtypes in human and non-human bladder in vitro. Classical tissue bath studies were conducted using bladder strips exposed to prostanoid agonists and antagonists. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contracted rat, macaque and human bladder smooth muscle strips (pEC50 7.91±0.06 (n=7), 6.40±0.13 (n=7), and 6.07±0.11 (n=5), respectively). The EP1 receptor antagonist, PF2907617 (300nM), caused a rightward shift of the PGE2 concentration-response curve in the rat bladder only (pKB 8.40±0.15, n=3). PGE2 responses in rat and macaque bladders, but not human, were antagonised by the EP3 antagonist CJ24979 (1µM). Sulprostone, a mixed EP1/EP3/FP receptor agonist, induced potent contractions of rat bladder muscle (pEC50 7.94±0.31, n=6). The FP receptor agonist, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), induced bladder contraction in all species tested, but with a lower potency in rat. The selective FP receptor agonist latanoprost caused potent contractions of macaque and human bladder strips only. SQ29548, a selective TP antagonist, and GW848687X, a mixed EP1/TP antagonist caused rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to the selective TP agonist, U46619 (pKB estimates 8.53±0.07 and 7.56±0.06, n=3, respectively). Responses to U46619 were absent in rat preparations. These data suggest significant species differences exist in bladder contractile prostanoid receptor subtypes. We conclude that the EP1 subtype does not represent the best approach to the clinical treatment of bladder disorders targeting inhibition of smooth muscle contraction.

  6. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Henthorn, P.S.; Raducha, M.; Edwards, Y.H.; Weiss, M.J.; Slaughter, C.; Lafferty, M.A.; Harris, H.

    1987-03-01

    A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1) was isolated from a lambdagt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed.

  7. Characterization of two cysteine proteases secreted by Blastocystis ST7, a human intestinal parasite.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Texier, Catherine; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Tan, Kevin S W; Delbac, Frédéric; El Alaoui, Hicham

    2012-09-01

    Blastocystis spp. are unicellular anaerobic intestinal parasites of both humans and animals and the most prevalent ones found in human stool samples. Their association with various gastrointestinal disorders raises the questions of its pathogenicity and of the molecular mechanisms involved. Since secreted proteases are well-known to be implicated in intestinal parasite virulence, we intended to determine whether Blastocystis spp. possess such pathogenic factors. In silico analysis of the Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) genome sequence highlighted 22 genes coding proteases which were predicted to be secreted. We characterized the proteolytic activities in the secretory products of Blastocystis ST7 using specific protease inhibitors. Two cysteine proteases, a cathepsin B and a legumain, were identified in the parasite culture supernatant by gelatin zymographic SDS-PAGE gel and MS/MS analysis. These proteases might act on intestinal cells and disturb gut function. This work provides serious molecular candidates to link Blastocystis spp. and intestinal disorders.

  8. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-02-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study.

  9. Proteomic network analysis of human uterine smooth muscle in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Craig; Quilici, David R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in human uterine quiescence during gestation and the induction of labor at term or preterm are not completely known. Preterm delivery is associated with major morbidity and mortality and current efforts to prevent delivery until term are largely ineffective. Identification and semi-quantification of proteomic changes in uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy will allow for targeted research into how quiescence is maintained and what changes are associated with induction of labor. Examining preterm labor in this context will provide potential therapeutic targets for the management of preterm labor. We have recently performed two dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on myometrial proteins isolated from pregnant patients in labor, pregnant patients not in labor, and pregnant patients in labor preterm. Using a conservative false discovery rate of 1% we have identified 2132 protein groups using this method and semi-quantitative spectral counting shows 201 proteins that have disparate levels of expression in preterm laboring samples. To our knowledge this is the first large scale proteomic study examining human uterine smooth muscle and this initial work has provided a target list for future experiments that can address how changing protein levels are involved in the induction of labor at term and preterm. PMID:26413312

  10. Embryonic origins of human vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in vitro modeling and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjay; Iyer, Dharini; Granata, Alessandra

    2014-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise from multiple origins during development, raising the possibility that differences in embryological origins between SMCs could contribute to site-specific localization of vascular diseases. In this review, we first examine the developmental pathways and embryological origins of vascular SMCs and then discuss in vitro strategies for deriving SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We then review in detail the potential for vascular disease modeling using iPSC-derived SMCs and consider the pathological implications of heterogeneous embryonic origins. Finally, we touch upon the role of human ESC-derived SMCs in therapeutic revascularization and the challenges remaining before regenerative medicine using ESC- or iPSC-derived cells comes of age.

  11. Development of Functional Microfold (M) Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids

    PubMed Central

    Rouch, Joshua D.; Scott, Andrew; Lei, Nan Ye; Solorzano-Vargas, R. Sergio; Wang, Jiafang; Hanson, Elaine M.; Kobayashi, Masae; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Eckmann, Lars; Martín, Martín G.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Intestinal microfold (M) cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer’s patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs), and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting. Methods Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium. Results Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2) in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells. Conclusions Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium

  12. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli inhibits intestinal vitamin B1 (thiamin) uptake: studies with human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Kumar, Jeyan S; Hecht, Gail A; Said, Hamid M

    2009-10-01

    Infection with the gram-negative enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a food-borne pathogen, represents a significant risk to human health. Whereas diarrhea is a major consequence of this infection, malnutrition also occurs especially in severe and prolonged cases, which may aggravate the health status of the infected hosts. Here we examined the effect of EPEC infection on the intestinal uptake of the water-soluble vitamin B1 (thiamin) using an established human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell model. The results showed that infecting Caco-2 cells with wild-type EPEC (but not with nonpathogenic E. coli, killed EPEC, or filtered supernatant) leads to a significant (P < 0.01) inhibition in thiamin uptake. Kinetic parameters of both the nanomolar (mediated by THTR-2) and the micromolar (mediated by THTR-1) saturable thiamin uptake processes were affected by EPEC infection. Cell surface expression of hTHTR-1 and -2 proteins, (determined by the biotinylation method) showed a significantly (P < 0.01) lower expression in EPEC-treated cells compared with controls. EPEC infection also affected the steady-state mRNA levels as well as promoter activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes. Infecting Caco-2 cells with EPEC mutants that harbor mutations in the escN gene (which encodes a putative ATPase for the EPEC type III secretion system, TTSS) or the espA, espB, or espD genes (which encode structural components of the TTSS) did not affect thiamin uptake. On the other hand, mutations in espF and espH genes (which encode effector proteins) exhibited partial inhibition in thiamin uptake. These results demonstrate for the first time that EPEC infection of human intestinal epithelial cells leads to inhibition in thiamin uptake via effects on physiological and molecular parameters of hTHTR-1 and -2. Furthermore, the inhibition appears to be dependent on a functional TTSS of EPEC.

  13. Generating human intestinal tissue from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kyle W; Howell, Jonathan C; Wells, James M; Spence, Jason R

    2011-12-01

    Here we describe a protocol for generating 3D human intestinal tissues (called organoids) in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). To generate intestinal organoids, pluripotent stem cells are first differentiated into FOXA2(+)SOX17(+) endoderm by treating the cells with activin A for 3 d. After endoderm induction, the pluripotent stem cells are patterned into CDX2(+) mid- and hindgut tissue using FGF4 and WNT3a. During this patterning step, 3D mid- or hindgut spheroids bud from the monolayer epithelium attached to the tissue culture dish. The 3D spheroids are further cultured in Matrigel along with prointestinal growth factors, and they proliferate and expand over 1-3 months to give rise to intestinal tissue, complete with intestinal mesenchyme and epithelium comprising all of the major intestinal cell types. To date, this is the only method for efficiently directing the differentiation of hPSCs into 3D human intestinal tissue in vitro. PMID:22082986

  14. Assessing DNA methylation in the developing human intestinal epithelium: potential link to inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kraiczy, J; Nayak, K; Ross, A; Raine, T; Mak, T N; Gasparetto, M; Cario, E; Rakyan, V; Heuschkel, R; Zilbauer, M

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms implicated in regulating cellular development and cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we performed simultaneous genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression analysis on purified intestinal epithelial cells derived from human fetal gut, healthy pediatric biopsies, and children newly diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results were validated using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR, and immunostaining. The functional impact of DNA methylation changes on gene expression was assessed by employing in-vitro assays in intestinal cell lines. DNA methylation analyses allowed identification of 214 genes for which expression is regulated via DNA methylation, i.e. regulatory differentially methylated regions (rDMRs). Pathway and functional analysis of rDMRs suggested a critical role for DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and functional development of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, analysis performed on intestinal epithelium of children newly diagnosed with IBD revealed alterations in DNA methylation within genomic loci, which were found to overlap significantly with those undergoing methylation changes during intestinal development. Our study provides novel insights into the physiological role of DNA methylation in regulating functional maturation of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we provide data linking developmentally acquired alterations in the DNA methylation profile to changes seen in pediatric IBD.

  15. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zailiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Weiping Wang, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation and migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that Ipt

  16. Estrogen effects on human airway smooth muscle involve cAMP and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2012-11-15

    Clinically observed differences in airway reactivity and asthma exacerbations in women at different life stages suggest a role for sex steroids in modulating airway function although their targets and mechanisms of action are still being explored. We have previously shown that clinically relevant concentrations of exogenous estrogen acutely decrease intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM), thereby facilitating bronchodilation. In this study, we hypothesized that estrogens modulate cyclic nucleotide regulation, resulting in decreased [Ca(2+)](i) in human ASM. In Fura-2-loaded human ASM cells, 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E(2)) potentiated the inhibitory effect of the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 100 nM) on histamine-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity (KT5720; 100 nM) attenuated E(2) effects on [Ca(2+)](i). Acute treatment with E(2) increased cAMP levels in ASM cells comparable to that of ISO (100 pM). In acetylcholine-contracted airways from female guinea pigs or female humans, E(2) potentiated ISO-induced relaxation. These novel data suggest that, in human ASM, physiologically relevant concentrations of estrogens act via estrogen receptors (ERs) and the cAMP pathway to nongenomically reduce [Ca(2+)](i), thus promoting bronchodilation. Activation of ERs may be a novel adjunct therapeutic avenue in reactive airway diseases in combination with established cAMP-activating therapies such as β(2)-agonists.

  17. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-08-29

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  18. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-01-01

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines. PMID:27589719

  19. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-01-01

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines. PMID:27589719

  20. Serum can overcome contact inhibition in confluent human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Solodushko, Victor; Khader, Heba A; Fouty, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) in an intact vessel are continually exposed to serum, but unless injured, do not proliferate, constrained by confluence. In contrast, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) attain, and maintain, confluence in the presence of minimal serum, protected from serum's stimulatory effects except when the endothelial barrier becomes more permeable. We hypothesized therefore, that confluent PASMC may be less constrained by contact inhibition in the presence of serum than PAEC and tested this idea by exposing confluent non-transformed human PAEC and PASMC to media containing increasing concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and determining cell growth over 7 days. PAEC that had attained confluence in low serum did not proliferate even when exposed to 5% serum, the highest concentration tested. In contrast, PASMC that attained confluence in low serum did proliferate once serum levels were increased, an effect that was dose dependent. Consistent with this observation, PASMC had more BrdU incorporation and a greater percentage of cells in S phase in 5% compared to 0.2% FBS, whereas no such difference was seen in PAEC. These results suggest that confluent human PAEC are resistant to the stimulatory effects of serum, whereas confluent PASMC can proliferate when serum levels are increased, an effect mediated in part by differences in phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. This observation may be relevant to understanding the PASMC hyperplasia observed in humans and animals with pulmonary hypertension in which changes in endothelial permeability due to hypoxia or injury expose the underlying smooth muscle to serum.

  1. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin sst2a receptors in the lymphatic, smooth muscular, and peripheral nervous systems of the human gastrointestinal tract: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Reubi, J C; Laissue, J A; Waser, B; Steffen, D L; Hipkin, R W; Schonbrunn, A

    1999-08-01

    The cellular distribution of the somatostatin sst2A receptor protein was investigated in the lymphatic, smooth muscular, and nervous components of the human gastrointestinal tract using subtype-specific antibody R2-88 for immunohistochemical staining of cryostat and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Germinal centers of intestinal lymphatic follicles were immunostained, exhibiting a predominantly plasma membrane localization of the receptor. Similarly, nerve fibers and cells in the submucosal and myenteric plexus were stained for sst2A. Antibody preabsorption with 100 nmol/L antigen peptide abolished staining in all of these tissues, and immunohistochemical staining correlated with the labeling observed after receptor autoradiography using the sst2-preferring radioligand 125I-[Tyr3]octreotide. Cytoplasmic immunostaining was detected in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells and was inhibited by antibody pre-absorption with antigen peptide. However, 125I-[Tyr3]octreotide autoradiography was negative, and Western blots showed no band at the usual 70-90 kDa location for sst2A. Instead, a band was observed at 205 kDa. This band comigrated with the rabbit myosin standard, which was also stained with R2-88, although antibody sensitivity for myosin was less than 0.002% of that for the sst2A receptor. Rigorous computer-based sequence analysis demonstrated the peptide sequence chosen for antibody production was unique. Moreover, standard sequence alignment protocols were unable to identify the sequences in myosin responsible for the observed reactivity with the R2-88 antiserum. The observed cross-reactivity emphasizes the need for extensive controls to prove the specificity of immunostaining for such low abundance proteins as receptors even when the peptide sequence chosen for antibody production is unique. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of specific sst2A receptor protein by immunohistochemistry in the human gastrointestinal lymphatic

  2. High-density collagen gel tubes as a matrix for primary human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Micol, Lionel A; Ananta, Michael; Engelhardt, Eva-Maria; Mudera, Vivek C; Brown, Robert A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Frey, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Tissue-engineered grafts for the urinary tract are being investigated for the potential treatment of several urologic diseases. These grafts, predominantly tubular-shaped, usually require in vitro culture prior to implantation to allow cell engraftment on initially cell-free scaffolds. We have developed a method to produce tubular-shaped collagen scaffolds based on plastic compression. Our approach produces a ready cell-seeded graft that does not need further in vitro culture prior to implantation. The tubular collagen scaffolds were in particular investigated for their structural, mechanical and biological properties. The resulting construct showed an especially high collagen density, and was characterized by favorable mechanical properties assessed by axial extension and radial dilation. Young modulus in particular was greater than non-compressed collagen tubes. Seeding densities affected proliferation rate of primary human bladder smooth muscle cells. An optimal seeding density of 10(6) cells per construct resulted in a 25-fold increase in Alamar blue-based fluorescence after 2 wk in culture. These high-density collagen gel tubes, ready seeded with smooth muscle cells could be further seeded with urothelial cells, drastically shortening the production time of graft for urinary tract regeneration.

  3. Differentiation of Human Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells into Smooth-Muscle Cells: Two Novel Protocols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libang; Geng, Zhaohui; Nickel, Thomas; Johnson, Caitlin; Gao, Lin; Dutton, James; Hou, Cody; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional protocols for differentiating human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can be inefficient and generally fail to yield cells with a specific SMC phenotype (i.e., contractile or synthetic SMCs). Here, we present two novel hiPSC-SMC differentiation protocols that yield SMCs with predominantly contractile or synthetic phenotypes. Flow cytometry analyses of smooth-muscle actin (SMA) expression indicated that ~45% of the cells obtained with each protocol assumed an SMC phenotype, and that the populations could be purified to ~95% via metabolic selection. Assessments of cellular mRNA and/or protein levels indicated that SMA, myosin heavy chain II, collagen 1, calponin, transgelin, connexin 43, and vimentin expression in the SMCs obtained via the Contractile SMC protocol and in SMCs differentiated via a traditional protocol were similar, while SMCs produced via the Sythetic SMC protocol expressed less calponin, more collagen 1, and more connexin 43. Differences were also observed in functional assessments of the two SMC populations: the two-dimensional surface area of Contractile SMCs declined more extensively (to 12% versus 44% of original size) in response to carbachol treatment, while quantification of cell migration and proliferation were greater in Synthetic SMCs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that our novel differentiation protocols can efficiently generate SMCs from hiPSCs. PMID:26771193

  4. Regulation of actin dynamics by WNT-5A: implications for human airway smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Tim; Kumawat, Kuldeep; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), which underlies the exaggerated bronchoconstriction response of asthmatics. The role of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) in AHR has garnered increasing interest over the years, but how asthmatic ASM differs from healthy ASM is still an active topic of debate. WNT-5A is increasingly expressed in asthmatic ASM and has been linked with Th2-high asthma. Due to its link with calcium and cytoskeletal remodelling, we propose that WNT-5A may modulate ASM contractility. We demonstrated that WNT-5A can increase maximum isometric tension in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips. In addition, we show that WNT-5A is preferentially expressed in contractile human airway myocytes compared to proliferative cells, suggesting an active role in maintaining contractility. Furthermore, WNT-5A treatment drives actin polymerisation, but has no effect on intracellular calcium flux. Next, we demonstrated that WNT-5A directly regulates TGF-β1-induced expression of α-SMA via ROCK-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that WNT-5A modulates fundamental mechanisms that affect ASM contraction and thus may be of relevance for AHR in asthma. PMID:27468699

  5. Receptor-based differences in human aortic smooth muscle cell membrane stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H.; Kamm, R. D.; So, P. T.; Lee, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimuli with diverse molecular responses. The nature of the sensory mechanism involved in mechanotransduction is not known, but integrins may play an important role. The integrins are linked to both the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, suggesting that probing cells via integrins should yield different mechanical properties than probing cells via non-cytoskeleton-associated receptors. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of a cell are dependent on the receptor on which the stress is applied, human aortic smooth muscle cells were plated, and magnetic beads, targeted either to the integrins via fibronectin or to the transferrin receptor by use of an IgG antibody, were attached to the cell surface. The resistance of the cell to deformation ("stiffness") was estimated by oscillating the magnetic beads at 1 Hz by use of single-pole magnetic tweezers at 2 different magnitudes. The ratio of bead displacements at different magnitudes was used to explore the mechanical properties of the cells. Cells stressed via the integrins required approximately 10-fold more force to obtain the same bead displacements as the cells stressed via the transferrin receptors. Cells stressed via integrins showed stiffening behavior as the force was increased, whereas this stiffening was significantly less for cells stressed via the transferrin receptor (P<0.001). Mechanical characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells depend on the receptor by which the stress is applied, with integrin-based linkages demonstrating cell-stiffening behavior.

  6. Intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling during the phenotypic journey of human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Eva; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Sobradillo, Diego; Rocher, Asunción; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells undergo phenotypic switches after damage which may contribute to proliferative disorders of the vessel wall. This process has been related to remodeling of Ca(2+) channels. We have tested the ability of cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) to return from a proliferative to a quiescent behavior and the contribution of intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling to the process. We found that cultured, early passage hCASMCs showed a high proliferation rate, sustained increases in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in response to angiotensin II, residual voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry, increased Stim1 and enhanced store-operated currents. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry and abolished cell proliferation in a mitochondria-dependent manner. After a few passages, hCASMCs turned to a quiescent phenotype characterized by lack of proliferation, oscillatory Ca(2+) response to angiotensin II, increased Ca(2+) store content, enhanced voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry and Cav1.2 expression, and decreases in Stim1, store-operated current and store-operated Ca(2+) entry. We conclude that proliferating hCASMCs return to quiescence and this switch is associated to a remodeling of Ca(2+) channels and their control by subcellular organelles, thus providing a window of opportunity for targeting phenotype-specific Ca(2+) channels involved in proliferation. PMID:24079969

  7. Intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling during the phenotypic journey of human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Eva; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Sobradillo, Diego; Rocher, Asunción; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells undergo phenotypic switches after damage which may contribute to proliferative disorders of the vessel wall. This process has been related to remodeling of Ca(2+) channels. We have tested the ability of cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) to return from a proliferative to a quiescent behavior and the contribution of intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling to the process. We found that cultured, early passage hCASMCs showed a high proliferation rate, sustained increases in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in response to angiotensin II, residual voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry, increased Stim1 and enhanced store-operated currents. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry and abolished cell proliferation in a mitochondria-dependent manner. After a few passages, hCASMCs turned to a quiescent phenotype characterized by lack of proliferation, oscillatory Ca(2+) response to angiotensin II, increased Ca(2+) store content, enhanced voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry and Cav1.2 expression, and decreases in Stim1, store-operated current and store-operated Ca(2+) entry. We conclude that proliferating hCASMCs return to quiescence and this switch is associated to a remodeling of Ca(2+) channels and their control by subcellular organelles, thus providing a window of opportunity for targeting phenotype-specific Ca(2+) channels involved in proliferation.

  8. Reflex control of intestinal gas dynamics and tolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    Harder, Hermann; Serra, Jordi; Azpiroz, Fernando; Malagelada, Juan-R

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal transit of gas is normally adapted to the luminal gas load, but in some patients impaired transit may lead to gas retention and symptoms. We hypothesized that intestinal gas transit is regulated by reflex mechanisms released by segmental distension at various gut levels. In 24 healthy subjects, we measured gas evacuation and perception of jejunal gas infusion (12 ml/min) during simultaneous infusion of duodenal lipids mimicking the postprandial caloric load (Intralipid, 1 kcal/min). We evaluated the effects of proximal (duodenal) distension (n = 8), distal (rectal) distension (n = 8), and sham distension, as control (n = 8). Duodenal lipid infusion produced gas retention (366 +/- 106 ml) with low abdominal perception (1.5 +/- 0.8 score). Distension of either the duodenum or rectum during lipid infusion expedited gas transit and prevented retention (-120 +/- 164 and -124 +/- 162 ml retention, respectively; P < 0.05 vs. control). However, the tolerance to the intestinal gas load differed markedly, depending on the site of distension; perception remained low during rectal distension (2.6 +/- 0.7 score; not significant vs. control) but increased during duodenal distension (4.4 +/- 0.7 score; P < 0.05 vs. control). We conclude that focal gut distension, either at proximal or distal sites, accelerates gas transit, but the symptomatic response depends on the site of stimulation.

  9. The human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose augments the adaptive response to extensive intestinal.

    PubMed

    Mezoff, Ethan A; Hawkins, Jennifer A; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Karns, Rebekah; Morrow, Ardythe L; Helmrath, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Intestinal resection resulting in short bowel syndrome (SBS) carries a heavy burden of long-term morbidity, mortality, and cost of care, which can be attenuated with strategies that improve intestinal adaptation. SBS infants fed human milk, compared with formula, have more rapid intestinal adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that the major noncaloric human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) contributes to the adaptive response after intestinal resection. Using a previously described murine model of intestinal adaptation, we demonstrated increased weight gain from 21 to 56 days (P < 0.001) and crypt depth at 56 days (P < 0.0095) with 2'-FL supplementation after ileocecal resection. Furthermore, 2'-FL increased small bowel luminal content microbial alpha diversity following resection (P < 0.005) and stimulated a bloom in organisms of the genus Parabacteroides (log2-fold = 4.1, P = 0.035). Finally, transcriptional analysis of the intestine revealed enriched ontologies and pathways related to antimicrobial peptides, metabolism, and energy processing. We conclude that 2'-FL supplementation following ileocecal resection increases weight gain, energy availability through microbial community modulation, and histological changes consistent with improved adaptation.

  10. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma, a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Keisuke; Hirota, Takeshi; Saito, Jumpei; Fukae, Masato; Egashira, Yu; Izumi, Noritomo; Deguchi, Mariko; Kimura, Miyuki; Matsuki, Shunji; Irie, Shin; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    A variant in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene, 421C> A is a useful biomarker for describing large inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SASP), a BCRP substrate. However, large intra-genotypic variability still exists in spite of the incorporation of this variant into the pharmacokinetics of SASP. Since miR-328 negatively regulates BCRP expression in human tissues, we hypothesized that exosomal miR-328 in plasma, which leaks from the intestines, is a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP activity in the human intestines. We established an immunoprecipitation-based quantitative method for circulating intestine-derived miR-328 in plasma using an anti-glycoprotein A33 antibody. A clinical study was conducted with an open-label, non-randomized, and single-arm design involving 33 healthy participants. Intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 levels positively correlated (P < 0.05) with SASP AUC0-48, suggesting that subjects with high miR-328 levels have low intestinal BCRP activity, resulting in the high AUC of SASP. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma has potential as a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines. PMID:27571936

  11. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma, a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines

    PubMed Central

    Gotanda, Keisuke; Hirota, Takeshi; Saito, Jumpei; Fukae, Masato; Egashira, Yu; Izumi, Noritomo; Deguchi, Mariko; Kimura, Miyuki; Matsuki, Shunji; Irie, Shin; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    A variant in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene, 421C> A is a useful biomarker for describing large inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SASP), a BCRP substrate. However, large intra-genotypic variability still exists in spite of the incorporation of this variant into the pharmacokinetics of SASP. Since miR-328 negatively regulates BCRP expression in human tissues, we hypothesized that exosomal miR-328 in plasma, which leaks from the intestines, is a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP activity in the human intestines. We established an immunoprecipitation-based quantitative method for circulating intestine-derived miR-328 in plasma using an anti-glycoprotein A33 antibody. A clinical study was conducted with an open-label, non-randomized, and single-arm design involving 33 healthy participants. Intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 levels positively correlated (P < 0.05) with SASP AUC0-48, suggesting that subjects with high miR-328 levels have low intestinal BCRP activity, resulting in the high AUC of SASP. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma has potential as a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines. PMID:27571936

  12. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma, a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Keisuke; Hirota, Takeshi; Saito, Jumpei; Fukae, Masato; Egashira, Yu; Izumi, Noritomo; Deguchi, Mariko; Kimura, Miyuki; Matsuki, Shunji; Irie, Shin; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2016-08-30

    A variant in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene, 421C> A is a useful biomarker for describing large inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SASP), a BCRP substrate. However, large intra-genotypic variability still exists in spite of the incorporation of this variant into the pharmacokinetics of SASP. Since miR-328 negatively regulates BCRP expression in human tissues, we hypothesized that exosomal miR-328 in plasma, which leaks from the intestines, is a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP activity in the human intestines. We established an immunoprecipitation-based quantitative method for circulating intestine-derived miR-328 in plasma using an anti-glycoprotein A33 antibody. A clinical study was conducted with an open-label, non-randomized, and single-arm design involving 33 healthy participants. Intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 levels positively correlated (P < 0.05) with SASP AUC0-48, suggesting that subjects with high miR-328 levels have low intestinal BCRP activity, resulting in the high AUC of SASP. Circulating intestine-derived exosomal miR-328 in plasma has potential as a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP function in the human intestines.

  13. Smooth enlargement of human standing sway by instability due to weak reaction floor and noise

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Tetsuro; Aoi, Shinya; Tomita, Nozomi; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Human quiet standing is accompanied by body sway. The amplitude of this body sway is known to be larger than would be predicted from simple noise effects, and sway characteristics are changed by neurological disorders. This large sway is thought to arise from nonlinear control with prolonged periods of no control (intermittent control), and a nonlinear control system of this kind has been predicted to exhibit bifurcation. The presence of stability-dependent transition enables dynamic reaction that depends on the stability of the environment, and can explain the change in sway characteristics that accompanies some neurological disorders. This research analyses the characteristics of a system model that induces transition, and discusses whether human standing reflects such a mechanism. In mathematical analysis of system models, (intermittent control-like) nonlinear control with integral control is shown to exhibit Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, from the analytical solution of the system model with noise, noise is shown to work to smooth the enlargement of sway around the bifurcation point. This solution is compared with measured human standing sway on floors with different stabilities. By quantitatively comparing the control parameters between human observation and model prediction, enlargement of sway is shown to appear as predicted by the model analysis. PMID:26909186

  14. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A.; Neumayer, Katharina M. H.; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Hart, Melanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1–2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  15. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  16. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Affects Hyaluronan Synthesis in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N.; Hascall, Vincent C.; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20–50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL. PMID:23979132

  17. Biomechanical effects of environmental and engineered particles on human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, P.; Park, C. Y.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Tsuda, A.; Sager, T. M.; Molina, R. M.; Donaghey, T. C.; Alencar, A. M.; Kasahara, D. I.; Ericsson, T.; Millet, E. J.; Swenson, J.; Tschumperlin, D. J.; Butler, J. P.; Brain, J. D.; Fredberg, J. J.; Gehr, P.; Zhou, E. H.

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant increases in combustion-generated ambient particles, which contain a nanosized fraction (less than 100 nm), and even greater increases have occurred in engineered nanoparticles (NPs) propelled by the booming nanotechnology industry. Although inhalation of these particulates has become a public health concern, human health effects and mechanisms of action for NPs are not well understood. Focusing on the human airway smooth muscle cell, here we show that the cellular mechanical function is altered by particulate exposure in a manner that is dependent upon particle material, size and dose. We used Alamar Blue assay to measure cell viability and optical magnetic twisting cytometry to measure cell stiffness and agonist-induced contractility. The eight particle species fell into four categories, based on their respective effect on cell viability and on mechanical function. Cell viability was impaired and cell contractility was decreased by (i) zinc oxide (40–100 nm and less than 44 μm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 50 nm); cell contractility was decreased by (ii) fluorescent polystyrene spheres (40 nm), increased by (iii) welding fumes and unchanged by (iv) diesel exhaust particles, titanium dioxide (25 nm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 5 μm), although in none of these cases was cell viability impaired. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide up to 500 μM did not alter viability or cell mechanics, suggesting that the particle effects are unlikely to be mediated by particle-generated reactive oxygen species. Our results highlight the susceptibility of cellular mechanical function to particulate exposures and suggest that direct exposure of the airway smooth muscle cells to particulates may initiate or aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:20356875

  18. Smooth-muscle-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells support and augment cord-like structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vo, Elaine; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Zha, Yuanting; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Engineering vascularized tissue is crucial for its successful implantation, survival, and integration with the host tissue. Vascular smooth muscle cells (v-SMCs) provide physical support to the vasculature and aid in maintaining endothelial viability. In this study, we show an efficient derivation of v-SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and demonstrate their functionality and ability to support the vasculature in vitro. Human ESCs were differentiated in monolayers and supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Human ESC-derived smooth-muscle-like cells (SMLCs) were found to highly express specific smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers--including alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, SM22, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain--to produce and secrete fibronectin and collagen, and to contract in response to carbachol. In vitro tubulogenesis assays revealed that these hESC-derived SMLCs interacted with human endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) to form longer and thicker cord-like structures in vitro. We have demonstrated a simple protocol for the efficient derivation of highly purified SMLCs from hESCs. These in vitro functional SMLCs interacted with EPCs to support and augment capillary-like structures (CLSs), demonstrating the potential of hESCs as a cell source for therapeutic vascular tissue engineering.

  19. Association of germ-free mice with a simplified human intestinal microbiota results in a shortened intestine.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Kathleen; Krupova, Zuzana; Rabot, Sylvie; Loh, Gunnar; Levenez, Florence; Descamps, Amandine; Lepage, Patricia; Doré, Joël; Bellier, Sylvain; Blaut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, nutritional, and gut microbiota-derived factors have been proposed to play a role in the development of the whole intestine that is around 40% longer in PRM/Alf mice compared with other mouse strains. The PRM/Alf genotype explains 60% of this length difference. The remaining 40% are due to a maternal effect that could depend on the gut microbiota transmitted by the mother to their pups. Germ-free PRM/Alf mice and C3H/He mice were associated with a simplified human microbiota (SIHUMI) to study its impact on gut length. The small intestines of the SIHUMI-associated mice were 16.4% (PRM/Alf) and 9.7% (C3H/He) shorter than those of the corresponding germ-free counterparts. Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR revealed differences in microbiota composition between both SIHUMI-associated mouse strains. Anaerostipes caccae was one log lower in PRM/Alf mice than in C3H/He mice. Since polyamines and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important intestinal growth factors, their concentrations were explored. Cecal concentrations of putrescine, spermine, spermidine, and N-acetylspermine were 1.5-fold, 3.7-fold, 2.2-fold, and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, in the SIHUMI-C3H/He mice compared with the SIHUMI-PRM/Alf mice. In addition, cecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations in SIHUMI-C3H/He mice were 1.4-fold, 1.1-fold, and 2.1-fold higher, respectively, than in SIHUMI-PRM/Alf mice. These results indicate that polyamines and SCFAs did not promote gut lengthening in any of the two mouse strains. This suggests that as yet unknown factors provided by the SIHUMI prevented gut lengthening in the SIHUMI-associated mice compared with the germfree mice.

  20. Generating human intestinal tissues from pluripotent stem cells to study development and disease.

    PubMed

    Sinagoga, Katie L; Wells, James M

    2015-05-01

    As one of the largest and most functionally complex organs of the human body, the intestines are primarily responsible for the breakdown and uptake of macromolecules from the lumen and the subsequent excretion of waste from the body. However, the intestine is also an endocrine organ, regulating digestion, metabolism, and feeding behavior. Intricate neuronal, lymphatic, immune, and vascular systems are integrated into the intestine and are required for its digestive and endocrine functions. In addition, the gut houses an extensive population of microbes that play roles in digestion, global metabolism, barrier function, and host-parasite interactions. With such an extensive array of cell types working and performing in one essential organ, derivation of functional intestinal tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represents a significant challenge. Here we will discuss the intricate developmental processes and cell types that are required for assembly of this highly complex organ and how embryonic processes, particularly morphogenesis, have been harnessed to direct differentiation of PSCs into 3-dimensional human intestinal organoids (HIOs) in vitro. We will further describe current uses of HIOs in development and disease research and how additional tissue complexity might be engineered into HIOs for better functionality and disease modeling. PMID:25792515

  1. Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that Staphylococcus aureus may colonize the intestinal tract, especially among hospitalized patients. As Staph. aureus has been found to be associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, it has become important to study whether this bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract and if so, whether it is possible to prevent colonization. Adhesion is the first step in colonization; this study shows that Staph. aureus adheres to mucus from resected human intestinal tissue. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly commercial probiotics, were able to reduce adhesion and viability of adherent Staph. aureus. In displacement assays the amount of adherent Staph. aureus in human intestinal mucus was reduced 39-44% by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Moreover, adherent Lactobacillus reuteri, Lc. lactis and P. freudenreichii reduced viability of adherent Staph. aureus by 27-36%, depending on the strain, after 2 h incubation. This was probably due to the production of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide and possibly in the case of L. reuteri to the production of reuterin. This study shows for the first time that Staph. aureus can adhere to human intestinal mucus and adherent bacteria can be displaced and killed by certain LAB strains via in situ production of antimicrobial substances.

  2. Generating human intestinal tissues from pluripotent stem cells to study development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sinagoga, Katie L; Wells, James M

    2015-01-01

    As one of the largest and most functionally complex organs of the human body, the intestines are primarily responsible for the breakdown and uptake of macromolecules from the lumen and the subsequent excretion of waste from the body. However, the intestine is also an endocrine organ, regulating digestion, metabolism, and feeding behavior. Intricate neuronal, lymphatic, immune, and vascular systems are integrated into the intestine and are required for its digestive and endocrine functions. In addition, the gut houses an extensive population of microbes that play roles in digestion, global metabolism, barrier function, and host–parasite interactions. With such an extensive array of cell types working and performing in one essential organ, derivation of functional intestinal tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represents a significant challenge. Here we will discuss the intricate developmental processes and cell types that are required for assembly of this highly complex organ and how embryonic processes, particularly morphogenesis, have been harnessed to direct differentiation of PSCs into 3-dimensional human intestinal organoids (HIOs) in vitro. We will further describe current uses of HIOs in development and disease research and how additional tissue complexity might be engineered into HIOs for better functionality and disease modeling. PMID:25792515

  3. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  4. P2 receptor expression profiles in human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingwei; Karlsson, Lena; Moses, Sara; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Andersson, Maria; Borna, Catharina; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Jern, Sverker; Erlinge, David

    2002-12-01

    P2 receptors mediate the actions of the extracellular nucleotides ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP, regulating several physiologic responses including cardiac function, vascular tone, smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, platelet aggregation, and the release of endothelial factors. P2 receptor characterization has been hampered by the lack of selective antagonists. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of P2X and P2Y receptors in human SMC and in endothelial cells (EC). Smooth muscle cells were obtained from human mammary artery and EC from human umbilical vein. Using real-time PCR, the authors established quantitative mRNA assays. Protein expression was studied using Western blotting with recently developed antibodies. The P2X1 receptor was highly specific for human SMC, while the P2X4 was the highest expressed receptor in EC. The P2Y2 receptor was present in both SMC and EC. UTP-mediated effects in these cells are likely to be mediated by P2Y2 and not P2Y4 receptors since the latter had considerably lower expression. The P2Y6 receptor was expressed in both SMC and EC. The P2Y1 and surprisingly the P2Y11 receptors were the most abundantly expressed P2Y receptors in the endothelium. Overall, Western blotting confirmed the mRNA findings in most aspects, and most interestingly, indicated oligomerization of the P2Y1 receptor that may be important for its function. In conclusion, P2X1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 are the most expressed P2 receptors in SMC and are thus probably mediating the contractile and mitogenic actions of extracellular nucleotides. The P2X4, P2Y11, P2Y1, and P2Y2 are the most expressed P2 receptors in EC, and are most likely mediating release of nitric oxide, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and t-PA induced by extracellular nucleotides. These findings will help to direct future cardiovascular drug development against the large P2 receptor family.

  5. Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 are essential in maintaining murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars; Salvestrini, Camilla; Park, Pyong Woo; Li, Jin-Ping; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Murch, Simon; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) fail to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function and develop an excessive and potentially fatal efflux of plasma proteins. PLE occurs in ostensibly unrelated diseases, but emerging commonalities in clinical observations recently led us to identify key players in PLE pathogenesis. These include elevated IFN-γ, TNF-α, venous hypertension, and the specific loss of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells during PLE episodes. Here we show that heparan sulfate and syndecan-1, the predominant intestinal epithelial heparan sulfate proteoglycan, are essential in maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier function. Heparan sulfate– or syndecan-1–deficient mice and mice with intestinal-specific loss of heparan sulfate had increased basal protein leakage and were far more susceptible to protein loss induced by combinations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased venous pressure. Similarly, knockdown of syndecan-1 in human epithelial cells resulted in increased basal and cytokine-induced protein leakage. Clinical application of heparin has been known to alleviate PLE in some patients but its unknown mechanism and severe side effects due to its anticoagulant activity limit its usefulness. We demonstrate here that non-anticoagulant 2,3-de-O-sulfated heparin could prevent intestinal protein leakage in syndecan-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a safe and effective therapy for PLE patients. PMID:18064305

  6. Studies on the quantitation of immunoglobulin in human intestinal secretions

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R. R.; McClelland, D. B. L.; Shearman, D. J. C.

    1973-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the importance of the secretory immune system in the gut. In studies of local antibody production it is important to have satisfactory methods for measuring immunoglobulin concentrations and to be aware of the errors which may occur. Studies on immunoglobulin measurement in intestinal secretion by the radial immunodiffusion method are reported, showing the effects of proteolytic digestion, IgA molecular size, and sampling and storage conditions. Because of the presence of monomeric IgA in addition to secretory IgA, there is no satisfactory standard for IgA in gastrointestinal secretions, and only semi-quantitative results can be given. With radial immunodiffusion, IgG and IgM when subjected to tryptic digestion, and IgA when subjected to peptic digestion, may be overestimated because of the presence of fragments of immunoglobulins. In addition, pepsin rapidly destroys IgM and IgG. Both IgM and IgG are unstable in storage. The findings suggest that immunoglobulin concentration measurements in small intestinal aspirates should be interpreted with caution. These problems are also relevant to the detection of specific antibodies in gastrointestinal secretions. ImagesFig 3Fig 5Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 11 PMID:4582728

  7. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota. PMID:26852926

  8. Insights from human congenital disorders of intestinal lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    The intestine must challenge the profuse daily flux of dietary fat that serves as a vital source of energy and as an essential component of cell membranes. The fat absorption process takes place in a series of orderly and interrelated steps, including the uptake and translocation of lipolytic products from the brush border membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid esterification, Apo synthesis, and ultimately the packaging of lipid and Apo components into chylomicrons (CMs). Deciphering inherited disorders of intracellular CM elaboration afforded new insight into the key functions of crucial intracellular proteins, such as Apo B, microsomal TG transfer protein, and Sar1b GTPase, the defects of which lead to hypobetalipoproteinemia, abetalipoproteinemia, and CM retention disease, respectively. These “experiments of nature” are characterized by fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, failure to thrive, low plasma levels of TGs and cholesterol, and deficiency of liposoluble vitamins and essential FAs. After summarizing and discussing the functions and regulation of these proteins for reader’s comprehension, the current review focuses on their specific roles in malabsorptions and dyslipidemia-related intestinal fat hyperabsorption while dissecting the spectrum of clinical manifestations and managements. The influence of newly discovered proteins (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and angiopoietin-like 3 protein) on fat absorption has also been provided. Finally, it is stressed how the overexpression or polymorphism status of the critical intracellular proteins promotes dyslipidemia and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:25387865

  9. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-02-08

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota.

  10. Transforming growth factor type beta specifically stimulates synthesis of proteoglycan in human adult arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J K; Hoshi, H; McKeehan, W L

    1987-01-01

    Myo-intimal proteoglycan metabolism is thought to be important in blood vessel homeostasis, blood clotting, atherogenesis, and atherosclerosis. Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) specifically stimulated synthesis of at least two types of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in nonproliferating human adult arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis by smooth muscle cell growth promoters (epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and heparin-binding growth factors) was less than 20% of that elicited by TGF-beta. TGF-beta neither significantly stimulated proliferation of quiescent smooth muscle cells nor inhibited proliferating cells. The extent of TGF-beta stimulation of smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis was similar in both nonproliferating and growth-stimulated cells. TGF-beta, which is a reversible inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, had no comparable effect on endothelial cell proteoglycan synthesis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that TGF-beta is a cell-type-specific regulator of proteoglycan synthesis in human blood vessels and may contribute to the myo-intimal accumulation of proteoglycan in atherosclerotic lesions. Images PMID:3474655

  11. Life and death at the mucosal-luminal interface: New perspectives on human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Grootjans, Joep; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Derikx, Joep P M

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is a frequently observed phenomenon. Morbidity and mortality rates are extraordinarily high and did not improve over the past decades. This is in part attributable to limited knowledge on the pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in man, the paucity in preventive and/or therapeutic options and the lack of early diagnostic markers for intestinal ischemia. To improve our knowledge and solve clinically important questions regarding intestinal IR, we developed a human experimental intestinal IR model. With this model, we were able to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow the human gut to withstand short periods of IR without the development of severe inflammatory responses. The purpose of this review is to overview the most relevant recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of human intestinal IR, as well as the (potential) future clinical implications. PMID:26973414

  12. Correlation Between Intraluminal Oxygen Gradient and Radial Partitioning of Intestinal Microbiota in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albenberg, L; Esipova, TV; Judge, CP; Bittinger, K; Chen, J; Laughlin, A; Grunberg, S; Baldassano, RN; Lewis, JD; Li, H; Thom, SR; Bushman, FD; Vinogradov, SA; Wu, GD

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The gut microbiota is a complex and densely populated community in a dynamic environment determined by host physiology. We investigated how intestinal oxygen levels affect the composition of the fecal and mucosally adherent microbiota. Methods We used the phosphorescence quenching method and a specially designed intraluminal oxygen probe to dynamically quantify gut luminal oxygen levels in mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbiota in intestines of mice exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, human rectal biopsy and mucosal swab samples, and paired human stool samples. Results Average pO2 values in the lumen of the cecum were extremely low (<1 mmHg). In altering oxygenation of intestines of mice, we observed that oxygen diffused from intestinal tissue and established a radial gradient the extended from the tissue interface into the lumen. Increasing tissue oxygenation with hyperbaric oxygen altered the composition of the gut microbioita in mice. In humans, 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed an increased proportion of oxygen-tolerant organisms of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla associated with the rectal mucosa, compared with the feces, indicating an effect of oxygenation on the microbiota. A consortium of asaccharolytic bacteria of the Firmicute and Bacteroidetes phyla, which primarily metabolize peptones and amino acids, was associated primarily with mucus. This could be due to the presence of proteinaceous substrates provided by mucus and the shedding of the intestinal epithelium. Conclusions In an analysis of intestinal microbiota of mice and humans, we observed a radial gradient of microbes linked to distribution of oxygen and nutrients provided by host tissue. PMID:25046162

  13. Development of an Advanced Primary Human In Vitro Model of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Schweinlin, Matthias; Wilhelm, Sabine; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Hansmann, Jan; Rietscher, Rene; Jurowich, Christian; Walles, Heike; Metzger, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal in vitro models are valuable tools in drug discovery and infection research. Despite several advantages, the standard cell line-based Transwell(®) models based for example on colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells, lack the cellular complexity and transport activity associated with native small intestinal tissue. An additional experimental set-back arises from the most commonly used synthetic membranes, on which the cells are routinely cultured. These can lead to an additional barrier activity during in vitro testing. To overcome these limitations, we developed an alternative primary human small intestinal tissue model. This novel approach combines previously established gut organoid technology with a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) based on porcine small intestinal scaffold (SIS). Intestinal crypts from healthy human small intestine were expanded as gut organoids and seeded as single cells on SIS in a standardized Transwell-like setting. After only 7 days on the ECM scaffold, the primary cells formed an epithelial barrier while a subpopulation differentiated into intestinal specific cell types such as mucus-producing goblet cells or hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells. Furthermore, we tested the influence of subepithelial fibroblasts and dynamic culture conditions on epithelial barrier function. The barrier integrity was stabilized by coculture in the presence of gut-derived fibroblasts. Compared to static or dynamic culture on an orbital shaker, dynamic culture in a defined perfusion bioreactor had an additional significant impact on epithelial cell differentiation, indicated by high prismatic cell morphology and upregulation of CYP3A4 enzyme and Mdr1 transporter activity. In summary, more physiological tissue models as presented in our study might be useful tools in preclinical research and development. PMID:27481569

  14. Morphological changes in the enteric nervous system caused by carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The innervations of the large intestine is responsible for it peristalsis and contractibility. Investigations of the enteric nervous system in many colon diseases have revealed changes in this structure. No study has been carried out on morphological changes of the enteric nervous system in the human large intestine with carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate potential changes in the structure of the enteric neurons in patients with sigmoid and rectal cancer. Material for the study was obtained from patients undergoing operations due to carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum. Microscopic observation of the cancerous tumor of the human large intestine revealed changes in the enteric nervous system innervating this part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the region of the enteric plexuses located close to the tumour, disruption of their correct placement and structure was observed. The changes also consisted of the disappearance of neurons and nerve fibers forming these plexuses. In the solid cancerous tumour, elements of the enteric nervous system were not present. Destruction of the enteric nervous system in the course of carcinoma of the large intestine may cause disruption of proper intestinal function and may be responsible for part of symptoms which the patients suffer.

  15. Glucose induces intestinal human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 to prevent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Naoya; Fujie, Yoshiko; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate calorie intake or starvation has been suggested as a cause of neonatal jaundice, which can further cause permanent brain damage, kernicterus. This study experimentally investigated whether additional glucose treatments induce the bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme--UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1--to prevent the onset of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice physiologically develop jaundice. In this study, UGT1A1 expression levels were determined in the liver and small intestine of neonatal hUGT1 mice that were orally treated with glucose. In the hUGT1 mice, glucose induced UGT1A1 in the small intestine, while it did not affect the expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. UGT1A1 was also induced in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells when the cells were cultured in the presence of glucose. Luciferase assays demonstrated that not only the proximal region (-1300/-7) of the UGT1A1 promoter, but also distal region (-6500/-4050) were responsible for the induction of UGT1A1 in the intestinal cells. Adequate calorie intake would lead to the sufficient expression of UGT1A1 in the small intestine to reduce serum bilirubin levels. Supplemental treatment of newborns with glucose solution can be a convenient and efficient method to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing continuous breastfeeding. PMID:25209391

  16. Olfactory Receptors Modulate Physiological Processes in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalbe, Benjamin; Knobloch, Jürgen; Schulz, Viola M.; Wecker, Christine; Schlimm, Marian; Scholz, Paul; Jansen, Fabian; Stoelben, Erich; Philippou, Stathis; Hecker, Erich; Lübbert, Hermann; Koch, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) significantly contribute to the progression of chronic inflammatory airway diseases with limited therapeutic options, such as severe asthma and COPD. These abnormalities include the contractility and hyperproduction of inflammatory proteins. To develop therapeutic strategies, key pathological mechanisms, and putative clinical targets need to be identified. In the present study, we demonstrated that the human olfactory receptors (ORs) OR1D2 and OR2AG1 are expressed at the RNA and protein levels in HASMCs. Using fluorometric calcium imaging, specific agonists for OR2AG1 and OR1D2 were identified to trigger transient Ca2+ increases in HASMCs via a cAMP-dependent signal transduction cascade. Furthermore, the activation of OR2AG1 via amyl butyrate inhibited the histamine-induced contraction of HASMCs, whereas the stimulation of OR1D2 with bourgeonal led to an increase in cell contractility. In addition, OR1D2 activation induced the secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF. Both effects were inhibited by the specific OR1D2 antagonist undecanal. We herein provide the first evidence to show that ORs are functionally expressed in HASMCs and regulate pathophysiological processes. Therefore, ORs might be new therapeutic targets for these diseases, and blocking ORs could be an auspicious strategy for the treatment of early-stage chronic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:27540365

  17. Nitric oxide production by cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: stimulation by fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Tilton, R. G.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    1998-01-01

    This study demonstrated that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) to fluid flow resulted in nitric oxide (NO) production, monitored by nitrite and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production. A rapid burst in nitrite production rate was followed by a more gradual increase throughout the period of flow exposure. Neither the initial burst nor the prolonged nitrite production was dependent on the level of shear stress in the range of 1.1-25 dyn/cm2. Repeated exposure to shear stress after a 30-min static period restimulated nitrite production similar to the initial burst. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonists blocked the initial burst in nitrite release. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocked nitrite production, indicating that changes in nitrite reflect NO production. Treatment with dexamethasone or cycloheximide had no effect on nitrite production. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms showed no immunoreactivity on Western blots, whereas monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuronal NOS gave specific products. These findings suggest that human aortic SMC express a constitutive neuronal NOS isoform, the enzymatic activity of which is modulated by flow.

  18. Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Lim, Poay; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Eszterhas, Andrew; Panettieri, Reynold A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with agonists, labeling cells with [3H]thymidine and examining levels of [3H]thymidine incorporation by scintillation counting. Although using radiolabeled [3H]thymidine incorporation is a limitation, the greatest benefit of the assay is providing reliable and statistically significant data. PMID:17406550

  19. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2012-04-15

    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications.

  20. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Whipp, S C; Argenzio, R A; Levine, M M; Giannella, R A

    1983-09-01

    Three strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), originally isolated from humans and previously shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers by unknown mechanisms, and one rabbit EPEC strain were shown to attach intimately to and efface microvilli and cytoplasm from intestinal epithelial cells in both the pig and rabbit intestine. The attaching and effacing activities of these EPEC were demonstrable by light microscopic examination of routine histological sections and by transmission electron microscopy. It was suggested that intact colostrum-deprived newborn pigs and ligated intestinal loops in pigs and rabbits may be useful systems to detect EPEC that have attaching and effacing activities and for studying the pathogenesis of such infections. The lesions (attachment and effacement) produced by EPEC in these systems were multifocal, with considerable animal-to-animal variation in response to the same strain of EPEC. The EPEC strains also varied in the frequency and extent of lesion production. For example, three human EPEC strains usually caused extensive lesions in rabbit intestinal loops, whereas two other human EPEC strains usually did not produce lesions in this system.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic effector cells and antibody producing cells from human intestine.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, R P

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the ability of intestinal and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease to mediate killing against cell line targets in spontaneous, antibody-dependent, lectin-induced, and interferon-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, as well as responsiveness in the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction, and effector capabilities in cell-mediated lympholysis. IMC were poor mediators of spontaneous or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with cell line cells as targets (in comparison to normal PBMC, but were capable of killing antibody coated chicken red blood cells. Although IMC were capable of responding to allogeneic cell surface antigens in the mixed leukocyte reaction, they did not exhibit effector function in cell-mediated lympholysis. Mitogenic lectins induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity by isolated intestinal mononuclear cells from controls and patients. HFIF induces cytotoxicity by control but not inflammatory bowel disease intestinal cells. Pokeweed mitogen was the lectin which induced the greatest amount of killing against human cell line targets. We therefore speculate that exogenous agents, or endogenous factors released during viral infection, could play a role in inducing cell mediated cytotoxic damage to the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease patients. In addition, the functional differences between IMC and PBMC indicate that intestinal MNC may have unique cell capabilities which must be better understood prior to the delineation of immunopathologic events in solid organ tissues. We have also examined the secretion of IgA, IgM, and IgG by isolated human IMC, human bone marrow MNC from rib specimens, and PBMC from patients with CD, UC, SLE, or Henoch-Schoenlein purpura (HSP). Control IMC exhibited high spontaneous secretion of IgA, while intestinal MNC from UC and CD patients exhibited only modest increases in IgA secretion. PBMC from patients with CD, UC, SLE, or HSP exhibited markedly

  2. Ca2+ inhibition of inositol trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release in single smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Zholos, A V; Komori, S; Ohashi, H; Bolton, T B

    1994-01-01

    1. Single smooth muscle cells from the longitudinal muscle layer of guinea-pig small intestine were voltage clamped using patch pipettes in the whole-cell mode. 2. When D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) was released at intervals, by photolysis of 'caged' InsP3 within the cell, increases in [Ca2+]i in many cells, as judged from Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-current, were all-or-none; release of InsP3 before a critical interval had elapsed, which was quite stable for an individual cell, resulted in no response. After Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release had been evoked by depolarization, the InsP3 response was inhibited. Oscillations in [Ca2+]i evoked by muscarinic receptor activation were unaffected by Ruthenium Red; during these oscillations exogenous InsP3 was not effective close to, or shortly after, peak [Ca2+]i but was effective at other times. 3. Reproducible release of Ca2+ and elevation of [Ca2+]i could be produced by brief (up to 0.5 s) pressure applications of 10 mM caffeine at intervals of 10 s or greater but caffeine itself rarely evoked oscillations in [Ca2+]i. Responses to flash release of InsP3 were reduced after caffeine-induced responses and recovery of caffeine-induced Ca2+ release was faster than recovery of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release. 4. The results support the idea that InsP3-induced Ca(2+)-store release can be inhibited by a certain level of [Ca2+]i at a time when Ca2+ stores have refilled and can be released by caffeine; they also support the suggestion that during oscillations of [Ca2+]i evoked by muscarinic receptor activation, Ca2+ inhibition of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release at some critical level of [Ca2+]i allows Ca2+ stores to refill and leads to a fall in [Ca2+]i so contributing to the oscillations which are observed. PMID:7531770

  3. Doxazosin inhibits retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and G(1)-->S transition in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kintscher, U; Wakino, S; Kim, S; Jackson, S M; Fleck, E; Hsueh, W A; Law, R E

    2000-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin (Dox) inhibits multiple mitogenic signaling pathways in human vascular smooth muscle cells. This broad antiproliferative activity of Dox occurs through a novel mechanism unrelated to its blocking the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor. Flow cytometry demonstrated that Dox prevents mitogen-induced G(1)-->S progression of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal reduction of S-phase transition by 88+/-10.5% in 20 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor and 1 micromol/L insulin (P+I)-stimulated cells (P<0.01 for 10 micromol/L Dox versus P+I alone) and 52+/-18.7% for 10% FBS-induced mitogenesis (P<0.05 for 10 micromol/L Dox versus 10% FBS alone). Inhibition of G(1) exit by Dox was accompanied by a significant blockade of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. Hypophosphorylated Rb sequesters the E2F transcription factor, leading to G(1) arrest. Adenoviral overexpression of E2F-1 stimulated quiescent CASMCs to progress through G(1) and enter the S phase. E2F-mediated G(1) exit was not affected by Dox, suggesting that it targets events upstream from Rb hyperphosphorylation. Downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein p27 is important for maximal activation of G(1) cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase holoenzymes to overcome the cell cycle inhibitory activity of Rb. In Western blot analysis, p27 levels decreased after mitogenic stimulation (after P+I, 43+/-1.8% of quiescent cells [P<0.01 versus quiescent cells]; after 10% FBS, 55+/-7.7% of quiescent cells [P<0. 05 versus quiescent cells]), whereas the addition of Dox (10 micromol/L) markedly attenuated its downregulation (after P+I, 90+/-8.3% of quiescent cells [P<0.05 versus P+I alone]; after 10% FBS, 78+/-8.3% of quiescent cells [P<0.05 versus 10% FBS alone]). Furthermore, Dox inhibited cyclin A expression, an E2F regulated gene that is essential for cell cycle

  4. BMP-2 promotes phosphate uptake, phenotypic modulation, and calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianwu; Yang, Hsueh-Ying; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2008-08-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events that are the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Our previous studies demonstrated that phosphate transport through the type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, Pit-1, was necessary for phosphate-induced calcification and osteochondrogenic phenotypic change in cultured human smooth muscle cells (SMC). BMP-2 is a potent osteogenic protein required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation that has been implicated in vascular calcification. In the present study, we have examined the effects of BMP-2 on human SMC calcification in vitro. We found that treatment of SMC with BMP-2 enhanced elevated phosphate-induced calcification, but did not induce calcification under normal phosphate conditions. mRNAs for BMP receptors, including ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPR-II, ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB were all detected in human SMCs. Mechanistically, BMP-2 dose-dependently stimulated phosphate uptake in SMC (200 ng/ml BMP-2 vs. vehicle: 13.94 vs. 7.09 nmol/30 min/mg protein, respectively). Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed the upregulation of Pit-1 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, by BMP-2. More importantly, inhibition of phosphate uptake by a competitive inhibitor of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransport, phosphonoformic acid, abrogated BMP-2-induced calcification. These results indicate that phosphate transport via Pit-1 is crucial in BMP-2-regulated SMC calcification. In addition, BMP-2-induced Runx2 and inhibited SM22 expression, indicating that it promotes osteogenic phenotype transition in these cells. Thus, BMP-2 may promote vascular calcification via increased phosphate uptake and induction of osteogenic phenotype modulation in SMC. PMID:18179800

  5. Sex Steroids Influence Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Secretion From Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Freeman, Michelle R; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2016-07-01

    Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is emerging as an important player in airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperreactivity. Separately, there is increasing evidence that sex hormones contribute to pathophysiology in the lung. BDNF and sex steroid signaling are thought to be intricately linked in the brain. There is currently little information on BDNF and sex steroid interactions in the airway but is relevant to understanding growth factor signaling in the context of asthma in men versus women. In this study, we assessed the effect of sex steroids on BDNF expression and secretion in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Human ASM was treated with estrogen (E2 ) or testosterone (T, 10 nM each) and intracellular BDNF and secreted BDNF measured. E2 and T significantly reduced secretion of BDNF; effects prevented by estrogen and androgen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (1 μM), and flutamide (10 μM), respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were observed in intracellular BDNF mRNA or protein expression. High affinity BDNF receptor, TrkB, was not altered by E2 or T. E2 (but not T) significantly increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Notably, Epac1 and Epac2 expression were significantly reduced by E2 and T. Furthermore, SNARE complex protein SNAP25 was decreased. Overall, these novel data suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of E2 or T inhibit BDNF secretion in human ASM, suggesting a potential interaction of sex steroids with BDNF in the airway that is different from brain. The relevance of sex steroid-BDNF interactions may lie in their overall contribution to airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:26566264

  6. Gax regulates human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Hu, Zhenlei; Zhai, Xinming; Wang, Yongyi; Liu, Jidong; Wang, Weijun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and restenosis after angioplasty. Transcription factors have emerged as critical regulators for VSMCs function, and recently we verified inhibiting transcription factor Gax was important for controlling VSMCs proliferation and migration. This study aimed to determine its role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. Western blot revealed that overexpression of Gax increased expression of VSMCs differentiation marker genes such as calponin and SM-MHC 11. Then, Gax overexpression potently suppressed proliferation and migration of VSMCs with or without platelet-derived growth factor-induced-BB (PDGF-BB) stimuli whereas Gax silencing inhibited these processes. Furthermore, cDNA array analysis indicated that Rap1A gene was the downstream target of Gax in human VSMCs. And overexpression of Gax significantly inhibited expression of Rap1A in VSMCs with or without PDGF-BB stimuli. Moreover, overexpression of Rap1A decreased expression of VSMCs differentiation marker genes and increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs with or without PDGF-BB stimuli. Finally, Gax overexpression significantly inhibited the neointimal formation in carotid artery injury of mouse models, specifically through maintaining VSMCs contractile phenotype by decreasing Rap1A expression. In conclusion, these results indicated that Gax was a regulator of human VSMCs phenotypic modulation by targeting Rap1A gene, which suggested that targeting Gax or its downstream targets in human VSMCs may provide an attractive approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27508012

  7. Transcriptional Modulation of Intestinal Innate Defense/Inflammation Genes by Preterm Infant Microbiota in a Humanized Gnotobiotic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lei; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; Wang, Yunwei; Chang, Eugene B.; Claud, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims It is known that postnatal functional maturation of the small intestine is facilitated by microbial colonization of the gut. Preterm infants exhibit defects in gut maturation, weak innate immunity against intestinal infection and increased susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, all of which may be related to the inappropriate microbial colonization of their immature intestines. The earliest microbes to colonize the preterm infant gut encounter a naïve, immature intestine. Thus this earliest microbiota potentially has the greatest opportunity to fundamentally influence intestinal development and immune function. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of early microbial colonization on global gene expression in the distal small intestine during postnatal gut development. Methods Gnotobiotic mouse models with experimental colonization by early (prior to two weeks of life) intestinal microbiota from preterm human infants were utilized. Microarray analysis was used to assess global gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Results and Conclusion Multiple intestinal genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix communication, and immune function are developmental- and intestinal microbiota- regulated. Using a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model, we demonstrate that certain early preterm infant microbiota from prior to 2 weeks of life specifically induce increased NF-κB activation and a phenotype of increased inflammation whereas other preterm microbiota specifically induce decreased NF-κB activation. These fundamental differences correlate with altered clinical outcomes and suggest the existence of optimal early microbial communities to improve health outcomes. PMID:25928420

  8. Reductive dechlorination of methoxychlor and DDT by human intestinal bacterium Eubacterium limosum under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yim, You-Jin; Seo, Jiyoung; Kang, Su-Il; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2008-04-01

    Methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)ethane], a substitute for 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), is a compound of environmental concern because of potential long-term health risks related to its endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic potency. In order to determine the metabolic fate of methoxychlor and DDT in the human intestinal gut, Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486), a strict anaerobe isolated from the human intestine that is capable of O-demethylation toward O-methylated isoflavones, was used as a model intestinal microbial organism. Under anaerobic incubation conditions, E. limosum completely transformed methoxychlor and DDT in 16 days. Based on gas chromatography-mass chromatography analyses, the metabolites produced from methoxychlor and DDT by E. limosum were confirmed to be 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)ethane (methoxydichlor) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), respectively. This study suggests that E. limosum in the human intestinal gut might be a participant in the reductive dechlorination of methoxychlor to the more antiandrogenic active methoxydichlor.

  9. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. PMID:22672405

  10. Interaction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium with Intestinal Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Forbester, Jessica L; Goulding, David; Vallier, Ludovic; Hannan, Nicholas; Hale, Christine; Pickard, Derek; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The intestinal mucosa forms the first line of defense against infections mediated by enteric pathogens such as salmonellae. Here we exploited intestinal "organoids" (iHOs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to explore the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with iHOs. Imaging and RNA sequencing were used to analyze these interactions, and clear changes in transcriptional signatures were detected, including altered patterns of cytokine expression after the exposure of iHOs to bacteria. S. Typhimurium microinjected into the lumen of iHOs was able to invade the epithelial barrier, with many bacteria residing within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. An S. Typhimurium invA mutant defective in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 invasion apparatus was less capable of invading the iHO epithelium. Hence, we provide evidence that hIPSC-derived organoids are a promising model of the intestinal epithelium for assessing interactions with enteric pathogens.

  11. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  12. Protein abundance of clinically relevant multidrug transporters along the entire length of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, Marek; Gröer, Christian; Penski, Jette; Lapczuk, Joanna; Ostrowski, Marek; Lai, Yurong; Prasad, Bhagwat; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Siegmund, Werner; Oswald, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal transporters are crucial determinants in the oral absorption of many drugs. We therefore studied the mRNA expression (N = 33) and absolute protein content (N = 10) of clinically relevant transporters in healthy epithelium of the duodenum, the proximal and distal jejunum and ileum, and the ascending, transversal, descending, and sigmoidal colon of six organ donors (24-54 years). In the small intestine, the abundance of nearly all studied proteins ranged between 0.2 and 1.6 pmol/mg with the exception of those of OCT3 (<0.1 pmol/mg) and PEPT1 (2.6-4.9 pmol/mg) that accounted for ∼50% of all measured transporters. OATP1A2 was not detected in any intestinal segment. ABCB1, ABCG2, PEPT1, and ASBT were significantly more abundant in jejunum and ileum than in colon. In contrast to this, the level of expression of ABCC2, ABCC3, and OCT3 was found to be highest in colon. Site-dependent differences in the levels of gene and protein expression were observed for ABCB1 and ASBT. Significant correlations between mRNA and protein levels have been found for ABCG2, ASBT, OCT3, and PEPT1 in the small intestine. Our data provide further physiological pieces of the puzzle required to predict intestinal drug absorption in humans.

  13. Human discrimination of visual direction of motion with and without smooth pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krukowski, Anton E.; Pirog, Kathleen A.; Beutter, Brent R.; Brooks, Kevin R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been known that ocular pursuit of a moving target has a major influence on its perceived speed (Aubert, 1886; Fleischl, 1882). However, little is known about the effect of smooth pursuit on the perception of target direction. Here we compare the precision of human visual-direction judgments under two oculomotor conditions (pursuit vs. fixation). We also examine the impact of stimulus duration (200 ms vs. 800 ms) and absolute direction (cardinal vs. oblique). Our main finding is that direction discrimination thresholds in the fixation and pursuit conditions are indistinguishable. Furthermore, the two oculomotor conditions showed oblique effects of similar magnitudes. These data suggest that the neural direction signals supporting perception are the same with or without pursuit, despite remarkably different retinal stimulation. During fixation, the stimulus information is restricted to large, purely peripheral retinal motion, while during steady-state pursuit, the stimulus information consists of small, unreliable foveal retinal motion and a large efference-copy signal. A parsimonious explanation of our findings is that the signal limiting the precision of direction judgments is a neural estimate of target motion in head-centered (or world-centered) coordinates (i.e., a combined retinal and eye motion signal) as found in the medial superior temporal area (MST), and not simply an estimate of retinal motion as found in the middle temporal area (MT).

  14. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction in human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Kiel, Alexander; Freeman, Michelle; Delmotte, Philippe; Thompson, Michael; Vassallo, Robert; Sieck, Gary C; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2014-05-01

    The balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion is crucial for mitochondria to perform its normal cellular functions. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) disrupts this balance and enhances mitochondrial dysfunction in the airway. In nonasthmatic human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, CS extract (CSE) induced mitochondrial fragmentation and damages their networked morphology in a concentration-dependent fashion, via increased expression of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and decreased fusion protein mitofusin (Mfn) 2. CSE effects on Drp1 vs. Mfn2 and mitochondrial network morphology involved reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC) and proteasome pathways, as well as transcriptional regulation via factors such as NF-κB and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2. Inhibiting Drp1 prevented CSE effects on mitochondrial networks and ROS generation, whereas blocking Mfn2 had the opposite, detrimental effect. In ASM from asmatic patients, mitochondria exhibited substantial morphological defects at baseline and showed increased Drp1 but decreased Mfn2 expression, with exacerbating effects of CSE. Overall, these results highlight the importance of mitochondrial networks and their regulation in the context of cellular changes induced by insults such as inflammation (as in asthma) or CS. Altered mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins have a further potential to influence parameters such as ROS and cell proliferation and apoptosis relevant to airway diseases. PMID:24610934

  15. Spatial and temporal traction response in human airway smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Butler, James P.; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Ning

    2002-01-01

    Tractions that cells exert on their substrates are essential in cell spreading, migration, and contraction. These tractions can be determined by plating the cells on a flexible gel and measuring the deformation of the gel by using fluorescent beads embedded just below the surface of the gel. In this article we describe the image correlation method (ICM) optimized for determining the displacement field of the gel under a contracting cell. For the calculation of the traction field from the displacement field we use the recently developed method of Fourier transform traction cytometry (FTTC). The ICM and FTTC methods are applied to human airway smooth muscle cells during stimulation with the contractile agonist histamine or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The overall intensity of the cell contraction (the median traction magnitude, the energy transferred from the cell to the gel, and the net contractile moment) increased after activation with histamine, and decreased after treatment with isoproterenol. Cells exhibited regional differences in the time course of traction during the treatment. Both temporal evolution and magnitude of traction increase induced by histamine varied markedly among different cell protrusions, whereas the nuclear region showed the smallest response. These results suggest that intracellular mediators of cell adhesion and contraction respond to contractile stimuli with different rates and intensities in different regions of the cell.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of human smooth muscle cells infected with gingipain and fimbriae mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxi; Sirsjö, Allan; Khalaf, Hazem; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of different virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis in this process is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional profiling of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) infected with wild type, gingipain mutants or fimbriae mutants of P. gingivalis. AoSMCs were exposed to wild type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutants (E8 and K1A), or fimbriae mutants (DPG-3 and KRX-178) of P. gingivalis. We observed that wild type P. gingivalis changes the expression of a considerable larger number of genes in AoSMCs compare to gingipain and fimbriae mutants, respectively. The results from pathway analysis revealed that the common differentially expressed genes for AoSMCs infected by 3 different wild type P. gingivalis strains were enriched in pathways of cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Disease ontology analysis showed that various strains of P. gingivalis were associated with different disease profilings. Our results suggest that gingipains and fimbriae, especially arginine-specific gingipain, produced by P. gingivalis play important roles in the association between periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:26907358

  17. On the Visual Input Driving Human Smooth-Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean

    1996-01-01

    Current computational models of smooth-pursuit eye movements assume that the primary visual input is local retinal-image motion (often referred to as retinal slip). However, we show that humans can pursue object motion with considerable accuracy, even in the presence of conflicting local image motion. This finding indicates that the visual cortical area(s) controlling pursuit must be able to perform a spatio-temporal integration of local image motion into a signal related to object motion. We also provide evidence that the object-motion signal that drives pursuit is related to the signal that supports perception. We conclude that current models of pursuit should be modified to include a visual input that encodes perceived object motion and not merely retinal image motion. Finally, our findings suggest that the measurement of eye movements can be used to monitor visual perception, with particular value in applied settings as this non-intrusive approach would not require interrupting ongoing work or training.

  18. Vitamin D attenuates cytokine-induced remodeling in human fetal airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Britt, Rodney D; Faksh, Arij; Vogel, Elizabeth R; Thompson, Michael A; Chu, Vivian; Pandya, Hitesh C; Amrani, Yassine; Martin, Richard J; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2015-06-01

    Asthma in the pediatric population remains a significant contributor to morbidity and increasing healthcare costs. Vitamin D3 insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with development of asthma. Recent studies in models of adult airway diseases suggest that the bioactive Vitamin D3 metabolite, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ; 1,25(OH)2 D3 ), modulates responses to inflammation; however, this concept has not been explored in developing airways in the context of pediatric asthma. We used human fetal airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells as a model of the early postnatal airway to explore how calcitriol modulates remodeling induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cells were pre-treated with calcitriol and then exposed to TNFα or TGFβ for up to 72 h. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, production of extracellular matrix (ECM), and cell proliferation were assessed. Calcitriol attenuated TNFα enhancement of MMP-9 expression and activity. Additionally, calcitriol attenuated TNFα and TGFβ-induced collagen III expression and deposition, and separately, inhibited proliferation of fetal ASM cells induced by either inflammatory mediator. Analysis of signaling pathways suggested that calcitriol effects in fetal ASM involve ERK signaling, but not other major inflammatory pathways. Overall, our data demonstrate that calcitriol can blunt multiple effects of TNFα and TGFβ in developing airway, and point to a potentially novel approach to alleviating structural changes in inflammatory airway diseases of childhood. PMID:25204635

  19. Endothelin receptors and their cellular signal transduction mechanism in human cultured prostatic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Saita, Y; Koizumi, T; Yazawa, H; Morita, T; Takenaka, T; Honda, K

    1997-06-01

    1. Endothelin (ET) receptors, and their cellular signal transduction mechanism, were characterized in a primary culture of human prostatic smooth muscle cells (HP cell). 2. [125I]-ET-1 and [125I]-ET-3 binding studies revealed that both ETA and ETB receptors were present in the HP cells, and the ratio of ETA to ETB receptors was 1.4:1. 3. Analysis of ET receptor mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also demonstrated that HP cells express both ETA and ETB receptors. 4. ET-1 and ET-3 increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the HP cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Use of subtype selective antagonists BQ-123 and BQ-788, indicated that both ETA and ETB receptors were coupled to an increase in [Ca2+]i. 5. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin resulted in a significant but partial attenuation of the [Ca2+]i increase mediated through the ETA and ETB receptors. However, sensitivity to pertussis toxin (PTX) was significantly different between them. 6. In conclusion, HP cells possess ETA and ETB receptors. Further, these two endothelin receptor subtypes evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i possibly via the action of different GTP-binding proteins. PMID:9208135

  20. Endothelin receptors and their cellular signal transduction mechanism in human cultured prostatic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Yuji; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Yazawa, Hidenori; Morita, Takashi; Takenaka, Toichi; Honda, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) receptors, and their cellular signal transduction mechanism, were characterized in a primary culture of human prostatic smooth muscle cells (HP cell). [125I]-ET-1 and [125I]-ET-3 binding studies revealed that both ETA and ETB receptors were present in the HP cells, and the ratio of ETA to ETB receptors was 1.4:1. Analysis of ET receptor mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also demonstrated that HP cells express both ETA and ETB receptors. ET-1 and ET-3 increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the HP cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Use of subtype selective antagonists BQ-123 and BQ-788, indicated that both ETA and ETB receptors were coupled to an increase in [Ca2+]i. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin resulted in a significant but partial attenuation of the [Ca2+]i increase mediated through the ETA and ETB receptors. However, sensitivity to pertussis toxin (PTX) was significantly different between them. In conclusion, HP cells possess ETA and ETB receptors. Further, these two endothelin receptor subtypes evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i possibly via the action of different GTP-binding proteins. PMID:9208135

  1. Diversity of Potassium Channels in Human Umbilical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Pedro; Rebolledo, Alejandro; Palomo, Ana Rocio Roldán; Moncada, Melisa; Piccinini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Through their control of cell membrane potential, potassium (K+) channels are among the best known regulators of vascular tone. This article discusses the expression and function of K+ channels in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). We review the bibliographic reports and also present single-channel data recorded in freshly isolated cells. Electrophysiological properties of big conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel and voltage-dependent K+ channels are clearly established in this vessel, where they are involved in contractile state regulation. Their role in the maintenance of membrane potential is an important control mechanism in the determination of the vessel diameter. Additionally, small conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels, 2-pore domains K+ channels and inward rectifier K+ channels also appear to be present in HUASMCs, while intermediate conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels could not be identified. In both cases, additional investigation is necessary to reach conclusive evidence of their expression and/or functional role in HUASMCs. Finally, we discuss the role of K+ channels in pregnancy-related pathologies like gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. PMID:24084522

  2. Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+-Cl−-creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization

    PubMed Central

    Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A A

    2002-01-01

    In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [14C]Creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na+- and Cl−-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na+: 1 Cl−: 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a Km for creatine of 29 μm. [14C]Creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, β-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na+- and Cl−-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

  3. A critical role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in human telomerase reverse transcriptase induction by resveratrol in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Riordan, Sean M; Heruth, Daniel P; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Zhang, Li Qin; Ye, Shui Qing

    2015-05-10

    Aging is the predominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and contributes to a considerably more severe outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, is a caloric restriction mimetic with potential anti-aging properties which has emerged as a beneficial nutraceutical for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although resveratrol is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated fully. Here, we report that resveratrol activates human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), SIRT4 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Similar observations were obtained in resveratrol treated C57BL/6J mouse heart and liver tissues. Resverotrol can also augment telomerase activity in both human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and A549 cells. Blocking NAMPT and SIRT4 expression prevents induction of hTERT in human aortic smooth muscle cells while overexpression of NAMPT elevates the telomerase activity induced by resveratrol in A549 cells. Together, these results identify a NAMPT-SIRT4-hTERT axis as a novel mechanism by which resveratrol may affect the anti-aging process in human aortic smooth muscle cells, mouse hearts and other cells. These findings enrich our understanding of the positive effects of resveratrol in human cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Birth weight and characteristics of endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures from human umbilical cord vessels

    PubMed Central

    Martín de Llano, José Javier; Fuertes, Graciela; Torró, Isabel; García Vicent, Consuelo; Fayos, José Luis; Lurbe, Empar

    2009-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been related to an increased risk for developing high blood pressure in adult life. The molecular and cellular analysis of umbilical cord artery and vein may provide information about the early vascular characteristics of an individual. We have assessed several phenotype characteristics of the four vascular cell types derived from human umbilical cords of newborns with different birth weight. Further follow-up studies could show the association of those vascular properties with infancy and adulthood blood pressure. Methods Endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures were obtained from umbilical cords from two groups of newborns of birth weight less than 2.8 kg or higher than 3.5 kg. The expression of specific endothelial cell markers (von Willebrand factor, CD31, and the binding and internalization of acetylated low-density lipoprotein) and the smooth muscle cell specific α-actin have been evaluated. Cell culture viability, proliferation kinetic, growth fraction (expression of Ki67) and percentage of senescent cells (detection of β-galactosidase activity at pH 6.0) have been determined. Endothelial cell projection area was determined by morphometric analysis of cell cultures after CD31 immunodetection. Results The highest variation was found in cell density at the confluence of endothelial cell cultures derived from umbilical cord arteries (66,789 ± 5,093 cells/cm2 vs. 45,630 ± 11,927 cells/cm2, p < 0.05). Morphometric analysis indicated that the projection area of the artery endothelial cells (1,161 ± 198 and 1,544 ± 472 μm2, p < 0.05), but not those derived from the vein from individuals with a birth weight lower than 2.8 kg was lower than that of cells from individuals with a birth weight higher than 3.5 kg. Conclusion The analysis of umbilical cord artery endothelial cells, which demonstrated differences in cell size related to birth weight, can provide hints about the cellular and molecular links between lower birth

  5. BKCa channel regulates calcium oscillations induced by alpha-2-macroglobulin in human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wakle-Prabagaran, Monali; Lorca, Ramón A; Ma, Xiaofeng; Stamnes, Susan J; Amazu, Chinwendu; Hsiao, Jordy J; Karch, Celeste M; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Wright, Michael E; England, Sarah K

    2016-04-19

    The large-conductance, voltage-gated, calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium channel (BKCa) plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+)signaling and is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. We used immunopurification and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with BKCain myometrium samples from term pregnant (≥37 wk gestation) women. From this screen, we identified alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M). We then used immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot and the proximity ligation assay to confirm the interaction between BKCaand both α2M and its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), in cultured primary human myometrial smooth muscle cells (hMSMCs). Single-channel electrophysiological recordings in the cell-attached configuration demonstrated that activated α2M (α2M*) increased the open probability of BKCain an oscillatory pattern in hMSMCs. Furthermore, α2M* caused intracellular levels of Ca(2+)to oscillate in oxytocin-primed hMSMCs. The initiation of oscillations required an interaction between α2M* and LRP1. By using Ca(2+)-free medium and inhibitors of various Ca(2+)signaling pathways, we demonstrated that the oscillations required entry of extracellular Ca(2+)through store-operated Ca(2+)channels. Finally, we found that the specific BKCablocker paxilline inhibited the oscillations, whereas the channel opener NS11021 increased the rate of these oscillations. These data demonstrate that α2M* and LRP1 modulate the BKCachannel in human myometrium and that BKCaand its immunomodulatory interacting partners regulate Ca(2+)dynamics in hMSMCs during pregnancy. PMID:27044074

  6. Human cortical areas involved in sustaining perceptual stability during smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Trenner, Maja U; Fahle, Manfred; Fasold, Oliver; Heekeren, Hauke R; Villringer, Arno; Wenzel, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Because both, eye movements and object movements induce an image motion on the retina, eye movements must be compensated to allow a coherent and stable perception of our surroundings. The inferential theory of perception postulates that retinal image motion is compared with an internal reference signal related to eye movements. This mechanism allows to distinguish between the potential sources producing retinal image motion. Referring to this theory, we investigated referential calculation during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) in humans using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response related to SPEM in front of a stable background was measured for different parametric steps of preceding motion stimuli and therefore assumed for different states of the referential system. To achieve optimally accurate anatomy and more detectable fMRI signal changes in group analysis, we applied cortex-based statistics both to all brain volumes and to defined regions of interest. Our analysis revealed that the activity in a temporal region as well as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) depended on the velocity of the preceding stimuli. Previous single-cell recordings in monkeys demonstrated that the visual posterior sylvian area (VPS) is relevant for perceptual stability. The activation apparent in our study thus may represent a human analogue of this area. The PPC is known as being strongly related to goal-directed eye movements. In conclusion, temporal and parietal cortical areas may be involved in referential calculation and thereby in sustaining visual perceptual stability during eye movements. PMID:17415782

  7. Bidirectional counter-regulation of human lung mast cell and airway smooth muscle β2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Chris; Amrani, Yassine; Bradding, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human lung mast cells (HLMCs) play a central role in asthma pathogenesis through their relocation to the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles. β2 adrenoceptor (β2-AR)-agonists are used to relieve bronchoconstriction in asthma, but may reduce asthma control, particularly when used as monotherapy. We hypothesised that HLMC and human ASM cell (HASMC) responsiveness to β2-AR agonists would be attenuated when HLMCs are in contact with HASMCs. Cells were cultured in the presence of the short-acting β2-agonist albuterol, and the long-acting β2-agonists formoterol and olodaterol. Constitutive and FcεRI-dependent HLMC histamine release, HASMC contraction, and β2-AR phosphorylation at tyrosine 350 (Tyr350) were assessed. Constitutive HLMC histamine release was increased in HLMC-HASMC co-culture and this was enhanced by β2-AR agonists. Inhibition of FcεRI-dependent HLMC mediator release by β2-agonists was greatly reduced in HLMC-HASMC co-culture. These effects were reversed by neutralisation of stem cell factor (SCF) or cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1). β2-AR agonists did not prevent HASMC contraction when HLMCs were present, but this was reversed by fluticasone. β2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr350 occurred within 5 minutes in both HLMCs and HASMCs when the cells were co-cultured, and was inhibited by neutralising SCF or CADM1. HLMC interactions with HASMCs via CADM1 and Kit inhibit the potentially beneficial effects of β2-AR agonists on these cells via phosphorylation of the β2-AR. These results may explain the potentially adverse effects of β2-ARs agonists when used for asthma therapy. Targeting SCF and CADM1 may enhance β2-AR efficacy, particularly in corticosteroid-resistant patients. PMID:26608913

  8. Human airway smooth muscle maintain in situ cell orientation and phenotype when cultured on aligned electrospun scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G. E.; Bridge, J. C.; Eltboli, O. M. I.; Lewis, M. P.; Knox, A. J.; Aylott, J. W.; Brightling, C. E.; Ghaemmaghami, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle (HASM) contraction plays a central role in regulating airway resistance in both healthy and asthmatic bronchioles. In vitro studies that investigate the intricate mechanisms that regulate this contractile process are predominantly conducted on tissue culture plastic, a rigid, 2D geometry, unlike the 3D microenvironment smooth muscle cells are exposed to in situ. It is increasingly apparent that cellular characteristics and responses are altered between cells cultured on 2D substrates compared with 3D topographies. Electrospinning is an attractive method to produce 3D topographies for cell culturing as the fibers produced have dimensions within the nanometer range, similar to cells' natural environment. We have developed an electrospun scaffold using the nondegradable, nontoxic, polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composed of uniaxially orientated nanofibers and have evaluated this topography's effect on HASM cell adhesion, alignment, and morphology. The fibers orientation provided contact guidance enabling the formation of fully aligned sheets of smooth muscle. Moreover, smooth muscle cells cultured on the scaffold present an elongated cell phenotype with altered contractile protein levels and distribution. HASM cells cultured on this scaffold responded to the bronchoconstrictor bradykinin. The platform presented provides a novel in vitro model that promotes airway smooth muscle cell development toward a more in vivo-like phenotype while providing topological cues to ensure full cell alignment. PMID:24793171

  9. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  10. Nitroreduction and formation of hemoglobin adducts in rats with a human intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Straetemans, M.M.E.; Koopman, J.P.; Bos, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    In the covalent binding of nitroarenes to macromolecules, nitroreduction is an important step. The intestinal microflora represents an enormous potential of bacterial nitroreductase activity. As a consequence, the in vivo nitroreduction of orally administerednitroarenes is primarily located in the intestine. In this study, we have investigated the nitroreduction of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) by a human microflora in female Wistar rats. Germ-free (FG) rats were equipped with a bacterial flora derived from human feces. Nontreated GF rats and GF animals equipped with a conventional rat flora were used as controls. The composition of the human and the conventional microflora isolated from the rats were consistent with the microflora of the administered feces. In the rats receiving only sunflower seed oil, no adducts were detected. The animals equipped with a human or rat microflora that received 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) formed 2-AF hemoglobin (Hb)-adducts at average levels mean {+-} 0.003 and 0.043 {+-} 0.010 {mu}mole/g Hb, respectively. In the FG rats, an adduct level of 0.57 {+-} 0.09 was determined after 2-AF administration and non adducts were detected after 2-NF administration. The results show that nitroreduction by an acquired human intestinal microflora and subsequent adduct formation can be studied in the rate in vivo. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Human intestinal cells modulate conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance plasmids between clinical Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Sommer, Morten O A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co-cultured with human intestinal cells. We show that filtered media from co-cultures contain a factor that reduces conjugation efficiency. Protease treatment of the filtered media eliminates this inhibition of conjugation. This data suggests that a peptide or protein based factor is secreted on the apical side of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut.

  12. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26973622

  13. Effect of bisacodyl on the structure and function of rodent and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D R; Sillery, J; Rachmilewitz, D; Rubin, C E; Tytgat, G N

    1977-05-01

    The effect of bisacodyl on intestinal structure and function was investigated. Net water transport was measured under steady state conditions in vivo during single pass infusions of rodent and of human intestinal segments. Each segment served as its own control. Bisacodyl inhibited water absorption in rat jejunum, ileum, and colon. The degree of inhibition was linearly related to the logarithm of the bisacodyl concentration over the range of 0.05 to 2.0 mg per 100 ml. In human jejunal segments, bisacodyl, 1 mg per 100 ml, caused net water secretion. Bisacodyl, 5 mg every 6 hr, increased ileostomy output by 15% when it was fed to 5 patients with established ileostomies. By light microscopy, bisacodyl, 2 mg per 100 ml, erased cytoplasmic and nuclear detail within surface absorptive cells of rat intestine. By electron microscopy, the involved cells contained sparse and abnormal cytoplasmic organelles and nuclei which were deficient in chromatin. These results suggest that the laxative effect of bisacodyl is related to its ability to inhibit intestinal water absorption. Reduced absorption may be secondary to changes in surface absorptive cells.

  14. Early Transcriptomic Response to LDL and oxLDL in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damián-Zamacona, Salvador; Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; Ibarra-Abundis, Mabel Z.; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Macedo-Alcibia, Karla Paola; Delgado–Coello, Blanca; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. Objective The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli. Here, we describe the transcriptome of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) stimulated by native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (nLDL and oxLDL respectively), with the aim of assessing the early molecular changes that induce a response in this cell type resulting in a transcriptomic transformation. This expression has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo and in vitro, particularly in the light of the oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results Total RNA was isolated with TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies) and quality estimated using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. The transcriptome of hVSMC under different experimental conditions (1,5 and 24 hours for nLDL and oxLDL) was obtained using the GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) designed to measure gene expression of 28,869 well-annotated genes. A fixed fold-change cut-off corresponding to ± 2 was used to identify genes exhibiting the most significant variation and statistical significance (P< 0.05), and 8 genes validated by qPCR using Taqman probes. Conclusions 10 molecular processes were significantly affected in hVSMC: Apoptosis and cell cycle, extracellular matrix remodeling, DNA repair, cholesterol efflux, cGMP biosynthesis, endocytic mechanisms, calcium homeostasis, redox balance, membrane trafficking and finally, the immune response to inflammation. The evidence we present supporting the hypothesis for the involvement of oxidative modification of several processes and

  15. Modeling colorectal cancer using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated engineering of human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Matano, Mami; Date, Shoichi; Shimokawa, Mariko; Takano, Ai; Fujii, Masayuki; Ohta, Yuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    Human colorectal tumors bear recurrent mutations in genes encoding proteins operative in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways. Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to introduce multiple such mutations into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelium. By modulating the culture conditions to mimic that of the intestinal niche, we selected isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, and in the oncogenes KRAS and/or PIK3CA. Organoids engineered to express all five mutations grew independently of niche factors in vitro, and they formed tumors after implantation under the kidney subcapsule in mice. Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. In contrast, engineered organoids derived from chromosome-instable human adenomas formed macrometastatic colonies. These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior.

  16. C/EBP transcription factors regulate NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Todirita, Andra; Raicu, Monica; Manea, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dysfunction is partially mediated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox); the mechanisms of enzyme regulation are not entirely defined. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of many inflammatory and immune genes. We aimed at elucidating the role of C/EBP in the regulation of Nox in SMCs exposed to pro-inflammatory conditions. Human aortic SMCs were treated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) for up to 24 hrs. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed to investigate Nox regulation. IFN-γ dose-dependently induced Nox activity and expression, nuclear translocation and up-regulation of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ protein expression levels. Silencing of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ reduced significantly but differentially the IFN-γ-induced up-regulation of Nox activity, gene and protein expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical C/EBP sites within Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5 promoters. Transient overexpression of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ enhanced the luciferase level directed by the promoters of the Nox subtypes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ proteins with the Nox1/4/5 promoters. C/EBP transcription factors are important regulators of Nox enzymes in IFN-γ-exposed SMCs. Activation of C/EBP may induce excessive Nox-derived reactive oxygen species formation, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque development. Pharmacological targeting of C/EBP-related signalling pathways may be used to counteract the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:24797079

  17. IL-17A mediates a selective gene expression profile in asthmatic human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Stéphane; Hirst, Stuart J; Lee, Tak H; Gounni, Abdelilah S

    2014-06-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by orchestrating and perpetuating airway inflammation and remodeling responses. In this study, we evaluated the IL-17RA signal transduction and gene expression profile in ASM cells from subjects with mild asthma and healthy individuals. Human primary ASM cells were treated with IL-17A and probed by the Affymetrix GeneChip array, and gene targets were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Genomic analysis underlined the proinflammatory nature of IL-17A, as multiple NF-κB regulatory factors and chemokines were induced in ASM cells. Transcriptional regulators consisting of primary response genes were overrepresented and displayed dynamic expression profiles. IL-17A poorly enhanced IL-1β or IL-22 gene responses in ASM cells from both subjects with mild asthma and healthy donors. Interestingly, protein modifications to the NF-κB regulatory network were not observed after IL-17A stimulation, although oscillations in IκBε expression were detected. ASM cells from subjects with mild asthma up-regulated more genes with greater overall variability in response to IL-17A than from healthy donors. Finally, in response to IL-17A, ASM cells displayed rapid activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/ribosomal S6 kinase signaling pathway and increased nuclear levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-17A mediated modest gene expression response, which, in cooperation with the NF-κB signaling network, may regulate the gene expression profile in ASM cells.

  18. Characterisation of K+ channels in human fetoplacental vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Melissa F; Wareing, Mark; Jones, Rebecca L; Greenwood, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Adequate blood flow through placental chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) is necessary for oxygen and nutrient transfer to the fetus and a successful pregnancy. In non-placental vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), K(+) channels regulate contraction, vascular tone and blood flow. Previous studies showed that K(+) channel modulators alter CPA tone, but did not distinguish between effects on K(+) channels in endothelial cells and SMCs. In this study, we developed a preparation of freshly isolated CPASMCs of normal pregnancy and investigated K(+) channel expression and function. CPASMCs were isolated from normal human term placentas using enzymatic digestion. Purity and phenotype was confirmed with immunocytochemistry. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to assess K(+) channel currents, and mRNA and protein expression was determined in intact CPAs and isolated SMCs with RT-PCR and immunostaining. Isolated SMCs expressed α-actin but not CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. CPASMCs and intact CPAs expressed h-caldesmon and non-muscle myosin heavy chain-2; phenotypic markers of contractile and synthetic SMCs respectively. Whole-cell currents were inhibited by 4-AP, TEA, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin implicating functional K(v) and BK(Ca) channels. 1-EBIO enhanced whole cell currents which were abolished by TRAM-34 and reduced by apamin indicating activation of IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) respectively. BK(Ca), IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 mRNA and/or protein were expressed in CPASMCs and intact CPAs. This study provides the first direct evidence for functional K(v), BK(Ca,) IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels in CPASMCs. These cells display a mixed phenotype implicating a dual role for CPASMCs in controlling both fetoplacental vascular resistance and vasculogenesis. PMID:23437391

  19. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K. . E-mail: mross@cvm.msstate.edu

    2007-05-15

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are {approx} 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts ({approx} 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be

  20. Marker profile for the evaluation of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell quality obtained by different isolation and culture methods.

    PubMed

    Mazza, G; Roßmanith, E; Lang-Olip, I; Pfeiffer, D

    2016-08-01

    Even though umbilical cord arteries are a common source of vascular smooth muscle cells, the lack of reliable marker profiles have not facilitated the isolation of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMC). For accurate characterization of HUASMC and cells in their environment, the expression of smooth muscle and mesenchymal markers was analyzed in umbilical cord tissue sections. The resulting marker profile was then used to evaluate the quality of HUASMC isolation and culture methods. HUASMC and perivascular-Wharton's jelly stromal cells (pv-WJSC) showed positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), desmin, vimentin and CD90. Anti-CD10 stained only pv-WJSC. Consequently, HUASMC could be characterized as α-SMA+ , SM-MHC+ , CD10- cells, which are additionally negative for endothelial markers (CD31 and CD34). Enzymatic isolation provided primary HUASMC batches with 90-99 % purity, yet, under standard culture conditions, contaminant CD10+ cells rapidly constituted more than 80 % of the total cell population. Contamination was mainly due to the poor adhesion of HUASMC to cell culture plates, regardless of the different protein coatings (fibronectin, collagen I or gelatin). HUASMC showed strong attachment and long-term viability only in 3D matrices. The explant isolation method achieved cultures with only 13-40 % purity with considerable contamination by CD10+ cells. CD10+ cells showed spindle-like morphology and up-regulated expression of α-SMA and SM-MHC upon culture in smooth muscle differentiation medium. Considering the high contamination risk of HUASMC cultures by CD10+ neighboring cells and their phenotypic similarities, precise characterization is mandatory to avoid misleading results.

  1. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  2. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus isolates from the human small intestine reveals their adaptation to a highly dynamic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine.

  3. Diagnosis of edema and inflammation in human intestines using ultrawideband radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    Human intestines are vital organs, which are often subjected to chronic issues. In particular, Crohn's disease is a bowel aliment resulting in inflammation along the lining of one's digestive tract. Moreover, such an inflammatory condition causes changes in the thickness of the intestines; and we posit induce changes in the dielectric properties detectable by radar. This detection hinges on the increase in fluid content in the afflicted area, which is described by effective medium approximations (EMA). In this paper, we consider one of the constitutive parameters (i.e. relative permittivity) of different human tissues and introduce a simple numerical, electromagnetic multilayer model. We observe how the increase in water content in one layer can be approximated to predict the effective permittivity of that layer. Moreover, we note trends in how such an accumulation can influence the total effective reflection coefficient of the multiple layers.

  4. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  5. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  6. Chemotherapy for cancer causes apoptosis that precedes hypoplasia in crypts of the small intestine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, D; Brealey, J; Goland, G; Cummins, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The mechanism of gastrointestinal damage (mucositis) induced by cancer chemotherapy remains uncertain. The aims of this study were to define the time course and mechanism of small intestinal damage following chemotherapy in humans.
METHODS—Patients receiving chemotherapy underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (a maximum of two per patient) with duodenal biopsy prior to chemotherapy and again at 1, 3, 5, and 16 days after chemotherapy. Tissue was taken for morphometry, disaccharidase assays, electron microscopy, and for assessment of apoptosis using the Tdt mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. Villus area, crypt length, and mitotic index were measured by a microdissection technique.
RESULTS—Apoptosis increased sevenfold in intestinal crypts at one day, and villus area, crypt length, mitotic count per crypt, and enterocyte height decreased at three days after chemotherapy. Disaccharidase activities remained unchanged. Electron microscopy showed increased open tight junctions of enterocytes at day 3, consistent with more immature cells. All indices improved by 16 days.
CONCLUSION—Small intestinal mucositis is associated with apoptosis in crypts that precedes hypoplastic villous atrophy and loss of enterocyte height.


Keywords: chemotherapy; mucositis; small intestine PMID:11034578

  7. Adaptive function of soil consumption: an in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Davoust, Estelle; Minekus, Mans

    2004-01-01

    Despite occurring in a wide variety of taxa, deliberate soil consumption (geophagy) is a poorly understood behavior. In humans, geophagy is sometimes considered aberrant or a sign of metabolic dysfunction. However, geophagy is normally assigned an adaptive function in nonhuman primates and various other organisms. One hypothesis submits that clay-rich soil adsorbs intestinal insults, namely plant metabolites or diarrhoea-causing enterotoxins. Here we test the capacity of kaolin, a commonly ingested clay, to adsorb quinine (an alkaloid) and two types of tannin (digestion-inhibitors). Trials were conducted in vitro using the TNO Intestinal Model, a device that closely simulates digestion by the human stomach and small intestine. Kaolin reduced the bioavailability of each compound by < or =30%. However, because we could not replicate clay-epithelial adhesion and reduced motility, these results may underestimate adsorption in vivo. We also show that kaolin fails to render calcium oxalate soluble. We conclude that gastrointestinal adsorption is the most plausible function of human geophagy. Adaptive advantages include greater exploitation of marginal plant foods and reduced energetic costs of diarrhoea, factors that could account for the high frequency of geophagy in children and pregnant women across the tropics.

  8. Human amniotic membrane as an intestinal patch for neomucosal growth in the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Barlas, M; Gökçora, H; Erekul, S; Dindar, H; Yücesan, S

    1992-05-01

    This experiment was carried out as a preliminary study, an attempt to grow new intestinal mucosa on human amniotic membrane in the terminal ileum in 37 rabbits. After ketamin sulfate anesthesia at laparatomy, 5-cm ileal defects were patched with human amniotic membrane (5 x 2 cm). These patched intestines were investigated on the first postoperative day and the 2nd, 5th, 10th, and 20th weeks corresponding to 4, 5, 5, 10, and 10 rabbits, respectively. Only three rabbits died in the early postoperative period. There was no evidence of intestinal obstruction or dilatation with barium meal. Microscopically, the neomucosa consisted of a thin layer of columnar epithelial cells at 2 weeks with more maturity of the villi and less irregularity and branching by 20 weeks. All patches were covered with neomucosa commencing at 2 weeks and covering the whole patch area by 20 weeks. This technique's advantages are the large size and the ease of the availability of the human amniotic membrane for neonates at risk without jeopardizing the neonates tissues. It is hoped that this method might be considered when neonatal material is scarce.

  9. Human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive cell walls of normal intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Toivanen, P

    1999-01-01

    The normal microbiota plays an important role in the health of the host, but little is known of how the human immune system recognizes and responds to Gram-positive indigenous bacteria. We have investigated cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to Gram-positive cell walls (CW) derived from four common intestinal indigenous bacteria, Eubacterium aerofaciens (Eu.a.), Eubacterium limosum(Eu.l.), Lactobacillus casei(L.c.), and Lactobacillus fermentum (L.f.). Our results indicate that Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota can induce cytokine responses of the human PBMC. The profile, level and kinetics of these responses are similar to those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CW derived from a pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes (S.p.). Bacterial CW are capable of inducing production of a proinflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, but not that of IL-4 or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Monocytes are the main cell population in PBMC to produce TNF-α and IL-10. Induction of cytokine secretion is serum-dependent; both CD14-dependent and -independent pathways are involved. These findings suggest that the human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota are similar to those induced by LPS or Gram-positive CW of the pathogens. PMID:10540188

  10. Human carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a bioactivating hydrolase of olmesartan medoxomil in liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-04-16

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys(132) of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  11. Human Carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a Bioactivating Hydrolase of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Liver and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys132 of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  12. Human motion perception and smooth eye movements show similar directional biases for elongated apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between smooth-pursuit eye movements and motion perception, it remains unresolved whether a common motion-processing system subserves both perception and pursuit. To address this question, we simultaneously recorded perceptual direction judgments and the concomitant smooth eye-movement response to a plaid stimulus that we have previously shown generates systematic perceptual errors. We measured the perceptual direction biases psychophysically and the smooth eye-movement direction biases using two methods (standard averaging and oculometric analysis). We found that the perceptual and oculomotor biases were nearly identical, suggesting that pursuit and perception share a critical motion processing stage, perhaps in area MT or MST of extrastriate visual cortex.

  13. Human Motion Perception and Smooth Eye Movements Show Similar Directional Biases for Elongated Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between smooth-pursuit eye movements and motion perception, it remains unresolved whether a common motion-processing system subserves both perception and pursuit. To address this question, we simultaneously recorded perceptual direction judgments and the concomitant smooth eye movement response to a plaid stimulus that we have previously shown generates systematic perceptual errors. We measured the perceptual direction biases psychophysically and the smooth eye-movement direction biases using two methods (standard averaging and oculometric analysis). We found that the perceptual and oculomotor biases were nearly identical suggesting that pursuit and perception share a critical motion processing stage, perhaps in area MT or MST of extrastriate visual cortex.

  14. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, M E; Frantz, M E; Canning, C; Ritz, J; Blumberg, R S; Balk, S P

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that a subset of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL), particularly those which express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer, mature extrathymically. This study confirms that a small fraction of adult human iIEL also express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer and demonstrates that most of these cells in the small intestine are T cells using the alpha beta T-cell receptor (TCR). Whether these cells or other subsets of adult human iIEL mature extrathymically in the intestine was assessed by measuring the expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), an enzyme expressed exclusively by immature lymphocytes. Very low levels of TdT message could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in some iIEL samples. The level of TdT expression was assayed by competitive PCR amplification and compared with thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. These measurements indicated that the number of immature T cells expressing TdT in the intestinal epithelium was less than one cell per 10(7) lymphocytes. This demonstrates that there are few if any TdT expressing immature T cells in the adult human intestinal mucosa and indicates, therefore, that T-cell development in the intestinal mucosa does not contribute significantly to the T-cell repertoire of the adult human intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8778025

  15. Effects of human intestinal flora on mutagenicity of and DNA adduct formation from food and environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, K; Baranczewski, P; Akerlund, J E; Midtvedt, T; Möller, L; Rafter, J

    2000-11-01

    Although the intestinal flora is believed to have a critical role in carcinogenesis, little is known about the role of the human intestinal flora on the effects of mutagens in vivo. The aim of the present study was to address a possible role of the human intestinal flora in carcinogenesis, by exploiting human-flora-associated (HFA) mice. The capacity of human faeces to activate or inactivate 2-amino-3-methyl-3H:-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-nitrofluorene was determined using the Ames assay. Human faecal suspensions that were active in this regard were then selected and orally inoculated into germfree NMRI mice to generate HFA mice. HFA, germfree, conventionalized and conventional mice were administered IQ, 2-amino-9H:-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (2-amino-alpha-carboline; AAC) and 2-nitrofluorene. The activity of human intestinal flora against mutagens could be transferred into the mice. In comparing germfree mice and mice harbouring an intestinal flora, the presence of a flora was essential for the activities of faeces against mutagens. After administration of IQ and 2-nitrofluorene, DNA adducts were observed in the mice with a flora, while adducts were extremely low or absent in germfree animals. DNA adducts after AAC treatment were higher in germfree mice in some tissues including colon than in mice with bacteria. Differences in DNA adduct formation were also observed between HFA mice and mice with mouse flora in many tissues. These results clearly indicate that the intestinal flora have an active role in DNA adduct formation and that the role is different for the different chemicals to which the animals are exposed. The results also demonstrate that the human intestinal flora have different effects from the mouse flora on DNA adduct formation as well as in vitro metabolic activities against mutagens. Studies using HFA mice could thus provide much-needed information on the role of the human intestinal flora on carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:11062175

  16. Supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin enhances systematic and intestinal immune responses in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Yaofeng; Meng, Qingyong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) plays an important role in the body's immune system. However, the immunomodulatory effects of supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human LF (rhLF) on the systemic and intestinal immune systems in infants remain unclear. Our laboratory has used genetic engineer to produce transgenic cow secreted rhLF. To assess the immune responses we took piglets as an animal model for infants. Eighteen piglets at 7 days of age were fed ordinary milk, 1:1 mix of ordinary and rhLF milk, or rhLF milk (LFM) for 30 days. The incidence of diarrhea in piglets in natural condition was observed. The protein abundances of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, IgE, histamine, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 interferon, tumor necrosis factor in the plasma, spleen or intestine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal structure was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin. The mRNA levels of immune and allergy-related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that LFM-fed significantly reduced incidence of diarrhea, enhanced humoral immunity, T helper (Th) 1, and Th2 cell responses, improved the structure of the intestinal mucosal and did not induce food allergy. LFM increased mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 and decreased that of FCεRI β. In conclusion, rhLF-enriched formula could improve systematic and intestinal immune responses and did not elicit food allergies in neonatal piglets. PMID:24420858

  17. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  18. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock. PMID:23874986

  19. The purinergic component of human bladder smooth muscle cells’ proliferation and contraction under physiological stretch

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation and contraction. •Optimum applied stretch in vitro is 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively. •Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 is upregulated after application of stretch. •P2X2 is possibly more susceptible to stretch related changes. •Purinoceptors functioning may explain conditions with atropine resistance. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether cyclic stretch induces proliferation and contraction of human smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs), mediated by P2X purinoceptor 1 and 2 and the signal transduction mechanisms of this process. Methods: HBSMCs were seeded on silicone membrane and stretched under varying parameters; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (Frequency: 0.05 Hz, 0.1 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz). 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay was employed for proliferative studies. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. After optimal physiological stretch was established; P2X1 and P2X2 were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. Specificity of purinoceptors was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (NF023 for P2X1, and A317491for P2X2), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation and contractility were observed at 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively, applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz; At 5% stretch, proliferation increased from 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023%, p < 0.05. Mean contraction at 10% stretching increased from 31.7 ± 2.3%, (control) to 78.28 ±1.45%, p < 0.05. Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 was upregulated after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.232 ± 0.051, p < 0.05 NF023) and (1.302 ± 0.021, p < 0.05 A314791) while contractility was markedly reduced (68.24 ± 2.31, p < 0.05 NF023) and (73.2 ± 2.87, p < 0.05 A314791). These findings shows that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in

  20. Iptakalim influences the proliferation and apoptosis of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Yan, Xiaopei; Kong, Hui; Xie, Weiping; Wang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener iptakalim (IPT) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs), and examine the potential value of IPT to hypoxic pulmonary hyper-tension (HPH) at a cellular level. HPASMCs were divided into the control, ET-1, ET-1+IPT and ET-1+IPT+glibenclamide (GLI) groups. GLI was administered 30 min prior to ET-1 and IPT. The 4 groups were incubated with corresponding reagents for 24 h. Cell viability was evaluated using a CCK-8 assay, cell proliferation by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, and cell apoptosis via the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, i.e., Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) using western blotting. We incubated HPASMCs with varying concentrations of ET-1 for 24, 48 and 72 h, and found that cell survival rate was increased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) rather than in a time-dependent manner (P>0.05). After co-incubation of HPASMCs with varying concentrations of IPT and ET-1 for 24 h, the cell survival rate was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The cell survival rate in the IPT+ET-1 group was significantly lower than that in the ET-1 group (P<0.05). The cell viability (P<0.05) and proliferation (P<0.05) in the ET-1 group were higher than those in the control group, and the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 was lower than the control group (P<0.05). The cell viability (P<0.05) and proliferation (P<0.05) in the ET-1+IPT group were lower than those in the ET-1 group, and the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 was higher than that in the ET-1 group (P<0.05). The cell viability (P<0.05) and proliferation (P<0.05) in the ET-1+IPT+GLI group were higher than those in the ET-1+IPT group, and the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 was lower than that in the ET-1+IPT group (P<0.05). In conclusion, IPT inhibited ET-1‑induced HPASMC proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Thus, it may

  1. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  2. Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Gajdzik, L; Haberl, I; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Graf, J

    1998-03-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by immunofluorescence using an anti-ZO-1 antibody, a marker for tight junction integrity. Two different reactivity patterns were observed: paprika and cayenne pepper significantly decreased the TER and increased permeability for 10-, 20- and 40-kDa dextrans but not for -70 kDa dextrans. Simultaneously, tight junctions exhibited a discontinuous pattern. Applying extracts from black or green pepper, bay leaf or nutmeg increased the TER and macromolecular permeability remained low. Immunofluorescence ZO-1 staining was preserved. In accordance with the above findings, capsaicin transiently reduced resistance and piperine increased resistance, making them candidates for causing the effects seen with crude spice extracts. The observation that Solanaceae spices (paprika, cayenne pepper) increase permeability for ions and macromolecules might be of pathophysiological importance, particularly with respect to food allergy and intolerance.

  3. Anthocyanin Absorption and Metabolism by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van Camp, John

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins from different plant sources have been shown to possess health beneficial effects against a number of chronic diseases. To obtain any influence in a specific tissue or organ, these bioactive compounds must be bioavailable, i.e., effectively absorbed from the gut into the circulation and transferred to the appropriate location within the body while still maintaining their bioactivity. One of the key factors affecting the bioavailability of anthocyanins is their transport through the gut epithelium. The Caco-2 cell line, a human intestinal epithelial cell model derived from a colon carcinoma, has been proven to be a good alternative to animal studies for predicting intestinal absorption of anthocyanins. Studies investigating anthocyanin absorption by Caco-2 cells report very low absorption of these compounds. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins may be underestimated since the metabolites formed in the course of digestion could be responsible for the health benefits associated with anthocyanins. In this review, we critically discuss recent findings reported on the anthocyanin absorption and metabolism by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. PMID:26370977

  4. Anthocyanin Absorption and Metabolism by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells--A Review.

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van Camp, John

    2015-09-08

    Anthocyanins from different plant sources have been shown to possess health beneficial effects against a number of chronic diseases. To obtain any influence in a specific tissue or organ, these bioactive compounds must be bioavailable, i.e., effectively absorbed from the gut into the circulation and transferred to the appropriate location within the body while still maintaining their bioactivity. One of the key factors affecting the bioavailability of anthocyanins is their transport through the gut epithelium. The Caco-2 cell line, a human intestinal epithelial cell model derived from a colon carcinoma, has been proven to be a good alternative to animal studies for predicting intestinal absorption of anthocyanins. Studies investigating anthocyanin absorption by Caco-2 cells report very low absorption of these compounds. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins may be underestimated since the metabolites formed in the course of digestion could be responsible for the health benefits associated with anthocyanins. In this review, we critically discuss recent findings reported on the anthocyanin absorption and metabolism by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  5. Assessment of intestinal absorption of trace metals in humans by means of stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Werner, E; Roth, P; Höllriegl, V; Hansen, Ch; Kaltwasser, J P; Giussani, A; Cantone, M C; Greim, H; Zilker, T; Felgenhauer, N

    2002-03-01

    This study is aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of stable isotopes for the assessment of reliable data on fractional intestinal absorption of trace metals in healthy humans. Among the various methods available, the double isotope technique, i.e. one isotope given orally together with the test substance to be investigated and another isotope injected intravenously to correct for retention and endogenous excretion of the particular trace metal, provides quantitative figures of intestinal absorption at reasonable expenses with regard to costs for materials and number of samples to be evaluated. The trace metals exemplarily included in this study, i.e. iron, cobalt and molybdenum show diverging relations between absorbed fractions and amounts administered which are indicative for different regulatory mechanisms of their body content. Food ligands influence the fractional absorption significantly so that the uptake from a composite meal cannot be derived from results on uptake from particular foodstuffs. Therefore, validated data on the behaviour of intestinal absorption will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human trace metal metabolism.

  6. Interleukin 10 Receptor Signaling: Master Regulator of Intestinal Mucosal Homeostasis in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shouval, Dror S.; Ouahed, Jodie; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M.; Snapper, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL10) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine that can inhibit proinflammatory responses of both innate and adaptive immune cells. An association between IL10 and intestinal mucosal homeostasis became clear with the discovery that IL10 and IL10 receptor (IL10R)-deficient mice develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. Similarly, patients with deleterious mutations in IL10, IL10RA, or IL10RB present with severe enterocolitis within the first months of life. Here, we review recent findings on how IL10- and IL10R-dependent signaling modulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the murine gastrointestinal tract, with implications of their role in the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we discuss the impact of IL10 and IL10R signaling defects in humans and their relationship to very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD). PMID:24507158

  7. Interleukin 10 receptor signaling: master regulator of intestinal mucosal homeostasis in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Shouval, Dror S; Ouahed, Jodie; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A; Horwitz, Bruce H; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Snapper, Scott B

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL10) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine that can inhibit proinflammatory responses of both innate and adaptive immune cells. An association between IL10 and intestinal mucosal homeostasis became clear with the discovery that IL10 and IL10 receptor (IL10R)-deficient mice develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. Similarly, patients with deleterious mutations in IL10, IL10RA, or IL10RB present with severe enterocolitis within the first months of life. Here, we review recent findings on how IL10- and IL10R-dependent signaling modulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the murine gastrointestinal tract, with implications of their role in the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we discuss the impact of IL10 and IL10R signaling defects in humans and their relationship to very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD).

  8. [Effects of trimebutine on motility of the small intestine in humans].

    PubMed

    Couturier, D; Chaussade, S; Grandjouan, S

    1989-02-15

    Trimebutine maleate induces a specific motor response in the human proximal small bowel: except for the few minutes lapse following the occurrence of a spontaneous phase 3, an intravenous injection of 100 mg trimebutine systematically produces, in fed or fasted state, a systemic propagated activity analogous to the spontaneous phase 3 of the migrating motor complex. In lower doses, this effect is not observed. The intraduodenal administration of a high dose (600 mg) induces a similar response to that observed after intravenous injection. Trimebutine possibly acts as a stimulator of peripheral receptors of the enkephalinergic nervous system. Theoretically, these results may result in recommending the therapeutic use of trimebutine in intestinal motility disorders where disappearance or depletion of phase 3 are observed. However, information is still lacking about the relationship between therapeutic activity and the effects on intestinal motility in pathological states. PMID:2537973

  9. Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Covián, David; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Salazar, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The colon is inhabited by a dense population of microorganisms, the so-called "gut microbiota," able to ferment carbohydrates and proteins that escape absorption in the small intestine during digestion. This microbiota produces a wide range of metabolites, including short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These compounds are absorbed in the large bowel and are defined as 1-6 carbon volatile fatty acids which can present straight or branched-chain conformation. Their production is influenced by the pattern of food intake and diet-mediated changes in the gut microbiota. SCFA have distinct physiological effects: they contribute to shaping the gut environment, influence the physiology of the colon, they can be used as energy sources by host cells and the intestinal microbiota and they also participate in different host-signaling mechanisms. We summarize the current knowledge about the production of SCFA, including bacterial cross-feedings interactions, and the biological properties of these metabolites with impact on the human health.

  10. H2 Receptor-Mediated Relaxation of Circular Smooth Muscle in Human Gastric Corpus: the Role of Nitric Oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Eok; Kim, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Chul; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Woong; Kim, Chan Hyung; Jeong, Hye Won; Park, Seon-Mee; Yun, Sei Jin; Choi, Song-Yi; Sung, Rohyun; Kim, Young Ho; Yoo, Ra Young; Sun, Park Hee; Kim, Heon; Song, Young-Jin; Xu, Wen-Xie; Yun, Hyo-Yung; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of histamine on gastric motility and its specific receptor in the circular smooth muscle of the human gastric corpus. Histamine mainly produced tonic relaxation in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, although histamine enhanced contractility in a minor portion of tissues tested. Histamine-induced tonic relaxation was nerve-insensitive because pretreatment with nerve blockers cocktail (NBC) did not inhibit relaxation. Additionally, K(+) channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), and glibenclamide (Glib), had no effect. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), did inhibit histamine-induced tonic relaxation. In particular, histamine-induced tonic relaxation was converted to tonic contraction by pretreatment with L-NAME. Ranitidine, the H2 receptor blocker, inhibited histamine-induced tonic relaxation. These findings suggest that histamine produced relaxation in circular smooth muscle of human gastric smooth muscle through H2 receptor and NO/sGC pathways.

  11. H2 Receptor-Mediated Relaxation of Circular Smooth Muscle in Human Gastric Corpus: the Role of Nitric Oxide (NO)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Eok; Kim, Dae Hoon; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Woong; Kim, Chan Hyung; Jeong, Hye Won; Park, Seon-Mee; Yun, Sei Jin; Choi, Song-Yi; Sung, Rohyun; Kim, Young Ho; Yoo, Ra Young; Sun, Park Hee; Kim, Heon; Song, Young-Jin; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of histamine on gastric motility and its specific receptor in the circular smooth muscle of the human gastric corpus. Histamine mainly produced tonic relaxation in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, although histamine enhanced contractility in a minor portion of tissues tested. Histamine-induced tonic relaxation was nerve-insensitive because pretreatment with nerve blockers cocktail (NBC) did not inhibit relaxation. Additionally, K+ channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), and glibenclamide (Glib), had no effect. However, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), did inhibit histamine-induced tonic relaxation. In particular, histamine-induced tonic relaxation was converted to tonic contraction by pretreatment with L-NAME. Ranitidine, the H2 receptor blocker, inhibited histamine-induced tonic relaxation. These findings suggest that histamine produced relaxation in circular smooth muscle of human gastric smooth muscle through H2 receptor and NO/sGC pathways. PMID:25352763

  12. H2 Receptor-Mediated Relaxation of Circular Smooth Muscle in Human Gastric Corpus: the Role of Nitric Oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Eok; Kim, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Chul; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Woong; Kim, Chan Hyung; Jeong, Hye Won; Park, Seon-Mee; Yun, Sei Jin; Choi, Song-Yi; Sung, Rohyun; Kim, Young Ho; Yoo, Ra Young; Sun, Park Hee; Kim, Heon; Song, Young-Jin; Xu, Wen-Xie; Yun, Hyo-Yung; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of histamine on gastric motility and its specific receptor in the circular smooth muscle of the human gastric corpus. Histamine mainly produced tonic relaxation in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, although histamine enhanced contractility in a minor portion of tissues tested. Histamine-induced tonic relaxation was nerve-insensitive because pretreatment with nerve blockers cocktail (NBC) did not inhibit relaxation. Additionally, K(+) channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), and glibenclamide (Glib), had no effect. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), did inhibit histamine-induced tonic relaxation. In particular, histamine-induced tonic relaxation was converted to tonic contraction by pretreatment with L-NAME. Ranitidine, the H2 receptor blocker, inhibited histamine-induced tonic relaxation. These findings suggest that histamine produced relaxation in circular smooth muscle of human gastric smooth muscle through H2 receptor and NO/sGC pathways. PMID:25352763

  13. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  14. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  15. Immunomodulatory Properties of Streptococcus and Veillonella Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Wells, Jerry M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The human small intestine is a key site for interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of representative species of commonly dominant small-intestinal microbial communities, including six streptococcal strains (four Streptococcus salivarius, one S. equinus, one S. parasanguinis) one Veillonella parvula strain, one Enterococcus gallinarum strain, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as a bench mark strain on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The different streptococci induced varying levels of the cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-12p70, while the V. parvula strain showed a strong capacity to induce IL-6. E. gallinarum strain was a potent inducer of cytokines and TLR2/6 signalling. As Streptococcus and Veillonella can potentially interact metabolically and frequently co-occur in ecosystems, immunomodulation by pair-wise combinations of strains were also tested for their combined immunomodulatory properties. Strain combinations induced cytokine responses in dendritic cells that differed from what might be expected on the basis of the results obtained with the individual strains. A combination of (some) streptococci with Veillonella appeared to negate IL-12p70 production, while augmenting IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α responses. This suggests that immunomodulation data obtained in vitro with individual strains are unlikely to adequately represent immune responses to mixtures of gut microbiota communities in vivo. Nevertheless, analysing the immune responses of strains representing the dominant species in the intestine may help to identify immunomodulatory mechanisms that influence immune homeostasis. PMID:25479553

  16. In vitro effect of medicinal plants used to treat erectile dysfunction on smooth muscle relaxation and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A; Huyser, C; Mdlalose, S P; Raidani, T G

    2006-04-21

    Chloroform and ethanol extracts of root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata, Wrightia natalensis and Rhoicissus tridentata were investigated for their in vitro activity on the contraction of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle of white New Zealand rabbits. Some of the extracts of these plants relaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle at low concentrations. The highest activity was obtained from Securidaca longepedunculata chloroform extracts at a concentration of 13.0 mg/ml, which induced 66.6% relaxation. Viagra was used as a positive control in this study. Extracts of Securidaca longepedunculata added to human spermatozoa affected certain sperm parameters negatively at 6.5 mg/ml and higher whilst there was no effect at 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:16309865

  17. Intestinal Commitment and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Independent of Exogenous FGF4 and R-spondin1.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Kaisa; Balboa, Diego; Toivonen, Sanna; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Wiener, Zoltan; Alitalo, Kari; Otonkoski, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a central role in guiding the differentiation of the posterior parts of the primitive gut tube into intestinal structures in vivo and some studies suggest that FGF4 is another crucial factor for intestinal development. The aim of this study was to define the effects of Wnt and FGF4 on intestinal commitment in vitro by establishing conditions for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) into posterior endoderm (hindgut) and further to self-renewing intestinal-like organoids. The most prominent induction of the well-established intestinal marker gene CDX2 was achieved when hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells were treated with Wnt agonist molecule CHIR99021 during differentiation to hindgut. FGF4 was found to be dispensable during intestinal commitment, but it had an early role in repressing development towards the hepatic lineage. When hindgut stage cells were further cultured in 3D, they formed self-renewing organoid structures containing all major intestinal cell types even without exogenous R-spondin1 (RSPO1), a crucial factor for the culture of epithelial organoids derived from adult intestine. This may be explained by the presence of a mesenchymal compartment in the hPSC-derived organoids. Addition of WNT3A increased the expression of the Paneth cell marker Lysozyme in hPSC-derived organoid cultures, whereas FGF4 inhibited both the formation and maturation of intestinal-like organoids. Similar hindgut and organoid cultures were established from human induced pluripotent stem cells, implying that this approach can be used to create patient-specific intestinal tissue models for disease modeling in vitro. PMID:26230325

  18. A novel method for the culture and polarized stimulation of human intestinal mucosa explants.

    PubMed

    Tsilingiri, Katerina; Sonzogni, Angelica; Caprioli, Flavio; Rescigno, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina

  19. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2013-05-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.

  20. Human gut-on-a-chip inhabited by microbial flora that experiences intestinal peristalsis-like motions and flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Huh, Dongeun; Hamilton, Geraldine; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-06-21

    Development of an in vitro living cell-based model of the intestine that mimics the mechanical, structural, absorptive, transport and pathophysiological properties of the human gut along with its crucial microbial symbionts could accelerate pharmaceutical development, and potentially replace animal testing. Here, we describe a biomimetic 'human gut-on-a-chip' microdevice composed of two microfluidic channels separated by a porous flexible membrane coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) and lined by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells that mimics the complex structure and physiology of living intestine. The gut microenvironment is recreated by flowing fluid at a low rate (30 μL h(-1)) producing low shear stress (0.02 dyne cm(-2)) over the microchannels, and by exerting cyclic strain (10%; 0.15 Hz) that mimics physiological peristaltic motions. Under these conditions, a columnar epithelium develops that polarizes rapidly, spontaneously grows into folds that recapitulate the structure of intestinal villi, and forms a high integrity barrier to small molecules that better mimics whole intestine than cells in cultured in static Transwell models. In addition, a normal intestinal microbe (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) can be successfully co-cultured for extended periods (>1 week) on the luminal surface of the cultured epithelium without compromising epithelial cell viability, and this actually improves barrier function as previously observed in humans. Thus, this gut-on-a-chip recapitulates multiple dynamic physical and functional features of human intestine that are critical for its function within a controlled microfluidic environment that is amenable for transport, absorption, and toxicity studies, and hence it should have great value for drug testing as well as development of novel intestinal disease models. PMID:22434367

  1. Studies on the preservation of the intestinal microbiota's DNA in human mummies from cold environments.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Franco; Ermini, Luca; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; Olivieri, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of ancient microorganism DNA represents one of the newest and most promising branches of molecular archaeology. In particular, microbial DNA associated with human remains can provide direct evidence of the occurrence and frequency of infectious diseases in historic times. Human mummies represent very interesting subjects for palaeomicrobiological investigations as they retain soft tissues. Recently reports on the identification of ancient bacterial pathogens in human mummies by DNA analysis are steadily becoming more numerous. However, despite this favourable trend, the analysis of ancient microbial DNA is still a contentious issue. As a model system, we studied the preservation of the intestinal microbiota's DNA in two naturally freeze-dried human mummies found on the Alps. This kind of mummy is an ideal subject for ancient DNA investigations. The first is a male body historically dated 1918 A.D. while the second is the famous Tyrolean Iceman (3.350-3.100 BC).

  2. Infection with fully mature Corynosoma cf. validum causes ulcers in the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Ito, Takahiro; Sato, Tomonobu; Goto, Mitsuru; Kawamoto, Toru; Fujinaga, Akihiro; Yanagawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshinori; Nakao, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fujiya, Mikihiro

    2016-06-01

    Corynosoma is a parasite that can normally be found in the intestinal tract of fish-eating mammals, particularly in seals and birds. The present case proposed that Corynosoma could attain full maturity in the human intestine. A 70-year-old female complained of abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a swelling of the intraperitoneal lymph nodes with no responsible lesion. Video capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy detected several ulcerations and one parasite in the ileum, which was tightly attached at the bottom of the ulcerations. The parasite was cylindrical and measured approximately 10 mm (long) x 3 mm (wide). Pathologically, the worm had a four-layered body wall and contained embryonated eggs. The sequences of the parasite-derived nuclear ribosomal DNA fragment and mitochondrial DNA fragment of cox1 were almost identical to those of Corynosoma validum. The patient's abdominal pain immediately improved after the administration of pyrantel pamoate (1,500 mg). Corynosoma was possibly the responsible disease in a patient who complained of abdominal pain and in whom no responsible lesion was detected by CT, gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. Examinations of the small intestines should be aggressively performed in such cases. PMID:27098251

  3. Infection with fully mature Corynosoma cf. validum causes ulcers in the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Ito, Takahiro; Sato, Tomonobu; Goto, Mitsuru; Kawamoto, Toru; Fujinaga, Akihiro; Yanagawa, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshinori; Nakao, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fujiya, Mikihiro

    2016-06-01

    Corynosoma is a parasite that can normally be found in the intestinal tract of fish-eating mammals, particularly in seals and birds. The present case proposed that Corynosoma could attain full maturity in the human intestine. A 70-year-old female complained of abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a swelling of the intraperitoneal lymph nodes with no responsible lesion. Video capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy detected several ulcerations and one parasite in the ileum, which was tightly attached at the bottom of the ulcerations. The parasite was cylindrical and measured approximately 10 mm (long) x 3 mm (wide). Pathologically, the worm had a four-layered body wall and contained embryonated eggs. The sequences of the parasite-derived nuclear ribosomal DNA fragment and mitochondrial DNA fragment of cox1 were almost identical to those of Corynosoma validum. The patient's abdominal pain immediately improved after the administration of pyrantel pamoate (1,500 mg). Corynosoma was possibly the responsible disease in a patient who complained of abdominal pain and in whom no responsible lesion was detected by CT, gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. Examinations of the small intestines should be aggressively performed in such cases.

  4. Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants: Absorption, Excretion and Influence on the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.; Gaerlan, Stephanie; De Leoz, M. Lorna A.; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the intestinal microbiota in term infants. In premature infants, alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis and the influence of HMOs on the microbiota is unclear. Methods Milk, urine, and stool specimens from 14 mother-premature infant dyads were investigated by mass spectrometry for HMO composition. The stools were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to complement a previous analysis. Results Percentages of fucosylated and sialylated HMOs were highly variable between individuals but similar in urine, feces and milk within dyads. Differences in urine and fecal HMO composition suggest variability in absorption. Secretor status of the mother correlated with the urine and fecal content of specific HMO structures. Trends toward higher levels of Proteobacteria and lower levels of Firmicutes, were noted in premature infants of non-secretor mothers. Specific HMO structures in the milk, urine and feces were associated with alterations in fecal Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Conclusion HMOs may influence the intestinal microbiota in premature infants. Specific HMOs, for example those associated with secretor mothers, may have a protective effect by decreasing pathogens associated with sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis while other HMOs may increase dysbiosis in this population. PMID:26322410

  5. Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

    1985-07-01

    Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry: benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota.

  6. Bovine and soybean milk bioactive compounds: Effects on inflammatory response of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Rosa; Aresta, Antonella; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo; Cianciulli, Antonia; Salvatore, Rosaria; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effects of commercial bovine and soybean milks and their bioactive compounds, namely genistein, daidzein and equol, on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 cells were examined, in terms of nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) expression. Both milks and their bioactive compounds significantly inhibited, dose-dependently, the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, resulting in a decreased NO production. The NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells was also examined. In all cases we observed that cell pre-treatment before LPS activation inhibited the IkB phosphorylation. Accordingly, quantification of bioactive compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography has shown that they were absorbed, metabolized and released by Caco-2 cells in culture media. In conclusion, we demonstrated that milks and compounds tested are able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses from intestinal cells, interfering with NF-kB dependent molecular mechanisms. PMID:27211648

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 activates NADPH oxidase to increase endoplasmic reticulum stress and human coronary artery smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Marcel; Johnson, Rebecca C; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A

    2011-09-30

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) increases oxidant stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of these signaling pathways in the transition of smooth muscle cells to a calcifying osteoblast-like phenotype remains incompletely characterized. We, therefore, treated human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCSMC) with BMP-2 (100ng/mL) and found an increase in NADPH oxidase activity and oxidant stress that occurred via activation of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 and Smad 1 signaling. BMP-2-mediated oxidant stress also increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress demonstrated by increased expression of GRP78, phospho-IRE1α, and the transcription factor XBP1. Analysis of a 1kb segment of the Runx2 promoter revealed an XBP1 binding site; electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that XBP1 bound to the Runx2 promoter at this site in BMP-2-treated HCSMC. Inhibition of oxidant stress or ER stress decreased Runx2 expression, intracellular calcium deposition, and mineralization of BMP-2-treated HCSMC. Thus, in HCSMC, BMP-2 increases oxidant stress and ER stress to increase Runx2 expression and promote vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

  8. Hyperphosphatemia induces cellular senescence in human aorta smooth muscle cells through integrin linked kinase (ILK) up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Troyano, Nuria; Nogal, María Del; Mora, Inés; Diaz-Naves, Manuel; Lopez-Carrillo, Natalia; Sosa, Patricia; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2015-12-01

    Aging is conditioned by genetic and environmental factors. Hyperphosphatemia is related to some pathologies, affecting to vascular cells behavior. This work analyze whether high concentration of extracellular phosphate induces vascular smooth muscle cells senescence, exploring the intracellular mechanisms and highlighting the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon. Human aortic smooth muscle cells treated with β-Glycerophosphate (BGP, 10mM) suffered cellular senescence by increasing p53, p21 and p16 expression and the senescence associated β-galactosidase activity. In parallel, BGP induced ILK overexpression, dependent on the IGF-1 receptor activation, and oxidative stress. Down-regulating ILK expression prevented BGP-induced senescence and oxidative stress. Aortic rings from young rats treated with 10mM BGP for 48h, showed increased p53, p16 and ILK expression and SA-β-gal activity. Seven/eight nephrectomized rats feeding a hyperphosphatemic diet and fifteenth- month old mice showed hyperphosphatemia and aortic ILK, p53 and p16 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high extracellular concentration of phosphate induced senescence in cultured smooth muscle through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and ILK overexpression and provided solid evidences for the in vivo relevance of these results since aged animals showed high levels of serum phosphate linked to increased expression of ILK and senescence genes.

  9. Human in vivo regional intestinal permeability: importance for pharmaceutical drug development.

    PubMed

    Lennernäs, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Both the development and regulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms have undergone significant improvements and development over the past 25 years, due primarily to the extensive application of the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System, which was published in 2005, has also been a useful resource for predicting the influence of transporters in several pharmacokinetic processes. However, there remains a need for the pharmaceutical industry to develop reliable in vitro/in vivo correlations and in silico methods for predicting the rate and extent of complex gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, the bioavailability, and the plasma concentration-time curves for orally administered drug products. Accordingly, a more rational approach is required, one in which high quality in vitro or in silico characterizations of active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulations are integrated into physiologically based in silico biopharmaceutics models to capture the full complexity of GI drug absorption. The need for better understanding of the in vivo GI process has recently become evident after an unsuccessful attempt to predict the GI absorption of BCS class II and IV drugs. Reliable data on the in vivo permeability of the human intestine (Peff) from various intestinal regions is recognized as one of the key biopharmaceutical requirements when developing in silico GI biopharmaceutics models with improved predictive accuracy. The Peff values for human jejunum and ileum, based on historical open, single-pass, perfusion studies are presented in this review. The main objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the relevance and current status of these human in vivo regional intestinal permeability values.

  10. Combined Effects of Lipophilic Phycotoxins (Okadaic Acid, Azapsiracid-1 and Yessotoxin) on Human Intestinal Cells Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Dumazeau, Kevin; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Fessard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Phycotoxins are monitored in seafood because they can cause food poisonings in humans. Phycotoxins do not only occur singly but also as mixtures in shellfish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxic interactions of binary combinations of three lipophilic phycotoxins commonly found in Europe (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1)) using the neutral red uptake assay on two human intestinal cell models, Caco-2 and the human intestinal epithelial crypt-like cells (HIEC). Based on the cytotoxicity of individual toxins, we studied the interactions between toxins in binary mixtures using the combination index-isobologram equation, a method widely used in pharmacology to study drug interactions. This method quantitatively classifies interactions between toxins in mixtures as synergistic, additive or antagonistic. AZA-1/OA, and YTX/OA mixtures showed increasing antagonism with increasing toxin concentrations. In contrast, the AZA-1/YTX mixture showed increasing synergism with increasing concentrations, especially for mixtures with high YTX concentrations. These results highlight the hazard potency of AZA-1/YTX mixtures with regard to seafood intoxication. PMID:26907345

  11. Transepithelial transport of ambroxol hydrochloride across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Stetinová, Vera; Smetanová, Libuse; Kholová, Dagmar; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed i) to characterize the transepithelial transport of the mucolytic agent ambroxol hydrochloride across the intestinal barrier, ii) to classify the ambroxol according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and iii) to predict ambroxol absorption in humans. Transport of ambroxol (100, 300 and 1000 micromol/l) was studied in a human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical direction, under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (6 vs. 7.4) conditions. The relative contribution of the paracellular route was estimated using Ca2+-free transport medium. Ambroxol samples from receiver compartments were analysed by HPLC with UV detection (242 nm). Results showed that ambroxol transport is linear with time, pH-dependent and direction-independent, displays non-saturable (first-order) kinetics. Thus, the transport seems to be transcellular mediated by passive diffusion. Estimated high solubility and high permeability (P(app) = 45 x 10(-6) cm/s) of ambroxol rank it among well absorbed compounds and class I of BCS. It can be expected that the oral dose fraction of ambroxol absorbed in human intestine is high.

  12. Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  13. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  14. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively.

  15. Extracellular Nucleotides Can Induce Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 Expression in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung-Il; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sae-A; Son, Yong-Hae; Eo, Seong-Kug; Rhim, Byung-Yong

    2011-01-01

    To understand the roles of purinergic receptors and cellular molecules below the receptors in the vascular inflammatory response, we determined if extracellular nucleotides up-regulated chemokine expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) abundantly express P2Y1, P2Y6, and P2Y11 receptors, which all respond to extracellular nucleotides. Exposure of human AoSMCs to NAD+, an agonist of the human P2Y11 receptor, and NADP+ as well as ATP, an agonist for P2Y1 and P2Y11 receptors, caused increase in chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 gene (CCL2) transcript and CCL2 release; however, UPT did not affect CCL2 expression. CCL2 release by NAD+ and NADP+ was inhibited by a concentration dependent manner by suramin, an antagonist of P2-purinergic receptors. NAD+ and NADP+ activated protein kinase C and enhanced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt. NAD+- and NADP+-mediated CCL2 release was significantly attenuated by SP6001250, U0126, LY294002, Akt inhibitor IV, RO318220, GF109203X, and diphenyleneiodium chloride. These results indicate that extracellular nucleotides can promote the proinflammatory VSMC phenotype by up-regulating CCL2 expression, and that multiple cellular elements, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, are involved in that process. PMID:21461238

  16. Consumption of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland results in the modulation of intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Walker, Richard L; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-08-01

    Lysozyme is a key antimicrobial component of human milk that has several health-promoting functions including the development of a healthy intestinal tract. However, levels of lysozyme in the milk of dairy animals are negligible. We have generated transgenic dairy goats that express human lysozyme (HLZ) in their milk in an attempt to deliver the benefits of human milk in a continual fashion. To test the feasibility of this transgenic approach to achieve a biological impact at the level of the intestine, feeding trials were conducted in two animal models. Pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic animals was fed to both kid goats (ruminant model) and young pigs (human model), and the numbers of total coliforms and Escherichia coli present in the small intestine were determined. Data from this proof-of-principle study demonstrate that milk from transgenic animals was capable of modulating the bacterial population of the gut in both animal models. Pigs that consumed pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic goats had fewer numbers of coliforms and E. coli in their intestine than did those receiving milk from non-transgenic control animals. The opposite effect was seen in goats. Milk from these transgenic animals not only represent one of the first transgenic food products with the potential of benefiting human health, but are also a unique model to study the development and role of intestinal microflora on health, well-being and resistance to disease.

  17. Failure of d-psicose absorbed in the small intestine to metabolize into energy and its low large intestinal fermentability in humans.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Noriko; Yamada, Takako; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Miyazato, Shoko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tokuda, Masaaki; Izumori, Ken

    2010-02-01

    Experiments with rats have produced data on the metabolism and energy value of d-psicose; however, no such data have been obtained in humans. The authors assessed the availability of d-psicose absorbed in the small intestine by measuring carbohydrate energy expenditure (CEE) by indirect calorimetry. They measured the urinary excretion rate by quantifying d-psicose in urine for 48 hours. To examine d-psicose fermentation in the large intestine, the authors measured breath hydrogen gas and fermentability using 35 strains of intestinal bacteria. Six healthy subjects participated in the CEE test, and 14 participated in breath hydrogen gas and urine tests. d-Psicose fermentation subsequent to an 8-week adaptation period was also assessed by measuring hydrogen gas in 8 subjects. d-Psicose absorbed in the small intestine was not metabolized into energy, unlike glucose, because CEE did not increase within 3 hours of d-psicose ingestion (0.35 g/kg body weight [BW]). The accumulated d-psicose urinary excretion rates were around 70% for 0.34, 0.17, and 0.08 g/kg BW of ingested d-psicose. Low d-psicose fermentability was observed in intestinal bacteria and breath hydrogen gas tests, in which fructooligosaccharide (0.34, 0.17, and 0.08 g/kg BW) was used as a positive control because its available energy is known to be 8.4 kJ/g. Based on the results of the plot of breath hydrogen concentration vs calories ingested, the energy value of d-psicose was expected to be less than 1.6 kJ/g. Incremental d-psicose fermentability subsequent to an adaptation period was not observed.

  18. Characterization and distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Valet, P; Senard, J M; Devedjian, J C; Planat, V; Salomon, R; Voisin, T; Drean, G; Couvineau, A; Daviaud, D; Denis, C

    1993-01-01

    The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan >> chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells. Images PMID:8098045

  19. The role of K⁺ conductances in regulating membrane excitability in human gastric corpus smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Ko, Eun-Ju; Ahn, Ki Duck; Kim, Sung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-04-01

    Changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) regulate membrane excitability. K(+) conductance(s) are one of the main factors in regulating RMP. The functional role of K(+) conductances has not been studied the in human gastric corpus smooth muscles (HGCS). To examine the role of K(+) channels in regulation of RMP in HGCS we employed microelectrode recordings, patch-clamp, and molecular approaches. Tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin did not affect the RMP, suggesting that BK channels are not involved in regulating RMP. Apamin, a selective small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (SK) blocker, did not show a significant effect on the membrane excitability. 4-Aminopyridine, a Kv channel blocker, caused depolarization and increased the duration of slow wave potentials. 4-Aminopyridine also inhibited a delayed rectifying K(+) current in isolated smooth muscle cells. End-product RT-PCR gel detected Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 in human gastric corpus muscles. Glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP) blocker, did not induce depolarization, but nicorandil, a KATP opener, hyperpolarized HGCS, suggesting that KATP are expressed but not basally activated. Kir6.2 transcript, a pore-forming subunit of KATP was expressed in HGCS. A low concentration of Ba(2+), a Kir blocker, induced strong depolarization. Interestingly, Ba(2+)-sensitive currents were minimally expressed in isolated smooth muscle cells under whole-cell patch configuration. KCNJ2 (Kir2.1) transcript was expressed in HGCS. Unique K(+) conductances regulate the RMP in HGCS. Delayed and inwardly rectifying K(+) channels are the main candidates in regulating membrane excitability in HGCS. With the development of cell dispersion techniques of interstitial cells, the cell-specific functional significance will require further analysis.

  20. Functional expression of γ-amino butyric acid transporter 2 in human and guinea pig airway epithelium and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sarah; Gallos, George; Yim, Peter D; Xu, Dingbang; Sonett, Joshua R; Panettieri, Reynold A; Gerthoffer, William; Emala, Charles W

    2011-08-01

    γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) is a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is classically released by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane or by egress via GABA transporters (GATs). Recently, a GABAergic system comprised of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors has been identified on airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells that regulate mucus secretion and contractile tone of airway smooth muscle (ASM). In addition, the enzyme that synthesizes GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase, has been identified in airway epithelial cells; however, the mechanism(s) by which this synthesized GABA is released from epithelial intracellular stores is unknown. We questioned whether any of the four known isoforms of GATs are functionally expressed in ASM or epithelial cells. We detected mRNA and protein expression of GAT2 and -4, and isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase in native and cultured human ASM and epithelial cells. In contrast, mRNA encoding vesicular GAT (VGAT), the neuronal GABA transporter, was not detected. Functional inhibition of (3)H-GABA uptake was demonstrated using GAT2 and GAT4/betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT1) inhibitors in both human ASM and epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that two isoforms of GATs, but not VGAT, are expressed in both airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. They also provide a mechanism by which locally synthesized GABA can be released from these cells into the airway to activate GABA(A) channels and GABA(B) receptors, with subsequent autocrine and/or paracrine signaling effects on airway epithelium and ASM. PMID:21057105

  1. Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 μM concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can

  2. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

  3. Strain-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M

    2009-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested.

  4. Sugars Increase Non-Heme Iron Bioavailability in Human Epithelial Intestinal and Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

  5. Effects of combined progesterone and 17β-estradiol treatment on the transcriptome of cultured human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sreenath; Cairns, Michael T; O'Brien, Margaret; O'Connell, Enda; Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Smith, Terry J

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptomic analysis of cultured human uterine smooth muscle cells (hUtSMCs) was performed to examine gene expression profiles in smooth muscle in an environment containing the two major steroid hormones that regulate the human myometrium in physiological states associated with estrous, pregnancy, labor, and pathophysiological states such as leiomyoma and endometrial cancer. hUtSMCs were treated with progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) individually and in combination, in the presence and absence of RU486 (mifepristone). Transcription of many genes was modulated in the presence of P4 or E2 alone, but almost six times more genes were transcriptionally modulated in the presence of the P4/E2 hormone combination. In total 796 annotated genes were significantly differentially expressed in the presence of both P4 and E2 relative to their expression in untreated cells. Functional withdrawal of P4 by addition of RU486 effectively reversed almost all transcriptional changes caused by P4/E2 treatment. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed a strong association between P4/E2 treatment and downregulated expression of genes involved in cell communication, signal transduction, channel activity, inflammatory response, and differentiation. Upregulated processes included cell survival, gene transcription, steroid hormone biosynthesis, muscle development, insulin receptor signaling, and cell growth.

  6. Effects of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on anti-IgE-induced contraction and smooth muscle reactivity in human airways.

    PubMed Central

    Gorenne, I; Labat, C; Norel, X; De Montpreville, V; Guillet, M C; Cavero, I; Brink, C

    1995-01-01

    1. The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 relaxed basal tone of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. Salmeterol- and RP 58802-induced relaxations persisted for more than 4 h when the medium was constantly renewed after treatment. 2. Salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 reversed histamine-induced contractions in human airways (pD2 values: 6.15 +/- 0.21, 6.00 +/- 0.19 and 6.56 +/- 0.12, respectively). 3. Anti-IgE-induced contractions were significantly inhibited immediately after pretreatment of preparations with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM). However, when tissues were treated with beta 2-agonists and then washed for a period of 4 h, salmeterol was the only agonist which significantly inhibited the anti-IgE response. 4. Histamine response curves were shifted to the right immediately after pretreatment of tissues with the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM; 20 min), but maximal contractions were not affected. After a 4 h washing period, the histamine curves were not significantly different from controls. Concentration-effect curves to acetylcholine (ACh) or leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were not significantly modified after beta 2-agonist pretreatment. 5. These results suggest that beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists may prevent anti-IgE-induced contraction by inhibition of mediator release rather than alterations of those mechanisms involved in airway smooth muscle contraction. PMID:7780648

  7. Contributions of microbiome and mechanical deformation to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation in a human gut-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Li, Hu; Collins, James J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut microbiome, inflammatory cells, and peristalsis-associated mechanical deformations independently contribute to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. This in vitro model replicated results from past animal and human studies, including demonstration that probiotic and antibiotic therapies can suppress villus injury induced by pathogenic bacteria. By ceasing peristalsis-like motions while maintaining luminal flow, lack of epithelial deformation was shown to trigger bacterial overgrowth similar to that observed in patients with ileus and inflammatory bowel disease. Analysis of intestinal inflammation on-chip revealed that immune cells and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin together stimulate epithelial cells to produce four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) that are necessary and sufficient to induce villus injury and compromise intestinal barrier function. Thus, this human gut-on-a-chip can be used to analyze contributions of microbiome to intestinal pathophysiology and dissect disease mechanisms in a controlled manner that is not possible using existing in vitro systems or animal models. PMID:26668389

  8. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation from human stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Sarah K; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-05-15

    Transplantation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a promising cellular therapy to promote angiogenesis and wound healing. However, VSMCs are derived from diverse embryonic sources which may influence their role in the development of vascular disease and in its therapeutic modulation. Despite progress in understanding the mechanisms of VSMC differentiation, there remains a shortage of robust methods for generating lineage-specific VSMCs from pluripotent and adult stem/progenitor cells in serum-free conditions. Here we describe a method for differentiating pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as skin-derived precursors, into lateral plate-derived VSMCs including 'coronary-like' VSMCs and neural crest-derived VSMC, respectively. We believe this approach will have broad applications in modeling origin-specific disease vulnerability and in developing personalized cell-based vascular grafts for regenerative medicine. PMID:26678794

  9. Biotransformation of luteoloside by a newly isolated human intestinal bacterium using UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-hua; Wang, Dong-geng; Yang, Chi; Huang, Jin-hua; Qiu, Wen-qian; Zhao, Xi

    2015-06-01

    To explore the metabolic pathways and metabolites of luteoloside yielded by the isolated human intestinal bacteria from healthy human feces and characterize the β-d-glucosidase activity of the specific strain which catalyzed the breakdown of luteoloside, a preculture bacterial GAM broth and luteoloside were mixed incubated together for 48h. UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS was used for analysis of the metabolites of luteoloside in the corresponding supernatant fractions from fermentation. Aliquots of the reactive solutions were collected at different times and were measured with a microplate reader at 405nm to evaluate the enzymatic activity. Three metabolites (acetylated luteoloside, luteolin and deoxygenated luteolin) were detected in the fractions isolated from the bacterial samples. The variation of β-d-glucosidase activity inside the bacterium was in coincidence with the changes in luteolin generation or luteoloside degradation in different time periods.

  10. Associations between common intestinal parasites and bacteria in humans as revealed by qPCR.

    PubMed

    O'Brien Andersen, L; Karim, A B; Roager, H M; Vigsnæs, L K; Krogfelt, K A; Licht, T R; Stensvold, C R

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we set out to investigate potential associations between common single-celled parasites such as Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis and intestinal bacteria. Stool DNA from patients with intestinal symptoms were selected based on being Blastocystis spp.-positive (B+)/negative (B-) and D. fragilis-positive (D+)/negative (D-), and split into four groups of 21 samples (B+ D+, B+ D-, B- D+, and B- D-). Quantitative PCR targeting the six bacterial taxa Bacteroides, Prevotella, the butyrate-producing clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, the mucin-degrading Akkermansia muciniphila, and the indigenous group of Bifidobacterium was subsequently performed, and the relative abundance of these bacteria across the four groups was compared. The relative abundance of Bacteroides in B- D- samples was significantly higher compared with B+ D- and B+ D+ samples (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), and this association was even more significant when comparing all parasite-positive samples with parasite-negative samples (P < 0.001). Additionally, our data revealed that a low abundance of Prevotella and a higher abundance of Clostridial cluster XIVa was associated with parasite-negative samples (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Our data support the theory that Blastocystis alone or combined with D. fragilis is associated with gut microbiota characterized by low relative abundances of Bacteroides and Clostridial cluster XIVa and high levels of Prevotella. PMID:27230509

  11. Free fucose is a danger signal to human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wai Ling; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2008-03-01

    Fucose is present in foods, and it is a major component of human mucin glycoproteins and glycolipids. l-Fucose can also be found at the terminal position of many cell-surface oligosaccharide ligands that mediate cell-recognition and adhesion-signalling pathways. Mucin fucose can be released through the hydrolytic activity of pathogens and indigenous bacteria, leading to the release of free fucose into the intestinal lumen. The immunomodulating effects of free fucose on intestinal epithelial cells (enterocyte-like Caco-2) were investigated. It was found that the presence of l-fucose up regulated genes and secretion of their encoded proteins that are involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, possibly via the toll-like receptor-2 signalling pathway. These include TNFSF5, TNFSF7, TNF-alpha, IL12, IL17 and IL18. Besides modulating immune reactions in differentiated Caco-2 cells, fucose induced a set of cytokine genes that are involved in the development and proliferation of immune cells. These include the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) BMP2, BMP4, IL5, thrombopoietin and erythropoietin. In addition, the up regulated gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 may help to promote epithelial cell restitution in conjunction with the enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA. Since the exogenous fucose was not metabolised by the differentiated Caco-2 cells as a carbon source, the reactions elicited were suggested to be a result of the direct interaction of fucose and differentiated Caco-2 cells. The presence of free fucose may signal the invasion of mucin-hydrolysing microbial cells and breakage of the mucosal barrier. The intestinal epithelial cells respond by up regulation and secretion of cytokines, pre-empting the actual invasion of pathogens.

  12. The secondary human yolk sac has an immunophenotype indicative of both hepatic and intestinal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Francisco F; Dulcey, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Although the microscopy of the secondary human yolk sac (SHYS) is well known, few studies have addressed its immunohistochemical profile. The SHYS is involved in the synthesis, absorption and transfer of various proteins and behaves as a temporary liver and intestine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of immunohistochemical markers of hepatic and intestinal function in the SHYS. We performed a retrospective histological and immunohistochemical study of 26 SHYS from spontaneous abortions and tubal pregnancies, 15 of which were from the 7th to 8th week. The antibodies used were against alpha-foetoprotein (AFP), glypican 3 (GLP3), hepatocyte-paraffin-1 (HepPar-1), villin, CDX2, SALL4 and podoplanin (D2-40). Early SHYS from the 5th to the 8th week revealed a network of intracellular vesicles communicating with the lumen of endodermal tubules that were highlighted by intense membrane AFP expression. Endodermal cells consistently expressed AFP, GLP3, SALL4, hep-par-1, villin and CDX2, while mesothelial cells only expressed D2-40. The endodermal layer of the SHYS from the 5th to the 8th week revealed a transient canalicular network which was highlighted by strong membranous AFP expression; this may represent the substrate of a SHYS transport system during its period of maximal activity. The synthetic and transfer functions of the yolk sac endoderm were reflected in a hybrid immunophenotype in which proteins characteristic of hepatic function such as AFP, GLP3, SALL4 and hep-par-1 were coexpressed simultaneously with others such as villin and CDX2, indicative of an intestinal role. PMID:23124968

  13. Bifidobacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; De Lartigue, Guillaume; German, J. Bruce; Raybould, Helen E.; Mills, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of breast milk. Our laboratory has previously revealed gene clusters specifically linked to HMO metabolism in select bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that growth of select bifidobacteria on HMO stimulates the intestinal epithelium. Methods Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were incubated with lactose (LAC) or HMO-grown Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) or B. bifidum. Bacterial adhesion and translocation was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase. Distribution of tight junction proteins was measured using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results We showed that HMO-grown B. infantis had significantly higher rate of adhesion to HT-29 cells compared to B. bifidum. B. infantis also induced expression of a cell membrane glycoprotein, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand -1. Both B. infantis and B. bifidum grown on HMO caused less occludin relocalization and higher expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10 compared to LAC-grown bacteria in Caco-2 cells. B. bifidum grown on HMO showed higher expression of junctional adhesion molecule and occludin in Caco-2 cell and HT-29 cells. There were no significant differences between LAC or HMO treatments in bacterial translocation. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the specific relationship between HMO-grown bifidobacteria and intestinal epithelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing HMO-induced changes in the bifidobacteria-intestinal cells interaction. PMID:22383026

  14. Intestinal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucocorticoids as well as a tissue capable of producing and metabolizing sex steroids. This finding is based on the detection of steroidogenic enzyme expression as well as the presence of bioactive steroids in both the rodent and human gut. Within the intestinal mucosa, the intestinal epithelial cell layer is one of the main cellular sources of steroids. Glucocorticoid synthesis regulation in the intestinal epithelial cells is unique in that it does not involve the classical positive regulator steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) but a closely related homolog, namely the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). This local production of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids contributes to intestinal homeostasis and has been linked to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells also possess the ability to metabolize sex steroids, notably estrogen; this mechanism may impact colorectal cancer development. In this review, we contextualize and discuss what is known about intestinal steroidogenesis and regulation as well as the key role these functions play both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 35 Mediates Human Saphenous Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Endothelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Jennifer E.; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Divorty, Nina; Clarke, Carolyn; Delles, Christian; Milligan, Graeme; Nicklin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation is central to neointima formation in vein graft failure following coronary artery bypass. However, there are currently no pharmacological interventions that prevent vein graft failure through intimal occlusion. It is hence a therapeutic target. Here, we investigated the contribution of GPR35 to human VSMC and endothelial cell (EC) migration, using a scratch-wound assay, and also the contribution to proliferation, using MTS and BrdU assays, in in vitro models using recently characterized human GPR35 ortholog-selective small-molecule agonists and antagonists. Real-time PCR studies showed GPR35 to be robustly expressed in human VSMCs and ECs. Stimulation of GPR35, with either the human-selective agonist pamoic acid or the reference agonist zaprinast, promoted VSMC migration in the scratch-wound assay. These effects were blocked by coincubation with either of the human GPR35-specific antagonists, CID-2745687 or ML-145. These GPR35-mediated effects were produced by inducing alterations in the actin cytoskeleton via the Rho A/Rho kinase signaling axis. Additionally, the agonist ligands stimulated a proliferative response in ECs. These studies highlight the potential that small molecules that stimulate or block GPR35 activity can modulate vascular proliferation and migration. These data propose GPR35 as a translational therapeutic target in vascular remodeling. PMID:27064272

  16. Heterogeneity of detergent-insoluble membranes from human intestine containing caveolin-1 and ganglioside G(M1).

    PubMed

    Badizadegan, K; Dickinson, B L; Wheeler, H E; Blumberg, R S; Holmes, R K; Lencer, W I

    2000-06-01

    In intestinal epithelia, cholera and related toxins elicit a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response fundamental to the pathogenesis of toxigenic diarrhea. We recently proposed that specificity of cholera toxin (CT) action in model intestinal epithelia may depend on the toxin's cell surface receptor ganglioside G(M1). Binding G(M1) enabled the toxin to elicit a response, but forcing the toxin to enter the cell by binding the closely related ganglioside G(D1a) rendered the toxin inactive. The specificity of ganglioside function correlated with the ability of G(M1) to partition CT into detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich membranes (DIGs). To test the biological plausibility of these hypotheses, we examined native human intestinal epithelia. We show that human small intestinal epithelia contain DIGs that distinguish between toxin bound to G(M1) and G(D1a), thus providing a possible mechanism for enterotoxicity associated with CT. We find direct evidence for the presence of caveolin-1 in DIGs from human intestinal epithelia but find that these membranes are heterogeneous and that caveolin-1 is not a structural component of apical membrane DIGs that contain CT.

  17. Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development.

  18. Biphasic responses of human vascular smooth muscle cells to magnesium ion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium-based alloys are promising in biodegradable cardiovascular stent applications. The degradation products of magnesium stents may have significant impacts on the surrounding vascular cells. However, knowledge on the interactions between magnesium ion and vascular cells at the molecular and cellular levels is still largely missing. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of restenosis and wound healing after stent implantation. This study evaluated the short-term effects of extracellular magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) on the cellular behaviors of SMCs. Cellular responses to Mg(2+) were biphasic and in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations (10 mM) of Mg(2+) increased cell viability, cell proliferation rate, cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell migration rate, and actin expression. In contrast, higher concentrations (40-60 mM) of Mg(2+) had deleterious effects on cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that Mg(2+) altered the expressions of genes mostly related to cell adhesion, cell injury, angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation, and cell growth. Finding from this study provides some valuable information on SMC responses toward magnesium ions at the cellular and molecular levels, and guidance for future controlled release of magnesium from the stent material.

  19. Tyk2 mediates effects of urokinase on human vascular smooth muscle cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Patecki, Margret; Schaewen, Markus von; Tkachuk, Sergey; Jerke, Uwe; Dietz, Rainer; Dumler, Inna; Kusch, Angelika . E-mail: angelika.kusch@charite.de

    2007-08-03

    The urokinase (uPA)/uPA receptor (uPAR) system plays a role in the response of the vessel wall to injury, presumably by modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functional behaviour. The Jak/Stat signaling pathway has been implicated to mediate the uPA/uPAR-directed cell migration and proliferation in VSMC. We have therefore investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, which remained not completely understood. In particular, we aimed at identification of the kinase involved in the signaling cascade leading to Stat1 phosphorylation by uPA and its impact on VSMC growth. We performed expression in VSMC of kinase-deficient mutant forms of the Janus kinases Jak1 and Tyk2 and used different cell culture models imitating the response to vascular injury. We provide evidence that Tyk2, but not Jak1, mediates uPA-induced Stat1 phosphorylation and VSMC growth inhibition and suggest a novel function for Tyk2 as an important modulator of the uPA-directed VSMC functional behaviour at the place of injury.

  20. WISP1 overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells via AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Liu, Hao; Lu, Lihe; Wan, Heng; Lin, Zhiqi; Qian, Kai; Yao, Xingxing; Chen, Qing; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jianyun; Liu, Zhengjun

    2016-10-01

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of vascular restenosis. Our previous study showed that CCN4, namely Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), significantly promotes proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs, but its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether and how WISP1 stimulates proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Western blot analysis showed that FBS treatment increased WISP1 protein levels in human VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of WISP1 using adenovirus encoding WISP1 (AD-WISP1) significantly increased proliferation rate of human VSMCs by 2.98-fold compared with empty virus (EV)-transfected cells, shown by EdU incorporation assay. Additionally, Scratch-induced wound healing assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WISP1 significantly increased cell migration compared with EV-transfected cells from 6h (4.56±1.14% vs. 11.23±2.25%, P<0.05) to 48h (25.25±5.51% vs. 97.54±13.12%, P<0.01) after injury. Transwell Migration Assay confirmed that WISP1 overexpression significantly promoted human VSMC migration by 2.25-fold compared with EV. Furthermore, WISP1 overexpression stimulated Akt signaling activation in human VSMCs. Blockage of Akt signaling by Akt inhibitor AZD5363 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002, led to an inhibitory effect of WISP1-induced proliferation and migration in human VSMCs. Moreover, we found that WISP1 overexpression stimulated GSK3α/β phosphorylation, and increased expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9 in human VSMCs, and this effect was abolished by AZD5363. Collectively, we demonstrated that Akt signaling pathway mediates WISP1-induced migration and proliferation of human VSMCs, suggesting that WISP1 may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for vascular restenosis.

  1. Vitamin A metabolism in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, T.C.; Ong, D.E. )

    1990-12-01

    The human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, described as enterocyte-like in a number of studies, was examined for its ability to carry out the metabolism of vitamin A normally required in the absorptive process. Caco-2 cells contained cellular retinol-binding protein II, a protein which is abundant in human villus-associated enterocytes and may play an important role in the absorption of vitamin A. Microsomal preparations from Caco-2 cells contained retinal reductase, acyl-CoA-retinol acyltransferase (ARAT), and lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activites, which have previously been proposed to be involved in the metabolism of dietary vitamin A in the enterocyte. When intact Caco-2 cells were provided with {beta}-carotene, retinyl acetate, or retinyl acetate, or retinol, synthesis of retinyl palmitoleate, oleate, palmitate, and small amounts of stearate resulted. However, exogenous retinyl palmitate or stearate was not used by Caco-2 cells as a source of retinol for ester synthesis. While there was a disproportionate synthesis of monoenoic fatty acid esters of retinol in Caco-2 cells compared to the retinyl esters typically found in human chylomicrons or the esters normally synthesized in rat intestine, the pattern was consistent with the substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 18:1 and 16:1, found in the sn-1 position of Caco-2 microsomal phosphatidylcholine, the fatty acyl donor for LRAT. Both ARAT and LRAT have been proposed to be responsible for retinyl ester synthesis in the enterocyte. These data suggest the LRAT may be the physiologically important enzyme for the esterification of retinol in Caco-2 cells.

  2. Evaluation of impact of exposure of Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2012-08-01

    Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 μM, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health.

  3. Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility

  4. Degradation of transgenic DNA from genetically modified soya and maize in human intestinal simulations.

    PubMed

    Martín-Orúe, Susana M; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Ariño, Joaquin; Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, Harry J; Mathers, John C

    2002-06-01

    The inclusion of genetically modified (GM) foods in the human diet has caused considerable debate. There is concern that the transfer of plant-derived transgenes to the resident intestinal microflora could have safety implications. For these gene transfer events to occur, the nucleic acid would need to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rate at which transgenes, contained within GM soya and maize, are degraded in gastric and small bowel simulations. The data showed that 80 % of the transgene in naked GM soya DNA was degraded in the gastric simulations, while no degradation of the transgenes contained within GM soya and maize were observed in these acidic conditions. In the small intestinal simulations, transgenes in naked soya DNA were degraded at a similar rate to the material in the soya protein. After incubation for 30 min, the transgenes remaining in soya protein and naked DNA were 52 (sem 13.1) % and 34 (sem 17.5) %, respectively, and at the completion of the experiment (3 h) these values were 5 % and 3 %, respectively. In contrast to the soya transgene, the maize nucleic acid was hydrolysed in the small intestinal simulations in a biphasic process in which approximately 85 % was rapidly degraded, while the rest of the DNA was cleaved at a rate similar to that in the soya material. Guar gum and tannic acid, molecules that are known to inhibit digestive enzymes, did not influence the rate of transgene degradation in soya protein. In contrast guar gum reduced the rate of transgene degradation in naked soya DNA in the initial stages, but the polysaccharide did not influence the amount of nucleic acid remaining at the end of the experiment. Tannic acid reduced the rate of DNA degradation throughout the small bowel simulations, with 21 (sem 5.4) % and 2 (sem 1.8) % of the naked soya DNA remaining in the presence and absence of the phenolic acid, respectively. These data indicate that some transgenes

  5. Aboral changes in D-glucose transport by human intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, M K; Abumrad, N N; Arab, N; Ghishan, F K

    1986-01-01

    D-Glucose transport was investigated in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from human small intestine. Characteristics of D-glucose transport from the jejunum were compared with that in the mid and terminal ileum. Jejunal and mid-ileal D-glucose transport was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. The transient overshoot of jejunal D-glucose transport was significantly greater than corresponding values in mid-ileum. The terminal ileum did not exhibit Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, but did exhibit Na+-dependent taurocholate transport. Na+-glucose co-transport activity as measured by tracer-exchange experiments was greatest in the jejunum, and diminished aborally. We conclude that D-glucose transport in man is Na+-dependent and electrogenic in the proximal intestine and directly related to the activity of D-glucose-Na+ transporters present in the brush-border membranes. D-Glucose transport in the terminal ileum resembles colonic transport of D-glucose. PMID:3800877

  6. Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Covián, David; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Salazar, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The colon is inhabited by a dense population of microorganisms, the so-called “gut microbiota,” able to ferment carbohydrates and proteins that escape absorption in the small intestine during digestion. This microbiota produces a wide range of metabolites, including short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These compounds are absorbed in the large bowel and are defined as 1-6 carbon volatile fatty acids which can present straight or branched-chain conformation. Their production is influenced by the pattern of food intake and diet-mediated changes in the gut microbiota. SCFA have distinct physiological effects: they contribute to shaping the gut environment, influence the physiology of the colon, they can be used as energy sources by host cells and the intestinal microbiota and they also participate in different host-signaling mechanisms. We summarize the current knowledge about the production of SCFA, including bacterial cross-feedings interactions, and the biological properties of these metabolites with impact on the human health. PMID:26925050

  7. High-Throughput Quantitative Analysis of the Human Intestinal Microbiota with a Phylogenetic Microarray▿

    PubMed Central

    Paliy, Oleg; Kenche, Harshavardhan; Abernathy, Frank; Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Gut microbiota carry out key functions in health and participate in the pathogenesis of a growing number of diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a custom microarray that is able to identify hundreds of intestinal bacterial species. We used the Entrez nucleotide database to compile a data set of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences isolated from human intestinal and fecal samples. Identified sequences were clustered into separate phylospecies groups. Representative sequences from each phylospecies were used to develop a microbiota microarray based on the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. The designed microbiota array contains probes to 775 different bacterial phylospecies. In our validation experiments, the array correctly identified genomic DNA from all 15 bacterial species used. Microbiota array has a detection sensitivity of at least 1 pg of genomic DNA and can detect bacteria present at a 0.00025% level of overall sample. Using the developed microarray, fecal samples from two healthy children and two healthy adults were analyzed for bacterial presence. Between 227 and 232 species were detected in fecal samples from children, whereas 191 to 208 species were found in adult stools. The majority of identified phylospecies belonged to the classes Clostridia and Bacteroidetes. The microarray revealed putative differences between the gut microbiota of healthy children and adults: fecal samples from adults had more Clostridia and less Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria than those from children. A number of other putative differences were found at the genus level. PMID:19363078

  8. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes (‘cobblestones' versus ‘villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals ‘liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  9. Fermentation by the human large intestine microbial community in an in vitro semicontinuous culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, T L; Wolin, M J

    1981-01-01

    A semicontinuous culture of the microbial community of the human large intestine that was maintained over 81 days is described. The initial inoculum was feces, and about 200 ml of nutrient suspension was fed to 500 ml of fermentor contents once or twice daily. The nutrient suspension contained comminuted fibrous food, sodium deoxycholate, urea, acid-hydrolyzed casein, vitamins, and salts. The fermentation was monitored, and the major products were acetate, propionate, butyrate, methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The concentration of anaerobic bacteria was 2 X 10(9) per ml of culture contents and was 100 times that of fecal coliforms. When the nutrient suspension contained lettuce, celery, carrots, and unsweetened applesauce, the predominant nonsporeforming anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides species. When carrots and applesauce were omitted, the predominant nonsporeforming isolates were Fusobacterium species. On both diets, clostridia were isolated that resembled Clostridium clostridiiforme. The fermentation and bacteriological analyses indicated that the in vitro ecosystem appears to be a reasonable facsimile of the large intestine ecosystem. Images PMID:7027952

  10. Supersaturation and Precipitation of Posaconazole Upon Entry in the Upper Small Intestine in Humans.

    PubMed

    Hens, Bart; Brouwers, Joachim; Corsetti, Maura; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gastrointestinal dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation of the weakly basic drug posaconazole in humans, and to assess the impact of formulation pH and type on these processes. In a cross-over study, two posaconazole suspensions (40 mg dispersed in 240 mL water at pH 1.6 and pH 7.1, respectively) were intragastrically administered; subsequently, gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated. In parallel, blood samples were collected. Additionally, posaconazole was intragastrically administered as a solution (20 mg in 240 mL water, pH 1.6). When posaconazole was administered as an acidified suspension, supersaturated duodenal concentrations of posaconazole were observed for approximately 45 min. However, extensive intestinal precipitation was observed. Administration of the neutral suspension resulted in subsaturated concentrations with a mean duodenal AUC0-120 min and Cmax being approximately twofold lower than for the acidified suspension. The mean plasma AUC0-8 h of posaconazole was also twofold higher following administration of the acidified suspension. Similar to the acidified suspension, significant intestinal precipitation (up to 92%) was observed following intragastric administration of the posaconazole solution. This study demonstrated for the first time the gastrointestinal behavior of a weakly basic drug administered in different conditions, and its impact on systemic exposure.

  11. Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Covián, David; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Salazar, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The colon is inhabited by a dense population of microorganisms, the so-called "gut microbiota," able to ferment carbohydrates and proteins that escape absorption in the small intestine during digestion. This microbiota produces a wide range of metabolites, including short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These compounds are absorbed in the large bowel and are defined as 1-6 carbon volatile fatty acids which can present straight or branched-chain conformation. Their production is influenced by the pattern of food intake and diet-mediated changes in the gut microbiota. SCFA have distinct physiological effects: they contribute to shaping the gut environment, influence the physiology of the colon, they can be used as energy sources by host cells and the intestinal microbiota and they also participate in different host-signaling mechanisms. We summarize the current knowledge about the production of SCFA, including bacterial cross-feedings interactions, and the biological properties of these metabolites with impact on the human health. PMID:26925050

  12. A novel inhibitory effect of oxazol-5-one compounds on ROCKII signaling in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Deng, Jing-Ti; McDonald, Paul C.; Dedhar, Shoukat; Alshehri, Mana; Walsh, Michael P.; MacDonald, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity of (4Z)-2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidene)-1,3-oxazol-5-one (DI) for zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was previously described by in silico computational modeling, screening a large panel of kinases, and determining the inhibition efficacy. Our assessment of DI revealed another target, the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII). In vitro studies showed DI to be a competitive inhibitor of ROCKII (Ki, 132 nM with respect to ATP). This finding was supported by in silico molecular surface docking of DI with the ROCKII ATP-binding pocket. Time course analysis of myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation catalyzed by ROCKII in vitro revealed a significant decrease upon treatment with DI. ROCKII signaling was investigated in situ in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). ROCKII down-regulation using siRNA revealed several potential substrates involved in smooth muscle contraction (e.g., LC20, Par-4, MYPT1) and actin cytoskeletal dynamics (cofilin). The application of DI to CASMCs attenuated LC20, Par-4, LIMK, and cofilin phosphorylations. Notably, cofilin phosphorylation was not significantly decreased with a novel ZIPK selective inhibitor (HS-38). In addition, CASMCs treated with DI underwent cytoskeletal changes that were associated with diminution of cofilin phosphorylation. We conclude that DI is not selective for ZIPK and is a potent inhibitor of ROCKII. PMID:27573465

  13. A novel inhibitory effect of oxazol-5-one compounds on ROCKII signaling in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Deng, Jing-Ti; McDonald, Paul C; Dedhar, Shoukat; Alshehri, Mana; Walsh, Michael P; MacDonald, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity of (4Z)-2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidene)-1,3-oxazol-5-one (DI) for zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was previously described by in silico computational modeling, screening a large panel of kinases, and determining the inhibition efficacy. Our assessment of DI revealed another target, the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII). In vitro studies showed DI to be a competitive inhibitor of ROCKII (Ki, 132 nM with respect to ATP). This finding was supported by in silico molecular surface docking of DI with the ROCKII ATP-binding pocket. Time course analysis of myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation catalyzed by ROCKII in vitro revealed a significant decrease upon treatment with DI. ROCKII signaling was investigated in situ in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). ROCKII down-regulation using siRNA revealed several potential substrates involved in smooth muscle contraction (e.g., LC20, Par-4, MYPT1) and actin cytoskeletal dynamics (cofilin). The application of DI to CASMCs attenuated LC20, Par-4, LIMK, and cofilin phosphorylations. Notably, cofilin phosphorylation was not significantly decreased with a novel ZIPK selective inhibitor (HS-38). In addition, CASMCs treated with DI underwent cytoskeletal changes that were associated with diminution of cofilin phosphorylation. We conclude that DI is not selective for ZIPK and is a potent inhibitor of ROCKII. PMID:27573465

  14. Application of State-Space Smoothing to fMRI Data for Calculation of Lagged Transinformation between Human Brain Activations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Jobu

    2009-09-01

    Mutual information can be given a directional sense by introducing a time lag in one of the variables. In an author's previous study, to investigate the network dynamics of human brain regions, lagged transinformation (LTI) was introduced using time delayed mutual information. The LTI makes it possible to quantify the time course of dynamic information transfer between regions in the temporal domain. The LTI was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data involved in neural processing of the transformation and comparison from three-dimensional (3D) visual information to a two-dimensional (2D) location to calculate directed information flows between the activated brain regions. In the present study, for more precise estimation of LTI, Kalman filter smoothing was applied to the same fMRI data. Because the smoothing method exploits the full length of the time series data for the estimation, its application increases the precision. Large information flows were found from the bilateral prefrontal cortices to the parietal cortices. The results suggest that information of the 3D images stored as working memory was retrieved and transferred from the prefrontal cortices to the parietal cortices for comparison with information of the 2D images.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a human intestinal lactoferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y A; Shin, K; Lönnerdal, B

    2001-12-25

    Lactoferrin (Lf), a major iron-binding protein in human milk, has been suggested to have multiple biological roles such as facilitating iron absorption, modulating the immune system, embryonic development, and cell proliferation. Our previous binding studies suggested the presence of a specific receptor for Lf (LfR) in the small intestine of newborn infants, which may facilitate iron absorption. We here report the cloning and the functional expression of the human intestinal LfR and the evidence of its involvement in iron metabolism. The entire coding region of the LfR cDNA was cloned by PCR based on amino acid sequences of the purified native LfR (nLfR). The recombinant LfR (rLfR) was then expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system and purified by immobilized human Lf (hLf) affinity chromatography where binding of hLf to the rLfR was partially Ca(2+) dependent. The apparent molecular mass was 136 kDa under nonreducing conditions and 34 kDa under reducing conditions. 125I-hLf bound to the rLfR with an apparent K(d) of approximately 360 nM. These biochemical properties of the rLfR are similar to those of the nLfR. RT-PCR revealed that the gene was expressed at high levels in fetal small intestine and in adult heart and at lower levels in Caco-2 cells. PI-PLC treatment of Caco-2 cells indicated that the LfR is GPI anchored. In Caco-2 cells transfected with the LfR gene, 125I-hLf binding and 59Fe-hLf uptake were increased by 1.7 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to those in mock-transfected cells. Our findings demonstrate the presence of a unique receptor-mediated mechanism for nutrient uptake by the newborn.

  16. Fenoverine: smooth muscle synchronizer for the management of gastro-intestinal conditions. II. A trimebutine-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Camarri, E

    1986-01-01

    A double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in 40 in-patients with gastro-intestinal spasmodic syndromes to compare the effectiveness and tolerance of fenoverine and trimebutine. Patients were allocated at random to receive either 100 mg fenoverine or 150 mg trimebutine 3-times daily for 20 days and were then crossed over, without a wash-out period, to the alternative medication for a further 20 days. After the first dose, pain severity was monitored over 4 hours and changes in intensity compared between groups. During the two 20-day periods, the proportion of patients in complete or almost complete remission was monitored at 10-day intervals, and the pooled data similarly compared. At the end of the 40-day trial period, patients stated their preference for one or other treatment, and the relevant data were processed by sequential analysis. Subjective signs of adverse effects were monitored by questioning every 10 days, and haematology and haematochemistry before and after each phase of the study. The results showed that fenoverine produced significantly greater pain relief after a single dose in comparison with trimebutine over the 4 hours of observation. Similarly, it gave significantly more favourable clinical results after both the 10th and 20th day of treatment. Finally, according to the patients' preference, fenoverine was significantly preferred (p less than 0.05) in comparison with trimebutine. Neither treatment was associated with the onset of signs of possible adverse reactions, either subjective or objective. PMID:3516580

  17. An improved prediction of the human in vivo intestinal permeability and BCS class of drugs using the in vitro permeability ratio obtained for rat intestine using an Ussing chamber system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2013-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was developed to facilitate estimation of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drugs from human intestinal permeability and solubility. However, the measurement of human in vivo intestinal permeability, unlike that of solubility, is problematic and inefficient. Thus, rat in vitro intestinal permeability results obtained via the Ussing chamber technique are often used instead. However, these data could be unreliable due to difficulty in maintaining the viability of the dissected intestinal membrane in the Ussing chamber. Therefore, a more efficient method to obtain a reliable in vitro permeability is mandatory. Here, we propose a new approach by introducing a novel factor called the permeability ratio (PR). Basically, PR is a rat in vitro intestinal permeability obtained from the Ussing chamber, which is then corrected by the permeability of lucifer yellow, a paracellular permeability marker. To prove the validity of the method, 12 model drugs representing different BCS classes were tested, and the correlation with human in vivo intestinal permeability was high. More importantly, the new method perfectly classified all 12 model drugs. The results indicate that PR is a reliable factor with high correlation to human in vivo intestinal permeability, which can further be used to accurately predict the BCS classification.

  18. Isolation and partial cloning of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel protein isoforms from human myometrial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lynn, S; Morgan, J M; Lamb, H K; Meissner, G; Gillespie, J I

    1995-09-18

    Partial cDNAs of the ryanodine receptor were cloned using PCR analysis from reverse transcribed total and mRNA, extracted from freshly isolated pregnant, non-pregnant, and cultured human myometrial smooth muscle. The identity of these clones was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the fragments and indicate the expression of both the skeletal and brain ryanodine receptor isoforms in these preparations. In freshly isolated non-pregnant myometrial tissue, membrane fractions displaying specific [3H]ryanodine binding activities were isolated using density gradient centrifugation. SDS-PAGE of the sucrose gradient fractions indicated the specific comigration of a polypeptide with a molecular mass of approximately 544 kDa with the ryanodine binding activity.

  19. Human intestinal alkaline phosphatase-binding IgG in patients with severe bacterial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, M; Kolbus, N; Meihorst, D; Köhn, A; Beuche, W; Felgenhauer, K

    1994-01-01

    Patterns of alkaline phosphatase (AP)-binding proteins were observed in the alkaline pH range of 6.5-9.5 upon isoelectric focusing and blotting of serum from patients with inflammatory diseases. After isolation using affinity chromatography on protein A or immunoaffinity chromatography on AP coupled to cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose, the AP-binding protein was identified as IgG on Western blots and in ELISA using human IgG-specific antibodies. It was shown that this IgG binds to AP from both calf (bovine) and human intestine. However, it binds neither to the human liver-bone-kidney (LBK) isoform nor to bacterial AP. Moderate reaction was observed with human placental AP. Comparing patients with various diagnoses (n = 284), AP-binding antibodies were mainly found in severe bacterial infections. They were not detected in serum from healthy blood donors (n = 300). The presence of AP-binding IgG was independent of the infected organ and the bacterial species causing infection. This antibody may be useful for discriminating bacterial from viral infection and for indicating severe bacterial inflammation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8287614

  20. Ultrastructural study of adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    The adhesion to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains H10407, B2C, and H10407P, expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae, respectively, was examined by electron microscopy. CFA and type 1 fimbriae were visualized by negative staining in thin sections after en bloc staining with ruthenium red and by immune labeling with antisera raised against purified fimbriae. By negative and ruthenium red staining, CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae were indistinguishable and appeared as approximately 7-nm-diameter hollow cylindrical structures up to 1.5 micron in length; strain B2C also produced 2- to 3-nm-diameter flexible fibrillar fimbriae. Bacteria producing CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae adhered to and agglutinated human, bovine, and guinea pig erythrocytes, respectively; CFA/I and CFA/II also mediated attachment of bacteria to the brush border of isolated human duodenal enterocytes. Electron microscopy of agglutinated erythrocytes and enterocytes with adherent bacteria showed, in each case, that bacterial adhesion involved the formation of many interactions between the tips of fimbriae and receptors on the erythrocyte or enterocyte brush border membrane. Immune labeling allowed different fimbrial antigens mediating bacterial attachment to human enterocytes to be identified.

  1. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  2. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-07-27

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone.

  4. Tungstate-Targeting of BKαβ1 Channels Tunes ERK Phosphorylation and Cell Proliferation in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mariño, Ana Isabel; Cidad, Pilar; Zafra, Delia; Nocito, Laura; Domínguez, Jorge; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Köhler, Ralf; López-López, José R.; Pérez-García, María Teresa; Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Guinovart, Joan J.; Fernández-Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the substantial knowledge on the antidiabetic, antiobesity and antihypertensive actions of tungstate, information on its primary target/s is scarce. Tungstate activates both the ERK1/2 pathway and the vascular voltage- and Ca2+-dependent large-conductance BKαβ1 potassium channel, which modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and function, respectively. Here, we have assessed the possible involvement of BKαβ1 channels in the tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation and its relevance for VSMC proliferation. Western blot analysis in HEK cell lines showed that expression of vascular BKαβ1 channels potentiates the tungstate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gi/o protein-dependent manner. Tungstate activated BKαβ1 channels upstream of G proteins as channel activation was not altered by the inhibition of G proteins with GDPβS or pertussis toxin. Moreover, analysis of Gi/o protein activation measuring the FRET among heterologously expressed Gi protein subunits suggested that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes G protein activation. Single channel recordings on VSMCs from wild-type and β1-knockout mice indicated that the presence of the regulatory β1 subunit was essential for the tungstate-mediated activation of BK channels in VSMCs. Moreover, the specific BK channel blocker iberiotoxin lowered tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation by 55% and partially reverted (by 51%) the tungstate-produced reduction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation in human VSMCs. Our observations indicate that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes activation of PTX-sensitive Gi proteins to enhance the tungstate-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle. PMID:25659150

  5. Intracellular pH changes in human aortic smooth muscle cells in response to fluid shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; McIntire, L. V.

    1997-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell (SMC) layers of human arteries may be exposed to blood flow after endothelium denudation, for example, following balloon angioplasty treatment. These SMCs are also constantly subjected to pressure driven transmural fluid flow. Flow-induced shear stress can alter SMC growth and metabolism. Signal transduction mechanisms involved in these flow effects on SMCs are still poorly understood. In this work, the hypothesis that shear stress alters the intracellular pH (pHi) of SMC is examined. When exposed to venous and arterial levels of shear stress, human aortic smooth muscle cells (hASMC) undergo alkalinization. The alkalinization plateau persisted even after 20 min of cell exposure to flow. Addition of amiloride (10 micromoles) or its 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) analog (EIPA, 10 micromoles), both Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitors, attenuated intracellular alkalinization, suggesting the involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger in this response. The same concentrations of these inhibitors did not show an effect on pHi of hASMCs in static culture. 4-Acetamido-4'-isothio-cyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS, 1 mM), a Cl-/HCO3- exchange inhibitor, affected the pHi of hASMCs both in static and flow conditions. Our results suggest that flow may perturb the Na+/H+ exchanger leading to an alkalinization of hASMCs, a different response from the flow-induced acidification seen with endothelial cells at the same levels of shear stress. Understanding the flow-induced signal transduction pathways in the vascular cells is of great importance in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts. In the case of SMCs, the involvement of pHi changes in nitric oxide production and proliferation regulation highlights further the significance of such studies.

  6. Activation of intestinal human pregnane X receptor protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Qu, Aijuan; Tanaka, Naoki; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    The role of intestinal human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in colon cancer was determined through investigation of the chemopreventive role of rifaximin, a specific agonist of intestinal human PXR, toward azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer. Rifaximin treatment significantly decreased the number of colon tumors induced by AOM/DSS treatment in PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. Additionally, rifaximin treatment markedly increased the survival rate of PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. These data indicated a human PXR-dependent therapeutic chemoprevention of rifaximin toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer. Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated inflammatory signaling was upregulated in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and inhibited by rifaximin in PXR-humanized mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also modulated by rifaximin treatment in the AOM/DSS model. In vitro cell-based assays further revealed that rifaximin regulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle in a human PXR-dependent manner. These results suggested that specific activation of intestinal human PXR exhibited a chemopreventive role toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer by mediating anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, and proapoptotic events. PMID:25277138

  7. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals.

  8. SHP-2 Mediates Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Eunice A.; Kasper, Susan; Anneken, Emily M.; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, induces human gastroenteritis through infection of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. During the initial stage of infection, C. parvum is reported to engage host mechanisms at the host cell-parasite interface to form a parasitophorous vacuole. We determined that upon infection, the larger molecular weight proteins in human small intestinal epithelial host cells (FHs 74 Int) appeared to globally undergo tyrosine dephosphorylation. In parallel, expression of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) increased in a time-dependent manner. SHP-2 co-localized with the C. parvum sporozoite and this interaction increased the rate of C. parvum infectivity through SH2-mediated SHP-2 activity. Furthermore, we show that one potential target that SHP-2 acts upon is the focal adhesion protein, paxillin, which undergoes moderate dephosphorylation following infection, with inhibition of SHP-2 rescuing paxillin phosphorylation. Importantly, treatment with an inhibitor to SHP-2 and with an inhibitor to paxillin and Src family kinases, effectively decreased the multiplicity of C. parvum infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our study reveals an important role for SHP-2 in the pathogenesis of C. parvum. Furthermore, while host proteins can be recruited to participate in the development of the electron dense band at the host cell-parasite interface, our study implies for the first time that SHP-2 appears to be recruited by the C. parvum sporozoite to regulate infectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHP-2 and its down-stream target paxillin could serve as targets for intervention. PMID:26556238

  9. SHP-2 Mediates Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Eunice A; Kasper, Susan; Anneken, Emily M; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2015-01-01

    The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, induces human gastroenteritis through infection of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. During the initial stage of infection, C. parvum is reported to engage host mechanisms at the host cell-parasite interface to form a parasitophorous vacuole. We determined that upon infection, the larger molecular weight proteins in human small intestinal epithelial host cells (FHs 74 Int) appeared to globally undergo tyrosine dephosphorylation. In parallel, expression of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) increased in a time-dependent manner. SHP-2 co-localized with the C. parvum sporozoite and this interaction increased the rate of C. parvum infectivity through SH2-mediated SHP-2 activity. Furthermore, we show that one potential target that SHP-2 acts upon is the focal adhesion protein, paxillin, which undergoes moderate dephosphorylation following infection, with inhibition of SHP-2 rescuing paxillin phosphorylation. Importantly, treatment with an inhibitor to SHP-2 and with an inhibitor to paxillin and Src family kinases, effectively decreased the multiplicity of C. parvum infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our study reveals an important role for SHP-2 in the pathogenesis of C. parvum. Furthermore, while host proteins can be recruited to participate in the development of the electron dense band at the host cell-parasite interface, our study implies for the first time that SHP-2 appears to be recruited by the C. parvum sporozoite to regulate infectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHP-2 and its down-stream target paxillin could serve as targets for intervention. PMID:26556238

  10. Differential expression of laminin isoforms and alpha 6-beta 4 integrin subunits in the developing human and mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Simon-Assmann, P; Duclos, B; Orian-Rousseau, V; Arnold, C; Mathelin, C; Engvall, E; Kedinger, M

    1994-09-01

    The intestinal tissue is characterized by important morphogenetic movements during development as well as by a continuous dynamic crypt to villus epithelial cell migration leading to differentiation of specialized cells. In this study, we have examined the spatio-temporal distribution of laminin A and M chains as well as of alpha 6 and beta 4 integrin subunits in adult and developing human and mouse intestine by indirect immunofluorescence. Selective expression of the constituent polypeptides of laminin isoforms (A and M chains) was demonstrated. In the mature human intestine, A and M chains were found to be complementary, the M chain being restricted to the base of crypts and the A chain lining the villus basement membrane. In the developing human intestine, M chain expression was delayed as compared to that of A chain; as soon as the M chain was visualized, it exhibited the typical localization in the crypt basement membrane. A somewhat different situation was found in the adult mouse intestine, since both M and A chains were found in the crypts. During mouse intestinal development the delayed expression of the M chain as compared to that of the A chain was also obvious. The absence of M chain expression in mutant dy mouse did not impair intestinal morphogenesis nor cell differentiation. The expression of alpha 6 and beta 4 subunits was not coordinated. In both species the alpha 6 expression preceded that of beta 4. Furthermore, while beta 4 staining in adult mouse intestine was detected at the basal surface of all cells lining the crypt-villus, that of alpha 6 was mainly confined to the crypt cell compartment. An overall similarity of location between alpha 6 integrin subunit and laminin A chain at the epithelial/stromal interface was noted. These data indicate that the spatial and temporal distribution of laminin variants in the developing intestine may be characteristic for each species and that interactions of laminin variants with particular receptors may be

  11. Listeria monocytogenes Inhibits Serotonin Transporter in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, E; Pradilla, A; Chueca, B; Pagán, R; Layunta, E; Alcalde, A I; Mesonero, J E

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a serious infection. Intestinal microorganisms have been demonstrated to contribute to intestinal physiology not only through immunological responses but also by modulating the intestinal serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium and regulates the whole intestinal physiology. The serotonin transporter (SERT), located in enterocytes, controls intestinal 5-HT availability and therefore serotonin's effects. Infections caused by L. monocytogenes are well described as being due to the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells; however, the effect of L. monocytogenes on the intestinal epithelium remains unknown. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study the effect of L. monocytogenes on SERT. Caco2/TC7 cell line was used as an enterocyte-like in vitro model, and SERT functional and molecular expression assays were performed. Our results demonstrate that living L. monocytogenes inhibits serotonin uptake by reducing SERT expression at the brush border membrane. However, neither inactivated L. monocytogenes nor soluble metabolites were able to affect SERT. The results also demonstrate that L. monocytogenes yields TLR2 and TLR10 transcriptional changes in intestinal epithelial cells and suggest that TLR10 is potentially involved in the inhibitory effect observed on SERT. Therefore, L. monocytogenes, through TLR10-mediated SERT inhibition, may induce increased intestinal serotonin availability and potentially contributing to intestinal physiological changes and the initiation of the inflammatory response.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes Inhibits Serotonin Transporter in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, E; Pradilla, A; Chueca, B; Pagán, R; Layunta, E; Alcalde, A I; Mesonero, J E

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a serious infection. Intestinal microorganisms have been demonstrated to contribute to intestinal physiology not only through immunological responses but also by modulating the intestinal serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium and regulates the whole intestinal physiology. The serotonin transporter (SERT), located in enterocytes, controls intestinal 5-HT availability and therefore serotonin's effects. Infections caused by L. monocytogenes are well described as being due to the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells; however, the effect of L. monocytogenes on the intestinal epithelium remains unknown. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study the effect of L. monocytogenes on SERT. Caco2/TC7 cell line was used as an enterocyte-like in vitro model, and SERT functional and molecular expression assays were performed. Our results demonstrate that living L. monocytogenes inhibits serotonin uptake by reducing SERT expression at the brush border membrane. However, neither inactivated L. monocytogenes nor soluble metabolites were able to affect SERT. The results also demonstrate that L. monocytogenes yields TLR2 and TLR10 transcriptional changes in intestinal epithelial cells and suggest that TLR10 is potentially involved in the inhibitory effect observed on SERT. Therefore, L. monocytogenes, through TLR10-mediated SERT inhibition, may induce increased intestinal serotonin availability and potentially contributing to intestinal physiological changes and the initiation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27488594

  13. Responses of cultured smooth muscle cells from human nonatherosclerotic arteries and primary stenosing lesions after photoradiation: Implications for photodynamic therapy of vascular stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Dartsch, P.C.; Ischinger, T.; Betz, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Cultured smooth muscle cells from human nonatherosclerotic arteries and from primary stenosing lesions were labeled with dihematoporphyrinester and ether, a photosensitizing probe used mainly for the detection and photodynamic therapy of tumors. After labeling for 24 h, cells were irradiated with ultraviolet light (wavelength 365 nm, energy densities ranging from 30 to 1,200 mJ/cm{sup 2}). Twenty-four hours after photoradiation, 80% of smooth muscle cells from nonatherosclerotic arteries and only 20% of smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic plaques were viable and still adherent. Moreover, dynamic cell and cytoskeletal alterations in response to irradiation are described. The differential sensitivity of smooth muscle cells from nonatherosclerotic arteries and from atherosclerotic plaques provides evidence that a photodynamic treatment might be a valuable therapeutic approach to vascular stenosis.

  14. Development of a membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, R F; Kim, S-J; Robertson, L H; Cerniglia, C E

    2002-10-01

    A membrane-array method was developed for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples without using the expensive microarray-arrayer and laser-scanner. The 16S rDNA sequences of 20 predominant human intestinal bacterial species were used to design oligonucleotide probes. Three 40-mer oligonucleotides specific for each bacterial species (total 60 probes) were synthesized and applied to nitrocellulose membranes. Digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled 16S rDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from human fecal samples or pure cultured bacteria using two universal primers, and were hybridized to the membrane-array. Hybridization signals were read by NBT/BCIP color development. The 20 intestinal bacterial species tested were Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus, B. fragilis, B. distasonis, Clostridium clostridiiforme, C. leptum, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, Peptostreptococcus productus, Ruminococcus obeum, R. bromii, R. callidus, R. albus, Bifidobacterium longum, B. adolescentis, B. infantis, Eubacterium biforme, E. aerofaciens, Lactobacillus acidophilus,Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium. The two universal primers were able to amplify full size 16S rDNA from all of the 20 bacterial species tested. The hybridization results indicated that the membrane-array method is a reliable technique for the detection of predominant human intestinal bacteria in the fecal samples. The result was also confirmed by using specific PCR methods for these bacteria.

  15. Design and evaluation of oligonucleotide-microarray method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong-Fu; Beggs, Marjorie L; Robertson, Latriana H; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2002-08-01

    An oligonucleotide-microarray method was developed for the detection of intestinal bacteria in fecal samples collected from human subjects. The 16S rDNA sequences of 20 predominant human intestinal bacterial species were used to design oligonucleotide probes. Three 40-mer oligonucleotides specific for each bacterial species (total 60 probes) were synthesized and applied to glass slides. Cyanine5 (CY5)-labeled 16S rDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from human fecal samples or bacterial DNA using two universal primers and were hybridized to the oligo-microarray. The 20 intestinal bacterial species tested were Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides distasonis, Clostridium clostridiiforme, Clostridium leptum, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, Peptostreptococcus productus, Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus bromii, Ruminococcus callidus, Ruminococcus albus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium infantis, Eubacterium biforme, Eubacterium aerofaciens, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium. The two universal primers were able to amplify full size 16S rDNA from all of the 20 bacterial species tested. The hybridization results indicated that the oligo-microarray method developed in this study is a reliable method for the detection of predominant human intestinal bacteria in the fecal samples.

  16. In vitro elastogenesis: instructing human vascular smooth muscle cells to generate an elastic fiber-containing extracellular matrix scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Svenja; Shena, Nian; Ringuette, Léa-Jeanne; Hansmann, Jan; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Brucker, Sara Y; Davis, Elaine C; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2015-06-01

    Elastic fibers are essential for the proper function of organs including cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves and blood vessels. Although (tropo)elastin production in a tissue-engineered construct has previously been described, the assembly to functional elastic fibers in vitro using human cells has been highly challenging. In the present study, we seeded primary isolated human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) onto 3D electrospun scaffolds and exposed them to defined laminar shear stress using a customized bioreactor system. Increased elastin expression followed by elastin deposition onto the electrospun scaffolds, as well as on newly formed fibers, was observed after six days. Most interestingly, we identified the successful deposition of elastogenesis-associated proteins, including fibrillin-1 and -2, fibulin-4 and -5, fibronectin, elastin microfibril interface located protein 1 (EMILIN-1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) within our engineered constructs. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a developing extracellular matrix (ECM) similar to native human fetal tissue, which is composed of collagens, microfibrils and elastin. To conclude, the combination of a novel dynamic flow bioreactor and an electrospun hybrid polymer scaffold allowed the production and assembly of an elastic fiber-containing ECM. PMID:25784676

  17. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone

  18. LC/MS/MS data analysis of the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome fingerprint in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Craig C.; Quilici, David R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    The data described in this article is the subject of an article in the American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, titled “The Human Uterine Smooth Muscle S-nitrosoproteome Fingerprint in Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor” (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00198.2013) (Ulrich et al., 2013) [1]. The data described is a large scale mass spectrometry data set that defines the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome differences among laboring, non-laboring, preterm laboring tissue after treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione. PMID:26322325

  19. Characterization of the inhabitancy of mouse intestinal bacteria (MIB) in rodents and humans by real-time PCR with group-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Kibe, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Yokota, Hiroshi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Mouse intestinal bacteria (MIB) is a new operational taxonomic unit (OTU) belonging to the Bacteroides subgroup in the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum recently found in the intestine of mice, rats and humans. However, their characters are still unknown since they have not yet been isolated by culture. To understand their habitat characteristics in intestinal tracts, the quantification assays of MIB were established using MIB group-specific primers. The MIB population in the intestine was evaluated as a percentage of the number of 16S rRNA gene copy of MIB. A real-time PCR assay using group specific primers showed the fluctuation of MIB inhabitancy and revealed that the MIB population in the small intestine of mice was significantly lower than the large intestinal contents. Moreover, MIB was found in human feces though the number was lower than in murine. This assay using group-specific primers revealed new information about host-preference of MIB. PMID:17446674

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA Glycoprotein Adheres to Human Intestine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindenthal, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA glycoprotein adheres to human intestine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, C; Elsinghorst, E A

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  2. Engineering vascular tissue with functional smooth muscle cells derived from human iPS cells and nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongyu; Hu, Jiang; Jiao, Jiao; Liu, Zhongning; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Chao; Chang, Lung-Ji; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X; Yang, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in the replacement of diseased vascular tissues. However, it remains a great challenge to obtain a sufficient number of functional smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in a clinical setting to construct patient-specific TEBVs. In addition, it is critical to develop a scaffold to accommodate these cells and retain their functional phenotype for the regeneration of TEBVs. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established from primary human aortic fibroblasts, and characterized with the pluripotency markers expression and cells' capabilities to differentiate into all three germ layer cells. A highly efficient method was then developed to induce these human iPSCs into proliferative SMCs. After multiple times of expansion, the expanded SMCs retained the potential to be induced into the functional contractile phenotype of mature SMCs, which was characterized by the contractile response to carbachol treatment, up-regulation of specific collagen genes under transforming growth factor β1 treatment, and up-regulation of specific matrix metalloproteinase genes under cytokine stimulation. We also developed an advanced macroporous and nanofibrous (NF) poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with suitable pore size and interpore connectivity to seed these human iPSC-derived SMCs and maintain their differentiated phenotype. Subcutaneous implantation of the SMC-scaffold construct in nude mice demonstrated vascular tissue formation, with robust collagenous matrix deposition inside the scaffold and the maintenance of differentiated SMC phenotype. Taken together, this study established an exciting approach towards the construction of patient-specific TEBVs. We established patient-specific human iPSCs, derived proliferative SMCs for expansion, turned on their mature contractile SMC phenotype, and developed an advanced scaffold for these cells to regenerate vascular tissue in vivo.

  3. On the nature of the oscillations of the membrane potential (slow waves) produced by acetylcholine or carbachol in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B

    1971-07-01

    1. Intracellular recording was made with glass micro-electrodes from cells of the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum in isotonic and in hypertonic solution.2. In isotonic solution spontaneous bursts of electrical activity occurred; these consisted of a slow potential component which carried a burst of spike action potentials. Acetylcholine increased the size (and the frequency) of the slow potential component. This had the effect of first reducing and then abolishing the spike potentials; continuous slow wave activity was thus produced. Slow waves were about 1 sec in duration and up to 50 mV in size in isotonic solution.3. In hypertonic solution the membrane potential was stable. There were no spontaneous spikes and no slow potentials. However, spikes, but not slow potentials, were elicited by depolarizing current. Carbachol (or acetylcholine) reduced the membrane potential and initiated spikes and oscillations of the membrane potential (slow waves). Slow waves were 2-5 sec in duration and 10-40 mV in size in hypertonic solution.4. The response to carbachol in hypertonic solution was unaffected by surgical denervation of the tissue, by tetrodotoxin, or by ganglion blocking agents, indicating that muscarinic stimulants produced their effects by acting directly on the smooth muscle cell.5. In hypertonic solution slow waves occurred only in the presence of a muscarinic stimulant and could not be elicited with depolarizing current (unless carbachol was present) nor by increasing the external potassium concentration.6. In hypertonic solution slow waves were abolished by hyperpolarizing the membrane and their rate of rise was proportional to the level of the membrane potential from which they arose. The membrane resistance was reduced at the peak of the slow wave. Slow waves were rapidly abolished by sodium-deficient solutions but spikes were not.7. It is suggested that slow waves represent an inward current through a slow, sodium-sensitive and voltage

  4. Advancing the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A for the treatment of intestinal disorders in humans.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Bikash; Ge, Yong; Colliou, Natacha; Zadeh, Mojgan; Weiner, Chelsea; Mila, Ashley; Owen, Jennifer L; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal immunity is subject to complex and fine-tuned regulation dictated by interactions of the resident microbial community and their gene products with host innate cells. Deterioration of this delicate process may result in devastating autoinflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which primarily comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Efficacious interventions to regulate proinflammatory signals, which play critical roles in IBD, require further scientific investigation. We recently demonstrated that rebalancing intestinal immunity via the surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM potentially represents a feasible therapeutic approach to restore intestinal homeostasis. To expand on these findings, we established a new method of purifying bacterial SlpA, a new SlpA-specific monoclonal antibody, and found no SlpA-associated toxicity in mice. Thus, these data may assist in our efforts to determine the immune regulatory efficacy of SlpA in humans.

  5. Biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene to 1-aminopyrene and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene by the human intestinal microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is an environmental pollutant, a potent bacterial and mammalian mutagen, and a carcinogen. The metabolism of 1-NP by the human intestinal microbiota was studied using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the colonic lumen. (/sup 3/H)-1-Nitropyrene was metabolized by the intestinal microbiota to 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene (FAP) as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Twenty-four hours after the addition of (/sup 3/H)-1-NP, the formylated compound and 1-AP accounted for 20 and 80% of the total metabolism respectively. This percentage increased to 66% for FAP after 24 h following 10 d of chronic exposure to unlabeled 1-NP, suggesting metabolic adaptation to 1-NP by the microbiota. Both 1-AP and FAP have been shown to be nonmutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA98, which indicates that the intestinal microflora may potentially detoxify 1-NP.

  6. High glucose induces cell death of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells through the formation of hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Lafuente, Nuria; Matesanz, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Llergo, José L; Vallejo, Susana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2001-01-01

    Alterations of the vessel structure, which is mainly determined by smooth muscle cells through cell growth and/or cell death mechanisms, are characteristic of diabetes complications. We analysed the influence of high glucose (22 mM) on cultured human aortic smooth muscle cell growth and death, as hyperglycaemia is considered one of the main factors involved in diabetic vasculopathy. Growth curves were performed over 96 h in medium containing 0.5% foetal calf serum. Cell number increased by 2–4 fold over the culture period in the presence of 5.5 mM (low) glucose, while a 20% reduction in final cell number was observed with high glucose. Under serum-free conditions, cell number remained constant in low glucose cultures, but a 40% decrease was observed in high glucose cultures, suggesting that high glucose may induce increased cell death rather than reduced proliferation. Reduced final cell number induced by high glucose was also observed after stimulation with 5 or 10% foetal calf serum. The possible participation of oxidative stress was investigated by co-incubating high glucose with different reactive oxygen species scavengers. Only catalase reversed the effect of high glucose. Intracellular H2O2 content, visualized with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein and quantified by flow cytometry, was increased after high glucose treatment. To investigate the cell death mechanism induced by high glucose, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified. No differences were observed regarding the apoptotic index between low and high glucose cultures, but lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in high glucose cultures. In conclusion, high glucose promotes necrotic cell death through H2O2 formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:11487505

  7. Biomechanical strain induces elastin and collagen production in human pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wanjare, Maureen; Agarwal, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels are subjected to numerous biomechanical forces that work harmoniously but, when unbalanced because of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) dysfunction, can trigger a wide range of ailments such as cerebrovascular, peripheral artery, and coronary artery diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as useful therapeutic tools that may help provide insight on the effect that such biomechanical stimuli have on vSMC function and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of biomechanical strain on vSMCs derived from hPSCs. The effects of two types of tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives at different stages of differentiation were examined. The derivatives included smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs), mature SMLCs, and contractile vSMCs. All vSMC derivatives aligned perpendicularly to the direction of cyclic uniaxial strain. Serum deprivation and short-term uniaxial strain had a synergistic effect in enhancing collagen type I, fibronectin, and elastin gene expression. Furthermore, long-term uniaxial strain deterred collagen type III gene expression, whereas long-term circumferential strain upregulated both collagen type III and elastin gene expression. Finally, long-term uniaxial strain downregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in more mature vSMC derivatives while upregulating elastin in less mature vSMC derivatives. Overall, our findings suggest that in vitro application of both cyclic uniaxial and circumferential tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives induces cell alignment and affects ECM gene expression. Therefore, mechanical stimulation of hPSC-vSMC derivatives using tensile strain may be important in modulating the phenotype and thus the function of vSMCs in tissue-engineered vessels. PMID:26108668

  8. Biomechanical strain induces elastin and collagen production in human pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wanjare, Maureen; Agarwal, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels are subjected to numerous biomechanical forces that work harmoniously but, when unbalanced because of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) dysfunction, can trigger a wide range of ailments such as cerebrovascular, peripheral artery, and coronary artery diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as useful therapeutic tools that may help provide insight on the effect that such biomechanical stimuli have on vSMC function and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of biomechanical strain on vSMCs derived from hPSCs. The effects of two types of tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives at different stages of differentiation were examined. The derivatives included smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs), mature SMLCs, and contractile vSMCs. All vSMC derivatives aligned perpendicularly to the direction of cyclic uniaxial strain. Serum deprivation and short-term uniaxial strain had a synergistic effect in enhancing collagen type I, fibronectin, and elastin gene expression. Furthermore, long-term uniaxial strain deterred collagen type III gene expression, whereas long-term circumferential strain upregulated both collagen type III and elastin gene expression. Finally, long-term uniaxial strain downregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in more mature vSMC derivatives while upregulating elastin in less mature vSMC derivatives. Overall, our findings suggest that in vitro application of both cyclic uniaxial and circumferential tensile strain on hPSC-vSMC derivatives induces cell alignment and affects ECM gene expression. Therefore, mechanical stimulation of hPSC-vSMC derivatives using tensile strain may be important in modulating the phenotype and thus the function of vSMCs in tissue-engineered vessels. PMID:26108668

  9. An ex-vivo human intestinal model to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Devendra; Ave, Patrick; Kerneis, Sophie; Frileux, Pascal; Boché, Olivier; Baglin, Anne Catherine; Dubost, Geneviève; Leguern, Anne-Sophie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Guillén, Nancy; Labruyère, Elisabeth

    2009-11-17

    Amoebiasis (a human intestinal infection affecting 50 million people every year) is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying human colon invasion by E. histolytica, we have set up an ex vivo human colon model to study the early steps in amoebiasis. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses, we have established that E. histolytica caused the removal of the protective mucus coat during the first two hours of incubation, detached the enterocytes, and then penetrated into the lamina propria by following the crypts of Lieberkühn. Significant cell lysis (determined by the release of lactodehydrogenase) and inflammation (marked by the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor) were detected after four hours of incubation. Entamoeba dispar (a closely related non-pathogenic amoeba that also colonizes the human colon) was unable to invade colonic mucosa, lyse cells or induce an inflammatory response. We also examined the behaviour of trophozoites in which genes coding for known virulent factors (such as amoebapores, the Gal/GalNAc lectin and the cysteine protease 5 (CP-A5), which have major roles in cell death, adhesion (to target cells or mucus) and mucus degradation, respectively) were silenced, together with the corresponding tissue responses. Our data revealed that the signalling via the heavy chain Hgl2 or via the light chain Lgl1 of the Gal/GalNAc lectin is not essential to penetrate the human colonic mucosa. In addition, our study demonstrates that E. histolytica silenced for CP-A5 does not penetrate the colonic lamina propria and does not induce the host's pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  10. An ex-vivo human intestinal model to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Devendra; Ave, Patrick; Kerneis, Sophie; Frileux, Pascal; Boché, Olivier; Baglin, Anne Catherine; Dubost, Geneviève; Leguern, Anne-Sophie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Guillén, Nancy; Labruyère, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amoebiasis (a human intestinal infection affecting 50 million people every year) is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying human colon invasion by E. histolytica, we have set up an ex vivo human colon model to study the early steps in amoebiasis. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses, we have established that E. histolytica caused the removal of the protective mucus coat during the first two hours of incubation, detached the enterocytes, and then penetrated into the lamina propria by following the crypts of Lieberkühn. Significant cell lysis (determined by the release of lactodehydrogenase) and inflammation (marked by the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor) were detected after four hours of incubation. Entamoeba dispar (a closely related non-pathogenic amoeba that also colonizes the human colon) was unable to invade colonic mucosa, lyse cells or induce an inflammatory response. We also examined the behaviour of trophozoites in which genes coding for known virulent factors (such as amoebapores, the Gal/GalNAc lectin and the cysteine protease 5 (CP-A5), which have major roles in cell death, adhesion (to target cells or mucus) and mucus degradation, respectively) were silenced, together with the corresponding tissue responses. Our data revealed that the signalling via the heavy chain Hgl2 or via the light chain Lgl1 of the Gal/GalNAc lectin is not essential to penetrate the human colonic mucosa. In addition, our study demonstrates that E. histolytica silenced for CP-A5 does not penetrate the colonic lamina propria and does not induce the host's pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:19936071

  11. Induction of aggregation of Raji human B-lymphoblastic cells by vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Robichon, A; Sreedharan, S P; Yang, J; Shames, R S; Gronroos, E C; Cheng, P P; Goetzl, E J

    1993-01-01

    Subsets of neurons in the thymic cortex, Peyer's patches and lymphoid tissues of the respiratory system deliver vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) at nanomolar concentrations. The possible effects of VIP on B-cell adhesiveness in these tissues were examined in studies of the homotypic aggregation (HA) of human B-lymphoblastoid cells of the Raji line, which express a mean of 27,950 VIP receptors/cell with a mean Kd of 0.8 nM. Mean HA, assessed microscopically, attained a maximum of 54% after 8 hr with 0.1 microgram/ml of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (P < 0.01) and 31% after 24 hr with 10(-8) M VIP (P < 0.05), as contrasted with 13% and 20% at the respective times in medium alone, and both stimuli also increased the mean size of aggregates. The presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-1724 permitted 10(-9) M VIP, which had no effect alone, to raise the mean cyclic AMP content of Raji cells by more than 10-fold and concurrently to elevate mean HA from 55% in medium alone at 48 hr to 70% and from 55% at 72 hr to 68% (P < 0.05 for both). Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function-associated (LFA-1) adhesive protein and to intercellular adherence molecule-1 (ICAM-1) suppressed significantly the HA of Raji cells induced by VIP and PMA. The effects of VIP on compartmental immunity in the lungs and intestines thus may be mediated in part by increases in lymphocyte adhesiveness, which could contribute to the regional accumulation of specifically immunocompetent cells. Images Figure 2 PMID:8104888

  12. Toxic mechanisms induced by fumonisin b1 mycotoxin on human intestinal cell line.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; D'Antuono, Isabella; Cardinali, Angela; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Debellis, Lucantonio; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the main target of exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), common natural contaminant in food. Previous studies reported that proliferating cells are more sensitive than confluent cells to the toxic effect of FB1. This study aims to investigate, by dose- and time-dependent experiments on human colon proliferating intestinal cell line (HT-29), the modifications induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 69 μM. The choice of highest FB1 concentration considered the low toxicity previously reported on intestinal cell lines, whereas the lowest one corresponded to the lower FBs levels permitted by European Commission Regulation. Different functional parameters were tested such as cell proliferation, oxidative status, immunomodulatory effect and changes in membrane microviscosity. In addition FB1-FITC localization in this cell line was assessed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lipid peroxidation induction was the main and early (12 h) effect induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 69 μM, followed by inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 8.6 μM), the immunomodulatory effect (up to 17.2 μM), by assessing IL-8 secretion, and increase in membrane microviscosity (up to 34.5 μM). The toxic effects observed in different functional parameters were not dose-dependent and could be the consequence of the FB1 intracytoplasmatic localization as confirmed by confocal microscopy results. The different timescales and concentrations active of different functional parameters could suggest different cellular targets of FB1. PMID:24549592

  13. Nutrient modulation of intestinal gas dynamics in healthy humans: dependence on caloric content and meal consistency.

    PubMed

    Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Coleski, Radoslav; Owyang, Chung; Hasler, William L

    2006-09-01

    The actions of nutrients on gut transit of liquids and solids have been extensively studied, but the effects of meal ingestion on intestinal gas flow are unexplored. We hypothesized that meals of varying caloric content and consistency modulate gas transit to different degrees. Nine healthy volunteers underwent jejunal perfusion of physiological gas mixtures at 12 ml.min(-1).3 h, with ingestion of nothing (control), water (240 ml), 240-kcal liquid meals, and 240-kcal solid meals at the end of the second hour in separate studies. Gas was quantified from an intrarectal catheter. After an initial lag phase, gas evacuation approached steady state by the end of the fasting period. Solid and liquid caloric meals increased total gas volumes evacuated from 5-40 min after ingestion vs. control studies (P < 0.05). These increases resulted from increased numbers of bolus gas evacuations (P < 0.05), whereas bolus volumes, pressures, and flow rates were similar for all test conditions. Solid and liquid caloric meals elicited similar effects on bolus gas dynamic parameters, whereas water did not affect these measures vs. control (NS, not significant). Both caloric meals and the noncaloric liquid meal increased continuous gas flow, which represented <2% of total gas expulsion. In conclusion, caloric meals promote bolus gas transit in healthy humans, whereas noncaloric liquids have no effect. Solids stimulate early postprandial gas dynamics to the same extent as liquid meals of similar caloric content. Thus modulatory effects of meals on intestinal gas transit depend on their caloric content but not their consistency.

  14. Intestinal alpha beta T cells differentiate and rearrange antigen receptor genes in situ in the human infant.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda M; Bland, Paul W; Phillips, Anne C; Turner, Susan; Brooklyn, Trevor; Shaya, Gabriel; Spicer, Richard D; Probert, Christopher S J

    2004-12-15

    Intestinal Ag exposure during neonatal life influences appropriate adult immune responses. To define the mechanisms shaping the T cell repertoire during this period, we examined T cell differentiation and receptor diversity in the intestine of human infants. Developmental phenotypes of intraepithelial and lamina propria intestinal T cells from infants aged 1 day to 2 years were assessed ex vivo by flow cytometry and in situ by triple-fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Gene recombination-specific enzymes were assessed by PCR. TCR beta-chain V region gene diversity was determined by sequencing. Several different early lineage T cell populations were present neonatally: CD3(+)4(-)8(-) T cells were present at birth and numbers decreased during the neonatal period; CD3(+)4(+)8(+) T cells were present in low numbers throughout infancy; and CD3(+)4(+)8(-) or CD3(+)4(-)8(+) T cells increased with age. Very early lineage T cells, CD3(-)2(-)7(+) and CD3(-)2(+)7(+), were present neonatally, but were essentially absent at 1 year. Most lamina propria T cells differentiated rapidly after birth, but maturation of intraepithelial T cells took place over 1 year. Intestinal samples from infants less than 6 mo old contained transcripts of T early alpha and TdT, and 15 of 19 infant samples contained mRNA for RAG-1, some coexpressing RAG-2. TCR beta-chain repertoires were polyclonal in infants. Immature T cells, pre-T cells, and genes involved in T cell recombination were found in the intestine during infancy. T cell differentiation occurs within the neonatal human intestine, and the TCR repertoire of these developing immature T cells is likely to be influenced by luminal Ags. Thus, mucosal T cell responsiveness to environmental Ag is shaped in situ during early life.

  15. A comparison of human smooth muscle and mesenchymal stem cells as potential cell sources for tissue-engineered vascular patches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corin; Xie, Angela W; Emani, Sirisha; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Emani, Sitaram M; Wong, Joyce Y

    2012-05-01

    In pediatric patients requiring vascular reconstruction, the development of a cell-based tissue-engineered vascular patch (TEVP) has great potential to overcome current issues with nonliving graft materials. Determining the optimal cell source is especially critical to TEVP success. In this study, we compared the ability of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HuAoSMCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to form cell sheets on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) substrates. hMSCs treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and ascorbic acid (AA) had higher expression of SMC-specific proteins compared to HuAoSMCs. hMSCs also had larger cell area and grew to confluence more quickly on PIPAAm than did HuAoSMCs. hMSCs typically formed cell sheets in 2-3 weeks and had greater wet tissue weight and collagen content compared with HuAoSMC sheets, which generally required growth for up to 5 weeks. Assays for calcification and alkaline phosphatase activity revealed that the osteogenic potential of TGFβ1+AA-treated hMSCs was low; however, Alcian Blue staining suggested high chondrogenic behavior of TGFβ1+AA-treated hMSCs. Although hMSCs are promising for cell-based TEVPs in their ability to form robust tissue with significant extracellular matrix content, improved control over hMSC behavior will be required for long-term TEVP success.

  16. Integrase-Deficient Lentiviral Vectors Mediate Efficient Gene Transfer to Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells with Minimal Genotoxic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chick, Helen E.; Nowrouzi, Ali; Fronza, Raffaele; McDonald, Robert A.; Kane, Nicole M.; Alba, Raul; Delles, Christian; Sessa, William C.; Schmidt, Manfred; Thrasher, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that injury-induced neointima formation was rescued by adenoviral-Nogo-B gene delivery. Integrase-competent lentiviral vectors (ICLV) are efficient at gene delivery to vascular cells but present a risk of insertional mutagenesis. Conversely, integrase-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLV) offer additional benefits through reduced mutagenesis risk, but this has not been evaluated in the context of vascular gene transfer. Here, we have investigated the performance and genetic safety of both counterparts in primary human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and compared gene transfer efficiency and assessed the genotoxic potential of ICLVs and IDLVs based on their integration frequency and insertional profile in the human genome. Expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mediated by IDLVs (IDLV-eGFP) demonstrated efficient transgene expression in VSMCs. IDLV gene transfer of Nogo-B mediated efficient overexpression of Nogo-B in VSMCs, leading to phenotypic effects on VSMC migration and proliferation, similar to its ICLV version and unlike its eGFP control and uninfected VSMCs. Large-scale integration site analyses in VSMCs indicated that IDLV-mediated gene transfer gave rise to a very low frequency of genomic integration compared to ICLVs, revealing a close-to-random genomic distribution in VSMCs. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of IDLVs for safe and efficient vascular gene transfer. PMID:22931362

  17. Human cytomegalovirus increases modified low density lipoprotein uptake and scavenger receptor mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y F; Guetta, E; Yu, Z X; Finkel, T; Epstein, S E

    1996-01-01

    Evidence suggests a possible role for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the development of arteriosclerosis. One of the earliest events in plaque formation is the accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells, derived from macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The lipid accumulation that occurs depends upon the uptake of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), a process in which the scavenger receptor (SR) has been postulated to play an important role. We therefore examined the effects of HCMV on this process. We demonstrate that HCMV infection of human SMCs increases modified LDL uptake and stimulates class A SR gene (SR-A) mRNA expression. In addition, infection of rat SMCs with HCMV, which causes immediate early gene expression (IE72/IE84), but no early or late HCMV gene products and no cytopathic effects, also increases SMC uptake of Ox-LDL and acetylated LDL, with either effect blocked by an excess of either cold Ox-LDL or acetylated-LDL, and by fucoidin, an SR competitor. Cotransfection of an IE72, but not an IE84, expression plasmid and a plasmid containing a Class A SR promoter/reporter gene construct enhances SR promoter activity. Since increased Ox-LDL uptake is believed to play an important role in arteriosclerosis, these results provide a link between HCMV infection and arteriosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:8903333

  18. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials. PMID:24662080

  19. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 modulates prostaglandin E2 release from human arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Golej, Deidre L.; Askari, Bardia; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) catalyze the thioesterification of long-chain FAs into their acyl-CoA derivatives. Purified ACSL4 is an arachidonic acid (20:4)-preferring ACSL isoform, and ACSL4 is therefore a probable regulator of lipid mediator production in intact cells. Eicosanoids play important roles in vascular homeostasis and disease, yet the role of ACSL4 in vascular cells is largely unknown. In the present study, the ACSL4 splice variant expressed in human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was identified as variant 1. To investigate the function of ACSL4 in SMCs, ACSL4 variant 1 was overexpressed, knocked-down by small interfering RNA, or its enzymatic activity acutely inhibited in these cells. Overexpression of ACSL4 resulted in a markedly increased synthesis of arachidonoyl-CoA, increased 20:4 incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and triacylglycerol, and reduced cellular levels of unesterified 20:4. Accordingly, secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was blunted in ACSL4-overexpressing SMCs compared with controls. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of ACSL4 activity resulted in increased release of PGE2. However, long-term downregulation of ACSL4 resulted in markedly reduced PGE2 secretion. Thus, ACSL4 modulates PGE2 release from human SMCs. ACSL4 may regulate a number of processes dependent on the release of arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators in the arterial wall. PMID:21242590

  20. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 controls urokinase-dependent signaling and functions in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyan, Julia Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2009-04-01

    The urokinase (uPA)/urokinase receptor (uPAR) multifunctional system is an important mediator of functional behaviour of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). uPAR associates with platelet-derived growth factor receptor {beta} (PDGFR-{beta}), which serves as a transmembrane adaptor for uPAR in VSMC, to transduce intracellular signaling and initiate functional changes. The precise and rapid propagation of these signaling cascades demands both strict and flexible regulatory mechanisms that remain unexplored. We provide evidence that the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 mediates these processes. uPA regulated SHP-2 phosphorylation, catalytic activity, and its co-localization and association with the PDGFR-{beta}. Active PDGFR-{beta} was required for the uPA-induced SHP-2 phosphorylation. uPAR-directed STAT1 pathway was disturbed in cells expressing SHP-2 inactive mutant. Both, cell proliferation and migration were impaired in VSMC with downregulated SHP-2. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms, we found that uPA induced SHP-2 recruitment to lipid rafts. Disruption of rafts abolished uPA-related control of SHP-2 phosphorylation, its association with PDGFR-{beta} and finally the VSMC functional responses. Our results demonstrate that SHP-2 plays an important role in uPA-directed signaling and functional control of human VSMC and suggest that this phosphatase might contribute to the pathogenesis of the uPA-related vascular remodeling.

  1. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-03-24

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  2. Mitophagy acts as a safeguard mechanism against human vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induced by atherogenic lipids.

    PubMed

    Swiader, Audrey; Nahapetyan, Hripsime; Faccini, Julien; D'Angelo, Romina; Mucher, Elodie; Elbaz, Meyer; Boya, Patricia; Vindis, Cécile

    2016-05-17

    Mitophagy is a critical cellular process that selectively targets damaged mitochondria for autophagosomal degradation both under baseline conditions and in response to stress preventing oxidative damage and cell death. Recent studies have linked alterations in mitochondria function and reduced autophagy with the development of age-related pathologies. However, the significance of mitochondrial autophagy in vessel wall in response to atherogenic lipid stressors is not known. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). We reported for the first time that the engulfment of defective mitochondria by autophagosomes occurred in human VSMC in response to oxidized LDL. The molecular mechanism mediating mitophagy in human VSMC involved dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission, accumulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and the recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to mitochondria. Likewise, we found increased voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) and mitofusin 2 (Mnf2) mitochondrial proteins ubiquitination and LC3 association to mitochondria. Using flow cytometry in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors, we showed that PINK1 and Parkin silencing impaired mitophagy flux and enhanced oxidized LDL-induced VSMC apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of PINK1 and Parkin were protective by limiting cell death. Moreover, reduced Bax levels found in VSMC-overexpressing Parkin indicated cross talk among mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathways. Altogether these data demonstrate that mitophagy is a safeguard mechanism against human VSMC apoptosis induced by atherogenic stressors and highlight mitophagy as a potential target to stabilize atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:27119505

  3. Mitophagy acts as a safeguard mechanism against human vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induced by atherogenic lipids

    PubMed Central

    Swiader, Audrey; Nahapetyan, Hripsime; Faccini, Julien; D'Angelo, Romina; Mucher, Elodie; Elbaz, Meyer; Boya, Patricia; Vindis, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Mitophagy is a critical cellular process that selectively targets damaged mitochondria for autophagosomal degradation both under baseline conditions and in response to stress preventing oxidative damage and cell death. Recent studies have linked alterations in mitochondria function and reduced autophagy with the development of age-related pathologies. However, the significance of mitochondrial autophagy in vessel wall in response to atherogenic lipid stressors is not known. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). We reported for the first time that the engulfment of defective mitochondria by autophagosomes occurred in human VSMC in response to oxidized LDL. The molecular mechanism mediating mitophagy in human VSMC involved dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission, accumulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and the recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to mitochondria. Likewise, we found increased voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) and mitofusin 2 (Mnf2) mitochondrial proteins ubiquitination and LC3 association to mitochondria. Using flow cytometry in the presence of lysosomal inhibitors, we showed that PINK1 and Parkin silencing impaired mitophagy flux and enhanced oxidized LDL-induced VSMC apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of PINK1 and Parkin were protective by limiting cell death. Moreover, reduced Bax levels found in VSMC-overexpressing Parkin indicated cross talk among mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathways. Altogether these data demonstrate that mitophagy is a safeguard mechanism against human VSMC apoptosis induced by atherogenic stressors and highlight mitophagy as a potential target to stabilize atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:27119505

  4. Polysaccharide Degradation by the Intestinal Microbiota and Its Influence on Human Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell W; Koropatkin, Nicole M

    2016-08-14

    Carbohydrates comprise a large fraction of the typical diet, yet humans are only able to directly process some types of starch and simple sugars. The remainder transits the large intestine where it becomes food for the commensal bacterial community. This is an environment of not only intense competition but also impressive cooperation for available glycans, as these bacteria work to maximize their energy harvest from these carbohydrates during their limited transit time through the gut. The species within the gut microbiota use a variety of strategies to process and scavenge both dietary and host-produced glycans such as mucins. Some act as generalists that are able to degrade a wide range of polysaccharides, while others are specialists that are only able to target a few select glycans. All are members of a metabolic network where substantial cross-feeding takes place, as by-products of one organism serve as important resources for another. Much of this metabolic activity influences host physiology, as secondary metabolites and fermentation end products are absorbed either by the epithelial layer or by transit via the portal vein to the liver where they can have additional effects. These microbially derived compounds influence cell proliferation and apoptosis, modulate the immune response, and can alter host metabolism. This review summarizes the molecular underpinnings of these polysaccharide degradation processes, their impact on human health, and how we can manipulate them through the use of prebiotics. PMID:27393306

  5. The Intestinal Archaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii Activate Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Corinna; Weidenbach, Katrin; Gutsmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The methanoarchaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii are known to be part of the indigenous human gut microbiota. Although the immunomodulatory effects of bacterial gut commensals have been studied extensively in the last decade, the impact of methanoarchaea in human's health and disease was rarely examined. Consequently, we studied and report here on the effects of M. stadtmanae and M. smithii on human immune cells. Whereas exposure to M. stadtmanae leads to substantial release of proinflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), only weak activation was detected after incubation with M. smithii. Phagocytosis of M. stadtmanae by moDCs was demonstrated by confocal microscopy as well as transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and shown to be crucial for cellular activation by using specific inhibitors. Both strains, albeit to different extents, initiate a maturation program in moDCs as revealed by up-regulation of the cell-surface receptors CD86 and CD197 suggesting additional activation of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, M. stadtmanae and M. smithii were capable to alter the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides in moDCs to different extents. Taken together, our findings strongly argue that the archaeal gut inhabitants M. stadtmanae and M. smithii are specifically recognized by the human innate immune system. Moreover, both strains are capable of inducing an inflammatory cytokine response to different extents arguing that they might have diverse immunomodulatory functions. In conclusion, we propose that the impact of intestinal methanoarchaea on pathological conditions involving the gut microbiota has been underestimated until now. PMID:24915454

  6. Why do humans have two glucocorticoids: A question of intestinal fortitude.

    PubMed

    Morris, David J

    2015-10-01

    The main purpose of this review article is threefold (a) to try to address the question "why are two adrenal glucocorticoids, cortisol and corticosterone, secreted by humans and other mammalian species?", (b) to outline a hypothesis that under certain physiological conditions, corticosterone has additional biochemical functions over and above those of cortisol, and (c) to emphasize the role of gastrointestinal bacteria in chemically transforming corticosterone into metabolites and that these re-cycled metabolites can be reabsorbed from the enterohepatic circuit. Cortisol and its metabolites are not secreted into the bile and thus are excluded from the enterohepatic circuit. Corticosterone was the first steroid hormone isolated from adrenal gland extracts. Many believe that corticosterone functions identically to cortisol. Yet, corticosterone causes significant sodium retention and potassium secretion in Addisonian patients, unlike cortisol. In humans, corticosterone and its metabolite, 3α,5α-TH-corticosterone, are excreted via the bile in humans where they are transformed in the intestine by anaerobic bacteria into 21-dehydroxylated products: 11β-OH-progesterone or 11β-OH-(allo)-5α-preganolones. These metabolites inhibit 11β-HSD2 and 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase, being many-fold more potent than 3α,5α-TH-cortisol. Corticosterone has significantly lower Km's for both 11β-HSD2 and 11β-HSD1 enzymatic dehydrogenase activity, compared to cortisol. Patients diagnosed with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency have elevated blood pressure and high levels of circulating corticosterone, 3α,5α-TH-corticosterone, and their 21-dehydroxlated corticosterone derivatives. In humans, these 5α-corticosterone metabolites are likely to influence blood pressure regulation and Na(+) retention by inhibiting the rate of deactivation of cortisol by 11β-HSD isoforms.

  7. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  8. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P < 0.05) and apoptotic cell death rate decreased from 16.4 ± 0.21% (control) to 4.5 ± 0.13% (P < 0.05) applied at 0.1 Hz. Expression of PKC was upregulated with slight increase in JNK and no change in p38MAPK after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.075 ± 0.024, P < 0.05 GF109203X); (1.418 ± 0.021, P > 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs.

  9. Minimization of Retinal Slip Cannot Explain Human Smooth-Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Existing models assume that pursuit attempts a direct minimization of retinal image motion or "slip" (e.g. Robinson et al., 1986; Krauzlis & Weisberger, 1989). Using occluded line-figure stimuli, we have previously shown that humans can accurately pursue stimuli for which perfect tracking does not zero retinal slip (Neurologic ARCO). These findings are inconsistent with the standard control strategy of matching eye motion to a target-motion signal reconstructed by adding retinal slip and eye motion, but consistent with a visual front-end which estimates target motion via a global spatio-temporal integration for pursuit and perception. Another possible explanation is that pursuit simply attempts to minimize slip perpendicular to the segments (and neglects parallel "sliding" motion). To resolve this, 4 observers (3 naive) were asked to pursue the center of 2 types of stimuli with identical velocity-space descriptions and matched motion energy. The line-figure "diamond" stimulus was viewed through 2 invisible 3 deg-wide vertical apertures (38 cd/m2 equal to background) such that only the sinusoidal motion of 4 oblique line segments (44 cd/m2 was visible. The "cross" was identical except that the segments exchanged positions. Two trajectories (8's and infinity's) with 4 possible initial directions were randomly interleaved (1.25 cycles, 2.5s period, Ax = Ay = 1.4 deg). In 91% of trials, the diamond appeared rigid. Correspondingly, pursuit was vigorous (mean Again: 0.74) with a V/H aspect ratio approx. 1 (mean: 0.9). Despite a valid rigid solution, the cross however appeared rigid in 8% of trials. Correspondingly, pursuit was weaker (mean Hgain: 0.38) with an incorrect aspect ratio (mean: 1.5). If pursuit were just minimizing perpendicular slip, performance would be the same in both conditions.

  10. Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of a novel aminopeptidase from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Tykvart, Jan; Bařinka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; Navrátil, Václav; Souček, Radko; Hubálek, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šácha, Pavel; Lubkowski, Jacek; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence that it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP). PMID:25752612

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of a novel aminopeptidase from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Tykvart, Jan; Bařinka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; Navrátil, Václav; Souček, Radko; Hubálek, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šácha, Pavel; Lubkowski, Jacek; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence that it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP).

  13. Interferon-induced, antiviral human MxA protein localizes to a distinct subcompartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stertz, Silke; Reichelt, Mike; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine; Mackenzie, Jason; Simpson, Jeremy C; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2006-09-01

    Human MxA protein belongs to the superfamily of dynamin-like large GTPases that are involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. MxA is induced by interferons-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and is a key component of the antiviral response against RNA viruses. Here, we show that MxA localizes to membranes that are positive for specific markers of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, such as Syntaxin17, but is excluded from other membrane compartments. Overexpression of MxA leads to a characteristic reorganization of the associated membranes. Interestingly, Hook3, mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and Lamp-1, which normally accumulate in cis- Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes, respectively, also colocalized with MxA, indicating that these markers were redistributed to the MxA-positive compartment. Functional assays, however, did not show any effect of MxA on endocytosis or the secretory pathway. The present results demonstrate that MxA is an IFN-induced antiviral effector protein that resembles the constitutively expressed large GTPase family members in its capacity to localize to and reorganize intracellular membranes.

  14. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with {alpha}-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisinger, Gary . E-mail: gary_w@tasmc.health.gov.il; Limor, Rona; Marcus-Perlman, Yonit; Knoll, Esther; Kohen, Fortune; Schinder, Vera; Firer, Michael; Stern, Naftali

    2007-05-11

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to {alpha}-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/{alpha}-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to {alpha}-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein {alpha}-actin.

  15. Doxazosin inhibits proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth-muscle cells independent of alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z W; Shi, X Y; Hoffman, B B

    1998-06-01

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulated by a variety of growth factors, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. We found unexpectedly that doxazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation of cultured human VSMCs. Subsequent experiments systematically investigated inhibitory effects of doxazosin on mitogenesis stimulated in VSMCs by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor, and G protein-coupled receptor agonists thrombin and angiotensin II. Doxazosin attenuated the stimulation of DNA synthesis for each of these ligands with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) from 0.3 to 1 microM. PDGF-AB (1 nM) increased cell number; doxazosin inhibited this response by 70-80%. Prazosin, a related alpha1-receptor antagonist, had similar but less potent effects on inhibiting mitogenesis in these cells. Doxazosin and prazosin inhibited PDGF-AB-stimulated and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I)-stimulated migration of VSMCs by approximately 40-50%. These effects of doxazosin were likely unrelated to alpha1-receptor blockade because pretreatment of cells with phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible alpha1 antagonist, did not change the capacity of doxazosin to inhibit of PDGF-stimulated mitogenesis. Also, doxazosin inhibited PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis in NIH 3T3 cells, which do not express alpha1 receptors. These results suggest that doxazosin is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and migration through a mechanism unrelated to alpha1-receptor antagonism.

  16. HSP70 increases extracellular matrix production by human vascular smooth muscle through TGF-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Marta; Calleros, Laura; López-Ongil, Susana; Raoch, Viviana; Griera, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2013-02-01

    The circulating levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) are increased in cardiovascular diseases; however, the implication of this for the fibrotic process typical of such diseases remains unclear. HSP70 can interact with the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the major producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, through the Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known vascular pro-fibrotic cytokine that is regulated in part by AP-1-dependent transcriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that extracellular HSP70 could interact with SMCs, inducing TGF-β1 synthesis and subsequent changes in the vascular ECM. We demonstrate that extracellular HSP70 binds to human aorta SMC TLR4, which up-regulates the AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity of the TGF-β1 promoter. This is achieved through the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and ERK, as demonstrated by the use of specific blockers and the knockdown of TLR4 with specific small interfering RNAs. The TGF-β1 upregulation increase the expression of the ECM proteins type I collagen and fibronectin. This novel observation may elucidate the mechanisms by which HSP70 contributes in the inflammation and fibrosis present in atherosclerosis and other fibrosis-related diseases.

  17. HSP70 increases extracellular matrix production by human vascular smooth muscle through TGF-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Marta; Calleros, Laura; López-Ongil, Susana; Raoch, Viviana; Griera, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2013-02-01

    The circulating levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) are increased in cardiovascular diseases; however, the implication of this for the fibrotic process typical of such diseases remains unclear. HSP70 can interact with the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the major producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, through the Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known vascular pro-fibrotic cytokine that is regulated in part by AP-1-dependent transcriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that extracellular HSP70 could interact with SMCs, inducing TGF-β1 synthesis and subsequent changes in the vascular ECM. We demonstrate that extracellular HSP70 binds to human aorta SMC TLR4, which up-regulates the AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity of the TGF-β1 promoter. This is achieved through the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and ERK, as demonstrated by the use of specific blockers and the knockdown of TLR4 with specific small interfering RNAs. The TGF-β1 upregulation increase the expression of the ECM proteins type I collagen and fibronectin. This novel observation may elucidate the mechanisms by which HSP70 contributes in the inflammation and fibrosis present in atherosclerosis and other fibrosis-related diseases. PMID:23084979

  18. Cooperation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells enhances neovascularization in dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Koung Li; Song, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Suh, Wonhee

    2013-11-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are generated through the reprogramming of somatic cells into an embryonic stem cell-like state, such that vascular cells differentiated from hiPSCs might be a suitable autologous cell source for vascular regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess whether cotransplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) differentiated from hiPSCs could promote neovascularization and tissue repair in a murine dermal wound model. hiPSCs were differentiated into ECs and SMCs; the differentiated cells displayed cell-specific surface markers. Compared to primary somatic cells, ECs and SMCs, which were differentiated from hiPSCs, strongly cooperated to enhance in vitro tubular network formation. In vivo gel assays in athymic nude mice showed that the coimplantation of differentiated ECs and SMCs significantly increased vascularization, unlike that observed in the case of implantation of differentiated ECs alone. In a murine full-thickness wound model, when compared with the transplantation of primary somatic cells or phosphate-buffered saline, cotransplantation of differentiated ECs and SMCs markedly enhanced neovascularization in injured tissues and accelerated wound healing. These results demonstrate that cotransplantation of hiPSC-derived ECs and SMCs may be feasible as a new autologous cell therapy for neovascularization and tissue repair.

  19. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M. . E-mail: Joseph_Wu@nymc.edu

    2006-07-21

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol.

  20. Immune interferon inhibits proliferation and induces 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, S J; Friedman, G B; Libby, P

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) contributes to formation of the complicated human atherosclerotic plaque. These lesions also contain macrophages, known to secrete SMC mitogens, and T lymphocytes. Many of the SMC in the lesions express class II major histocompatibility antigens, an indication that activated T cells secrete immune IFN-gamma locally in the plaque. We therefore studied the effect of IFN-gamma on the proliferation of cultured SMC derived from adult human blood vessels. IFN-gamma (1,000 U/ml) reduced [3H]thymidine (TdR) incorporation into DNA by SMC stimulated with the well-defined mitogens IL 1 (from 15.3 +/- 0.7 to 6.2 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (from 18.5 +/- 1.0 to 7.3 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h). Kinetic and nuclear labeling studies indicated that this effect of IFN-gamma was not due to altered thymidine transport or specific radioactivity of TdR in the cell. In longer term experiments (4-16 d) IFN-gamma prevented net DNA accumulation by SMC cultures stimulated by PDGF. IFN-gamma also delayed (from 30 to 60 min) the time to peak level of c-fos RNA in IL 1-treated SMC. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity caused these effects of IFN-gamma, as the inhibition of growth was reversible and we detected no cell death in SMC cultures exposed to this cytokine. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression may mediate certain antiproliferative and antiviral effects of interferons. Both IFN-gamma and type I IFNs (IFN-alpha or IFN-beta) induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase mRNA and enzyme activity in SMC cultures, but with concentration dependence and time course that may not account for all of IFN-gamma's cytostatic effect on SMC. The accumulation of SMC in human atherosclerotic lesions is a long-term process that must involve altered balance between growth stimulatory and inhibitory factors. The cytostatic effect of IFN-gamma on human SMC demonstrated here may influence this balance

  1. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  2. Transcriptome-wide Analysis Reveals Hallmarks of Human Intestine Development and Maturation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Hill, David R.; Altheim, Christopher H.; Dedhia, Priya H.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Chin, Alana M.; Mahe, Maxime M.; Watson, Carey L.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Nattiv, Roy; Thomson, Matthew; Klein, Ophir D.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are a tissue culture model in which small intestine-like tissue is generated from pluripotent stem cells. By carrying out unsupervised hierarchical clustering of RNA-sequencing data, we demonstrate that HIOs most closely resemble human fetal intestine. We observed that genes involved in digestive tract development are enriched in both fetal intestine and HIOs compared to adult tissue, whereas genes related to digestive function and Paneth cell host defense are expressed at higher levels in adult intestine. Our study also revealed that the intestinal stem cell marker OLFM4 is expressed at very low levels in fetal intestine and in HIOs, but is robust in adult crypts. We validated our findings using in vivo transplantation to show that HIOs become more adult-like after transplantation. Our study emphasizes important maturation events that occur in the intestine during human development and demonstrates that HIOs can be used to model fetal-to-adult maturation. PMID:26050928

  3. Transglutaminase 2 expression is enhanced synergistically by interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α in human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, M; Punzi, F; Bondar, C; Chopita, N; Chirdo, F

    2012-04-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed ubiquitously, has multiple physiological functions and has also been associated with inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, TG2 is expressed in small intestine mucosa where it is up-regulated in active coeliac disease (CD). The aim of this work was to investigate the induction of TG2 expression by proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-15] and the signalling pathways involved, in human epithelial and monocytic cells and in intestinal tissue from controls and untreated CD patients. Here we report that IFN-γ was the most potent inducer of TG2 expression in the small intestinal mucosa and in four [Caco-2, HT-29, Calu-6 and human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1)] of five cell lines tested. The combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ produced a strong synergistic effect. The use of selective inhibitors of signalling pathways revealed that induction of TG2 by IFN-γ was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were required for TNF-α activation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that TG2 expression was blocked completely when stimulation by either TNF-α or IFN-γ was performed in the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors (sulphasalazine and BAY-117082). TG2 was up-regulated substantially by TNF-α and IFN-γ in intestinal mucosa in untreated CD compared with controls. This study shows that IFN-γ, a dominant cytokine in intestinal mucosa in active CD, is the most potent inducer of TG2, and synergism with TNF-α may contribute to exacerbate the pathogenic mechanism of CD. Selective inhibition of signalling pathways may be of therapeutic benefit.

  4. Transglutaminase 2 expression is enhanced synergistically by interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α in human small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Bayardo, M; Punzi, F; Bondar, C; Chopita, N; Chirdo, F

    2012-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed ubiquitously, has multiple physiological functions and has also been associated with inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, TG2 is expressed in small intestine mucosa where it is up-regulated in active coeliac disease (CD). The aim of this work was to investigate the induction of TG2 expression by proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-15] and the signalling pathways involved, in human epithelial and monocytic cells and in intestinal tissue from controls and untreated CD patients. Here we report that IFN-γ was the most potent inducer of TG2 expression in the small intestinal mucosa and in four [Caco-2, HT-29, Calu-6 and human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1)] of five cell lines tested. The combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ produced a strong synergistic effect. The use of selective inhibitors of signalling pathways revealed that induction of TG2 by IFN-γ was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were required for TNF-α activation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that TG2 expression was blocked completely when stimulation by either TNF-α or IFN-γ was performed in the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors (sulphasalazine and BAY-117082). TG2 was up-regulated substantially by TNF-α and IFN-γ in intestinal mucosa in untreated CD compared with controls. This study shows that IFN-γ, a dominant cytokine in intestinal mucosa in active CD, is the most potent inducer of TG2, and synergism with TNF-α may contribute to exacerbate the pathogenic mechanism of CD. Selective inhibition of signalling pathways may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22385244

  5. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  6. The influence of pomegranate by-product and punicalagins on selected groups of human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Ramnani, Priya; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Muntha, Kesava R; Gibson, Glenn R; Ferreira, Daneel

    2010-06-15

    We have examined the gut bacterial metabolism of pomegranate by-product (POMx) and major pomegranate polyphenols, punicalagins, using pH-controlled, stirred, batch culture fermentation systems reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of POMx or punicalagins with faecal bacteria resulted in formation of the dibenzopyranone-type urolithins. The time course profile confirmed the tetrahydroxylated urolithin D as the first product of microbial transformation, followed by compounds with decreasing number of phenolic hydroxy groups: the trihydroxy analogue urolithin C and dihydroxylated urolithin A. POMx exposure enhanced the growth of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., without influencing the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and the C. histolyticum group. In addition, POMx increased concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) viz. acetate, propionate and butyrate in the fermentation medium. Punicalagins did not affect the growth of bacteria or production of SCFA. The results suggest that POMx oligomers, composed of gallic acid, ellagic acid and glucose units, may account for the enhanced growth of probiotic bacteria.

  7. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA

    PubMed Central

    Tei, Freda F.; Kowalyk, Steven; Reid, Jhenelle A.; Presta, Matthew A.; Yesudas, Rekha; Mayer, D.C. Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected. PMID:27043590

  8. Influence of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oils on Human Intestinal Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Castañer, Olga; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, María José; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output. Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system. In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for three weeks, preceded by two-week washout periods, 10 hypercholesterolemic participants ingested 25 mL/day of three raw virgin OO differing in their PC concentration and origin: (1) an OO containing 80 mg PC/kg (VOO); (2) a PC-enriched OO containing 500 mg PC/kg from OO (FVOO); and (3) a PC-enriched OO containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme (1:1, FVOOT). Intestinal immunity (fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA-coated bacteria) and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and calprotectin) was analyzed. The ingestion of high amounts of OO PC, as contained in FVOO, tended to increase the proportions of IgA-coated bacteria and increased plasma levels of CRP. However, lower amounts of OO PC (VOO) and the combination of two PC sources (FVOOT) did not show significant effects on the variables investigated. Results indicate a potential stimulation of the immune system with very high doses of OO PC, which should be further investigated. PMID:27077879

  9. Membrane transport mechanisms of choline in human intestinal epithelial LS180 cells.

    PubMed

    Horie, Asuka; Ishida, Kazuya; Watanabe, Yuri; Shibata, Kaito; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the membrane transport mechanisms of choline using human intestinal epithelial LS180 cells. The mRNA of choline transporter-like proteins (CTLs) was expressed significantly in LS180 cells, and the rank order was CTL1 > CTL4 > CTL3 > CTL2 > CTL5. In contrast, the mRNA expression of other choline transporters, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2 and high-affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1), was considerably lower in LS180 cells. Five mm unlabelled choline, hemicolinium-3 and guanidine, but not tetraethylammonium, inhibited the cellular uptake of 100 µm choline in LS180 cells. The uptake of choline into LS180 cells was virtually Na(+)-independent. The uptake of choline was significantly decreased by acidification of the extracellular pH; however, it was not increased by alkalization of the extracellular pH. In addition, both acidification and alkalization of intracellular pH decreased the uptake of choline, indicating that the choline uptake in LS180 cells is not stimulated by the outward H(+) gradient. On the other hand, the uptake of choline was decreased by membrane depolarization along with increasing extracellular K(+) concentration. In addition, the Na(+)-independent uptake of choline was saturable, and the Km value was estimated to be 108 µm. These findings suggest that the uptake of choline into LS180 cells is membrane potential-dependent, but not outward H(+) gradient-dependent.

  10. Fermentation in the human large intestine: its physiologic consequences and the potential contribution of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, George T; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2011-11-01

    The human large intestine harbors a complex microbiota containing many hundreds of different bacterial species. Although structure/function relationships between different components of the microbiota are unclear, this complex multicellular entity plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis in the body. Many of the physiologic properties of the microbiota can be attributed to fermentation and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. In healthy people, fermentation processes are largely controlled by the amounts and different types of substrate, particularly complex carbohydrates that are accessible to bacteria in the colonic ecosystem. However, other factors impact on bacterial metabolism in the large gut, including large bowel transit time, the availability of inorganic terminal electron acceptors, such as nitrate and sulfate, and gut pH. They all affect the types and levels of SCFA that can be formed by the microbiota. This is important because to a large extent, acetate, propionate, and butyrate have varying physiologic effects in different body tissues. Prebiotics such as galactooligosaccharides together with inulins and their fructooligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to modify the species composition of the colonic microbiota, and in various degrees, to manifest several health-promoting properties related to enhanced mineral absorption, laxation, potential anticancer properties, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects, including atopic disease. Many of these phenomena can be linked to their digestion and SCFA production by bacteria in the large gut.

  11. [Effect of trimebutine on the motility of the normal human small intestines: mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Chaussade, S; Grandjouan, S; Couturier, D; Thierman-Duffaud, D; Henry, J F

    1987-01-01

    The effects of intravenous trimebutine (TMB) on duodenojejunal motility were investigated in normal subjects in fed and fasted states. The motility was recorded manometrically. In the fasting state TMB 100 mg, 25 min after a spontaneous phase 3 (P3) constantly induced a premature P3. The mean period (means +/- SE) of the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle decreased from 84 +/- 10.9 to 32.5 +/- 1.0 min. TMB 50 mg, 3 and 25 min after a spontaneous P3 did not significantly modify the periodicity of MMC. TMB 100 mg initiated P3-like activity in post-prandial state. Previous administration of a low dose of naloxone suppressed the stimulating action of TMB. After a TMB injection the motilin plasma level did not vary; a brief increated of PP plasma level was observed. It may be concluded that in the human small intestine TMB included a typical modification of the motility pattern. Opiate receptors might be involved. PMID:3609631

  12. Transepithelial transports of rare sugar D-psicose in human intestine.

    PubMed

    Hishiike, Takashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Shigeru; Nakajima, Daichi; O'Charoen, Siwaporn; Ooshima, Hisaka; Sun, Yuanxia

    2013-07-31

    D-Psicose (Psi), the C3-epimer of D-fructose (Fru), is a noncalorie sugar with a lower glycemic response. The trans-cellular pathway of Psi in human enterocytes was investigated using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The permeation rate of Psi across the monolayer was not affected by the addition of phlorizin, an inhibitor of sugar transporter SGLT1, whereas it was accelerated by treatment with forskolin, a GLUT5-gene inducer, clearly showing that GLUT5 is involved in the transport of Psi. The permeability of Psi was suppressed in the presence of D-glucose (Glc) and Fru, suggesting that the three monosaccharides are transported via the same transporter. Since GLUT2, the predominant sugar transporter on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, mediates the transport of Glc and Fru, Psi might be mediated by GLUT2. The present study shows that Psi is incorporated from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes via GLUT5 and is released to the lamina propria via GLUT2.

  13. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

  14. Influence of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oils on Human Intestinal Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Castañer, Olga; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, María José; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PC) are able to influence gut microbial populations and metabolic output. Our aim was to investigate whether these compounds and changes affect the mucosal immune system. In a randomized, controlled, double blind cross-over human trial, for three weeks, preceded by two-week washout periods, 10 hypercholesterolemic participants ingested 25 mL/day of three raw virgin OO differing in their PC concentration and origin: (1) an OO containing 80 mg PC/kg (VOO); (2) a PC-enriched OO containing 500 mg PC/kg from OO (FVOO); and (3) a PC-enriched OO containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme (1:1, FVOOT). Intestinal immunity (fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA-coated bacteria) and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and calprotectin) was analyzed. The ingestion of high amounts of OO PC, as contained in FVOO, tended to increase the proportions of IgA-coated bacteria and increased plasma levels of CRP. However, lower amounts of OO PC (VOO) and the combination of two PC sources (FVOOT) did not show significant effects on the variables investigated. Results indicate a potential stimulation of the immune system with very high doses of OO PC, which should be further investigated. PMID:27077879

  15. Human intestinal transporter database: QSAR modeling and virtual profiling of drug uptake, efflux and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Duan, Jianmin; Hucke, Oliver; Garneau, Michel; Zhu, Hao; Bonneau, Pierre; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Membrane transporters mediate many biological effects of chemicals and play a major role in pharmacokinetics and drug resistance. The selection of viable drug candidates among biologically active compounds requires the assessment of their transporter interaction profiles. Methods Using public sources, we have assembled and curated the largest, to our knowledge, human intestinal transporter database (>5,000 interaction entries for >3,700 molecules). This data was used to develop thoroughly validated classification Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models of transport and/or inhibition of several major transporters including MDR1, BCRP, MRP1-4, PEPT1, ASBT, OATP2B1, OCT1, and MCT1. Results & Conclusions QSAR models have been developed with advanced machine learning techniques such as Support Vector Machines, Random Forest, and k Nearest Neighbors using Dragon and MOE chemical descriptors. These models afforded high external prediction accuracies of 71–100% estimated by 5-fold external validation, and showed hit retrieval rates with up to 20-fold enrichment in the virtual screening of DrugBank compounds. The compendium of predictive QSAR models developed in this study can be used for virtual profiling of drug candidates and/or environmental agents with the optimal transporter profiles. PMID:23269503

  16. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  17. Screening and evaluation of human intestinal lactobacilli for the development of novel gastrointestinal probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kõll, Piret; Mändar, Reet; Smidt, Imbi; Hütt, Pirje; Truusalu, Kai; Mikelsaar, Raik-Hiio; Shchepetova, Jelena; Krogh-Andersen, Kasper; Marcotte, Harold; Hammarström, Lennart; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to screen intestinal lactobacilli strains for their advantageous properties to select those that could be used for the development of novel gastrointestinal probiotics. Ninety-three isolates were subjected to screening procedures. Fifty-nine percent of the examined lactobacilli showed the ability to auto-aggregate, 97% tolerated a high concentration of bile (2% w/v), 50% survived for 4 h at pH 3.0, and all strains were unaffected by a high concentration of pancreatin (0.5% w/v). One Lactobacillus buchneri strain was resistant to tetracycline. None of the tested strains caused lysis of human erythrocytes. Six potential probiotic strains were selected for safety evaluation in a mouse model. Five of 6 strains caused no translocation, and were considered safe. In conclusion, several strains belonging to different species and fermentation groups were found that have properties required for a potential probiotic strain. This study was the first phase of a multi-phase study aimed to develop a novel, safe and efficient prophylactic and therapeutic treatment system against gastrointestinal infections using genetically modified probiotic lactobacilli.

  18. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA.

    PubMed

    Tei, Freda F; Kowalyk, Steven; Reid, Jhenelle A; Presta, Matthew A; Yesudas, Rekha; Mayer, D C Ghislaine

    2016-04-01

    Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected. PMID:27043590

  19. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Erin L; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A; Cahill, Alison G; England, Sarah K

    2015-10-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca(2+) influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd(3+)-sensitive, Na(+)-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na(+)-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na(+)-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca(2+) and K(+) channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd(3+) or by superfusing the cells with a Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd(3+)-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability.

  20. Positive regulation of NADPH oxidase 5 by proinflammatory-related mechanisms in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona A; Florea, Irina C; Luca, Catalina M; Raicu, Monica

    2012-05-01

    NADPH oxidase Nox5 subtype expression is significantly increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) underlying fibro-lipid atherosclerotic lesions. The mechanisms that up-regulate Nox5 are not understood. Consequently, we characterized the promoter of the human Nox5 gene and investigated the role of various proinflammatory transcription factors in the regulation of Nox5 in human aortic SMCs. The Nox5 promoter was cloned in the pGL3 basic reporter vector. Functional analysis was done employing 5' deletion mutants to identify the sequences necessary to effect high levels of expression in SMCs. Transcriptional initiation site was detected by rapid amplification of the 5'-cDNA ends. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/STAT3 sites. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-kB, c-Jun/AP-1, or STAT1/STAT3 increased significantly the Nox5 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of c-Jun/AP-1 and STAT1/STAT3 proteins with the Nox5 promoter. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot assays showed that pharmacological inhibition and the silencing of p65/NF-kB, c-Jun/AP-1, or STAT1/STAT3 reduced significantly the interferon γ-induced Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and Nox5 expression. Up-regulated Nox5 correlated with increases in intracellular Ca(2+), an essential condition for Nox5 activity. NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/STAT3 are important regulators of Nox5 in SMCs by either direct or indirect mechanisms. Overexpressed Nox5 may generate free radicals in excess, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction in atherosclerosis. PMID:22348975

  1. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Reinl, Erin L.; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A.; Cahill, Alison G.; England, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca2+ influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd3+-sensitive, Na+-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na+-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na+-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca2+ and K+ channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd3+ or by superfusing the cells with a Na+-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd3+-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability. PMID:26134120

  2. Effect of irreversibly glycated LDL in human vascular smooth muscle cells: lipid loading, oxidative and inflammatory stress

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Anca V; Botez, Gabriela M; Stancu, Camelia S; Manea, Adrian; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The major complication of diabetes is accelerated atherosclerosis, the progression of which entails complex interactions between the modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and the cells of the arterial wall. Advanced glycation end product-modified-LDL (AGE-LDL) that occurs at high rate in diabetes contributes to diabetic atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the direct effect of AGE-LDL on human vascular smooth muscle cells (hSMC) dysfunction. Cultured hSMC incubated (24 hrs) with human AGE-LDL, native LDL (nLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) were subjected to: (i) quantification of the expression of the receptors for modified LDL and AGE proteins (LRP1, CD36, RAGE) and estimation of lipid loading, (ii) determination of NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and (iii) evaluation of the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). The results show that exposure of hSMC to AGE-LDL (compared to nLDL) induced: (a) increased NADPH oxidase activity (30%) and ROS production (28%) by up-regulation of NOX1, NOX4, p22phox and p67phox expression, (b) accumulation of intracellular cholesteryl esters, (c) enhanced gene expression of LRP1 (160%) and CD36 (35%), and protein expression of LRP1, CD36 and RAGE, (d) increased MCP-1 gene expression (160%) and protein secretion (300%) and (e) augmented cell proliferation (30%). In conclusion, AGE-LDL activates hSMC (increasing CD36, LRP1, RAGE), inducing a pro-oxidant state (activation of NADPHox), lipid accumulation and a pro-inflammatory state (expression of MCP-1). These results may partly explain the contribution of AGE-LDL and hSMC to the accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes. PMID:19818091

  3. Improvement in Human Immune Function with Changes in Intestinal Microbiota by Salacia reticulata Extract Ingestion: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Utsuyama, Masanori; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku

    2015-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota. Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732 PMID:26630568

  4. Kalman smoothing improves the estimation of joint kinematics and kinetics in marker-based human gait analysis.

    PubMed

    De Groote, F; De Laet, T; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2008-12-01

    We developed a Kalman smoothing algorithm to improve estimates of joint kinematics from measured marker trajectories during motion analysis. Kalman smoothing estimates are based on complete marker trajectories. This is an improvement over other techniques, such as the global optimisation method (GOM), Kalman filtering, and local marker estimation (LME), where the estimate at each time instant is only based on part of the marker trajectories. We applied GOM, Kalman filtering, LME, and Kalman smoothing to marker trajectories from both simulated and experimental gait motion, to estimate the joint kinematics of a ten segment biomechanical model, with 21 degrees of freedom. Three simulated marker trajectories were studied: without errors, with instrumental errors, and with soft tissue artefacts (STA). Two modelling errors were studied: increased thigh length and hip centre dislocation. We calculated estimation errors from the known joint kinematics in the simulation study. Compared with other techniques, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint positions, by more than 50% for the simulated marker trajectories without errors and with instrumental errors. Compared with GOM, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint moments by more than 35%. Compared with Kalman filtering and LME, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint accelerations by at least 50%. Our simulation results show that the use of Kalman smoothing substantially improves the estimates of joint kinematics and kinetics compared with previously proposed techniques (GOM, Kalman filtering, and LME) for both simulated, with and without modelling errors, and experimentally measured gait motion.

  5. A Role for the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Development of Intestinal Serrated Polyps in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Gerold; Muniz, Luciana R.; Pacer, Michelle E.; Iuga, Alina C.; Thirunarayanan, Nanthakumar; Slinger, Erik; Smit, Martine J.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Mayer, Lloyd; Furtado, Glaucia C.; Harpaz, Noam; Lira, Sergio A.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Epithelial cancers can be initiated by activating mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway such as BRAF, KRAS, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Human intestinal serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of benign lesions, but some progress to colorectal cancer. Tumors that arise from these polyps frequently contain activating mutations in BRAF or KRAS, but little is known about the role of EGFR activation in their development. Methods Polyp samples were obtained from adults during screening colonoscopies at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. We measured levels of EGFR protein and phosphorylation in human serrated polyps by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. We generated transgenic mice that express the ligand for EGFR, HB-EGF, in the intestine. Results EGFR and the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 were phosphorylated in serrated areas of human hyperplastic polyps (HPPs), sessile serrated adenomas, and traditional serrated adenomas. EGFR and ERK1/2 were phosphorylated in the absence of KRAS or BRAF activating mutations in a subset of HPP. Transgenic expression of the EGFR ligand HB-EGF in the intestines of mice promoted development of small cecal serrated polyps. Mice that expressed a combination of HB-EGF and US28 (a constitutively active, G-protein–coupled receptor that increases processing of HB-EGF from the membrane) rapidly developed large cecal serrated polyps. These polyps were similar to HPPs and had increased phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 within the serrated epithelium. Administration of pharmacologic inhibitors of EGFR or MAP kinase to these transgenic mice significantly reduced polyp development. Conclusions Activation of EGFR signaling in the intestine of mice promotes development of serrated polyps. EGFR signaling is also activated in human HPPs, sessile serrated adenomas, and traditional serrated adenomas. PMID:22643351

  6. Consumption of partially hydrolysed guar gum stimulates Bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Sumitani, K; Tokunaga, M; Ishihara, N; Okubo, T; Fujisawa, T

    2015-01-01

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fibre that is non-digestible in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that PHGG benefits the health of hosts by altering the colonic microbiota and stimulating short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. However, it remains unclear which bacteria ferment PHGG in the human large intestine. In this study, the effect of PHGG on faecal bacteria was analysed to specify the bacteria that contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. Ten healthy volunteers consumed PHGG (6 g/day) for 2 weeks. Faeces were collected at 2 weeks prior to consumption, at the end of 2 weeks of consumption, and 2 weeks after consumption of PHGG. Bacterial DNA was extracted from these collected faeces and subjected to real-time PCR using bacterial group- or species-specific primers. The copy number of the butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene and the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium, the Clostridium coccoides group, the Roseburia/ Eubacterium rectale group, Eubacterium hallii, and butyrate-producing bacterium strain SS2/1 were significantly increased by the intake of PHGG. Other bacteria and bacterial groups were not significantly influenced by the intake of PHGG. It was believed that the Roseburia/E. rectale group bacteria, Bifidobacterium, the lactate-utilising, butyrate-producing bacteria, E. hallii and bacterium strain SS2/1, would contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. PHGG may benefit health by stimulating Bifidobacterium and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine.

  7. Digested formula but not digested fresh human milk causes death of intestinal cells in vitro: implications for necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Premature infants fed formula are more likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) than if fed breast milk, but the mechanisms of intestinal necrosis in NEC and protection by breast milk are unknown. We hypothesized that after lipase digestion, formula, but not fresh breast milk, contains levels of unbound free fatty acids (FFAs) that are cytotoxic to intestinal cells. Methods We digested multiple term and preterm infant formulas or human milk with pancreatic lipase, proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), lipase + proteases, or luminal fluid from a rat small intestine and tested FFA levels and cytotoxicity in vitro on intestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils. Results Lipase digestion of formula, but not milk, caused significant death of neutrophils (ranging from 47–99% with formulas vs. 6% with milk) with similar results in endothelial and epithelial cells. FFAs were significantly elevated in digested formula versus milk and death from formula was significantly decreased with lipase inhibitor pretreatment, or treatments to bind FFAs. Protease digestion significantly increased FFA binding capacity of formula and milk but only enough to decrease cytotoxicity from milk. Conclusion FFA-induced cytotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of NEC. PMID:23007028

  8. Animal models of intestinal fibrosis: new tools for the understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Kessler, Sean; Sans, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis is a serious condition complicating chronic inflammatory processes affecting the intestinal tract. Advances in this field that rely on human studies have been slow and seriously restricted by practical and logistic reasons. As a consequence, well-characterized animal models of intestinal fibrosis have emerged as logical and essential systems to better define and understand the pathophysiology of fibrosis. In point of fact, animal models allow the execution of mechanistic studies as well as the implementation of clinical trials with novel, pathophysiology-based therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the currently available animal models of intestinal fibrosis, taking into consideration the methods of induction, key characteristics of each model, and underlying mechanisms. Currently available models will be classified into seven categories: spontaneous, gene-targeted, chemical-, immune-, bacteria-, and radiation-induced as well as postoperative fibrosis. Each model will be discussed in regard to its potential to create research opportunities to gain insights into the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation and assist in the development of effective and specific antifibrotic therapies. PMID:22878121

  9. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, A C; Dentener, M A; Snoek, A M; Greve, J W; Buurman, W A

    1999-09-01

    The acute phase proteins LPS binding protein (LBP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are produced by the liver and are present in the circulation. Both proteins have been shown to participate in the immune response to endotoxins. The intestinal mucosa forms a large surface that is continuously exposed to these microbial products. By secretion of antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the intestinal epithelium contributes to the defense against bacteria and their products. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta on the release of LBP and SAA by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In addition, the induction of LBP and SAA release by cell lines of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatic cells was compared. The data obtained show that in addition to liver cells, IEC also expressed LBP mRNA and released bioactive LBP and SAA upon stimulation. Regulation of LBP and SAA release by IEC and hepatocytes was typical for class 1 acute phase proteins, although differences in regulation between the cell types were observed. Endotoxin did not induce LBP and SAA release. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to strongly enhance the cytokine-induced release of LBP and SAA by IEC, corresponding to hepatocytes. The data from this study, which imply that human IEC can produce LBP and SAA, suggest a role for these proteins in the local defense mechanism of the gut to endotoxin. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tissues other than the liver are involved in the acute phase response.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria protect human intestinal epithelial cells from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Affhan, S; Dachang, W; Xin, Y; Shang, D

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and food-borne infections. They promote intestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal colonization by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa has rarely been researched. These organisms spread to extra gastrointestinal niches, resulting in increasingly progressive infections. Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid as the major end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. These bacteria inhibit pathogen colonization and modulate the host immune response. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enteric infections caused by the paradigmatic human pathogens S. aureus ATCC25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC27853. The effect of whole cells and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the lactobacilli on LoVo human carcinoma enterocyte (ATCC CCL-229) infection was analyzed by co-exposure, pre-exposure, and post-exposure studies. Simultaneous application of whole cells and CFS of the lactobacilli significantly eradicated enterocyte infection (P < 0.05); however, this effect was not seen when the whole cells and CFS were added after or prior to the infection (P > 0.05). This result could be attributed to interference by extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in the development of a pathogen that did not form colonies. Furthermore, results of the plate count and LIVE/ DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining attributed this inhibition to a non-bacteriocin-like substance, which acted independently of organic acid and H2O2 production. Based on these results, the cell-free supernatant derived from lactobacilli was concluded to restrain the development of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa enteric infections. PMID:26681052

  11. In vitro glucuronidation of five rhubarb anthraquinones by intestinal and liver microsomes from humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjin; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Qingwen; Li, Yaping; Li, Peng; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    Anthraquinones naturally distribute in many plants including rhubarb and have widespread applications throughout industry and medicine. Recent studies provided new insights in potential applications of these traditional laxative constituents. Glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathway of rhubarb anthraquinones in vivo. This study examined the activity and regioselectivity of glucuronidation of rhubarb anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, rhein) in liver and intestinal microsomes from rats and humans, by comparing with the core structure danthron. All anthraquinones formed mono-glucuronides and, except for rhein, the conjugation sites of the main metabolites were unambiguously identified. Two minor glucuronides of emodin were first reported together with the dominant emodin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide. The substitution on the anthraquinone ring was crucial to the activity and regioselectivity of glucuronidation. In general, the activity was decreased greatly with a β-COOH (rhein), while enhanced dramatically with a β-OH (emodin). Glucuronidation showed an absolute preference towards β-OH, followed by α-OH and β-alcoholic OH. The glucuronidation activity and regioselectivity also varied slightly with organs and species. All glucuronides of aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were formed by multiple human UGT isoforms with 1A9 being the most prominent in most cases. The UGT2B subfamily (2B7 and 2B15) only showed high activity towards a β-OH. In conclusion, the substitution at the anthraquinone ring was crucial to the rate and preference of glucuronidation. The high glucuronidation activity of UGT1A9 towards anthraquinones highlighted potential drug interactions.

  12. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Peterson, Courtney M.; Raggio, Anne; Keenan, Michael J.; Martin, Roy J.; Ravussin, Eric; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 regions of bacterial community DNA extracted from the stools showed that the fecal microbiota remained distinct between individuals, independent of processing method. Moreover, the different stool preparation approaches did not alter intra-individual bacterial diversity. Distinctions were found at the level of individual taxa, however. Stools that were frozen and then homogenized tended to have higher proportions of Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased quantities of Oscillospira, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides compared to stools that were collected in small quantities and not mixed prior to DNA extraction. These findings indicate that certain taxa are at particular risk for under or over sampling due to protocol differences. Importantly, homogenization by any method significantly reduced the intra-individual variation in bacteria detected per stool. Our results confirm the robustness of fecal homogenization for microbial analyses and underscore the value of collecting and mixing large stool sample quantities in human nutrition intervention studies. PMID:27812352

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from ingested sources in the human intestine between 150 MHz and 1.2 GHz.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Lawrence C; Hammond, Paul A; Roy, Scott; Cumming, David R S

    2003-04-01

    The conventional method of diagnosing disorders of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by sensors embedded in cannulae that are inserted through the anus, mouth, or nose. However, these cannulae cause significant patient discomfort and cannot be used in the small intestine. As a result, there is considerable ongoing work in developing wireless sensors that can be used in the small intestine. The radiation characteristics of sources in the GI tract cannot be readily calculated due to the complexity of the human body and its composite tissues, each with different electrical characteristics. In addition, the compact antennas used are electrically small, making them inefficient radiators. This paper presents radiation characteristics for sources in the GI tract that should allow for the optimum design of more efficient telemetry systems. The characteristics are determined using the finite-difference time-domain method with a realistic antenna model on an established fully segmented human body model. Radiation intensity outside the body was found to have a Gaussian-form relationship with frequency. Maximum radiation occurs between 450 and 900 MHz. The gut region was found generally to inhibit vertically polarized electric fields more than horizontally polarized fields.

  14. Pleiotropic Effects of Bitter Taste Receptors on [Ca2+]i Mobilization, Hyperpolarization, and Relaxation of Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Pauer, Susan H; Yong, Hwan Mee; Smith, Dan'elle C; Deshpande, Deepak A; An, Steven S; Liggett, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction from human airway smooth muscle (HASM) constriction due to increased local bronchoconstrictive substances. We have recently found bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) on HASM, which increase [Ca2+]i and relax the muscle. We report here that some, but not all, TAS2R agonists decrease [Ca2+]i and relax HASM contracted by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that stimulate [Ca2+]i. This suggests both a second pathway by which TAS2Rs relax, and, a heterogeneity of the response phenotype. We utilized eight TAS2R agonists and five procontractile GPCR agonists in cultured HASM cells. We find that heterogeneity in the inhibitory response hinges on which procontractile GPCR is activated. For example, chloroquine inhibits [Ca2+]i increases from histamine, but failed to inhibit [Ca2+]i increases from endothelin-1. Conversely, aristolochic acid inhibited [Ca2+]i increases from endothelin-1 but not histamine. Other dichotomous responses were found when [Ca2+]i was stimulated by bradykinin, angiotensin, and acetylcholine. There was no association between [Ca2+]i inhibition and TAS2R subtype, nor whether [Ca2+]i was increased by Gq- or Gi-coupled GPCRs. Selected studies revealed a correlation between [Ca2+]i inhibition and HASM cell-membrane hyperpolarization. To demonstrate physiologic correlates, ferromagnetic beads were attached to HASM cells and cell stiffness measured by magnetic twisting cytometry. Consistent with the [Ca2+]i inhibition results, chloroquine abolished the cell stiffening response (contraction) evoked by histamine but not by endothelin-1, while aristolochic acid inhibited cell stiffening from endothelin-1, but not from histamine. In studies using intact human bronchi, these same differential responses were found. Those TAS2R agonists that decreased [Ca2+]i, promoted hyperpolarization, and decreased HASM stiffness, caused relaxation of human airways. Thus TAS2Rs relax HASM in two ways: a low

  15. Nitric Oxide Stimulates Matrix Synthesis and Deposition by Adult Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Within Three-Dimensional Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Simmers, Phillip; Gishto, Arsela; Vyavahare, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases are characterized by the over-proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the vessel wall, leading to compromise in cell–cell and cell–matrix signaling pathways. Tissue engineering approaches to regulate SMC over-proliferation and enhance healthy ECM synthesis showed promise, but resulted in low crosslinking efficiency. Here, we report the benefits of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) cues, delivered from S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), to cell proliferation and matrix deposition by adult human aortic SMCs (HA-SMCs) within three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic cocultures. A coculture platform with two adjacent, permeable 3D culture chambers was developed to enable paracrine signaling between vascular cells. HA-SMCs were cultured in these chambers within collagen hydrogels, either alone or in the presence of human aortic endothelial cells (HA-ECs) cocultures, and exogenously supplemented with varying GSNO dosages (0–100 nM) for 21 days. Results showed that EC cocultures stimulated SMC proliferation within GSNO-free cultures. With increasing GSNO concentration, HA-SMC proliferation decreased in the presence or absence of EC cocultures, while HA-EC proliferation increased. GSNO (100 nM) significantly enhanced the protein amounts synthesized by HA-SMCs, in the presence or absence of EC cocultures, while lower dosages (1–10 nM) offered marginal benefits. Multi-fold increases in the synthesis and deposition of elastin, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and lysyl oxidase crosslinking enzyme (LOX) were noted at higher GSNO dosages, and coculturing with ECs significantly furthered these trends. Similar increases in TIMP-1 and MMP-9 levels were noted within cocultures with increasing GSNO dosages. Such increases in matrix synthesis correlated with NO-stimulated increases in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression within EC

  16. miR-802 regulates human angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Sarah E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Martin, Mickey M.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) can regulate intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport and control intestinal wall muscular activity. Ang II is also a proinflammatory mediator that participates in inflammatory responses such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling; accumulating evidence suggests that this hormone may be involved in gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ang II binds to two distinct G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, the AT1R and AT2R, which are widely expressed in the GI system. Together these studies suggest that Ang II-AT1R/-AT2R actions may play an important role in GI tract physiology and pathophysiology. Currently it is not known whether miRNAs can regulate the expression of the human AT1R (hAT1R) in the GI system. PCR and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that miR-802 was abundantly expressed in human colon and intestine. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-802 could directly interact with the bioinformatics-predicted target site harbored within the 3′-untranslated region of the hAT1R mRNA. To validate that the levels of miR-802 were physiologically relevant in the GI system, we demonstrated that miR-802 “loss-of-function” experiments resulted in augmented hAT1R levels and enhanced Ang II-induced signaling in a human intestinal epithelial cell line. These results suggest that miR-802 can modulate the expression of the hAT1R in the GI tract and ultimately play a role in regulating the biological efficacy of Ang II in this system. PMID:20558762

  17. ANGPTL4 expression induced by butyrate and rosiglitazone in human intestinal epithelial cells utilizes independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Korecka, Agata; de Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Lapaque, Nicolas; Pettersson, Sven; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé M; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan

    2013-06-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolic products of carbohydrate fermentation by the microbiota and constitute the main source of energy for host colonocytes. SCFAs are also important for gastrointestinal health, immunity, and host metabolism. Intestinally produced angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted protein with metabolism-altering properties and may offer a route by which microbiota can regulate host metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has previously been shown to be involved in microbiota-induced expression of intestinal ANGPTL4, but the role of bacterial metabolites in this process has remained elusive. Here, we show that the SCFA butyrate regulates intestinal ANGPTL4 expression in a PPAR-γ-independent manner. Although PPAR-γ is not required for butyrate-driven intestinal ANGPTL4 expression, costimulating with PPAR-γ ligands and SCFAs leads to additive increases in ANGPTL4 levels. We suggest that PPAR-γ and butyrate rely on two separate regulatory sites, a PPAR-responsive element downstream the transcription start site and a butyrate-responsive element(s) within the promoter region, 0.5 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Furthermore, butyrate gavage and colonization with Clostridium tyrobutyricum, a SCFA producer, can independently induce expression of intestinal ANGPTL4 in germ-free mice. Thus, oral administration of SCFA or use of SCFA-producing bacteria may be additional routes to maintain intestinal ANGPTL4 levels for preventive nutrition or therapeutic purposes.

  18. Featured Article: Temporal responses of human endothelial and smooth muscle cells exposed to uniaxial cyclic tensile strain

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Biela, Sarah A; Chen, Hao; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of vascular cells depends on stimulating mechanical forces caused by pulsatile flow. Thus, mechano-transduction processes and responses of primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been studied to reveal cell-type specific differences which may contribute to vascular tissue integrity. Here, we investigate the dynamic reorientation response of ECs and SMCs cultured on elastic membranes over a range of stretch frequencies from 0.01 to 1 Hz. ECs and SMCs show different cell shape adaptation responses (reorientation) dependent on the frequency. ECs reveal a specific threshold frequency (0.01 Hz) below which no responses is detectable while the threshold frequency for SMCs could not be determined and is speculated to be above 1 Hz. Interestingly, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions system, as well as changes in the focal adhesion area, can be observed for both cell types and is dependent on the frequency. RhoA and Rac1 activities are increased for ECs but not for SMCs upon application of a uniaxial cyclic tensile strain. Analysis of membrane protrusions revealed that the spatial protrusion activity of ECs and SMCs is independent of the application of a uniaxial cyclic tensile strain of 1 Hz while the total number of protrusions is increased for ECs only. Our study indicates differences in the reorientation response and the reaction times of the two cell types in dependence of the stretching frequency, with matching data for actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion realignment, RhoA/Rac1 activities, and membrane protrusion activity. These are promising results which may allow cell-type specific activation of vascular cells by frequency-selective mechanical stretching. This specific activation of different vascular cell types might be helpful in improving strategies in regenerative medicine. PMID:25687334

  19. Lubrication and load-bearing properties of human salivary pellicles adsorbed ex vivo on molecularly smooth substrata.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Neale M; Yakubov, Gleb E; Stokes, Jason R; Klein, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In a series of Surface Force Balance experiments, material from human whole saliva was adsorbed to molecularly smooth mica substrata (to form an 'adsorbed salivary film'). Measurements were taken of normal (load bearing, F (n)) and shear (frictional, F (s)*) forces between two interacting surfaces. One investigation involved a salivary film formed by overnight adsorption from undiluted, centrifuged saliva, with the adsorbed film rinsed with pure water before measurement. Measurements were taken under pure water and 70 mM NaNO(3). In a second investigation, a film was formed from and measured under a solution of 7% filtered saliva in 10 mM NaNO(3). F (n) results for both systems showed purely repulsive layers, with an uncompressed thickness of 35-70 nm for the diluted saliva investigation and, prior to the application of shear, 11 nm for the rinsed system. F (s)* was essentially proportional to F (n) for all systems and independent of shear speed (in the range 100-2000 nm s(-1)), with coefficients of friction μ ≈ 0.24 and μ ≈ 0.46 for the unrinsed and rinsed systems, respectively. All properties of the rinsed system remained similar when the pure water measurement environment was changed to 70 mM NaNO(3). For all systems studied, shear gave rise to an approximately threefold increase in the range of normal forces, attributed to the ploughing up of adsorbed material during shear to form debris that stood proud of the adsorbed layer. The results provide a microscopic demonstration of the wear process for a salivary film under shear and may be of particular interest for understanding the implications for in vivo oral lubrication under conditions such as rinsing of the mouth cavity. The work is interpreted in light of earlier studies that showed a structural collapse and increase in friction for an adsorbed salivary film in an environment of low ionic strength.

  20. Histamine induces activation of protein kinase D that mediates tissue factor expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Feng; Wu, Daniel Dongwei; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Histamine, an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to influence the pathogenesis of vascular wall cells. However, the molecular basis of its influence is not well understood. Our data reveal that histamine markedly induces protein kinase D (PKD) activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and its function in vascular disease is largely unknown. Our data show that histamine-induced PKD phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of histamine receptor 1 and protein kinase C (PKC). To determine the role of PKD in the histamine pathway, we employed a small-interfering RNA approach to downregulate PKD expression and found that PKD1 and PKD2 are key mediators for expression of tissue factor (TF), which is the key initiator of blood coagulation and is important for thrombosis. Our results show that PKD2 predominantly mediates histamine-induced TF expression via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas PKD1 mediates histamine-induced TF expression through a p38 MAPK-independent pathway. We demonstrate that histamine induces TF expression via the PKC-dependent PKD activation. Our data provide the first evidence that PKD is a new component in histamine signaling in live cells and that PKD has a novel function in the histamine signaling pathway leading to gene expression, as evidenced by TF expression. Importantly, our data reveal a regulatory link from histamine to PKD and TF, providing new insights into the mechanisms of coagulation and the development of atherothrombosis.

  1. Fetuin-A and Albumin Alter Cytotoxic Effects of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dautova, Yana; Kozlova, Diana; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Epple, Matthias; Bootman, Martin D.; Proudfoot, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Calcification is a detrimental process in vascular ageing and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. In particular, small calcium phosphate (CaP) crystal deposits are associated with inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque de-stabilisation. We previously reported that CaP particles caused human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) death and that serum reduced the toxic effects of the particles. Here, we found that the serum proteins fetuin-A and albumin (≥1 µM) reduced intracellular Ca2+ elevations and cell death in VSMCs in response to CaP particles. In addition, CaP particles functionalised with fetuin-A, but not albumin, were less toxic than naked CaP particles. Electron microscopic studies revealed that CaP particles were internalised in different ways; via macropinocytosis, membrane invagination or plasma membrane damage, which occurred within 10 minutes of exposure to particles. However, cell death did not occur until approximately 30 minutes, suggesting that plasma membrane repair and survival mechanisms were activated. In the presence of fetuin-A, CaP particle-induced damage was inhibited and CaP/plasma membrane interactions and particle uptake were delayed. Fetuin-A also reduced dissolution of CaP particles under acidic conditions, which may contribute to its cytoprotective effects after CaP particle exposure to VSMCs. These studies are particularly relevant to the calcification observed in blood vessels in patients with kidney disease, where circulating levels of fetuin-A and albumin are low, and in pathological situations where CaP crystal formation outweighs calcification-inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24849210

  2. Regulation of basal promoter activity of the human thiamine pyrophosphate transporter SLC44A4 in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Ramos, Mel Brendan; Valle, Judith E; Said, Hamid M

    2015-05-01

    Microbiota of the large intestine synthesize considerable amount of vitamin B1 in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). There is a specific high-affinity regulated carrier-mediated uptake system for TPP in human colonocytes (product of the SLC44A4 gene). The mechanisms of regulation of SLC44A4 gene expression are currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the SLC44A4 minimal promoter region and identified transcription factors important for basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells. The 5'-regulatory region of the SLC44A4 gene (1,022 bp) was cloned and showed promoter activity upon transient transfection into human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells. With the use of a series of 5'- and 3'-deletion luciferase reporter constructs, the minimal genomic region that required basal transcription of the SLC44A4 gene expression was mapped between nucleotides -178 and +88 (using the distal transcriptional start site as +1). Mutational analysis performed on putative cis-regulatory elements established the involvement of ETS/ELF3 [E26 transformation-specific sequence (ETS) proteins], cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and SP1/GC-box sequence motifs in basal SLC44A4 promoter activity. By means of EMSA, binding of ELF3 and CRE-binding protein-1 (CREB-1) transcription factors to the SLC44A4 minimal promoter was shown. Contribution of CREB into SLC44A4 promoter activity was confirmed using NCM460 cells overexpressing CREB. We also found high expression of ELF3 and CREB-1 in colonic (NCM460) compared with noncolonic (ARPE19) cells, suggesting their possible contribution to colon-specific pattern of SLC44A4 expression. This study represents the first characterization of the SLC44A4 promoter and reports the importance of both ELF3 and CREB-1 transcription factors in the maintenance of basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells.

  3. SCFA increase intestinal Na absorption by induction of NHE3 in rat colon and human intestinal C2/bbe cells.

    PubMed

    Musch, M W; Bookstein, C; Xie, Y; Sellin, J H; Chang, E B

    2001-04-01

    Short-chain f