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Sample records for human lung microsomes

  1. Spectroscopic quantitation of cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Guenthner, T M

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 content of human lung microsomes was measured by difference spectroscopy of the carbon monoxide-complexed hemoprotein. These measurements were only possible after the microsome preparation had been subjected to centrifugation over a discontinuous sucrose gradient, to remove an opaque black contaminant. The specific concentration of total cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes is essentially identical to that of microsomes prepared under identical conditions from untreated baboon lungs, but is only 0.7% of the specific content found in lung microsomes from untreated rabbits. These measurements correspond well to the observed metabolic capacities of the various microsome samples.

  2. Metabolism of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide by mouse and human FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3 and mouse and human lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Morre, Jeffrey T.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2008-12-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) results from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains endemic throughout the world with one-third of the world's population infected. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains necessitates the use of more toxic second-line drugs such as ethionamide (ETA), a pro-drug requiring bioactivation to exert toxicity. M. tuberculosis possesses a flavin monooxygenase (EtaA) that oxygenates ETA first to the sulfoxide and then to 2-ethyl-4-amidopyridine, presumably through a second oxygenation involving sulfinic acid. ETA is also a substrate for mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). We examined activity of expressed human and mouse FMOs toward ETA, as well as liver and lung microsomes. All FMOs converted ETA to the S-oxide (ETASO), the first step in bioactivation. Compared to M. tuberculosis, the second S-oxygenation to the sulfinic acid is slow. Mouse liver and lung microsomes, as well as human lung microsomes from an individual expressing active FMO, oxygenated ETA in the same manner as expressed FMOs, confirming this reaction functions in the major target organs for therapeutics (lung) and toxicity (liver). Inhibition by thiourea, and lack of inhibition by SKF-525A, confirm ETASO formation is primarily via FMO, particularly in lung. ETASO production was attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by glutathione. FMO3 in human liver may contribute to the toxicity and/or affect efficacy of ETA administration. Additionally, there may be therapeutic implications of efficacy and toxicity in human lung based on the FMO2 genetic polymorphism, though further studies are needed to confirm that suggestion.

  3. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine in equine liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A.; Portier, C. J.; Thormann, W.; Theurillat, R.; Mevissen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has to be considered for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of ketamine. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine was investigated in equine microsomes in vitro. Concentration curves were constructed over time, and enzyme activity was determined for different substrate concentrations using equine liver and lung microsomes. The concentrations of R/S-ketamine and R/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. A two-phase model based on Hill kinetics was used to analyze the biotransformation of R/S-ketamine into R/S-norketamine and, in a second step, into R/S-downstream metabolites. In liver and lung microsomes, levels of R-ketamine exceeded those of S-ketamine at all time points and S-norketamine exceeded R-norketamine at time points below the maximum concentration. In liver and lung microsomes, significant differences in the enzyme velocity (Vmax) were observed between Sand R-norketamine formation and between Vmax of S-norketamine formation when S-ketamine was compared to S-ketamine of the racemate. Our investigations in microsomal reactions in vitro suggest that stereoselective ketamine biotransformation in horses occurs in the liver and the lung with a slower elimination of S-ketamine in the presence of R-ketamine. Scaling of the in vitro parameters to liver and lung organ clearances provided an excellent fit with previously published in vivo data and confirmed a lung first-pass effect. PMID:19000264

  4. Influence of induction and flavones on lung microsomal oxygen metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, E.M.; Barlow, R.; Ebel, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    NADPH oxidase activity, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production and O/sub 2/ production were studied using microsomes isolated from lungs of control rats and rats treated with phenobarbital (PB), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), 5,6-benzoflavone (..beta..-NF), or chlordecone (CD). 3-MC, ..beta..-NF or Cd treatment resulted in induction of lung P-450 and P-450 reductase. NADPH oxidase activity was slightly higher in 3-MC or ..beta..-NF lung microsomes than in control, PB or CD microsomes. 5 mM metyrapone inhibited oxidase activity of these microsomes by 20-50% depending upon their source. The rates of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ production did not appear to vary significantly as a function of induction and metyrapone had only a marginal effect on these rates. The rates of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ production at 37/sup 0/ were 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 1.8 +/- 0.3 nmol/min/mg, respectively. 50 ..mu..M ..beta..-NF stimulated H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production by about 2-fold regardless of microsomal source while the stimulation of O/sub 2/ production was marginal. In each case, the effect of ..beta..-NF was greater than a comparable amount of 7,8-benzoflavone (..cap alpha..-NF). NADPH oxidase activity was dramatically stimulated by ..beta..-NF. For example, at 37/sup 0/ 100 ..mu..M ..beta..-NF increased the oxidase activity of control lung microsomes by about 9-fold from 3.4 to 31.6 nmol/min/mg. Lung microsomes from induced rats were comparably stimulated by ..beta..-NF. This stimulation was concentration dependent although not hyperbolic. Metyrapone did not inhibit the ..beta..-NF stimulated NADPH oxidase activity.

  5. Cyclosporin metabolism by human gastrointestinal mucosal microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, I R; Peters, W H; Back, D J

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin (CsA) by human gastrointestinal mucosal microsomes has been studied. Macroscopically normal intestinal (n = 4) and liver (n = 2) tissue was obtained from kidney transplant donors, and microsomes prepared. Intestinal metabolism was most extensive with duodenal protein (15% conversion to metabolites M1/M17 after 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C; metabolite measurement by h.p.l.c). Western blotting confirmed the presence of P-4503A (enzyme subfamily responsible for CsA metabolism) in duodenum and ileum tissue, but not in colon tissue. The results of this study indicate that the gut wall may play a role in the first-pass metabolism of CsA, and could therefore be a contributory factor to the highly variable oral bioavailability of CsA. PMID:1389941

  6. Effect of dietary zinc on endogenous free radical production in rat lung microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bray, T M; Kubow, S; Bettger, W J

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary zinc on endogenous production of free radicals in lung and liver microsomes. Male weanling rats were fed a zinc-deficient basal diet containing less than 1.1 ppm zinc, or were pair-fed or fed ad libitum a zinc-adequate diet supplemented with 100 ppm zinc. The isolated microsomes (100,000 X g precipitate) of lung and liver were incubated with 0.1 M PBN (spin trap) and 0.3 mM NADPH (cofactor) at 37 degrees C for 1.0 h. A carbon-centered free radical (aN = 16.0 G, aH beta = 3.4 G) was trapped in both lung and liver microsomes. There was a significant increase in the concentration of carbon-centered free radicals generated in lung microsomes in animals fed a zinc-deficient diet. Dietary zinc status did not significantly affect the concentration of free radicals in liver microsomes. The amount of free radicals generated is proportional to microsomal protein concentration and is linear with protein concentration between 5 and 20 mg per milliliter of incubate. The free radicals formed in the microsomal system were dependent on the presence of NADPH. Carbon monoxide inhibited 40-50% of the free radical production in both lung and liver microsomes. The results suggest that dietary zinc deficiency stimulates the production of endogenous free radicals in rat lung microsomes by an NADPH- and cytochrome P-450-dependent system.

  7. Genetic analysis of microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene and its association with lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.; Chen, Lan; Elahi, Abul; Lazarus, Philip; Tockman, Melvyn S.

    2013-01-01

    The human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) gene contains polymorphic alleles, which may be linked to increased risk for tobacco-related lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to screen new polymorphisms and determine whether these polymorphisms can be used to predict individual susceptibility to lung cancer. The PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen for polymorphisms in the coding region of the EH gene. Eleven polymorphisms, including previously reported polymorphisms, were identified and the prevalence of these variants was assessed in at least 50 healthy Caucasians and African Americans. Among the eleven polymorphisms, the prevalence of the amino acid-changing EH polymorphisms in codons 43, 113, and 139 was examined in 182 Caucasian incident cases with primary lung cancer, as well as in 365 frequency-matched controls to examine the role of EH polymorphisms in lung cancer risk. A significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed for predicted high EH activity genotypes (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2–4.3) as compared to low EH activity genotypes. This association was more pronounced among patients with lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.7–13.1). These results suggest that the EH polymorphism plays an important role in lung cancer risk and is linked to tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:15901990

  8. Relationship between phenytoin and tolbutamide hydroxylations in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Doecke, C J; Veronese, M E; Pond, S M; Miners, J O; Birkett, D J; Sansom, L N; McManus, M E

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic interaction of phenytoin and tolbutamide in human liver microsomes was investigated. 2. Phenytoin 4-hydroxylation (mean Km 29.6 microM, n = 3) was competitively inhibited by tolbutamide (mean Ki 106.2 microM, n = 3) and tolbutamide methylhydroxylation (mean Km 85.6 microM, n = 3) was competitively inhibited by phenytoin (mean Ki 22.6 microM, n = 3). 3. A significant correlation was obtained between phenytoin and tolbutamide hydroxylations in microsomes from 18 human livers (rs = 0.82, P less than 0.001). 4. Sulphaphenazole was a potent inhibitor of both phenytoin and tolbutamide hydroxylations with IC50 values of 0.4 microM and 0.6 microM, respectively. 5. Mephenytoin was a poor inhibitor of both phenytoin and tolbutamide hydroxylations with IC50 values greater than 400 microM for both reactions. 6. Anti-rabbit P450IIC3 IgG inhibited both phenytoin and tolbutamide hydroxylations in human liver microsomes by 62 and 68%, respectively. 7. These in vitro studies are consistent with phenytoin 4-hydroxylation and tolbutamide methylhydroxylation being catalysed by the same cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) in human liver microsomes. PMID:2049228

  9. Morphine metabolism in human skin microsomes.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, S; Küchler, S; Schäfer-Korting, M

    2012-01-01

    For patients with severe skin wounds, topically applied morphine is an option to induce efficient analgesia due to the presence of opioid receptors in the skin. However, for topical administration it is important to know whether the substance is biotransformed in the skin as this can eventually reduce the concentration of the active agent considerably. We use skin microsomes to elucidate the impact of skin metabolism on the activity of topically applied morphine. We are able to demonstrate that morphine is only glucuronidated in traces, indicating that the biotransformation in the skin can be neglected when morphine is applied topically. Hence, there is no need to take biotransformation into account when setting up the treatment regimen.

  10. Role of human liver microsomes in in vitro metabolism of drugs-a review.

    PubMed

    Asha, Sepuri; Vidyavathi, Maravajhala

    2010-03-01

    Drug metabolism studies are essential and necessary during the evaluation of drugs. This review discusses the in vitro human liver models to estimate the drug metabolic fates in vivo. Different approaches are provided and emphasis is placed on the potential of human liver microsomes for drug metabolism and inhibition studies. The methodology for these studies using human liver microsomes, applications of human liver microsomes, and the drugs studied by human liver microsomes are listed. Human liver microsomes represent a critical experimental model for the evaluation of drug metabolites with a high probability of clinical success.

  11. [Metabolism of mitomycin C by human liver microsomes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fu-rong; Yan, Min-fen; Hu, Zhuo-han; Jin, Yi-zun

    2007-02-01

    To provide the profiles of metabolism of mitomycin C (MMC) by human liver microsomes in vitro, MMC was incubated with human liver microsomes, then the supernatant component was isolated and detected by HPLC. Types of metabolic enzymes were estimated by the effect of NADPH or dicumarol (DIC) on metabolism of MMC. Standard, reaction, background control (microsomes was inactivated), negative control (no NADPH), and inhibitor group (adding DIC) were assigned, the results were analyzed by Graphpad Prism 4. 0 software. Reaction group compared with background control and negative control groups, 3 NADPH-dependent absorption peaks were additionally isolated by HPLC after MMC were incubated with human liver microsomes. Their retention times were 10. 0, 14. 0, 14. 8 min ( named as Ml, M2, M3) , respectively. Their formation was kept as Sigmoidal dose-response and their Km were 0. 52 (95% CI, 0. 40 - 0.67) mmol x L(-1), 0. 81 (95% CI, 0. 59 - 1. 10) mmol x L(-1), 0. 54 (95% CI, 0. 41 -0. 71) mmol x L(-1) , respectively. The data indicated that the three absorption peaks isolated by HPLC were metabolites of MMC. DIC can inhibit formation of M2, it' s dose-effect fitted to Sigmoidal curve and it' s IC50 was 59. 68 (95% CI, 40. 66 - 87. 61) micromol x L(-1) , which indicated DT-diaphorase could take part in the formation of M2. MMC can be metabolized by human liver microsomes in vitro, and at least three metabolites of MMC could be isolated by HPLC in the experiment, further study showed DT-diaphorase participated in the formation of M2.

  12. Inhibitory capacity of human serum on induced microsomal lipoperoxidation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, J J; Medina-Navarro, R

    1995-01-01

    The capacity of human serum for inhibiting in vitro the membrane lipoperoxidation induced by a controlled system (ADP/NADPH + H+/Fe3+) was demonstrated. A concentration of 8 nmol of malondialdehyde was produced in 20 min in rat liver microsomes (1.5 mg of protein) after exposure to an induced lipoperoxidation mixture. Addition of 100 microliters (13.89 mg of protein) of human serum decreased malondialdehyde production nearly 50%. An increase of 25.97% of the inhibitory capacity of serum was obtained by the in vitro addition of 10 microliters/ml of vitamin E. Ten volunteers were supplemented with 400 mg of vitamin E and 1 g of vitamin C/daily for 2 weeks. Their serum inhibitory capacity increased in 12% (p < 0.05). The serum inhibitory capacity for microsomal lipoperoxidation is described herein, and we propose its utilization as an index to determine the individual nonspecific antioxidative defenses against free radical injury and lipoperoxidation in relation to exposure to air pollutants, tobacco smoke, and several acute and chronic diseases, including the hypoxia-reperfusion phenomena.

  13. Characterisation of theophylline metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Robson, R A; Matthews, A P; Miners, J O; McManus, M E; Meyer, U A; Hall, P M; Birkett, D J

    1987-01-01

    1. A radiometric high performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the assay of theophylline metabolism in vitro by the microsomal fraction of human liver. 2. Formation of the three metabolites of theophylline (3-methylxanthine, 1-methylxanthine and 1,3-dimethyluric acid) were linear with protein concentrations to 4 mg ml-1 and with incubation times up to 180 min. 3. The coefficients of variation for the formation of 3-methylxanthine, 1-methylxanthine and 1,3-dimethyluric acid were 1.2%, 1% and 1.6%, respectively. 4. Theophylline is metabolised by microsomal enzymes with a requirement for NADPH. 5. The mean (n = 7) Km values for 1-demethylation, 3-demethylation and 8-hydroxylation were 545, 630 and 788 microM, respectively, and the mean Vmax values were 2.65, 2.84 and 11.23 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. 6. There was a high correlation between the Km and Vmax values for the two demethylation pathways suggesting that the demethylations are performed by the same enzyme. 7. Overall the in vitro studies are consistent with the in vivo results which suggest the involvement of two cytochrome P-450 isozymes in the metabolism of theophylline. PMID:3663445

  14. Effect of the β-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone on glucuronidation by human tissue microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Lauren; Court, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Glucuronidation studies using microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (rUGTs) can be complicated by the presence of endogenous β-glucuronidases leading to underestimation of glucuronide formation rates. Saccharolactone is the most frequently used β-glucuronidase inhibitor, although as of yet it is not clear whether this reagent should be routinely added to glucuronidation incubations. Here we determined the effect of saccharolactone on eight different UGT probe activities using pooled human liver microsomes (pHLMs) and rUGTs. Despite the use of buffered incubation solutions it was necessary to adjust the pH of saccharolactone solutions to avoid effects (enhancement or inhibition) of lowered pH on UGT activity. Saccharolactone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 mM failed to show enhancement of any of the glucuronidation activities evaluated that could be considered consistent with inhibition of β-glucuronidase. However, for most activities, higher saccharolactone concentrations resulted in a modest degree of inhibition. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for 5-hydroxytryptamine and estradiol glucuronidation by pHLMs with 35% decrease at 20 mM saccharolactone concentration. Endogenous β-glucuronidase activities were also measured using various human tissue microsomes and rUGTs with estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide as substrates. Glucuronide hydrolysis was observed for pHLMs, lung microsomes, and insect-cell expressed rUGTs, but not for kidney or intestinal microsomes, or HEK293 microsomes. However, the extent of hydrolysis was relatively small representing only 9 to 19% of the glucuronide formation rate measured in the same preparations. Consequently, these data do not support the routine inclusion of saccharolactone in glucuronidation incubations and, if used, saccharolactone concentrations should be titrated to achieve activity enhancement without inhibition. PMID:18718121

  15. Comparative metabolism of mycophenolic acid by glucuronic acid and glucose conjugation in human, dog, and cat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Slovak, J E; Mealey, K; Court, M H

    2017-04-01

    Use of the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA) in cats is limited because MPA elimination depends on glucuronidation, which is deficient in cats. We evaluated formation of major (phenol glucuronide) and minor (acyl glucuronide, phenol glucoside, and acyl glucoside) MPA metabolites using liver microsomes from 16 cats, 26 dogs, and 48 humans. All MPA metabolites were formed by human liver microsomes, while dog and cat liver microsomes formed both MPA glucuronides, but only one MPA glucoside (phenol glucoside). Intrinsic clearance (CLint) of MPA for phenol glucuronidation by cat liver microsomes was only 15-17% that of dog and human liver microsomes. However, CLint for acyl glucuronide and phenol glucoside formation in cat liver microsomes was similar to or greater than that for dog and human liver microsomes. While total MPA conjugation CLint was generally similar for cat liver microsomes compared with dog and human liver microsomes, relative contributions of each pathway varied between species with phenol glucuronidation predominating in dog and human liver microsomes and phenol glucosidation predominating in cat liver microsomes. MPA conjugation variation between cat liver microsomes was threefold for total conjugation and for phenol glucosidation, sixfold for phenol glucuronidation, and 11-fold for acyl glucuronidation. Our results indicate that total MPA conjugation is quantitatively similar between liver microsomes from cats, dogs, and humans despite large differences in the conjugation pathways that are utilized by these species.

  16. Development of in silico models for human liver microsomal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pil H.; Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes; Lu, Jing; Du, Yuhua J.

    2007-12-01

    We developed highly predictive classification models for human liver microsomal (HLM) stability using the apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) as the end point. HLM stability has been shown to be an important factor related to the metabolic clearance of a compound. Robust in silico models that predict metabolic clearance are very useful in early drug discovery stages to optimize the compound structure and to select promising leads to avoid costly drug development failures in later stages. Using Random Forest and Bayesian classification methods with MOE, E-state descriptors, ADME Keys, and ECFP_6 fingerprints, various highly predictive models were developed. The best performance of the models shows 80 and 75% prediction accuracy for the test and validation sets, respectively. A detailed analysis of results will be shown, including an assessment of the prediction confidence, the significant descriptors, and the application of these models to drug discovery projects.

  17. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Christopher R; Khara, Basile; Johannissen, Linus O; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2011-12-01

    Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron transfer along complex

  18. Coupled Motions Direct Electrons along Human Microsomal P450 Chains

    PubMed Central

    Pudney, Christopher R.; Khara, Basile; Johannissen, Linus O.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2011-01-01

    Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal “ready and waiting” states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals “ready and waiting” conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron transfer along

  19. HMG-CoA reductase activity in human liver microsomes: comparative inhibition by statins.

    PubMed

    Dansette, P M; Jaoen, M; Pons, C

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a number of vastatins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, in human liver microsomes. HMG-CoA reductase activity was four times lower than the activity in untreated rat liver microsomes. Vastatins could be classified in this in vitro assay in three classes both in human and rat microsomes: the first one including cerivastatin with an IC50 of 6 nM, the second one with atorvastatin and fluvastatin (IC50) between 40 and 100 nM) and the third one containing pravastatin, simvastatin and lovastatin (IC50 between 100 and 300 nM).

  20. Effect of benidipine on simvastatin metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yuka; Mimura, Nobuhito; Kuwabara, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ushiki, Junko; Fuse, Eiichi

    2007-06-01

    Benidipine, which is a calcium channel blocker that has clinical advantages in the treatment of hypertension, is metabolized by CYP3A4 in humans. The effect of benidipine on the metabolism of simvastatin by human liver microsomes was investigated in order to predict the potential of in vivo drug-drug interactions between benidipine and other substrates of CYP3A4. The results were compared with data generated with azelnidipine, which is also metabolized by CYP3A4. Both benidipine and azelnidipine inhibited simvastatin metabolism in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Assuming competitive inhibition, the K(i) values based on the unbound concentrations, were calculated to be 0.846 and 0.0181 microM for benidipine and azelnidipine, respectively. If simvastatin (10 mg) and benidipine (8 mg, the clinically recommended highest dose) were to be administered concomitantly, the ratio of the areas under the concentration-time curves of simvastatin with and without benidipine (AUC((+I))/AUC) was predicted to be 1.01. On the other hand, if simvastatin (10 mg) and azelnidipine (8 mg) were co-administered, the AUC((+I))/AUC for simvastatin was predicted to be 1.72, which is close to the observed value (1.9) in healthy volunteers. These data suggest that benidipine is unlikely to cause a drug interaction by inhibiting CYP3A4 activity in the liver.

  1. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate.

  2. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microsomal prediction of in vivo clearance of CYP2C9 substrates in humans

    PubMed Central

    Carlile, David J; Hakooz, Nancy; Bayliss, Martin K; Houston, J Brian

    1999-01-01

    Aims To assess the utility of human hepatic microsomes for predicting in vivo intrinsic clearance (CLint) via the use of four cytochrome P450 2C9 substrates: phenytoin, tolbutamide (S)-ibuprofen (two pathways) and diclofenac, and to examine the role of exogenous albumin within the microsomal incubation. Methods V max, Km and CLint (defined as V max/Km ratio) were estimated under initial rate conditions for five pathways of metabolism in a bank of 15 human hepatic microsomal samples and were scaled to in vivo units using the microsomal protein index. Non-metabolic related binding in microsomes was measured for phenytoin and tolbutamide in the presence and absence of albumin. Results Microsomal CLint values differed by over two orders of magnitude, with the means ranging from 0.18 (phenytoin) to 40.70 (diclofenac) μl min−1 mg−1 microsomal protein. When these data were scaled and compared with published in vivo studies a similar rank order was obtained, however, the actual CLint tended to be underpredicted. While the in vivo unbound Km for phenytoin, 1–5 μm is substantially lower than the value determined in microsomes based on total concentrations (56 μm), correction for the in vitro binding reduces this value to 20 μm and 6 μm in the absence and presence of albumin, respectively. Similar trends were seen with tolbutamide Km. Conclusions An appreciation of the utility of in vitro prediction can be best achieved when the range of CLint values predicted from the individual hepatic microsomal samples are compared with the range of individual in vivo CLint values reported in the literature. The degree of underprediction is less evident using the range than the mean data and no consistent advantage in adding albumin to the incubation media is apparent. PMID:10383540

  4. Phosphatidylglycerol of rat lung. Intracellular sites of formation de novo and acyl species pattern in mitochondria, microsomes and surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Schlame, M; Rüstow, B; Kunze, D; Rabe, H; Reichmann, G

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular site of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) formation for lung surfactant has not been convincingly clarified. To approach this problem we analysed the acyl species pattern of lung PG in mitochondria, microsomes and surfactant by h.p.l.c. separation of its 1,2-diacyl-3-naphthylurethane derivatives. Both mitochondrial and microsomal PG proved identical with surfactant PG, containing the major species 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PG and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-PG. The fatty acid composition of mitochondrial PG differs markedly from that of diphosphatidylglycerol. This may be taken as an indication that mitochondrial PG is synthesized on purpose to form surfactant, rather than being only the precursor of diphosphatidylglycerol. In vitro, sn-[U-14C]glycerol 3-phosphate incorporation into PG of mitochondria or microsomes occurs in the presence of CTP, ATP and CoA but independently of the supply of exogenous lipoidic precursors. Although the rate in vitro of autonomous PG synthesis, and the endogenous PG content, are higher in mitochondria than in microsomes, it is assumed that both subcellular fractions are involved in PG formation for surfactant. PMID:3827844

  5. Metabolism and Metabolic Inhibition of Xanthotoxol in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianbao; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome p450 (CYP450) enzymes are predominantly involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics. In this study, the CYP450 isoforms involved in xanthotoxol metabolism were identified using recombinant CYP450s. In addition, the inhibitory effects of xanthotoxol on eight CYP450 isoforms and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using human liver microsomes. CYP1A2, one of CYP450s, played a key role in the metabolism of xanthotoxol compared to other CYP450s. Xanthotoxol showed stronger inhibition on CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 compared to other isoenzymes with the IC50 of 7.43 μM for CYP3A4 and 27.82 μM for CYP1A2. The values of inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) were 21.15 μM and 2.22 μM for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively. The metabolism of xanthotoxol obeyed the typical monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and Vmax, Km, and CLint values were calculated as 0.55 nmol·min−1·mg−1, 8.46 μM, and 0.06 mL·min−1·mg−1. In addition, the results of molecular docking showed that xanthotoxol was bound to CYP1A2 with hydrophobic and π-π bond and CYP3A4 with hydrogen and hydrophobic bond. We predicted the hepatic clearance (CLH) and the CLH value was 15.91 mL·min−1·kg−1 body weight. These data were significant for the application of xanthotoxol and xanthotoxol-containing herbs. PMID:27034690

  6. Metabolism of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate by hepatic and placental microsomes of human and baboons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ru; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.; Zharikova, Olga L.; Mattison, Donald R.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data from our laboratory revealed the formation of an unknown metabolite of 17 hydroxyprogestrone caproate (17-HPC), used for treatment of preterm deliveries, during its perfusion across the dually perfused human placental lobule. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug is not hydrolyzed, neither in vivo nor in vitro, to progesterone and caproate. Therefore, the hypothesis for this investigation is that 17-HPC is actively metabolized by human and baboon (Papio cynocephalus) hepatic and placental microsomes. Baboon hepatic and placental microsomes were investigated to validate the nonhuman primate as an animal model for drug use during pregnancy. Data presented here indicate that human and baboon hepatic microsomes formed several mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxylated derivatives of 17-HPC. However, microsomes of human and baboon placentas metabolized 17-HPC to its mono-hydroxylated derivatives only in quantities that were a fraction of those formed by their respective livers, except for two metabolites (M16’ and M17’) that are unique for placenta and contributed to 25% and 75% of the total metabolites formed by human and baboon, respectively. The amounts of metabolites formed, relative to each other, by human and baboon microsomes were different suggesting that the affinity of 17-HPC to CYP enzymes and their activity could be species-dependent. PMID:18329004

  7. Metabolic difference of CZ48 in human and mouse liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Dejesus, Albert; Cao, Zhisong; Vardeman, Dana; Giovanella, Beppino

    2012-01-01

    CZ48, chemically camptothecin-20-O-propionate hydrate, is currently under clinical investigation. The kinetics of the metabolite camptothecin (CPT) formation and of CZ48 depletion in mouse and human liver microsomes in the presence or absence of NADPH was examined. The formation rate of camptothecin in human liver microsomes was significantly higher than that in mouse with mean K(m)s of 1.9 and 0.5 nM and V(max)s of 9.3 and 2.2 pmol/min/mg, respectively. However, the apparent intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) ratios for camptothecin in human and mouse liver microsomes were not significantly different from each other (4.9 versus 4.4) in the presence of NADPH. The depletion of CZ48 in human microsomes was four times faster with 4.55% of CZ48 remaining intact while in mouse 19.11% of the drug remained unchanged after 60 min. These results suggest that there is a remarkable species difference of CZ48 biotransformation between human and mouse. The depletion rate of CZ48 in human liver microsomes is considerably higher than that in the mouse.

  8. In vitro covalent binding of new brain tracer, para-125I-amphetamine, to rat liver and lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Joulin, Y.; Delaforge, M.; Hoellinger, H.; Moretti, J.L.; Sonnier, M.; Cesaro, P. )

    1990-01-01

    p-125I-amphetamine (I-Amp) is retained significantly in liver and lung during brain tomoscintigraphy. To attempt to explain this clinical observation, we have investigated the interaction of I-Amp with rat liver and lung microsomal proteins. Studies using spectral shift technique indicate that low concentration of I-Amp gives a type I complex and high concentration appears very stable type II complex with cytochrome P-450 Fe III. In the presence of NADPH, I-Amp gives rise to a 455 nm absorbing complex with similar properties to the Fe-RNO complexes. This complex formation was greatly enhanced with phenobarbital treated liver microsomes. The in vitro binding study shows that I-Amp and/or its metabolites was covalently bound to macromolecules in the presence of the molecular oxygen and NADPH-generating system. Incubation in the presence of glutathione, cystein and radical scavengers decreases binding. Mixed function oxydase (MFO) inhibitors diminish the amount of covalent binding and alter the extent of metabolite formation. The total covalent binding level increased with liver microsomes from PB pretreated rats as it was observed with the 455nm complex formation. The radioactivity distribution on microsomal proteins was examinated with SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. This experiment proves that the radiolabelled compounds are bound on the cytochrome P-450. The radioactivity bound increased when the PB induced rat liver microsomes were used. All these results indicate that I-Amp was activated by an oxydative process dependent on the MFO system which suggests a N-oxydation of I-Amp and the formation of reactive entities which covalently bind to proteins.

  9. Species pattern of phosphatidylinositol from lung surfactant and a comparison of the species pattern of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol synthesized de novo in lung microsomal fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Rüstow, B; Nakagawa, Y; Rabe, H; Waku, K; Kunze, D

    1988-01-01

    1. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a minor component of lung surfactant which may be able to replace the functionally important phosphatidylglycerol (PG) [Beppu, Clements & Goerke (1983) J. Appl. Physiol. 55, 496-502] without disturbing lung function. The dipalmitoyl species is one of the main species for both PI (14.4%) and PG (16.9%). Besides the C16:0--C16:0 species, the C16:0--C18:0, C16:0--C18:1, C16:0--C18:2 and C18:0--C18:1 species showed comparable proportions in the PG and PI fractions. These similarities of the species patterns and the acidic character of both phospholipids could explain why surfactant PG may be replaced by PI. 2. PI and PG were radiolabelled by incubation of microsomal fractions with [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P). For 11 out of 14 molecular species of PI and PG we measured comparable proportions of radioactivity. The radioactivity of these 11 species accounted together for more than 80% of the total. The addition of inositol to the incubation system decreased the incorporation in vitro of Gro3P into PG and CDP-DG (diacylglycerol) of lung microsomes (microsomal fractions), but did not change the distribution of radioactivity among the molecular species of PG. These results supported the idea that both acidic surfactant phospholipids may be synthesized de novo from a common CDP-DG pool in lung microsomes. PMID:3178759

  10. Time-dependent activation of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) from ox lung microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, J M; Tipton, K F; Unzeta, M

    2000-01-01

    The activity of ox lung microsomal semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6; SSAO) towards benzylamine increased 20-fold during incubation at 37 degrees C. After an initial lag-period, activation was first-order with time and complete after approx. 20 h. No significant changes in activity towards methylamine, histamine or 2-phenylethylamine were observed, although mixed-substrate experiments were consistent with the same enzyme being involved in the oxidation of all these substrates, both before and after time-dependent activation. The enzyme-tryptophan fluorescence increased on incubation at 37 degrees C in parallel with the increase in activity towards benzylamine. Treatment of the activated-enzyme preparation with 6 M guanidinium chloride followed by dialysis, caused both the activity towards benzylamine and the fluorescence to fall to that occurring before activation. However, incubation of this preparation at 37 degrees C resulted in increases in fluorescence and activity similar to those seen with the unactivated enzyme. Benzylamine oxidation was inhibited, uncompetitively with respect to oxygen, by high substrate concentrations but no such inhibition was observed with the other amines. Activation resulted in an increase in V(max) for benzylamine oxidation, with no significant alterations in the K(m) or the K(si) for high-substrate inhibition. Kinetic studies were consistent with sequential mechanisms being followed for the oxidation of both benzylamine and methylamine but the dependence on oxygen concentration was complex. These results might indicate that benzylamine follows a different reaction pathway from the other substrates, with substrate-specific activation involving a reaction step that is rate-limiting for benzylamine oxidation but not for the others. PMID:11042135

  11. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  12. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  13. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 7-hydroxylation of chlorpromazine by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, K; Kobayashi, K; Tsumuji, M; Tani, M; Shimada, N; Chiba, K

    2000-01-01

    Studies to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform(s) involved in chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation were performed using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYPs. The kinetics of chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes showed a simple Michaelis-Menten behavior. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 3.4+/-1.0 microM and 200.5+/-83.7 pmol/min/mg, respectively. The chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes showed good correlations with desipramine 2-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.763, p < 0.05), a marker activity for CYP2D6, and phenacetin O-deethylase activity (r = 0.638, p < 0.05), a marker activity for CYP1A2. Quinidine (an inhibitor of CYP2D6) completely inhibited while alpha-naphthoflavone (an inhibitor of CYP1A2) marginally inhibited the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity in a human liver microsomal sample showing high CYP2D6 activity. On the other hand, alpha-naphthoflavone inhibited the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylase activity to 55-65% of control in a human liver microsomal sample showing low CYP2D6 activity. Among eleven cDNA-expressed CYPs studied, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 exhibited significant activity for the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation. The Km values for the chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation of both cDNA-expressed CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 were in agreement with the Km values of human liver microsomes. These results suggest that chlorpromazine 7-hydroxylation is catalyzed mainly by CYP2D6 and partially by CYP1A2.

  14. Metabolism of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Haigou, Risa; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We examined the in vitro metabolism of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The biotransformation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (+)-Terpinen-4-ol was found to be oxidized to (+)-(1R,2S,4S)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol, (+)-(1S,2R,4S)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol, and (4S)-p-menth-1-en-4,8-diol by human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. The identities of (+)-terpinen-4-ol metabolites were determined through the relative abundance of mass fragments and retention times on GC-MS. Of 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 were found to catalyze the oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol. Based on several lines of evidence, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 were determined to be major enzymes involved in the oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes. First, of the 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol. Second, oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and ketoconazole, inhibitors known to be specific for these enzymes. Finally, there was a good correlation between CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 activities and (+)-terpinen-4-ol oxidation activities in the 10 human liver microsomes.

  15. Potent inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6 by sibutramine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Kwon, Min Jo; Choi, Eu Jin; Zheng, Yu Fen; Yoon, Kee Dong; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-09-05

    The present study was performed to evaluate the potency and specificity of sibutramine as an inhibitor of the activities of nine human CYP isoforms in liver microsomes. Using a cocktail assay, the effects of sibutramine on specific marker reactions of the nine CYP isoforms were measured in human liver microsomes. Sibutramine showed potent inhibition of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion 6-hydroxylation with an IC50 value of 1.61μM and Ki value of 0.466μM in a competitive manner at microsomal protein concentrations of 0.25mg/ml; this was 3.49-fold more potent than the typical CYP2B6 inhibitor thio-TEPA (Ki=1.59μM). In addition, sibutramine slightly inhibited CYP2C19 activity (Ki=16.6μM, noncompetitive inhibition) and CYP2D6 activity (Ki=15.7μM, noncompetitive inhibition). These observations indicated 35.6- and 33.7-fold decreases in inhibition potency, respectively, compared with that of CYP2B6 by sibutramine. However, no inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1 activities was observed. In addition, the CYP2B6 inhibitory potential of sibutramine was enhanced at a lower microsomal protein concentration of 0.05mg/ml. After 30min preincubation of human liver microsomes with sibutramine in the presence of NADPH, no shift in IC50 was observed in terms of inhibition of the activities of the nine CYPs, suggesting that sibutramine is not a time-dependent inactivator. These observations suggest that sibutramine is a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP2B6 in vitro, whereas inhibition of other CYPs is substantially lower. These in vitro data support the use of sibutramine as a well-known inhibitor of CYP2B6 for routine screening of P450 reversible inhibition when human liver microsomes are used as the enzyme source.

  16. Lack of in vitro interactions using human liver microsomes between rabeprazole and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Ilaria; Genazzani, Armando; Canonico, Pierluigi; Grosa, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The potential interactions between rabeprazole, a widely used proton pump inhibitor, and anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, doxorubicin, etoposide) or drugs commonly present in the therapy of oncological patients (fluoxetine and ondansetron), were studied using in vitro human liver microsomes. The interactions between rabeprazole and the anticancer drugs were evaluated by measuring their concentrations in test and control incubations with HPLC-DAD-UV methods. To achieve this aim, nine HPLC-DAD-UV methods were developed using different stationary and mobile phases. The methods were then validated for the following parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. As expected rabeprazole did not significantly inhibit the metabolism of the evaluated drugs in human liver microsomal preparations at the selected concentrations. These results shows that rabeprazole probably could be devoid of pharmacokinetic interactions with common drugs used during chemotherapy.

  17. Hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates, fragrances and flavoring agents in foods, by microsomes of rat and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Tamura, Yuki; Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-01

    Salicylates are used as fragrance and flavor ingredients for foods, as UV absorbers and as medicines. Here, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, and by human liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Both salicylates were readily hydrolyzed by tissue microsomes, predominantly in small intestine, followed by liver, although phenyl salicylate was much more rapidly hydrolyzed than benzyl salicylate. The liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activities were completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activity was co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by anion exchange column chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts of liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Expression of rat liver and small-intestinal isoforms of carboxylesterase, Ces1e and Ces2c (AB010632), in COS cells resulted in significant phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activities with the same specific activities as those of liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited higher hydrolyzing activity than liver microsomes towards these salicylates. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes expressed in COS cells both readily hydrolyzed phenyl salicylate, but the activity of CES2 was higher than that of CES1. These results indicate that significant amounts of salicylic acid might be formed by microsomal hydrolysis of phenyl and benzyl salicylates in vivo. The possible pharmacological and toxicological effects of salicylic acid released from salicylates present in commercial products should be considered.

  18. Inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone in human, dog and horse liver microsomes to investigate species differences.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2015-04-01

    Testosterone hydroxylation was investigated in human, canine and equine liver microsomes and in human and canine single CYPs. The contribution of the CYP families 1, 2 and 3 was studied using chemical inhibitors. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC. The metabolites androstenedione, 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone were found in microsomes of all species, but the pattern of metabolites varied within species. Androstenedione was more prominent in the animal species, and an increase over time was seen in equines. Testosterone hydroxylation was predominantly catalyzed by the CYP3A subfamily in all three species. While CYP2C9 did not metabolise testosterone, the canine ortholog CYP2C21 produced androstenedione. Quercetin significantly inhibited 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in all species investigated, suggesting that CYP2C8 is involved in testosterone metabolism, whereas sulfaphenazole significantly inhibited the formation of 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in human microsomes, at 60 min in equine microsomes, but not in canine microsomes. A contribution of CYP2B6 in testosterone metabolism was only found in human and equine microsomes. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 indicated its involvement in androstenedione formation in humans, increased androstenedione formation was found in equines and no involvement in canines. These findings provide improved understanding of differences in testosterone biotransformation in animal species.

  19. Interspecies differences in metabolism of deoxypodophyllotoxin in hepatic microsomes from human, monkey, rat, mouse and dog.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiushi; Chen, Yang; Liu, Fei; Zhong, Zeyu; Zhao, Kaijing; Ling, Zhaoli; Wang, Fan; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a natural lignan product which has drawn much attention due to its pharmacological properties including antitumor effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate interspecies differences in metabolism of DPT in hepatic microsomes from human (HLM), cynomolgus monkey (CyLM), rat (RLM), mouse (MLM) and dog (DLM). Incubation of DPT with hepatic microsomes from five species in the presence of NADPH resulted in formation of seven metabolites, five of which were compared with the synthetic standards. M2 was the most abundant metabolite in microsomes from all species. Rank order of intrinsic clearance for M2 formation was RLM > CyLM > MLM > HLM > DLM. In HLM, sulfaphenazole showed the strongest inhibition effect on M2 formation, but neither ticlopidine nor ketoconazole inhibited M2 formation in HLM. Results from cDNA-expressed human CYP450s experiments showed that clearance of M2 formation was much higher in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 than that in CYP3A4. Contributions of the three CYP450 isoforms to M2 formation in HLM were estimated using relative activity factor (RAF) method or correction by amount of CYP450 isoforms in HLM. M2 formation in HLM was mainly attributed to CYP2C9, followed by CYP2C19. Involvement of CYP3A4 was minor.

  20. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Chung, Jaegul; Jung, Dong-Hae; Park, Ji-Young

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform(s) involved in the metabolism of loperamide (LOP) to N-demethylated LOP (DLOP) in human liver microsomes. Three established approaches were used to identify the P450 isoforms responsible for LOP N-demethylation using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed P450 isoforms: (1) correlation of LOP N-demethylation activity with marker P450 activities in a panel of human liver microsomes, (2) inhibition of enzyme activity by P450-selective inhibitors, and (3) measurement of DLOP formation by cDNA-expressed P450 isoforms. The relative contribution of P450 isoforms involved in LOP N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were estimated by applying relative activity factor (RAF) values. The formation rate of DLOP showed biphasic kinetics, suggesting the involvement of multiple P450 isoforms. Apparent Km and Vmax values were 21.1 microM and 122.3 pmol/min per milligram of protein for the high-affinity component and 83.9 microM and 412.0 pmol/min per milligram of protein for the low-affinity component, respectively. Of the cDNA-expressed P450 s tested, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyzed LOP N-demethylation. LOP N-demethylation was significantly inhibited when coincubated with quercetin (a CYP2C8 inhibitor) and ketoconazole (a CYP3A4 inhibitor) by 40 and 90%, respectively, but other chemical inhibitors tested showed weak or no significant inhibition. DLOP formation was highly correlated with CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1-hydroxylation (rs=0.829; P<0.01), CYP2B6-catalzyed 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation (rs=0.691; P<0.05), and CYP2C8-catalyzed paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylation (rs=0.797; P<0.05). CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyze LOP N-demethylation in human liver microsomes, and among them, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 may play a crucial role in LOP metabolism at the therapeutic concentrations of LOP. Coadministration of these P450 inhibitors may cause drug

  1. Development of QSAR models for microsomal stability: identification of good and bad structural features for rat, human and mouse microsomal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongbo; Unwalla, Ray; Denny, R. Aldrin; Bikker, Jack; Di, Li; Humblet, Christine

    2010-01-01

    High throughput microsomal stability assays have been widely implemented in drug discovery and many companies have accumulated experimental measurements for thousands of compounds. Such datasets have been used to develop in silico models to predict metabolic stability and guide the selection of promising candidates for synthesis. This approach has proven most effective when selecting compounds from proposed virtual libraries prior to synthesis. However, these models are not easily interpretable at the structural level, and thus provide little insight to guide traditional synthetic efforts. We have developed global classification models of rat, mouse and human liver microsomal stability using in-house data. These models were built with FCFP_6 fingerprints using a Naïve Bayesian classifier within Pipeline Pilot. The test sets were correctly classified as stable or unstable with satisfying accuracies of 78, 77 and 75% for rat, human and mouse models, respectively. The prediction confidence was assigned using the Bayesian score to assess the applicability of the models. Using the resulting models, we developed a novel data mining strategy to identify structural features associated with good and bad microsomal stability. We also used this approach to identify structural features which are good for one species but bad for another. With these findings, the structure-metabolism relationships are likely to be understood faster and earlier in drug discovery.

  2. Detection of human lung cytochromes P450 that are immunochemically related to cytochrome P450IIE1 and cytochrome P450IIIA.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Wrighton, S A; Guenthner, T M

    1992-07-07

    We have used monoclonal antibodies that were prepared against and specifically recognize human hepatic cytochromes P450 as probes for solid phase radioimmunoassay and Western immunoblotting to directly demonstrate the presence in human lung microsomes of cytochromes P450 immunochemically related to human liver cytochromes P450IIE1 (CYP2E1) and P450IIIA (CYP3A). The detected levels of these cytochromes are much lower than levels in human liver microsomes, but similar to the levels seen in microsomes from untreated baboon lung. Proteins immunochemically related to two other constitutive hepatic cytochromes P450, cytochrome P450IIC8 (CYP2C8) and cytochrome P450IIC9 (CYP2C9), were not detectable in lung microsomes.

  3. Biotransformation of Flavokawains A, B, and C, Chalcones from Kava (Piper methysticum), by Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Katharina; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Kraus, Birgit

    2015-07-22

    The in vitro metabolism of flavokawains A, B, and C (FKA, FKB, FKC), methoxylated chalcones from Piper methysticum, was examined using human liver microsomes. Phase I metabolism and phase II metabolism (glucuronidation) as well as combined phase I+II metabolism were studied. For identification and structure elucidation of microsomal metabolites, LC-HRESIMS and NMR techniques were applied. Major phase I metabolites were generated by demethylation in position C-4 or C-4' and hydroxylation predominantly in position C-4, yielding FKC as phase I metabolite of FKA and FKB, helichrysetin as metabolite of FKA and FKC, and cardamonin as metabolite of FKC. To an even greater extent, flavokawains were metabolized in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronic acid by microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases. For all flavokawains, monoglucuronides (FKA-2'-O-glucuronide, FKB-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-4-O-glucuronide) were found as major phase II metabolites. The dominance of generated glucuronides suggests a role of conjugated chalcones as potential active compounds in vivo.

  4. Hydration of arene and alkene oxides by epoxide hydrase in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kapitulnik, J; Levin, W; Morecki, R; Dansette, P M; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1977-02-01

    The comparative hydration of styrene 7,8-oxide, octene 1,2-oxide, naphthalene 1,2-oxide, phenanthrene 9,10-oxide, benzo[a]anthracene 5,6-oxide, 3-methylcholanthrene 11,12-oxide, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene 5,6-oxide, and benzo[a, 7,8-, 9,10-, and 11,12-oxides to their respective dihydrodiols was investigated in microsomes from nine human autopsy livers. The substrate specificity of the epoxide hydrase in human liver microsomes was very similar to that of the epoxide hydrase in rat liver microsomes. Phenanthrene 9,10-oxide was the best substrate for the human and rat epoxide hydrases and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene 5,6-oxide and benzo[a-a)pyrene 11, 12-oxide were the poorest substrates. Plotting epoxide hydrase activity obtained with one substrate against epoxide hydrase activity for another substrate for each of the nine human livers revealed excellent correlations for all combinations of the 11 substrates studied (r = 0.87 to 0.99). The data suggest the presence in human liver of a single epoxide hydrase with broad substrate specificity. However, the results do not exclude the possible presence in human liver of several epoxide hydrases that are under similar regulatory control. These results suggest the need for further investigation to determine whether there is a safe epoxide of a drug whose in vivo metabolism is predictive of the capacity of different individuals to metabolize a wide variety of epoxides of drugs and environmental chemicals.

  5. Detection of Phenolic Metabolites of Styrene in Mouse Liver and Lung Microsomal IncubationsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuijie; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lingbo; Zeng, Su

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic activation is considered to be a critical step for styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Styrene-7,8-oxide is a primary oxidative metabolite generated by vinyl epoxidation of styrene. In addition, urinary 4-vinylphenol (4-VP), a phenolic metabolite formed by aromatic hydroxylation, has been detected in workers and experimental animals after exposure to styrene. In the present study, new oxidative metabolites of styrene, including 2-vinylphenol (2-VP), 3-vinylphenol (3-VP), vinyl-1,4-hydroquinone, and 2-hydroxystyrene glycol were detected in mouse liver microsomal incubations. The production rates of 2-VP, 3-VP, 4-VP, and styrene glycol were 0.0527 ± 0.0045, 0.0019 ± 0.0006, 0.0053 ± 0.0002, and 4.42 ± 0.33 nmol/(min · mg protein) in mouse liver microsomes, respectively. Both disulfiram (100 μM) and 5-phenyl-1-pentyne (5 μM) significantly inhibited the formation of the VPs and styrene glycol. 2-VP, 3-VP, and 4-VP were metabolized in mouse liver microsomes at rates of 2.50 ± 0.30, 2.63 ± 0.13, and 3.45 ± 0.11 nmol/(min · mg protein), respectively. The three VPs were further metabolized to vinylcatechols and/or vinyl-1,4-hydroquinone and the corresponding glycols. Pulmonary toxicity of 2-VP, 3-VP, and 4-VP was evaluated in CD-1 mice, and 4-VP was found to be more toxic than 2-VP and 3-VP. PMID:20724499

  6. Metabolism of sesamin by cytochrome P450 in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaori; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Kamakura, Masaki; Ohta, Miho; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2010-12-01

    Metabolism of sesamin by cytochrome P450 (P450) was examined using yeast expression system and human liver microsomes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing each of human P450 isoforms (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were cultivated with sesamin, and monocatechol metabolite was observed in most of P450s. Kinetic analysis using the microsomal fractions of the recombinant S. cerevisiae cells revealed that CYP2C19 had the largest k(cat)/K(m) value. Based on the kinetic data and average contents of the P450 isoforms in the human liver, the putative contribution of P450s for sesamin metabolism was large in the order of CYP2C9, 1A2, 2C19, and 2D6. A good correlation was observed between sesamin catecholization activity and CYP2C9-specific activity in in vitro studies using 10 individual human liver microsomes, strongly suggesting that CYP2C9 is the most important P450 isoform for sesamin catecholization in human liver. Inhibition studies using each anti-P450 isoform-specific antibody confirmed that CYP2C9 was the most important, and the secondary most important P450 was CYP1A2. We also examined the inhibitory effect of sesamin for P450 isoform-specific activities and found a mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C9 by sesamin. In contrast, no mechanism-based inhibition by sesamin was observed in CYP1A2-specific activity. Our findings strongly suggest that further studies are needed to reveal the interaction between sesamin and therapeutic drugs mainly metabolized by CYP2C9.

  7. Physiological Content and Intrinsic Activities of 10 Cytochrome P450 Isoforms in Human Normal Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Huan-Huan; Gao, Na; Wei, Jun-Ying; Tian, Xin; Zhao, Yan; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Wen, Qiang; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang-Jun; Qian, Xiao-Hong; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Due to a lack of physiologic cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform content, P450 activity is typically only determined at the microsomal level (per milligram of microsomal protein) and not at the isoform level (per picomole of P450 isoform), which could result in the misunderstanding of variations in P450 activity between individuals and further hinder development of personalized medicine. We found that there were large variations in protein content, mRNA levels, and intrinsic activities of the 10 P450s in 100 human liver samples, in which CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 showed the highest expression levels. P450 gene polymorphisms had different effects on activity at two levels: CYP3A5*3 and CYP2A6*9 alleles conferred increased activity at the isoform level but decreased activity at the microsomal level; CYP2C9*3 had no effect at the isoform level but decreased activity at the microsomal level. The different effects at each level stem from the different effects of each polymorphism on the resulting P450 protein. Individuals with CYP2A6*1/*4, CYP2A6*1/*9, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2D6 100C>T TT, CYP2E1 7632T>A AA, CYP3A5*1*3, and CYP3A5*3*3 genotypes had significantly lower protein content, whereas CYP2D6 1661G>C mutants had a higher protein content. In conclusion, we first offered the physiologic data of 10 P450 isoform contents and found that some single nucleotide polymorphisms had obvious effects on P450 expression in human normal livers. The effects of gene polymorphisms on intrinsic P450 activity at the isoform level were quite different from those at the microsomal level, which might be due to changes in P450 protein content. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Benzene metabolism by human liver microsomes in relation to cytochrome P450 2E1 activity.

    PubMed

    Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A; Medinsky, M A

    1994-09-01

    Low levels of benzene from sources including cigarette smoke and automobile emissions are ubiquitous in the environment. Since the toxicity of benzene probably results from oxidative metabolites, an understanding of the profile of biotransformation of low levels of benzene is critical in making a valid risk assessment. To that end, we have investigated metabolism of a low concentration of [14C]benzene (3.4 microM) by microsomes from human, mouse and rat liver. The extent of phase I benzene metabolism by microsomal preparations from 10 human liver samples and single microsomal preparations from both mice and rats was then related to measured activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1. Measured CYP 2E1 activities, as determined by hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol, varied 13-fold (0.253-3.266 nmol/min/mg) for human samples. The fraction of benzene metabolized in 16 min ranged from 10% to 59%. Also at 16 min, significant amounts of oxidative metabolites were formed. Phenol was the main metabolite formed by all but two human microsomal preparations. In those samples, both of which had high CYP 2E1 activity, hydroquinone was the major metabolite formed. Both hydroquinone and catechol formation showed a direct correlation with CYP 2E1 activity over the range of activities present. A simulation model was developed based on a mechanism of competitive inhibition between benzene and its oxidized metabolites, and was fit to time-course data for three human liver preparations. Model calculations for initial rates of benzene metabolism ranging from 0.344 to 4.442 nmol/mg/min are directly proportional to measured CYP 2E1 activities. The model predicted the dependence of benzene metabolism on the measured CYP 2E1 activity in human liver samples, as well as in mouse and rat liver samples. These results suggest that differences in measured hepatic CYP 2E1 activity may be a major factor contributing to both interindividual and interspecies variations in hepatic metabolism of benzene

  9. Metabolism of ginger component [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huadong; Soroka, Dominique; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-05-01

    There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol (6S), a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of 6S in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. The in vitro metabolism of 6S was compared among five species using liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Following incubations with 6S, three major reductive metabolites 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), as well as two new oxidative metabolites (1E,4E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-deca-1,4-dien-3-one (M14) and (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-dec-1-en-3-one (M15) were found in all species. The kinetic parameters of M6 in liver microsomes from each respective species were quantified using Michaelis-Menten theory. A broad CYP-450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, precluded the formation of oxidative metabolites, M14 and M15, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor, eradicated the formation of the reductive metabolites M6, M9, and M11 in all species. Metabolites M14 and M15 were tested for cancer cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis and both showed substantial activity, with M14 displaying greater potency than 6S. We conclude that 6S is metabolized extensively in mammalian species mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, and that there are significant interspecies differences to consider when planning preclinical trials toward 6S chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Metabolism of Ginger Component [6]-Shogaol in Liver Microsomes from Mouse, Rat, Dog, Monkey, and Human

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huadong; Soroka, Dominique; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-01-01

    Scope There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Methods and results The in vitro metabolism of [6]-shogaol was compared among five species using liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Following incubations with [6]-shogaol, three major reductive metabolites 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), as well as two new oxidative metabolites (1E, 4E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-deca-1,4-dien-3-one (M14) and (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-dec-1-en-3-one (M15) were found in all species. The kinetic parameters of M6 in liver microsomes from each respective species were quantified using Michaelis-Menten theory. A broad CYP-450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, precluded the formation of oxidative metabolites M14 and M15, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor, eradicated the formation of the reductive metabolites M6, M9, and M11 in all species. Metabolites M14 and M15 were tested for cancer cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis and both showed substantial activity, with M14 displaying greater potency than [6]-shogaol. Conclusion We conclude that [6]-shogaol is metabolized extensively in mammalian species mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, and that there are significant interspecies differences to consider when planning pre-clinical trials towards [6]-shogaol chemoprevention. PMID:23322474

  11. Determination of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of (-)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Haigou, R

    2011-12-01

    The in vitro metabolism of (-)-terpinen-4-ol was examined in human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The biotransformation of (-)-terpinen-4-ol was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (-)-Terpinen-4-ol was found to be oxidized to (-)-(1S,2R,4R)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol, major metabolic product by human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. The formation of metabolites of (-)-terpinen-4-ol was determined by relative abundance of mass fragments and retention times on GC. CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes was a major enzyme involved in the oxidation of (-)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes, based on the following lines of evidence. First, of 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2A6 had the highest activity for oxidation of (-)-terpinen-4-ol. Second, oxidation of (-)-terpinen-4-ol was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran. Finally, there was a good correlation between CYP2A6 maker activity and (-)-terpinen-4-ol oxidation activities in liver microsomes of 10 human samples. Kinetic analysis showed that the V(max)/K(m) values for (-)-(1S,2R,4R)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol catalysed by liver microsomes of human sample HH-18 was 2.49 μL/min/nmol. Human recombinant CYP2A6 catalysed (-)-(1S,2R,4R)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol with V(max) values of 13.9 nmol/min/nmol P450 and apparent K(m) values of 91 μM.

  12. In Vitro Metabolism of Artepillin C by Rat and Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Carrão, Daniel Blascke; de Albuquerque, Nayara Cristina Perez; Marques, Lucas Maciel Mauriz; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pilon, Alan Cesar; Bolzani, Vanderlan Da Silva; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2017-01-10

    Artepillin C, a natural product present in the Brazilian green propolis, has several biological properties. Among these properties, the antitumor action of this product is noteworthy and makes it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of several types of cancer. This paper describes the in vitro metabolism of Artepillin C in rat and human liver microsomes. The rat model suggested a sigmoidal profile for the metabolism, adapted to the Hill's kinetic model. The enzymatic kinetic parameters were as follows: maximal velocity = 0.757 ± 0.021 µmol/mg protein/min, Hill coefficient = 10.90 ± 2.80, and substrate concentration at which half-maximal velocity of a Hill enzyme is achieved = 33.35 ± 0.55 µM. Based on these results, the calculated in vitro intrinsic clearance for Artepillin C was 16.63 ± 1.52 µL/min/mg protein. The in vitro metabolism assay conducted on the human model did not fit any enzymatic kinetic model. Two novel metabolites were formed in both mammal microsomal models and their chemical structures were elucidated for the first time. The main human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in Artepillin C metabolism had been identified, and the results suggest a majority contribution of CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 in the formation of the two metabolites.

  13. Identification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol metabolites in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Dan; Zhong, Dafang

    2011-03-01

    20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD, 1) is one of the aglycones of the ginsenosides and has a wide range of pharmacological activities. At present, PPD has progressed to early clinical trials as an antidepressant. In this study, its fate in mixed human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human hepatocytes was examined for the first time. By using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, 24 metabolites were found. Four metabolites were isolated, and their structures were elucidated as (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3,12,25-triol (2), (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-3,12,25-triol (3), (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-one (4), and (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-one (5) based on a detailed analysis of their spectroscopic data. The predominant metabolic pathway of PPD observed was the oxidation of the 24,25-double bond to yield 24,25-epoxides, followed by hydrolysis and rearrangement to form the corresponding 24,25-vicinal diol derivatives (M6) and the 20,24-oxide form (2 and 3). Further sequential metabolites (M2-M5) were also detected through the hydroxylation and dehydrogenation of 2 and 3. All of the phase I metabolites except for M1-1 possess a hydroxyl group at C-25 of the side chain, which was newly formed by biotransformation. Two glucuronide conjugates (M7) attributed to 2 and 3 were detected in human hepatocyte incubations, and their conjugation sites were tentatively assigned to the 25-hydroxyl group. The findings of this study strongly suggested that the formation of the 25-hydroxyl group is very important for the elimination of PPD.

  14. Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, F I; Al-Thukair, A A; Abbas, F A; Ansari, M J; Alkharfy, K M; Al-Mohizea, A M; Al-Suwayeh, S A; Jamil, S

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of black seed on the metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes and in human subjects using dextromethorphan as a probe drug. CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of dextromethorphan (DEX) to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively, were utilized to assess the metabolic activities of the two enzymatic pathways. In the in vitro experiments, DEX was incubated with microsomes and NADPH in absence or presence of black seed extract (10-100 microg/ml) and the formation of the metabolites were measured by HPLC. In the clinical study, four healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of DEX 30 mg alone in phase I, and along with last dose of black seed (2.5 g twice daily for seven days) in phase II. Activities of the two enzymes were evaluated based on the urinary metabolic ratios (MRs), which were calculated from eight-hour urine collections. DEX and its metabolites were assayed in urine samples by HPLC following a liquid-liquid extraction. Black seed extracts significantly inhibited the formation of both metabolites in microsomes. The maximum inhibition was observed at the highest extract concentration (i.e., 100 microg/ml), which was about 80% and 60% for DOR and 3-MM, respectively. In the clinical study, the urinary MRs of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM increased by factors of 127 and 1.6-fold, respectively, after consumption of black seed. Black seed significantly inhibited CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of DEX in human liver microsomes and healthy human volunteers indicating that it has the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.

  15. Metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Yuuki; Usami, Atsushi; Rangsunvigit, Pramoch; Malakul, Pomthong; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide was investigated using human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes for the first time. Both isomers of rose oxide were incubated with human liver microsomes, and the formation of the respective 9-oxidized metabolite were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of 11 different recombinant human P450 enzymes used, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 were the primary enzymes catalysing the metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide. CYP1A2 also efficiently oxidized (-)-cis-rose oxide at the 9-position but not (-)-trans-rose oxide. α-Naphthoflavone (a selective CYP1A2 inhibitor), thioTEPA (a CYP2B6 inhibitor) and anti-CYP2B6 antibody inhibited (-)-cis-rose oxide 9-hydroxylation catalysed by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, the metabolism of (-)-trans-rose oxide was suppressed by thioTEPA and anti-CYP2B6 at a significant level in human liver microsomes. However, omeprazole (a CYP2C19 inhibitor) had no significant effects on the metabolism of both isomers of rose oxide. Using microsomal preparations from nine different human liver samples, (-)-9-hydroxy-cis- and (-)-9-hydroxy-trans-rose oxide formations correlated with (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylase activity (CYP2B6 marker activity). These results suggest that CYP2B6 plays important roles in the metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide in human liver microsomes.

  16. Haplotype-based identification of a microsomal transfer protein marker associated with the human lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Geesaman, Bard J.; Benson, Erica; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Blanché, Hélène; Thomas, Gilles; Perls, Thomas T.; Daly, Mark J.; Puca, Annibale A.

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported a genomewide linkage study for human longevity using 308 long-lived individuals (LLI) (centenarians or near-centenarians) in 137 sibships and identified statistically significant linkage within chromosome 4 near microsatellite D4S1564. This interval spans 12 million bp and contains ≈50 putative genes. To identify the specific gene and gene variants impacting lifespan, we performed a haplotype-based fine-mapping study of the interval. The resulting genetic association study identified a haplotype marker within microsomal transfer protein as a modifier of human lifespan. This same variant was tested in a second cohort of LLI from France, and although the association was not replicated, there was evidence for statistical distortion in the form of Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium. Microsomal transfer protein has been identified as the rate-limiting step in lipoprotein synthesis and may affect longevity by subtly modulating this pathway. This study provides proof of concept for the feasibility of using the genomes of LLI to identify genes impacting longevity. PMID:14615589

  17. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 by Propolis in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Chae, Jung-woo; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-01-01

    Although propolis is one of the most popular functional foods for human health, there have been no comprehensive studies of herb-drug interactions through cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of propolis on the activities of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Propolis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 with an IC50 value of 6.9, 16.8, and 43.1 μg/mL, respectively, whereas CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were unaffected. Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration shifts between microsomes incubated with and without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, propolis-induced CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 inhibition was metabolism-independent. To evaluate the interaction potential between propolis and therapeutic drugs, the effects of propolis on metabolism of duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, were determined in HLMs. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are involved in hydroxylation of duloxetine to 4-hydroxy duloxetine, the major metabolite, which was decreased following propolis addition in HLMs. These results raise the possibility of interactions between propolis and therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. PMID:27437087

  18. Metabolism of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD) in human liver microsomes and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Klette, K L; Anderson, C J; Poch, G K; Nimrod, A C; ElSohly, M A

    2000-10-01

    The metabolism of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) was investigated in liver microsomes and cyropreserved hepatocytes from humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that O-H-LSD is present in human urine at concentrations 16-43 times greater than LSD, the parent compound. Additionally, these studies have determined that O-H-LSD is not generated during the specimen extraction and analytical processes or due to parent compound degradation in aqueous urine samples. However, these studies have not been conclusive in demonstrating that O-H-LSD is uniquely produced during in vivo metabolism. Phase I drug metabolism was investigated by incubating human liver microsomes and cryopreserved human hepatocytes with LSD. The reaction was quenched at various time points, and the aliquots were extracted using liquid partitioning and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. O-H-LSD was positively identified in all human liver microsomal and human hepatocyte fractions incubated with LSD. In addition, O-H-LSD was not detected in any microsomal or hepatocyte fraction not treated with LSD nor in LSD specimens devoid of microsomes or hepatocytes. This study provides definitive evidence that O-H-LSD is produced as a metabolic product following incubation of human liver microsomes and hepatocytes with LSD.

  19. Aromatization of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone by human placental microsomes in vitro.

    PubMed

    LaMorte, A; Kumar, N; Bardin, C W; Sundaram, K

    1994-02-01

    Part of the biological effects of testosterone (T) are mediated by its enzymatic reduction to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or aromatization to estradiol (E2). 7 alpha-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is a synthetic androgen that is considerably more potent than T. Previous studies have shown that MENT is not 5 alpha-reduced. The studies reported here were undertaken to determine whether MENT undergoes enzymatic aromatization in vitro. Human placental microsomes were used as the source of the aromatase. Radioactive or nonradioactive T or MENT was incubated with the microsomes in the presence of NADPH and the metabolites extracted out with ethyl ether. Following evaporation of ether, the residue was dissolved in benzene-petroleum ether and extracted with 0.4 N NaOH which selectively removes phenolic metabolites of the androgens. When either radioactive T or MENT was incubated with the aromatase in the presence of NADPH, there was a 20-fold increase in the amount of radioactivity extracted with NaOH. In contrast, if the incubation was carried out in the absence of NADPH or in the presence of R76713, an aromatase inhibitor, most of the radioactivity remained in the benzene-petroleum ether phase. To further identify the enzymatic reaction products, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed. The Rf value for MENT was 0.22 while that of the major reaction product was 0.34, which corresponded with the RF value of the estrogen, 7 alpha-methyl-estradiol (MeE2). This was further verified by using a second solvent system for the chromatographic separation. In an effort to ascertain whether the metabolites bind to estrogen receptors (ER), rat uterine cytosol was used. NaOH extracts of medium following incubation of nonradioactive MENT with microsomes showed competitive inhibition of [3H]E2 binding to rat uterine ER. Furthermore, after [3H]MENT was incubated with microsomes, the radioactive metabolite extracted in NaOH showed specific binding to the ER which could

  20. Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of tolperisone by human microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dalmadi, Balázs; Leibinger, János; Szeberényi, Szabolcs; Borbás, Tímea; Farkas, Sándor; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Tihanyi, Károly

    2003-05-01

    The in vitro metabolism of tolperisone, 1-(4-methyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-(1-piperidino)-1-propanone-hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was examined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed methyl-hydroxylation (metabolite at m/z 261; M1) as the main metabolic route in HLM, however, metabolites of two mass units greater than the parent compound and the hydroxy-metabolite were also detected (m/z 247 and m/z 263, respectively). The latter was identified as carbonyl-reduced M1, the former was assumed to be the carbonyl-reduced parent compound. Isoform-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors, inhibitory antibodies, and experiments with recombinant P450s pointed to CYP2D6 as the prominent enzyme in tolperisone metabolism. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, and CYP1A2 are also involved to a smaller extent. Hydroxymethyl-tolperisone formation was mediated by CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, but not by CYP2B6. Tolperisone competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation and bufuralol hydroxylation (K(i) = 17 and 30 microM, respectively). Tolperisone inhibited methyl p-tolyl sulfide oxidation (K(i) = 1200 microM) in recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and resulted in a 3-fold (p < 0.01) higher turnover number using rFMO3 than that of control microsomes. Experiments using nonspecific P450 inhibitors-SKF-525A, 1-aminobenzotriazole, 1-benzylimidazole, and anti-NADPH-P450-reductase antibodies-resulted in 61, 47, 49, and 43% inhibition of intrinsic clearance in HLM, respectively, whereas hydroxymethyl-metabolite formation was inhibited completely by nonspecific chemical inhibitors and by 80% with antibodies. Therefore, it was concluded that tolperisone undergoes P450-dependent and P450-independent microsomal biotransformations to the same extent. On the basis of metabolites formed and indirect evidences of inhibition studies, a considerable involvement of a microsomal reductase is

  1. Involvement of CYP2D6 in oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine and flunarizine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, S; Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Ohmori, S; Kitada, M; Hosokawa, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T

    1993-06-30

    Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) and its fluorine derivative flunarizine (FZ), both of which are selective calcium entry blockers, was examined in human liver microsomes. The ring-hydroxylations and the N-desalkylations constituted primary metabolic pathways in microsomal metabolism of CZ and FZ. Among these pathways, the ring-hydroxylase (p-hydroxylation) activities at the cinnamyl moiety of both drugs were highly correlated with debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity and CYP2D6 content. Quinidine, a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6, suppressed the ring-hydroxylase activities of CZ and FZ. These results suggest that CYP2D6 is involved in the ring-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl moiety of both CZ and FZ in human liver microsomes.

  2. Differences in metabolite-mediated toxicity of tamoxifen in rodents versus humans elucidated with DNA/microsome electro-optical arrays and nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Zhang, Yun; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2009-02-01

    Tamoxifen, a therapeutic and chemopreventive breast cancer drug, was chosen as a model compound because of acknowledged species specific toxicity differences. Emerging approaches utilizing electro-optical arrays and nanoreactors based on DNA/microsome films were used to compare metabolite-mediated toxicity differences of tamoxifen in rodents versus humans. Hits triggered by liver enzyme metabolism were first provided by arrays utilizing a DNA damage end point. The arrays feature thin-film spots containing an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) ruthenium polymer ([Ru(bpy)(2)PVP(10)](2+); PVP, polyvinylpyridine), DNA, and liver microsomes. When DNA damage resulted from reactions with tamoxifen metabolites, it was detected by an increase in light from the oxidation of the damaged DNA by the ECL metallopolymer. The slope of ECL generation versus enzyme reaction time correlated with the rate of DNA damage. An approximate 2-fold greater ECL turnover rate was observed for spots with rat liver microsomes compared to that with human liver microsomes. These results were supported by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of reaction products using nanoreactors featuring analogous films on silica nanoparticles, allowing the direct measurement of the relative formation rate for alpha-(N(2)-deoxyguanosinyl)tamoxifen. We observed 2-5-fold more rapid formation rates for three major metabolites, i.e., alpha-hydroxytamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and tamoxifen N-oxide, catalyzed by rat liver microsomes compared to human liver microsomes. Comparable formation rates were observed for N-desmethyl tamoxifen with rat and human liver microsomes. A better detoxifying capacity for human liver microsomes than rat liver microsomes was confirmed utilizing glucuronyltransferase in microsomes together with UDP-glucuronic acid. Taken together, lower genotoxicity and higher detoxication rates presented by human liver microsomes correlate with the lower risk of tamoxifen in

  3. The CYP2A3 gene product catalyzes coumarin 7-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Shigeru; Tatsuno, Jun; Gonzalez, F.J. )

    1990-02-06

    Three cDNAs, designated IIA3, IIA3v, and IIA4, coding for P450s in the CYP2A gene subfamily were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 library prepared from human hepatic mRNA. Only three nucleotide differences and a single amino acid difference, Leu{sup 160}{yields}His, were found between IIA3 and IIA3v, indicating that they are probably allelic variants. IIA4 displayed 94% amino acid similarity with IIA3 and IIA3v. The three cDNAs were inserted into vaccinia virus, and recombinant viruses were used to infect human hepatoma Hep G2 cells. Only IIA3 was able to produce an enzyme that had a reduced CO-bound spectrum with a {lambda}{sub max} at 450 nm. This expressed enzyme was able to carry out coumarin 7-hydroxylation and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation. cDNA-expressed IIA3v and IIA4 failed to incorporate heme and were enzymatically inactive. Analysis of IIA proteins in human liver microsomes, using antibody against rat IIA2, revealed two proteins of 49 and 50 kDa, the former of which appeared to correlate with human microsomal coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. A more striking correlation was found between IIa mRNA and enzyme activity. The rat antibody was able to completely abolish coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity in 12 liver samples. These data establish that the CYP2A3 gene product is primarily responsible for coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity in human liver. The level of expression of this activity varied up to 40-fold between livers. Levels of IIA mRNA also varied significantly between liver specimens, and three specimens had no detectable mRNA.

  4. Vanadium-mediated lipid peroxidation in microsomes from human term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Byczkowski, J.Z.; Wan, B.; Kulkarni, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    Vanadium is considered an essential element present in living organisms in trace amounts but it is toxic when introduced in excessive doses to animals and humans. Vanadium compounds are extensively used in modern industry and occupational exposure to high doses of vanadium is quite common. In pregnant mice, vanadium accumulates preferentially in the placenta and to lower extent in fetal skeleton and mammary gland during exposure to radioactive vanadium. Accumulation of vanadium in fetoplacental unit may present threat to the fetus by interacting with enzymes and ion-transporting systems in membranes. It is also possible that accumulation of vanadium with its concomitant reduction to vanadyl may lead to lipid peroxidation, followed by damage to biological membranes, lysosomal enzymes release and destruction of placental tissue. To explore some of these possibilities the authors decided to examine whether vanadate can undergo redox cycling in microsomes from human term placenta (HTP) that can lead to lipid peroxidation.

  5. Differential inhibition of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by gestodene action on human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, B R; Oh, H S; Kim, D H

    1997-11-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A is known to be involved in the formation of both aflatoxin B1-exo-8,9-epoxide (exo-epoxidation) and aflatoxin Q1 (3 alpha-hydroxylation). Gestodene, a known inactivator of P450 3A4, inhibited the formation of AFB1 metabolites in a variety of ways depending on the incubation condition. Preincubation of gestodene with human liver microsomes prior to the addition of AFB1 inhibited both exo-epoxidation and 3 alpha-hydroxylation whereas simultaneous incubation of gestodene with AFB1 only inhibited 3 alpha-hydroxylation. These results suggest that two independent substrate binding sites exist in P450 3A4, and AFB1 binds to both of the binding sites. Gestodene selectively binds to one of the binding sites leading to the formation of AFQ1, whereas it does not affect the formation of exo-epoxide via the other binding site.

  6. Pramipexole Derivatives as Potent and Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists with Improved Human Microsomal Stability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng; Levant, Beth; Li, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Luo, Ruijuan; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis and evaluation of a series of new pramipexole derivatives as highly potent and selective dopamine-3 (D3) receptor agonists. A number of these new compounds bind to the D3 receptor with subnanomolar affinities and show excellent selectivity (>10,000) for the D3 receptor over the D1 and D2 receptors. Compound 23 for example, binds to the D3 receptor with a Ki value of 0.53 nM and shows a selectivity of >20,000 over the D2 receptor and the D1 receptor in the binding assays using a rat brain preparation. It has excellent stability in human liver microsomes and in vitro functional assays showed it to be a full agonist for the human D3 receptor. PMID:25338762

  7. Mechanistic insights from comparing intrinsic clearance values between human liver microsomes and hepatocytes to guide drug design.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Keefer, Christopher; Scott, Dennis O; Strelevitz, Timothy J; Chang, George; Bi, Yi-An; Lai, Yurong; Duckworth, Jonathon; Fenner, Katherine; Troutman, Matthew D; Obach, R Scott

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic stability of drug candidates are often determined in both liver microsome and hepatocyte assays. Comparison of intrinsic clearance values between the two assays provides additional information to guide drug design. Intrinsic clearance values from human liver microsomes and hepatocytes were compared for a set of commercial drugs with known metabolic pathways and transporter characteristics. The results showed that for compounds that were predominately metabolized by CYP mediated mechanisms, the intrinsic clearance values from the two assays were comparable. For compounds with non-CYP pathways, such as UGT and AO, intrinsic clearance was faster in hepatocytes than in microsomes. Substrates of uptake or efflux transporters in this study did not have significant differences of intrinsic clearance between microsomes and hepatocytes, when uptake into the hepatocytes was not the rate-limiting step. When hepatic uptake was rate limiting, intrinsic clearance in microsomes was faster than that in hepatocytes, which was more prevalent for compounds with rapid metabolism. Low passive permeability can limit the exposure to drug molecules to the metabolizing enzymes in the hepatocytes in relationship to the rate of metabolism. The faster the rate of metabolism, the higher permeability is needed for molecule to enter the cells and not becoming rate-limiting. The findings are very useful for drug discovery programs to gain additional insights on mechanistic information to help drug design without added experiments. Follow-up studies can then be designed to address specific questions.

  8. Aromatase inhibition by synthetic lactones and flavonoids in human placental microsomes and breast fibroblasts - A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Nijmeijer, S.; Mutarapat, T.; Ruchirawat, S.; Jong, P.C. de; Piersma, A.H.; Berg, M. van den

    2008-05-01

    Interference of exogenous chemicals with the aromatase enzyme can be useful as a tool to identify chemicals that could act either chemopreventive for hormone-dependent cancer or adverse endocrine disruptive. Aromatase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroids, as it converts androgens to estrogens. Certain flavonoids, plant derived chemicals, are known catalytic aromatase inhibitors. Various systems are in use to test aromatase inhibitory properties of compounds. Commonly used are microsomes derived from ovary or placental tissue characterized by high aromatase activity. To a lesser extent whole cell systems are used and specifically cell systems that are potential target tissue in breast cancer development. In this study aromatase inhibitory properties of fadrozole, 8-prenylnaringenin and a synthetic lactone (TM-7) were determined in human placental microsomes and in human primary breast fibroblasts. In addition, apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and two synthetic lactones (TM-8 and TM-9) were tested in human microsomes only. Comparison of the aromatase inhibitory potencies of these compounds between the two test systems showed that the measurement of aromatase inhibition in human placental microsomes is a good predictor of aromatase inhibition in human breast fibroblasts.

  9. Aromatase inhibition by synthetic lactones and flavonoids in human placental microsomes and breast fibroblasts--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; Nijmeijer, S; Mutarapat, T; Ruchirawat, S; de Jong, P C; Piersma, A H; van den Berg, M

    2008-05-01

    Interference of exogenous chemicals with the aromatase enzyme can be useful as a tool to identify chemicals that could act either chemopreventive for hormone-dependent cancer or adverse endocrine disruptive. Aromatase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroids, as it converts androgens to estrogens. Certain flavonoids, plant derived chemicals, are known catalytic aromatase inhibitors. Various systems are in use to test aromatase inhibitory properties of compounds. Commonly used are microsomes derived from ovary or placental tissue characterized by high aromatase activity. To a lesser extent whole cell systems are used and specifically cell systems that are potential target tissue in breast cancer development. In this study aromatase inhibitory properties of fadrozole, 8-prenylnaringenin and a synthetic lactone (TM-7) were determined in human placental microsomes and in human primary breast fibroblasts. In addition, apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and two synthetic lactones (TM-8 and TM-9) were tested in human microsomes only. Comparison of the aromatase inhibitory potencies of these compounds between the two test systems showed that the measurement of aromatase inhibition in human placental microsomes is a good predictor of aromatase inhibition in human breast fibroblasts.

  10. Glucuronidation versus oxidation of the flavonoid galangin by human liver microsomes and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Otake, Yoko; Hsieh, Faye; Walle, Thomas

    2002-05-01

    In a previous study, we used human liver microsomes for the first time to study cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated oxidation of the flavonoid galangin. The combination of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 produced a V(max)/K(m) value of 13.6 +/- 1.1 microl/min/mg of protein. In the present extended study, we determined glucuronidation rates for galangin with the same microsomes. Two major and one minor glucuronide were identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The V(max)/K(m) values for the two major glucuronides conjugated in the 7- and 3-positions were 155 +/- 30 and 427 +/- 26 microl/min/mg of protein, thus, exceeding that of oxidation by 11 and 31 times, respectively. This highly efficient glucuronidation appeared to be catalyzed mainly by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 isoform but also by UGT1A1 and UGT2B15. Sulfation of galangin by the human liver cytosol, mediated mainly but not exclusively by sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1, also appeared to be efficient. These conclusions were strongly supported by experiments using the S9 fraction of the human liver, in which all three metabolic pathways could be directly compared. When galangin metabolism was examined in fresh plated hepatocytes from six donors, glucuronidation clearly predominated followed by sulfation. Oxidation occurred only to a minor extent in two of the donors. This study for the first time establishes that glucuronidation and sulfation of galangin, and maybe other flavonoids, are more efficient than P450-mediated oxidation, clearly being the metabolic pathways of choice in intact cells and therefore likely also in vivo.

  11. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Linan; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-06-01

    Aildenafil, 1-{[3-(6, 7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4, 3-d] primidin-5-yl)-4-ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl}-cis-3, 5-dimethylpiperazine, a phosphodiesterase type V enzyme inhibitor (PDE5I), is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to elucidate metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. Thirty-one phase I metabolites have been found by LTQ/Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry in rat urine, faeces, and bile after oral administration. Major biotransformation pathways of aildenafil included N-dealkylation of the piperazine ring, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, aliphatic hydroxylation and loss of alkyl group of piperazine ring. Minor pathways involved hydroxylation on the phenyl ring, pyrazole N-demethylation, O-deethylation, loss of piperazine ring (cleavage of N-S bond) and dehydrogenation on the piperazine ring. Similar metabolic pathways of aildenafil were observed in the incubations of liver microsomes from mouse, rat, and dog as well as from human. The depletion rate of parent drug in mouse and rat liver microsomes was significantly different from that in human liver microsomes. The cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping analysis was conducted using isozyme-specific inhibitors. The results indicated that CYP3A was the main isoenzyme involved in oxidative metabolism of aildenafil. Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide valuable information on possible metabolic behaviours of aildenafil in humans.

  12. In vitro metabolic clearance of pyrethroid pesticides by rat and human hepatic microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species differences in the intrinsic clearance (CLint) and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides were examined in rat and human hepatic microsomes. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin, bioresmethrin, β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, cis-per...

  13. Characterization of in vitro metabolites of luotonin A in human liver microsomes using electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangkyu; Lee, Jaeick; Jahng, Yurngdong; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2013-06-01

    1. The pharmacological activity of luotonin A varies, depending on the type of functional group and the site of derivatization. To understand the in vivo efficacy of luotonin A, the in vitro metabolism of luotonin A was investigated in human liver microsomes and recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochromeP450 (CYP). 2. Incubation of luotonin A with pooled human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH-generating system resulted in the formation of four metabolites and the structures of each metabolite were tentatively characterized on the basis of electrospray tandem mass spectra. 3. The main metabolic pathway of luotonin A in human liver microsomes was hydroxylation, resulting in the generation of two mono-hydroxyl metabolites (M1 and M2) and two di-hydroxyl metabolites (M3 and M4). CYP1A2 was primarily involved in hydroxylation of the quinolone moiety (M1 and M3), while CYP3A4 was mainly responsible for hydroxylation of the quinazoline moiety of luotonin A (M2 and M4) in human liver microsomes.

  14. In vitro metabolic clearance of pyrethroid pesticides by rat and human hepatic microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species differences in the intrinsic clearance (CLint) and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides were examined in rat and human hepatic microsomes. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin, bioresmethrin, β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, cis-per...

  15. The effect of enzyme inhibition on the metabolism and activation of tacrine by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Spaldin, V; Madden, S; Pool, W F; Woolf, T F; Park, B K

    1994-01-01

    1. Tacrine (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-aminoacridine-hydrochloride: THA) underwent metabolism in vitro by a panel (n = 12) of human liver microsomes genotyped for CYP2D6, in the presence of NADPH, to both protein-reactive and stable metabolites. 2. There was considerable variation in the extent of THA metabolism amongst human livers. Protein-reactive metabolite formation showed a 10-fold variation (0.6 +/- 0.1%-5.2 +/- 0.8% of incubated radioactivity mg-1 protein) whilst stable metabolites showed a 3-fold variation (24.3 +/- 1.7%-78.6 +/- 2.6% of incubated radioactivity). 3. Using cytochrome P450 isoform specific inhibitors CYP1A2 was identified as the major enzyme involved in all routes of THA metabolism. 4. There was a high correlation between aromatic and alicyclic hydroxylation (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001) consistent with these biotransformations being catalysed by the same enzymes. 5. Enoxacin (ENOX), cimetidine (CIM) and chloroquine (CQ) inhibited THA metabolism by a preferential decrease in the bioactivation to protein-reactive, and hence potentially toxic, species. The inhibitory potency of ENOX and CIM was increased significantly upon pre-incubation with microsomes and NADPH. 6. Covalent binding correlated with 7-OH-THA formation before (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001) and after (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001) inhibition by CIM, consistent with a two-step mechanism in the formation of protein-reactive metabolite(s) via a 7-OH intermediate. 7. The use of enzyme inhibitors may provide a useful tool for examining the relationship between the metabolism and toxicity of THA in vivo. PMID:7946932

  16. Reductive metabolism of nabumetone by human liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions: exploratory prediction using inhibitors and substrates as marker probes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Koyanagi, Junichi; Takahashi, Tamiko; Akimoto, Masayuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic reduction of nabumetone was examined by inhibition and correlation studies using human liver microsomes and cytosol. This reduction was observed in both fractions, with the V(max) values for reduction activity being approximately fourfold higher, and the V(max)/K(m) values approximately three-fold higher, in the microsomes than in the cytosol. The reduction of nabumetone was inhibited by 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) inhibitor, in the microsomal fraction. The reduction activity was also inhibited by quercetin and menadione [carbonyl reductase (CBR) inhibitors], and by phenolphthalein and medroxyprogesterone acetate [potent inhibitors of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C1, 1C2 and 1C4] in the cytosol. A good correlation (r² = 0.93) was observed between the reduction of nabumetone and of cortisone, as a marker of 11β-HSD activity, in the microsomal fractions. There was also an excellent relationship between reduction of nabumetone and of the AKR1C substrates, acetohexamide, and ethacrynic acid (r 2 = 0.92 and 0.93, respectively), in the cytosol fractions. However, a poor correlation was observed between the formation of 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-butan-2-ol (MNBO) from nabumetone and CBR activity (with 4-benzoyl pyridine reduction as a CBR substrate) in the cytosol fractions (r² = 0.24). These findings indicate that nabumetone may be metabolized by 11β-HSD in human liver microsomes, and primarily by AKR1C4 in human liver cytosol, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. It cannot be completely denied that CBR is involved to some extent in the formation of MNBO from nabumetone in the cytosol fraction.

  17. Metabolism of ebracteolata compound B studied in vitro with human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Yao, Yan; Lou, Yan; Jiang, Huidi; Wang, Xiaowen; Chai, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Su

    2010-12-01

    Ebracteolata compound B (ECB) is one major active component of both Euphorbia ebracteolata and Euphorbia fischeriana, which have been extensively used as a tuberculocide in the Asian countries. The aim of our present study was to characterize ECB metabolism in human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes. One monohydroxylation metabolite, determined by mass spectrometry to be 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyethanone, and one monoglucuronide, isolated and determined by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR to be 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-acetophenone-4-O-β-glucuronide, were observed in human liver microsomal incubates in the presence of NADPH or UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA), respectively. However, the mixed incubation of ECB with human liver microsomes in the presence of both NADPH and UDPGA showed the monoglucuronide to be the most major metabolite, indicating that glucuronidation was probably the major clearance pathway of ECB in humans. No glucuronide and only trace monohydroxylation metabolite were observed in HepG2 cells. The cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes were identified by using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. The results indicated that CYP3A4 was probably involved in ECB oxidative metabolism and UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 were important catalytic enzymes in ECB glucuronidation. The results from enzymatic kinetic analysis showed the oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes; the glucuronidation in human liver microsomes and recombinant UGT1A6 exhibited a typical Michaelis-Menten pattern, but the glucuronidation in UGT1A9 exhibited a substrate inhibition pattern. UGT1A6 had the highest affinity compared with human liver microsomes and UGT1A9, indicating its important role in ECB glucuronidation.

  18. Selective Inhibition of Bakuchicin Isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on CYP1A in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Joo; Oh, Heung Chan; Kim, Youn-Chul; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lee, Sangkyu

    2016-01-01

    Bakuchicin is a furanocoumarin isolated from Psoralea corylifolia and shows several biological activities. Although there have been studies on the biological effects of bakuchicin, its modulation potency of CYP activities has not been previously investigated. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of bakuchicin on the activities of CYP isoforms by using a cocktail of probe substrates in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP. Bakuchicin strongly inhibited CYP1A-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation with an IC50 value of 0.43 μM in HLMs. It was confirmed by human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 with a K i value of 0.11 μM and 0.32 μM, respectively. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that the inhibition mechanism of bakuchicin was competitive inhibition. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the potential CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 inhibition associated with bakuchicin and to report its competitive inhibitory effects on HLMs.

  19. Quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronidation of tamoxifen by human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Teppei; Ogura, Kenichiro; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Muro, Kei; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2004-06-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, is the most widely used drug for chemotherapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer in women. In the present study, we found a new potential metabolic pathway of TAM via N-linked glucuronic acid conjugation for excretion in humans. TAM N(+)-glucuronide was isolated from a reaction mixture consisting of TAM and human liver microsomes fortified with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) and identified with a synthetic specimen by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. However, no TAM-glucuronidating activity was detected in microsomes from rat, mouse, monkey, dog, and guinea pig livers. A strong correlation (r(2) =0.92 ) was observed between N-glucuronidating activities toward TAM and trifluoperazine, a probe substrate for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4, in human liver microsomes from eight donors (five females, three males). However, no correlation ( (r(2) =0.02 )) was observed in the activities between 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin and TAM. Only UGT1A4 catalyzed the N-linked glucuronidation of TAM among recombinant UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) expressed in insect cells. Apparent K(m) values for TAM N-glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and recombinant UGT1A4 were 35.8 and 32.4 microM, respectively. These results strongly suggested that UGT1A4 could play a role in metabolism and excretion of TAM without Phase I metabolism in human liver. TAM N(+)-glucuronide still had binding affinity similar to TAM itself for human estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, suggesting that TAM N(+)-glucuronide might contribute to the biological activity of TAM in vivo.

  20. Discovery of Novel Splice Variants and Regulatory Mechanisms for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takashi; Swift, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a unique lipid transfer protein essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by the liver and intestine. Previous studies in mice identified a splice variant of MTP with an alternate first exon. Splice variants of human MTP have not been reported. Using PCR approaches we have identified two splice variants in human tissues, which we have named MTP-B and MTP-C. MTP-B has a unique first exon (Ex1B) located 10.5 kb upstream of the first exon (Ex1A) for canonical MTP (MTP-A); MTP-C contains both first exons for MTP-A and MTP-B. MTP-B was found in a number of tissues, whereas MTP-C was prominent in brain and testis. MTP-B does not encode a protein; MTP-C encodes the same protein encoded by MTP-A, although MTP-C translation is strongly inhibited by regulatory elements within its 5′-UTR. Using luciferase assays, we demonstrate that the promoter region upstream of exon 1B is quite adequate to drive expression of MTP. We conclude that alternate splicing plays a key role in regulating cellular MTP levels by introducing distinct promoter regions and unique 5′-UTRs, which contain elements that alter translation efficiency, enabling the cell to optimize MTP activity. PMID:27256115

  1. Troglitazone thiol adduct formation in human liver microsomes: enzyme kinetics and reaction phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jinping; Qu, Qinling; He, Bing; Shyu, Wen C; Rodrigues, A David; He, Kan

    2008-08-01

    Troglitazone (TGZ) induced hepatotoxicity has been linked to cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed reactive metabolite formation. Therefore, the kinetics and CYP specificity of reactive metabolite formation were studied using dansyl glutathione (dGSH) as a trapping agent after incubation of TGZ with human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human CYP proteins. CYP2C8 exhibited the highest rate of TGZ adduct (TGZ-dGS) formation, followed by CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19. The involvement of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 was confirmed with CYP form-selective chemical inhibitors. The impact of TGZ concentration on the rate of TGZ-dGS formation was also evaluated. In this instance, two distinctly different profiles were observed with recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. It is concluded that both CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8 play a major role in the formation of TGZ adduct in HLM. However, the contribution of these CYPs varies depending on their relative expression and the concentration of TGZ.

  2. Discovery of Novel Splice Variants and Regulatory Mechanisms for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Human Tissues.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Swift, Larry L

    2016-06-03

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a unique lipid transfer protein essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by the liver and intestine. Previous studies in mice identified a splice variant of MTP with an alternate first exon. Splice variants of human MTP have not been reported. Using PCR approaches we have identified two splice variants in human tissues, which we have named MTP-B and MTP-C. MTP-B has a unique first exon (Ex1B) located 10.5 kb upstream of the first exon (Ex1A) for canonical MTP (MTP-A); MTP-C contains both first exons for MTP-A and MTP-B. MTP-B was found in a number of tissues, whereas MTP-C was prominent in brain and testis. MTP-B does not encode a protein; MTP-C encodes the same protein encoded by MTP-A, although MTP-C translation is strongly inhibited by regulatory elements within its 5'-UTR. Using luciferase assays, we demonstrate that the promoter region upstream of exon 1B is quite adequate to drive expression of MTP. We conclude that alternate splicing plays a key role in regulating cellular MTP levels by introducing distinct promoter regions and unique 5'-UTRs, which contain elements that alter translation efficiency, enabling the cell to optimize MTP activity.

  3. Kinetics of tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) metabolism in human liver microsomes and serum.

    PubMed

    Van den Eede, Nele; Tomy, Gregg; Tao, Fang; Halldorson, Thor; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) is an emerging contaminant which is ubiquitous in the indoor and outdoor environment. Moreover, its presence in human body fluids and biota has been evidenced. Since no quantitative data exist on the biotransformation or stability of TCIPP in the human body, we performed an in vitro incubation of TCIPP with human liver microsomes (HLM) and human serum (HS). Two metabolites, namely bis(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate (BCIPP) and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) 1-hydroxy-2-propyl phosphate (BCIPHIPP), were quantified in a kinetic study using HLM or HS (only BCIPP, the hydrolysis product) and LC-MS. The Michaelis-Menten model fitted best the NADPH-dependent formation of BCIPHIPP and BCIPP in HLM, with respective V(MAX) of 154 ± 4 and 1470 ± 110 pmol/min/mg protein and respective apparent K(m) of 80.2 ± 4.4 and 96.1 ± 14.5 μM. Hydrolases, which are naturally present in HLM, were also involved in the production of BCIPP. A HS paraoxonase assay could not detect any BCIPP formation above 38.6 ± 10.8 pmol/min/μL serum. Our data indicate that BCIPP is the major metabolite of TCIPP formed in the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative assessment of the stability of TCIPP in tissues of humans or any other species. Further research is needed to confirm whether these biotransformation reactions are associated with a decrease or increase in toxicity.

  4. No association between microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) haplotype and longevity in humans.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Almut; Croucher, Peter J P; Stiegeler, Rieke; Nikolaus, Susanna; Krawczak, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan

    2005-05-31

    Human longevity is a multifactorial condition with a significant genetic contribution. A recent association study in two independent samples of long-lived U.S. Caucasians [long-lived individuals (LLI)] identified a SNP haplotype of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, 4q25) that was underrepresented among LLI when compared with younger controls. This suggested that variation in the MTP gene might modify human longevity. Because of its function in lipid metabolism, the MTP gene product could plausibly play a pivotal role in the physiology of aging. However, the association observed in the U.S. samples could not be replicated by the same authors in a larger French LLI sample. We have therefore investigated the MTP "risk" haplotype in our own collection of 1,589 German nonagenarians, centenarians, and appropriately matched controls. No statistically significant differences were observed between LLI and controls at the allele, genotype, or haplotype level. This indicates that a noteworthy influence of the respective MTP haplotype on human longevity in the German population is unlikely. Furthermore, in comparison with all other U.S. and European samples analyzed, the MTP "risk" haplotype was found to be overrepresented only in the U.S. controls. This implies that the putative association is more likely to reflect recent changes in the genetic structure of the U.S. Caucasian population as a whole, rather than genetic effects upon survival to old age. In our view, the original study therefore highlights potential problems that arise when the case-control design is used as a means to map longevity genes in humans.

  5. Enzyme kinetic study of a new cardioprotective agent, KR-32570 using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyunmi; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2007-04-01

    KR-32570 (5-(2-Methoxy-5-chlorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl)guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-32570 in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of two metabolites, hydroxy-KR-32570 and O-desmethyl-KR-32570. In this study, a kinetic analysis of the metabolism of two metabolites from KR-32570 was performed in human liver microsomes, and recombinant CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. The metabolism for hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation from KR-32570 by human liver microsomes was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation and a Hill equation, respectively. The Cl(int) values of hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation were similar to each other (0.03 vs 0.04 microL/min/pmol CYP, respectively). CYP3A4 mediated the formation of hydroxy-KR-32570 from KR-32570 with Cl(int) = 0.24 microL/min/pmol CYP3A4. The intrinsic clearance for O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation by CYP1A2 was 0.83 AL/min/pmol CYP1A2. These findings suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes are major enzymes contributing to the metabolism of KR-32570.

  6. Metabolic interaction between ethanol, high-dose alprazolam and its two main metabolites using human liver microsomes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Einosuke; Nakamura, Takako; Terada, Masaru; Shinozuka, Tatsuo; Honda, Katsuya

    2007-08-01

    Alprazolam is widely used as a short-acting antidepressant and anxiolytic agent and its effect appears at very low doses while ethanol is used as a social drug worldwide. Sometimes, toxic interactions occur following combined administration of these two drugs. In this study we have investigated the interaction between ethanol and high-dose alprazolam using human liver microsomes in vitro. The interaction effects between ethanol and alprazolam were examined by a mixed-function oxidation reaction using a human liver microsomal preparation. Alprazolam and its two main metabolites (alpha-hydroxyalprazolam: alpha-OH alprazolam, 4-hydroxyalprazolam: 4-OH alprazolam) were measured by HPLC/UV. The production of 4-OH alprazolam, one main metabolite of alprazolam, was weakly inhibited by higher dose of ethanol, but not alpha-OH alprazolam. These results using a human liver microsomal preparation show that the production of 4-OH alprazolam is weakly inhibited by ethanol but not alpha-OH alprazolam. Toxic levels may be reached by simultaneous administration of ethanol and high-dose alprazolam.

  7. In vitro metabolism of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogues in human liver microsomes to potent antimalarial dihydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Todd W; Kozar, Michael P; O'Neil, Michael T; Smith, Philip L; Schiehser, Guy A; Jacobus, David P; Diaz, Damaris S; Yang, Young-Sun; Milhous, Wilbur K; Skillman, Donald R

    2005-04-21

    Phenoxypropoxybiguanides, such as 1 (PS-15), are prodrugs analogous to the relationship of proguanil and its active metabolite cycloguanil. Unlike cycloguanil, however, 1a (WR99210), the active metabolite of 1, has retained in vitro potency against newly emerging antifolate-resistant malaria parasites. Unfortunately, manufacturing processes and gastrointestinal intolerance have prevented the clinical development of 1. In vitro antimalarial activity and in vitro metabolism studies have been performed on newly synthesized phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogues. All of the active dihydrotriazine metabolites exhibited potent antimalarial activity with in vitro IC(50) values less than 0.04 ng/mL. In vitro metabolism studies in human liver microsomes identified the production of not only the active dihydrotriazine metabolite, but also a desalkylation on the carbonyl chain, and multiple hydroxylated metabolites. The V(max) for production of the active metabolites ranged from 10.8 to 27.7 pmol/min/mg protein with the K(m) ranging from 44.8 to 221 microM. The results of these studies will be used to guide the selection of a lead candidate.

  8. Metabolism of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Dejan; Li, Yongmei; Chadwick, Lucas R; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B

    2005-03-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) used to flavor beer contain the prenylated flavonoids xanthohumol (XN) and isoxanthohumol (IX). IX is moderately estrogenic in vitro and XN has pharmacological properties that might make it useful as a cancer chemopreventive agent. The metabolism of these dietary flavonoids was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes. Hydroxylation of a prenyl methyl group was the primary route of oxidative metabolism forming either cis or trans hydroxylated metabolites of IX but only the trans isomer of XN. The double bond on the prenyl group of both compounds formed an epoxide which was opened by an intramolecular reaction with the neighboring hydroxyl group. The potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) was detected as a demethylation product of IX. However, the analogous demethylation reaction was not observed for XN. Since XN can be converted to IX through acid-catalyzed cyclization in the stomach, XN might contribute to the in vivo levels of estrogenic 8-PN following consumption of hops extracts.

  9. Metabolism of 8-prenylnaringenin, a potent phytoestrogen from hops (Humulus lupulus), by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Dejan; Li, Yongmei; Chadwick, Lucas R; Grubjesic, Simonida; Schwab, Pia; Metz, Peter; van Breemen, Richard B

    2004-02-01

    The female flowers of hops are used throughout the world as a flavoring agent for beer. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the potential estrogenic properties of hop extracts. Among the possible estrogenic compounds in hops, 8-prenylnaringenin is perhaps most significant due to its high in vitro potency exceeding that of other known phytoestrogens. Since data regarding the pharmacokinetic properties of this compound are lacking, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of 8-prenylnaringenin by human liver microsomes. A total of 12 metabolites were identified, and biotransformation occurred on the prenyl group and the flavanone skeleton. The major site of oxidation was on the terminal methyl groups, and of the two possible isomers, the transisomer was more abundant. The double bond on the prenyl group was also oxidized to an epoxide that was opened by intramolecular reaction with the neighboring hydroxyl group. On the flavanone skeleton, the major site of oxidation was at 3'position on the B ring. Other metabolites included oxidation at carbon-3 as well as desaturation of the C ring to produce 8-prenylapigenin. An unusual hydroxy quinone product formed by ipso hydroxylation of the B ring of 8-prenylnaringenin was also detected. This product was probably an intermediate for the B ring cleavage product, 8-prenylchromone.

  10. Cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I exhibit strong inhibition towards human liver microsome (HLM)-catalyzed propofol glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Cong, Ming; Hu, Cui-Min; Cao, Yun-Feng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Jia-Rui; Luo, Jun-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Danshen is one of the most famous herbs in the world, and more and more danshen-prescribed drugs interactions have been reported in recent years. Evaluation of inhibition potential of danshen's major ingredients towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) will be helpful for understanding detailed mechanisms for danshen-drugs interaction. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the inhibitory situation of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I towards UGT enzyme-catalyzed propofol glucuronidation. In vitro the human liver microsome (HLM) incubation system was used, and the results showed that cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I exhibited dose-dependent inhibition towards HLM-catalyzed propofol glucuronidation. Dixon plot and Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that the inhibition type was best fit to competitive inhibition type for both cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I. The second plot using the slopes from the Lineweaver-Burk plot versus the concentrations of cryptotanshinone or dihydrotanshinone I was employed to calculate the inhibition parameters (Ki) to be 0.4 and 1.7μM, respectively. Using the reported maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the altered in vivo exposure of propofol increased by 10% and 8.2% for the co-administration of dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone, respectively. All these results indicated the possible danshen-propofol interaction due to the inhibition of dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone towards the glucuronidation reaction of propofol.

  11. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the K(m) and CL(int) values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans < monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the K(m) or S50, Vmax and CL(int) or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys.

  12. Glucuronidation of 4-tert-octylphenol in humans, monkeys, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using liver and intestine microsomes.

    PubMed

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Ohkawara, Susumu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2017-03-01

    4-tert-Octylphenol (4-tOP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. It is mainly metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the glucuronidation of 4-tOP in humans, monkeys, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of 4-tOP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and monkeys, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m, V max, and CL int values of human liver microsomes were 0.343 µM, 11.6 nmol/min/mg protein, and 33.8 mL/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestine microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans, monkeys, and rats, and the biphasic model for mice. The K m, V max, and CL int values of human intestine microsomes were 0.743 µM, 0.571 nmol/min/mg protein, and 0.770 mL/min/mg protein, respectively. The CL int values estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were in the order of mice (high-affinity phase) (3.0) > humans (1.0) ≥ monkeys (0.9) > rats (high-affinity phase) (0.4) for liver microsomes, and monkeys (10) > mice (high-affinity phase) (5.6) > rats (1.4) > humans (1.0) for intestine microsomes. The percentages of the CL int values of intestine microsomes to liver microsomes were in the order of monkeys (27 %) > rats (high-affinity phase in liver microsomes) (7.9 %) > mice (high-affinity phase in liver and intestine microsomes) (4.2 %) > humans (2.3 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward 4-tOP markedly differ among species and imply that species differences are strongly associated with the toxicities of alkylphenols.

  13. A probabilistic method to report predictions from a human liver microsomes stability QSAR model: a practical tool for drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliagas, Ignacio; Gobbi, Alberto; Heffron, Timothy; Lee, Man-Ling; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Zak, Mark; Khojasteh, S. Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    Using data from the in vitro liver microsomes metabolic stability assay, we have developed QSAR models to predict in vitro human clearance. Models were trained using in house high-throughput assay data reported as the predicted human hepatic clearance by liver microsomes or pCLh. Machine learning regression methods were used to generate the models. Model output for a given molecule was reported as its probability of being metabolically stable, thus allowing for synthesis prioritization based on this prediction. Use of probability, instead of the regression value or categories, has been found to be an efficient way for both reporting and assessing predictions. Model performance is evaluated using prospective validation. These models have been integrated into a number of desktop tools, and the models are routinely used to prioritize the synthesis of compounds. We discuss two therapeutic projects at Genentech that exemplify the benefits of a probabilistic approach in applying the models. A three-year retrospective analysis of measured liver microsomes stability data on all registered compounds at Genentech reveals that the use of these models has resulted in an improved metabolic stability profile of synthesized compounds.

  14. A probabilistic method to report predictions from a human liver microsomes stability QSAR model: a practical tool for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Aliagas, Ignacio; Gobbi, Alberto; Heffron, Timothy; Lee, Man-Ling; Ortwine, Daniel F; Zak, Mark; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    Using data from the in vitro liver microsomes metabolic stability assay, we have developed QSAR models to predict in vitro human clearance. Models were trained using in house high-throughput assay data reported as the predicted human hepatic clearance by liver microsomes or pCLh. Machine learning regression methods were used to generate the models. Model output for a given molecule was reported as its probability of being metabolically stable, thus allowing for synthesis prioritization based on this prediction. Use of probability, instead of the regression value or categories, has been found to be an efficient way for both reporting and assessing predictions. Model performance is evaluated using prospective validation. These models have been integrated into a number of desktop tools, and the models are routinely used to prioritize the synthesis of compounds. We discuss two therapeutic projects at Genentech that exemplify the benefits of a probabilistic approach in applying the models. A three-year retrospective analysis of measured liver microsomes stability data on all registered compounds at Genentech reveals that the use of these models has resulted in an improved metabolic stability profile of synthesized compounds.

  15. S-Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT): role of UGT2B7 in the elimination of naproxen

    PubMed Central

    Bowalgaha, Kushari; Elliot, David J; Mackenzie, Peter I; Knights, Kathleen M; Swedmark, Stellan; Miners, John O

    2005-01-01

    Aims To characterize the kinetics of S-naproxen (‘naproxen’) acyl glucuronidation and desmethylnaproxen acyl and phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and identify the human UGT isoform(s) catalysing these reactions. Methods Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation were investigated using microsomes from six and five livers, respectively. Human recombinant UGTs were screened for activity towards naproxen and desmethylnaproxen. Where significant activity was observed, kinetic parameters were determined. Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronides were measured by separate high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Results Naproxen acyl glucuronidation by human liver microsomes followed biphasic kinetics. Mean apparent Km values (±SD, with 95% confidence interval in parentheses) for the high- and low-affinity components were 29 ± 13 µm (16, 43) and 473 ± 108 µm (359, 587), respectively. UGT 1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10 and 2B7 glucuronidated naproxen. UGT2B7 exhibited an apparent Km (72 µm) of the same order as the high-affinity human liver microsomal activity, which was inhibited by the UGT2B7 selective ‘probe’ fluconazole. Although data for desmethylnaproxen phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes were generally adequately fitted to either the single- or two-enzyme Michaelis–Menten equation, model fitting was inconclusive for desmethylnaproxen acyl glucuronidation. UGT 1A1, 1A7, 1A9 and 1A10 catalysed both the phenolic and acyl glucuronidation of desmethylnaproxen, while UGT 1A3, 1A6 and 2B7 formed only the acyl glucuronide. Atypical glucuronidation kinetics were variably observed for naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by the recombinant UGTs. Conclusion UGT2B7 is responsible for human hepatic naproxen acyl glucuronidation, which is the primary elimination pathway for this drug. PMID:16187975

  16. The Nonspecific Binding of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kushari; Nair, Pramod C; Rowland, Andrew; Mackenzie, Peter I; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-12-01

    Drugs and other chemicals frequently bind nonspecifically to the constituents of an in vitro incubation mixture, particularly the enzyme source [e.g., human liver microsomes (HLM)]. Correction for nonspecific binding (NSB) is essential for the accurate calculation of the kinetic parameters Km, Clint, and Ki. Many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are lipophilic organic bases that are nonionized at physiologic pH. Attempts to measure the NSB of several TKIs to HLM by equilibrium dialysis proved unsuccessful, presumably due to the limited aqueous solubility of these compounds. Thus, the addition of detergents to equilibrium dialysis samples was investigated as an approach to measure the NSB of TKIs. The binding of six validation set nonionized lipophilic bases (felodipine, isradipine, loratidine, midazolam, nifedipine, and pazopanib) to HLM (0.25 mg/ml) was shown to be unaffected by the addition of CHAPS (6 mM) to the dialysis medium. This approach was subsequently applied to measurement of the binding of axitinib, dabrafenib, erlotinib, gefitinib, ibrutinib, lapatinib, nilotinib, nintedanib, regorafenib, sorafenib, and trametinib to HLM (0.25 mg/ml). As with the validation set drugs, attainment of equilibrium was demonstrated in HLM-HLM and buffer-buffer control dialysis experiments. Values of the fraction unbound to HLM ranged from 0.14 (regorafenib and sorafenib) to 0.93 (nintedanib), and were generally consistent with the known physicochemical determinants of drug NSB. The extensive NSB of many TKIs to HLM underscores the importance of correction for TKI binding to HLM and, presumably, other enzyme sources present in in vitro incubation mixtures.

  17. Bioactivation of Trimethoprim to Protein-Reactive Metabolites in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer L; Koen, Yakov M; Rogers, Steven A; Li, Kelin; Leeder, James S; Hanzlik, Robert P

    2016-10-01

    The formation of drug-protein adducts via metabolic activation and covalent binding may stimulate an immune response or may result in direct cell toxicity. Protein covalent binding is a potentially pivotal step in the development of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs). Trimethoprim (TMP)-sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a combination antibiotic that commonly causes IADRs. Recent data suggest that the contribution of the TMP component of TMP-SMX to IADRs may be underappreciated. We previously demonstrated that TMP is bioactivated to chemically reactive intermediates that can be trapped in vitro by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and we have detected TMP-NAC adducts (i.e., mercapturic acids) in the urine of patients taking TMP-SMX. However, the occurrence and extent of TMP covalent binding to proteins was unknown. To determine the ability of TMP to form protein adducts, we incubated [(14)C]TMP with human liver microsomes in the presence and absence of NADPH. We observed protein covalent binding that was NADPH dependent and increased with incubation time and concentration of both protein and TMP. The estimated covalent binding was 0.8 nmol Eq TMP/mg protein, which is comparable to the level of covalent binding for several other drugs that have been associated with covalent binding-induced toxicity and/or IADRs. NAC and selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 significantly reduced TMP covalent binding. These results demonstrate for the first time that TMP bioactivation can lead directly to protein adduct formation, suggesting that TMP has been overlooked as a potential contributor of TMP-SMX IADRs.

  18. Androgen-sensitive microsomal signaling networks coupled to the proliferation and differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Harryl D; Hsiao, Jordy J; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi V; Eng, Jimmy K; Wright, Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of androgen-mediated cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and cell differentiation, contributes to the development of early-stage androgen-dependent prostate cancers. Large-scale mRNA profiling experiments have paved the way in identifying androgen-regulated gene networks that control the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Despite these extensive research efforts, it remains to be determined whether all androgen-mediated mRNA changes faithfully translate into changes in protein abundance that influence prostate tumorigenesis. Here, we report on a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis that identified known androgen signaling pathways and also novel, androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins and protein networks that had not been discovered by gene network studies in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins encoded components of the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further bioinformatic analyses showed most of the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated protein networks play roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Functional validation experiments showed that the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and I-kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) modulated the expression of prostate epithelial and neuronal markers, attenuated proliferation through an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism, and co-regulated androgen receptor-mediated transcription in LNCaP cells. Further biochemical analyses showed that the increased proliferation in JAK2 knockdown cells was mediated by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as determined by increased phosphorylation of several downstream targets (p70 S6 kinase

  19. Androgen-Sensitive Microsomal Signaling Networks Coupled to the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Harryl D.; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Eng, Jimmy K.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of androgen-mediated cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and cell differentiation, contributes to the development of early-stage androgen-dependent prostate cancers. Large-scale mRNA profiling experiments have paved the way in identifying androgen-regulated gene networks that control the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Despite these extensive research efforts, it remains to be determined whether all androgen-mediated mRNA changes faithfully translate into changes in protein abundance that influence prostate tumorigenesis. Here, we report on a mass spectrometry–based quantitative proteomics analysis that identified known androgen signaling pathways and also novel, androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins and protein networks that had not been discovered by gene network studies in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins encoded components of the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further bioinformatic analyses showed most of the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated protein networks play roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Functional validation experiments showed that the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and I-kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) modulated the expression of prostate epithelial and neuronal markers, attenuated proliferation through an androgen receptor–dependent mechanism, and co-regulated androgen receptor–mediated transcription in LNCaP cells. Further biochemical analyses showed that the increased proliferation in JAK2 knockdown cells was mediated by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as determined by increased phosphorylation of several downstream targets (p70 S6

  20. Evidence for Human Lung Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kajstura, Jan; Rota, Marcello; Hall, Sean R.; Hosoda, Toru; D’Amario, Domenico; Sanada, Fumihiro; Zheng, Hanqiao; Ogórek, Barbara; Rondon-Clavo, Carlos; Ferreira-Martins, João; Matsuda, Alex; Arranto, Christian; Goichberg, Polina; Giordano, Giovanna; Haley, Kathleen J.; Bardelli, Silvana; Rayatzadeh, Hussein; Liu, Xiaoli; Quaini, Federico; Liao, Ronglih; Leri, Annarosa; Perrella, Mark A.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Anversa, Piero

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although progenitor cells have been described in distinct anatomical regions of the lung, description of resident stem cells has remained elusive. METHODS Surgical lung-tissue specimens were studied in situ to identify and characterize human lung stem cells. We defined their phenotype and functional properties in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS Human lungs contain undifferentiated human lung stem cells nested in niches in the distal airways. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent in vitro. After injection into damaged mouse lung in vivo, human lung stem cells form human bronchioles, alveoli, and pulmonary vessels integrated structurally and functionally with the damaged organ. The formation of a chimeric lung was confirmed by detection of human transcripts for epithelial and vascular genes. In addition, the self-renewal and long-term proliferation of human lung stem cells was shown in serial-transplantation assays. CONCLUSIONS Human lungs contain identifiable stem cells. In animal models, these cells participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. They have the undemonstrated potential to promote tissue restoration in patients with lung disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21561345

  1. Intronic DNA elements regulate Nrf-2 chemical responsiveness of the human microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1) through a far upstream alternative promoter

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengzhong; Yang, Xi; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) contributes important biological functions that underlie both detoxification and bioactivation fates arising from exposures to foreign chemicals. Previously, we discovered that human mEH gene transcription is initiated from alternative promoters. The respective transcripts are programmed with tissue specificity and the upstream E1b promoter contributes predominantly to mEH expression. The results presented demonstrate that exposures to the Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane (SFN) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), markedly activate E1b transcription in human lung and liver cells. Genomic analyses identified two major DNase I hypersensitive regions (HS-1 and HS-2) within the ~15 kb intervening sequence separating E1b from the downstream E1 promoter. In BEAS-2B cells, the Nrf2 effectors, SFN and tBHQ, selectively activated the more distal HS-2 through an antioxidant-response element (ARE). An activator protein 1/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate interaction was further identified within the HS-2 enhancer that functioned to additionally contribute to ARE-mediated induction responsiveness of the E1b promoter. The results demonstrate that ARE modulation, integrated with additional transcriptional complexes, regulates the tissue-specific expression of mEH and that these processes likely coordinate both the protective and bioactivation functions contributed by mEH activities in human tissues. PMID:24704207

  2. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in rodent and human hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Hanson-Drury, S; Williams, D E; Corley, R A

    2014-07-03

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and often carcinogenic contaminants released into the environment during natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is the prototypical carcinogenic PAH, and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) is a less prevalent, but highly potent transplacental carcinogenic PAH. Both are metabolically activated by isoforms of the cytochrome P450 enzyme superfamily to form reactive carcinogenic and cytotoxic metabolites. Metabolism of B[a]P and DBC was studied in hepatic microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, naïve and pregnant female B6129SF1/J mice, and female humans, corresponding to available pharmacokinetic data. Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetic parameters including maximum rates of metabolism (VMAX, nmol/min/mg microsomal protein), affinity constants (KM, μM), and rates of intrinsic clearance (CLINT, ml/min/kg body weight) were calculated from substrate depletion data. CLINT was also estimated from substrate depletion data using the alternative in vitro half-life method. VMAX and CLINT were higher for B[a]P than DBC, regardless of species. Clearance for both B[a]P and DBC was highest in naïve female mice and lowest in female humans. Clearance rates of B[a]P and DBC in male rat were more similar to female human than to female mice. Clearance of DBC in liver microsomes from pregnant mice was reduced compared to naïve mice, consistent with reduced active P450 protein levels and elevated tissue concentrations and residence times for DBC observed in previous in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. These findings suggest that rats are a more appropriate model organism for human PAH metabolism, and that pregnancy's effects on metabolism should be further explored.

  3. Propranolol oxidation by human liver microsomes--the use of cumene hydroperoxide to probe isoenzyme specificity and regio- and stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Otton, S V; Gillam, E M; Lennard, M S; Tucker, G T; Woods, H F

    1990-11-01

    1. Three oxidations of the enantiomers of propranolol were studied in human liver microsomes under two reaction conditions. Previous in vitro studies had established that two of the livers were from poor metaboliser (PM) phenotypes for the debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450IID6) and the remaining seven were from extensive metaboliser (EM) phenotypes. 2. In the presence of NADPH and oxygen 4- and 5-hydroxylation of propranolol occurred in microsomes from all nine livers, as did propranolol N-desisopropylation. R(+)-propranolol was oxidized preferentially along the three pathways, although enantioselectivity observed for N-desisopropylation may have arisen not only from stereoselectivity in formation rates, but also from stereoselectivity in subsequent microsomal metabolism, possibly by monoamine oxidase. The involvement of monoamine oxidase in the further microsomal metabolism of N-desisopropylpropranolol was indicated by inhibition of the metabolism of this compound when incubated with phenelzine. 3. Cumene hydroperoxide has been proposed to support only the activity of cytochrome P450IID6. This is consistent with the observations that a) propranolol 4- and 5-hydroxylation occurred in microsomes from the EM livers only and b) side-chain oxidation was not observed under these conditions in either PM or EM livers. 4. Using cumene hydroperoxide to support the reactions, the 4-hydroxylation of propranolol showed little enantioselectivity, whereas S(-)-propranolol was 5-hydroxylated about twice as fast as the R(+)-enantiomer. There were highly significant correlations between the rates of 4- and 5-hydroxylation of R(+)-propranolol (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001, n = 7 livers) and of S(-)-propranolol (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001). Both oxidations were described by single-site Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 5. The findings suggest that P450IID6 is involved in both the 4- and 5-hydroxylations of propranolol, but that these metabolites can also be formed by other P450

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Miki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Tanaka, Eriko; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A method for the determination of N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine in human liver microsomes by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. Nicotine or cotinine was incubated with human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid in a 200-microl incubation mixture. The nicotine N-glucuronide (Nic-glu) and cotinine N-glucuronide (Cot-glu) formed were analyzed by ion-pair chromatography with a C-18 column. The sensitivity of quantification at 260 nm absorption was improved by using a noise-base clean Uni-3, and the limit of quantification was 10 pmol/200 microl mixture for both Nic-glu and Cot-glu. Linear standard curves were obtained within the concentration ranges 25-1000 pmol/200 microl mixture for Nic-glu and 100-5000 pmol/200 microl mixture for Cot-glu. The intraassay precision and accuracy were < or =11.1% coefficient of variation (CV) and 97.5-106.6% for Nic-glu and < or =4.6% CV and 96.7-100.4% for Cot-glu. The interassay precision and accuracy were < or =7.2% CV and 98.2-106.1% for Nic-glu and < or =4.6% CV and 96.8-99.3% for Cot-glu. This is the first report of the in vitro determination of Nic-glu and Cot-glu in human liver microsomes. Furthermore, this highly sensitive HPLC method can be used for the determination of Nic-glu and Cot-glu in biological specimens in vivo.

  5. Oxidation of the flavonoids galangin and kaempferide by human liver microsomes and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9.

    PubMed

    Otake, Yoko; Walle, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    There is very limited information on cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated oxidative metabolism of dietary flavonoids in humans. In this study, we used human liver microsomes and recombinant P450 isoforms to examine the metabolism of two flavonols, galangin and kaempferide, and one flavone, chrysin. Both galangin and kaempferide, but not chrysin, were oxidized by human liver microsomes to kaempferol, with K(m) values of 9.5 and 17.8 microM, respectively. These oxidations were catalyzed mainly by CYP1A2 but also by CYP2C9. Consistent with these observations, the human liver microsomal metabolism of galangin and kaempferide were inhibited by the P450 inhibitors furafylline and sulfaphenazole. In addition, CYP1A1, although less efficient, was also able to oxidize the two flavonols. Thus, dietary flavonols are likely to undergo oxidative metabolism mainly in the liver but also extrahepatically.

  6. Metabolism of MK-0524, a prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 antagonist, in microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian J; Chang, Steve; Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Xia, Yuan-Qing; Braun, Matt; Soli, Eric; Zhao, Yuming; Franklin, Ronald B; Karanam, Bindhu

    2007-02-01

    (3R)-4-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-7-fluoro-5-(methylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]indol-3-yl acetic acid (MK-0524) is a potent orally active human prostaglandin D(2) receptor 1 antagonist that is currently under development for the prevention of niacin-induced flushing. The major in vitro and in vivo metabolite of MK-0524 is the acyl glucuronic acid conjugate of the parent compound, M2. To compare metabolism of MK-0524 across preclinical species and humans, studies were undertaken to determine the in vitro kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for the glucuronidation of MK-0524 in Sprague-Dawley rat, beagle dog, cynomolgus monkey, and human liver microsomes, human intestinal microsomes, and in recombinant human UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). A comparison of K(m) values indicated that UGT1A9 has the potential to catalyze the glucuronidation of MK-0524 in the liver, whereas UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 have the potential to catalyze the glucuronidation in the intestine. MK-0524 also was subject to phase I oxidative metabolism; however, the rate was significantly lower than that of glucuronidation. The rate of phase I metabolism was ranked as follows: rat approximately monkey > human intestine > dog > human liver with qualitatively similar metabolite profiles across species. In all the cases, the major metabolites were the monohydroxylated epimers (M1 and M4) and the keto-metabolite, M3. Use of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human cytochromes P450 suggested that CYP3A4 was the major isozyme involved in the oxidative metabolism of MK-0524, with a minor contribution from CYP2C9. The major metabolite in hepatocyte preparations was the acyl glucuronide, M2, with minor amounts of M1, M3, M4, and their corresponding glucuronides. Overall, the in vivo metabolism of MK-0524 is expected to proceed via glucuronidation, with minor contributions from oxidative pathways.

  7. Human lung lysozyme: sources and properties.

    PubMed

    Konstan, M W; Chen, P W; Sherman, J M; Thomassen, M J; Wood, R E; Boat, T F

    1981-01-01

    Lysozyme in human airway secretions is thought to defend the lung against airborne bacteria. Although lysozyme has been purified and characterized from human tears, milk, saliva, and other sources (1-5), human lung lysozyme has received little attention except for measurements of concentrations in sputum (6, 7), immunocytochemical and histochemical localization (8-12),and studies of secretion by alveolar macrophages (13). This study was designed to identify the sources of secreted lung lysozyme, to quantitate the secretory activities of the various sources,and to compare the properties of lysozyme from lung cells with those from other tissues.

  8. Stereoselective Metabolism of Bupropion by Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Rebecka; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hydroxylation of the antidepressant and smoking deterrent drug bupropion is a clinically important bioactivation and elimination pathway. Bupropion hydroxylation is catalyzed selectively by cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6). CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation has been used as an in vitro and in vivo phenotypic probe for CYP2B6 activity and CYP2B6 drug interactions. Bupropion is chiral, used clinically as a racemate, and disposition is stereoselective. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation is stereoselective. Methods Hydroxylation of racemic bupropion by recombinant CYP2B6 and human liver microsomes was evaluated using a stereoselective assay. Results At therapeutic concentrations, hydroxylation of (S)-bupropion was 3-fold and 1.5-greater than (R)-bupropion, respectively, by recombinant CYP2B6 and human liver microsomes. In vitro intrinsic clearances were likewise different for bupropion enantiomers. Conclusions Stereoselective bupropion hydroxylation may have implications for the therapeutic efficacy of bupropion as an antidepressant or smoking cessation therapy, and for the use of bupropion as an in vivo phenotypic probe for CYP2B6 activity. PMID:18219560

  9. Identification of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 as the Major Isozyme Responsible for the Glucuronidation of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; He, Chunyong; Fang, Lianxiang; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the representative aglycones of ginsenosides, has a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Although phase I metabolism has been investigated extensively, information regarding phase II metabolism of this compound remains to be elucidated. Here, a glucuronidated metabolite of PPD in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs) was unambiguously identified as PPD-3-O-β-d-glucuronide by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. The chemical inhibition and recombinant human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms assay showed that the PPD glucuronidation was mainly catalyzed by UGT1A4 in HLM, whereas UGT1A3 showed weak catalytic activity. In conclusion, PPD-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was first identified as the principal glucuronidation metabolite of PPD in HLMs, which was catalyzed by UGT1A4. PMID:27005621

  10. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kong, Tae Yeon; Cheong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hee Seung; In, Moon Kyo; Lee, Hye Suk

    2017-03-10

    AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201. AM-2201 potently inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10.0 μM, respectively, and showed mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation with a Ki value of 2.1 μM. It negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities at 50 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results indicate that AM-2201 needs to be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo due to its potent inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and UGT2B7 enzyme activities.

  11. Nonenzymatic formation of a novel hydroxylated sulfamethoxazole derivative in human liver microsomes: implications for bioanalysis of sulfamethoxazole metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Joseph P; Hollis, Frank J; Maggs, James L; Clarke, Stephen E; Naisbitt, Dean J; Park, B Kevin

    2008-12-01

    Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized by microsomal CYP2C9 to a hydroxylamine that is thought to be responsible for the relatively high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions associated with the drug. Accurate quantification of the hydroxylamine requires the loss of metabolite through autoxidation to be blocked with ascorbate. In this study, a partly nonenzymatically generated arylhydroxylated derivative of sulfamethoxazole was identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in incubations of human liver microsomes, and it was found to coelute with the isomeric hydroxylamine under the conditions of three published high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays. Partial inhibition of the aryl hydroxylation by 1-aminobenzotriazole suggested some involvement of cytochrome P450. However, the formation of this compound was ascorbate-dependent, and it was enhanced by the addition of Fe2+/EDTA and inhibited by desferrioxamine but not by mannitol. These findings are consistent with the phenol being generated via an Fe2+/ascorbate/O2-oxygenating system that does not involve hydroxyl radicals. It was also produced by H2O2/ascorbate. Because the compound shares close chromatographic similarities with the hydroxylamine metabolite, it is possible that previous studies may have inaccurately characterized or quantified sulfamethoxazole metabolism.

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric study of 19-oxygenation of the aromatase inhibitor 19-methylandrostenedione with human placental microsomes.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Nagaoka, Masao; Handa, Wakako; Yamada, Akane

    2006-06-01

    To gain insight into the catalytic function of aromatase, we studied 19-oxygenation of 19-methyl-substituted derivative of the natural substrate androstenedione (AD), compound 1, with human placental aromatase by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Incubation of the 19-methyl derivative 1 with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under an aerobic condition did not yield a detectable amount of [19S]19-hydroxy product 2 or its [19R]-isomer 3 when the product was analyzed as the bis-methoxime-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative by GC-MS; moreover, the production of estrogen was not detected as the bis-TMS derivative of estradiol (detection limit: about 3 ng and 10 pg per injection for the 19-ol and estradiol, respectively). The results reveal that the 19-methyl steroid 1 does not serve as a substrate of aromatase, although it does serve as a powerful inhibitor of the enzyme.

  13. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in specific human CYP2C9 isoform and pooled human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2011-10-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20μM) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2μM compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32μM. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5μM and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04μM. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction.

  14. Albendazole treatment of echinococcosis in humans: effects on microsomal metabolism and drug tolerance.

    PubMed

    Steiger, U; Cotting, J; Reichen, J

    1990-03-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of albendazole on microsomal reserve and on first-pass activation to albendazole sulfoxide in patients with hydatid disease. An aminopyrine breath test was performed in 12 patients while they were receiving albendazole treatment and while they were not. Excretion of 14CO2 in breath averaged 0.70%.kg.mmol-1 +/- 0.20%.kg.mmol-1 without treatment and 0.54%.kg.mmol-1 +/- 0.14%.kg.mmol-1 with treatment (p less than 0.005). Plasma levels of albendazole sulfoxide were measured 4 hours after the morning dose during the first and second half of the 4-week treatment cycles. In nine of the 12 patients albendazole sulfoxide levels decreased during the second half of the cycle by an average of 0.84 +/- 0.76 mumol/L (p less than 0.02). Transaminase levels increased in 10 of the 12 patients during long-term albendazole treatment, and major side effects, including hepatotoxicity, neutropenia, and alopecia, were observed in three patients. We conclude that albendazole partially inhibits microsomal enzyme function but induces its own metabolism. Hepatotoxicity and other possible severe side effects necessitate close therapeutic monitoring of patients who are given albendazole.

  15. An investigation into the formation of tebufenozide's toxic aromatic amine metabolites in human in vitro hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled M

    2016-10-01

    Tebufenozide is a nonsteroid ecdysone agonist that causes premature and incomplete molting in Lepidoptera. Studies conducted so far have shown the low toxicity of tebufenozide in mammals, birds and invertebrates. Tebufenozide potential metabolites such as aromatic amines are known to induce methemoglobinemia disorder in humans, most likely by the formation of N-hydroxy metabolites; therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the formation of the potential toxic N-hydroxy derivatives in pooled human hepatic microsomal fractions. Analyses of metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography equipped by a time-of-flight detector (HPLC/TOF) indicated the formation of a hydroxylated metabolite (exact mass=369; retention time: 6.65min) and two de-dimethylethyl metabolites (exact masses=313; retention times: 5.76 and 6.22min). Hydroxylated tebufenozide metabolite resulted from hydroxylation at either the 3 or 5 position of the dimethylbenzoic acid moiety to form either 3-hydroxymethyl-5-methylbenzoic acid 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-(4-ethylbenzoyl) or 3-methyl-5-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-(4-ethylbenzoyl), respectively. The two de-dimethylethyl-tebufenozide derivatives were 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid-2-(4-hydroxyethylbenzoyl) and 3-hydroxymethyl-5-methylbenzoic acid-2-(4-ethylbenzoyl) or 3-methyl-5-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid-2-(4-ethylbenzoyl). Generally the metabolite formation rates increased with incubation time. The rate of hydroxylation of the dimethylbenzoic acid moiety was approximately 12 times higher than the hydroxylation of the ethylbenzoyl moiety. Tebufenozide does not appear to produce the toxic aromatic amine metabolites in human in vitro hepatic microsomes. This suggests that the fate of tebufenozide in humans is a process of detoxification rather than activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolism of 2,6-dinitro[3-3H]toluene by human and rat liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D E; Michener, S R; Powis, G

    1992-08-01

    1. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) metabolism by human liver and male Fischer F344 rat liver subcellular fractions under aerobic (100% oxygen) and anaerobic (100% nitrogen) incubation conditions was examined. Under aerobic conditions the major 2,6-DNT metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes was 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol (2,6-DNBalc); under anaerobic conditions 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene (2Am6NT) was the major metabolite. 2. Rates of 2,6-DNBalc formation by human and rat liver microsomes under aerobic conditions were 247 and 132 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively. Rates of 2Am6NT formation by human and rat liver microsomes under anaerobic conditions were 292 and 285 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively. Anaerobic reduction of 2,6-DNT to 2Am6NT by rat and human liver microsomes was inhibited by carbon monoxide and metyrapone, which indicates that microsomal metabolism of 2,6-DNT to 2Am6NT is mediated by cytochrome P-450. 3. Liver cytosolic fractions also metabolized 2,6-DNT to 2Am6NT under anaerobic conditions. Formation of 2Am6NT by human and rat liver cytosols was supported by hypoxanthine, NADPH and NADH. Allopurinol inhibited the hypoxanthine-supported anaerobic metabolism of 2,6-DNT by rat, but not human, liver cytosol. Dicumarol inhibited the NADPH-supported anaerobic metabolism of 2,6-DNT by human, but not rat, liver cytosol. These results indicate that xanthine oxidase contributes to the hypoxanthine-supported anaerobic metabolism of 2,6-DNT by human liver cytosol.

  17. The effect of RPR 102341 on theophylline metabolism and phenacetin O-deethylase activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    White, R B; Heyn, H; Stevens, J C

    1997-04-01

    RPR 102341 is structurally similar to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Because some fluoroquinolones have been shown to inhibit theophylline metabolism, concomitant administration may increase plasma levels of theophylline resulting in serious adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if RPR 102341 affects theophylline metabolism in vitro and, thus, predict whether a clinically significant drug interaction is likely to occur. In addition, the effect of RPR 102341 on phenacetin O-deethylase activity was determined to address the enzymatic basis of a potential drug interaction. The in vitro theophylline metabolism assay was conducted according to a modification of a published procedure. The phenacetin O-deethylase assay was conducted according to a modification of a published procedure. The rate of conversion of theophylline to 3-methylxanthine in human liver microsomes in the presence of 100 microM and 500 microM RPR 102341 was 93.6 and 106 percent of the control reactions, respectively. The formation of 1-methylxanthine was 97.6 and 100 percent of the control, and 1.3-dimethyluric acid formation was 88.9 and 95.2 percent of control at 100 microM and 500 microM RPR 102341, respectively. In agreement, RPR 102341 caused no inhibition of human liver CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase activity. Finally, no inhibition was observed when RPR 102341 was incubated with human liver microsomes and an NADPH regenerating system prior to the addition of theophylline. Based on these studies, RPR 102341 is not expected to cause significant drug interactions with theophylline.

  18. Structural insights into human microsomal epoxide hydrolase by combined homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and molecular docking calculations.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Katz, Aline; Pérez-Kempner, María Lucía; Ventura, Oscar N; Vázquez, Marta

    2017-04-01

    A new homology model of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase was derived based on multiple templates. The model obtained was fully evaluated, including MD simulations and ensemble-based docking, showing that the quality of the structure is better than that of only previously known model. Particularly, a catalytic triad was clearly identified, in agreement with the experimental information available. Analysis of intermediates in the enzymatic mechanism led to the identification of key residues for substrate binding, stereoselectivity, and intermediate stabilization during the reaction. In particular, we have confirmed the role of the oxyanion hole and the conserved motif (HGXP) in epoxide hydrolases, in excellent agreement with known experimental and computational data on similar systems. The model obtained is the first one that fully agrees with all the experimental observations on the system. Proteins 2017; 85:720-730. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Metabolism-mediated interaction potential of standardized extract of Tinospora cordifolia through rat and human liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, Shiv; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Milan Ahmmed, S. K.; Kar, Amit; Harwansh, Ranjit K.; Pandit, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tinospora cordifolia is used for treatment of several diseases in Indian system of medicine. In the present study, the inhibition potential of T. cordifolia extracts and its constituent tinosporaside to cause herb-drug interactions through rat and human liver cytochrome enzymes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Bioactive compound was quantified through reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, to standardize the plant extracts and interaction potential of standardized extract. Interaction potential of the test sample was evaluated through cytochrome P450-carbon monoxide complex (CYP450-CO) assay with pooled rat liver microsome. Influence on individual recombinant human liver microsomes such as CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 isozymes was analyzed through fluorescence microplate assay, and respective IC50 values were determined. Results: The content of tinosporaside was found to be 1.64% (w/w) in T. cordifolia extract. Concentration-dependent inhibition was observed through T. cordifolia extract. Observed IC50 (μg/ml) value was 136.45 (CYP3A4), 144.37 (CYP2D6), 127.55 (CYP2C9), and 141.82 (CYP1A2). Tinosporaside and extract showed higher IC50 (μg/ml) value than the known inhibitors. T. cordifolia extract showed significantly less interaction potential and indicates that the selected plant has not significant herb-drug interactions relating to the inhibition of major CYP450 isozymes. Conclusions: Plant extract showed significantly higher IC50 value than respective positive inhibitors against CYP3A4, 2D6, 2C9, and 1A2 isozymes. Consumption of T. cordifolia may not cause any adverse effects when consumed along with other xenobiotics. PMID:27721546

  20. Adrenochrome reaction implicates oxygen radicals in metabolism of cyclosporine A and FK-506 in rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S S; Strobel, H W; Napoli, K L; Grevel, J

    1993-06-01

    The role of oxygen radicals in the metabolism of cyclosporine A (CyA), FR900506 (FK-506) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 system was investigated in vitro in rat and human microsomal preparations. Varying concentrations of CyA, FK-506 and CCl4 (100 microM-1.0 mM) were added to microsomal preparations, and lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation as detected by the thiobarbituric acid assay. The effects of oxygen radical scavengers [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] and an antioxidant [glutathione (GLUT)] were tested on various incubations of CyA, FK-506 and CCl4 to assess the role of oxygen radicals in lipid peroxidation. CyA-dependent MDA formation was moderately inhibited by SOD in the rat model and increased by SOD in the human model. In both models, CAT slightly inhibited CyA-dependent MDA formation and GLUT significantly inhibited MDA formation. FK-506-dependent MDA formation, studied only in the rat model, paralleled CyA-induced MDA formation but showed greater inhibition with CAT and less inhibition with SOD or GLUT. In both models, CCl4-dependent MDA formation was significantly inhibited by GLUT and showed no sensitivity to SOD or CAT. In addition, the adrenochrome reaction, which measures the oxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome, was used to measure the increased oxygen radical-flux resulting from the metabolism of CyA, FK-506 and CCl4. CyA with epinephrine showed the highest oxidative activity, followed by FK-506 and then CCl4, which showed the least formation of adrenochrome. These results indicated a role for oxygen radicals in CyA and FK-506 metabolism.

  1. Comparative metabolism study of β-lapachone in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, In Sook; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2013-09-01

    β-Lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione) is a natural compound extracted from the bark of the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae) and is undergoing phase II clinical trials as an antitumor drug candidate. The present study characterized in vitro metabolites of β-lapachone in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes. β-Lapachone (10 μM) was incubated with mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by LC/MS and the metabolites were identified based on their elemental composition and product ion spectra. A total of 6 metabolites (M1-M6) were detected in liver microsomes with a slight difference between species. M1 and M6 were identified as a decarbonated metabolite and a carboxylated metabolite, respectively; M2, M3, and M4 were identified as monohydroxylated metabolites; and M5 was identified as an O-methylated metabolite. M5, an O-methylated metabolite was found in rat and human liver microsomes, which is thought to be formed from a catechol intermediate by MB-COMT-mediated methylation and reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of porous silicon nanoparticles on human cytochrome P450 metabolism in human liver microsomes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Elisa; Liu, Dongfei; Kallio, Arttu; Mäkilä, Ermei; Zhang, Hongbo; Salonen, Jarno; Santos, Hélder A; Sikanen, Tiina M

    2017-06-15

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly used as drug carriers in pharmaceutical formulations. This study focuses on the hitherto unaddressed impact of porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism, which is the major detoxification route of most pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics. Three different surface chemistries, including thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi), aminopropylsilane-modified TCPSi (APTES-TCPSi) and alkyne-terminated thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (Alkyne-THCPSi), were compared for their effects on the enzyme kinetics of the major CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) in human liver microsomes (HLM) in vitro. The enzyme kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, and the intrinsic clearance (CLint) were determined using FDA-recommended, isoenzyme-specific model reactions with and without PSi nanoparticles. Data revealed statistically significant alterations of most isoenzyme activities in HLM in the presence of nanoparticles at 1mg/ml concentration, and polymorphic CYP2D6 was the most vulnerable to enzyme inhibition. However, the observed CYP2D6 inhibition was shown to be dose-dependent in case of TCPSi and Alkyne-THCPSi nanoparticles and attenuated at the concentrations below 1μg/ml. Adsorption of the probe substrates onto the hydrophobic Alkyne-THCPSi particles was also observed and taken into account in the determination of the kinetic parameters. Three polymer additives commonly used in pharmaceutical nanoformulations (Pluronics F68 and F127, and polyvinylalcohol) were also separately screened for their effects on CYP isoenzyme activities. These polymers had less effect on the enzyme kinetic parameters, and resulted in increased activity rather than enzyme inhibition, in contrast to the PSi nanoparticles. Although the chosen subcellular model (HLM) is not able to predict the cellular disposition of PSi nanoparticles in hepatocytes and thus provides limited information of probability of CYP interactions in vivo

  3. Tiny Device Mimics Human Lung Function

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Rebecca; Harris, Jennifer; Nath, Pulak

    2016-04-25

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that mimics the response of the human lung to drugs, toxins and other agents. “We breathe in and out thousands of times every day. And while we have control over what we eat or drink, we don’t always have control over what we breathe in,” said Jennifer Harris of Biosecurity and Public Health at Los Alamos, "and so we’re making this miniature lung to be able to test on actual human cells whether something in the environment, or a drug, is toxic or harmful to us." Nicknamed “PuLMo” for Pulmonary Lung Model (Pulmo is also the Latin word for "lung")the device consists of two major parts, the bronchiolar unit and the alveolar unit—just like the human lung. The units are primarily made from various polymers and are connected by a microfluidic “circuit board” that manages fluid and air flow. “When we build our lung, we not only take into account the aspects of different cell types, the tissues that are involved, we also take into account that a lung is supposed to breathe, so PuLMo actually breathes,” said Pulak Nath of Applied Modern Physics, who leads engineering efforts for the project. The most exciting application of PuLMo is a potentially revolutionary improvement in the reliability of drug-toxicity assessments and the prediction of new pharmaceutical success in humans, according to Harris. The PuLMo may also be designed to mimic lung disease conditions, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma, and may be used to study lung air-flow dynamics to better understand the mechanisms of toxins and drug delivery and the effects of smoking, particularly the less-understood effects of e-cigarettes.

  4. Human lung ex vivo infection models.

    PubMed

    Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Hippenstiel, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia is counted among the leading causes of death worldwide. Viruses, bacteria and pathogen-related molecules interact with cells present in the human alveolus by numerous, yet poorly understood ways. Traditional cell culture models little reflect the cellular composition, matrix complexity and three-dimensional architecture of the human lung. Integrative animal models suffer from species differences, which are of particular importance for the investigation of zoonotic lung diseases. The use of cultured ex vivo infected human lung tissue may overcome some of these limitations and complement traditional models. The present review gives an overview of common bacterial lung infections, such as pneumococcal infection and of widely neglected pathogens modeled in ex vivo infected lung tissue. The role of ex vivo infected lung tissue for the investigation of emerging viral zoonosis including influenza A virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is discussed. Finally, further directions for the elaboration of such models are revealed. Overall, the introduced models represent meaningful and robust methods to investigate principles of pathogen-host interaction in original human lung tissue.

  5. In vitro metabolism and interactions of pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, and permethrin in human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2008-03-01

    1. The in vitro human plasma activity and liver microsomal metabolism of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a prophylactic treatment against organophosphate nerve agent attack, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), an insect repellent, and permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, either alone or in combination were investigated. 2. The three chemicals disappeared from plasma in the following order: permethrin > PB > DEET. The combined incubation of DEET with either permethrin or PB had no effect on permethrin or PB. Binary incubation with permethrin decreased the metabolism of PB and its disappearance from plasma and binary incubation with PB decreased the metabolism of permethrin and its clearance from plasma. Incubation with PB and/or permethrin shortened the DEET terminal half-life in plasma. These agents behaved similarly when studied in liver microsomal assays. The combined incubation of DEET with PB or permethrin (alone or in combination) diminished DEET metabolism in microsomal systems. 3. The present study evidences that PB and permethrin are metabolized by both human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes and that DEET is mainly metabolized by liver oxidase enzymes. Combined exposure to test chemicals increases their neurotoxicity by impeding the body's ability to eliminate them because of the competition for detoxifying enzymes.

  6. Metabolism of UV-filter benzophenone-3 by rat and human liver microsomes and its effect on endocrine-disrupting activity

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Sanoh, Seigo; Sugihara, Kazumi; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2015-01-15

    Benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-3) is widely used as sunscreen for protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In this study, we examined the metabolism of BP-3 by rat and human liver microsomes, and the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of the metabolites. When BP-3 was incubated with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, 2,4,5-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,4,5-triOH BP) and 3-hydroxylated BP-3 (3-OH BP-3) were newly identified as metabolites, together with previously detected metabolites 5-hydroxylated BP-3 (5-OH BP-3), a 4-desmethylated metabolite (2,4-diOH BP) and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,3,4-triOH BP). In studies with recombinant rat cytochrome P450, 3-OH BP-3 and 2,4,5-triOH BP were mainly formed by CYP1A1. BP-3 was also metabolized by human liver microsomes and CYP isoforms. In estrogen reporter (ER) assays using estrogen-responsive CHO cells, 2,4-diOH BP exhibited stronger estrogenic activity, 2,3,4-triOH BP exhibited similar activity, and 5-OH BP-3, 2,4,5-triOH BP and 3-OH BP-3 showed lower activity as compared to BP-3. Structural requirements for activity were investigated in a series of 14 BP-3 derivatives. When BP-3 was incubated with liver microsomes from untreated rats or phenobarbital-, 3-methylcholanthrene-, or acetone-treated rats in the presence of NADPH, estrogenic activity was increased. However, liver microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats showed decreased estrogenic activity due to formation of inactive 5-OH BP-3 and reduced formation of active 2,4-diOH BP. Anti-androgenic activity of BP-3 was decreased after incubation with liver microsomes. - Highlights: • Metabolic modification of the endocrine-disrupting activity of BP-3 was examined. • 2,4,5-TriOH BP and 3-OH BP-3 were identified as new BP-3 metabolites. • 2,4-DiOH BP and 2,3,4-triOH BP exhibited high or similar estrogenic activities. • Estrogenic activity of BP-3 was enhanced by incubation with rat liver

  7. Formation of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites in human liver microsomes, S9 fraction, HepaRG-cells, and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Toni; Rousu, Timo; Mattila, Sampo; Chesné, Christophe; Pelkonen, Olavi; Turpeinen, Miia; Tolonen, Ari

    2015-11-10

    The objective was to compare several in vitro human liver-derived subcellular and cellular incubation systems for the formation of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites. Incubations of pooled human liver microsomes, human liver S9 fractions, HepaRG-cells, and human hepatocytes were performed with glutathione as a trapping agent. Experiments with liver S9 were performed under two conditions, using only NADPH and using a full set of cofactors enabling also conjugative metabolism. Ten structurally different compounds were used as a test set, chosen as either "positive" (ciprofloxacin, clozapine, diclofenac, ethinyl estradiol, pulegone, and ticlopidine) or "negative" (caffeine, citalopram, losartan, montelukast) compounds, based on their known adverse reactions on liver or bone marrow. GSH conjugates were observed for seven of the ten compounds; while no conjugates were observed for caffeine, citalopram, or ciprofloxacin. Hepatocyte and HepaRG assays produced a clearly lower number and lower relative abundance of GSH conjugates compared to assays with microsomes and S9 fractions. The major GSH conjugates were different for many compounds in cellular subfractions and cell-based systems. Hepatocytes generally produced a higher number of GSH conjugates than HepaRG cells, although the differences were minor. The results show that the hepatic enzyme system used for screening of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites do have a high impact on the results, and results between different systems are comparable only qualitatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Human lung connective tissue in postnatal ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Kasimtsev, A A; Nikolaev, V G

    1993-01-01

    Changes of the connective tissue structures, appearing during all postnatal ontogenesis stages were studied in 147 human lung specimens of different age groups (from newborns up to 82-year-olds). Qualitative and quantitative composition of connective tissue structures changes with the age which leads to the lateral aggregation of the fibers and growth of the general mass of the connective tissue. Heterochronia of the age variability manifestations in different regions of the lung framework was demonstrated. The original age transformations of connective tissue structures are characteristic for the basal lung regions. With the exception of perivasal connective tissue, similar changes in the region of the lung apexes appear 3-5 years later. This gives an opportunity to distinguish three anatomic zones in the lungs in an apico-basal direction, characterising the local nature of the age changes manifestations.

  9. Human papillomavirus and lung cancinogenesis: an overview.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Gurgel, Ana Pavla; de Lima, Elyda Golçalves; de França São Marcos, Bianca; do Amaral, Carolina Maria Medeiros

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although tobacco smoking is considered to be the main risk factor and the most well-established risk factor for lung cancer, a number of patients who do not smoke have developed this disease. This number varies between 15 % to over one-half of lung cancer cases, and the deaths from lung cancer in non-smokers are increasing every year. There are many other agents that are thought to be etiological, including diesel exhaust exposure, metals, radiation, radon, hormonal factors, cooking oil, air pollution and infectious diseases, such as human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies in various parts of the world have detected HPV DNA at different rates in lung tumors. However, the role of HPV in lung cancer is still unclear. Thus, in this review, we investigated some molecular mechanisms of HPV protein activity in host cells, the entry of HPV into lung tissue and the possible route used by the virus to reach the lung cells.

  10. Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-03-01

    Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 μg/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.

  11. Reduction of amphetamine hydroxylamine and other aliphatic hydroxylamines by benzamidoxime reductase and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Clement, B; Behrens, D; Möller, W; Cashman, J R

    2000-10-01

    For the reduction of N-hydroxylated derivatives of strongly basic functional groups, such as amidines, guanidines, and aminohydrazones, an oxygen-insensitive liver microsomal system, the benzamidoxime reductase, has been described. To reconstitute the complete activity of the benzamidoxime reductase, the system required cytochrome b(5), NADH-cytochrome b(5)-reductase, and the benzamidoxime reductase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which has been purified to homogeneity from pig liver. It was not known if this enzyme system was also capable of reducing aliphatic hydroxylamines. The N-hydroxylation of aliphatic amines is a well-known metabolic process. It was of interest to study the possibility of benzamidoxime reductase reducing N-hydroxylated metabolites of aliphatic amines back to the parent compound. Overall, N-hydroxylation and reduction would constitute a futile metabolic cycle. As examples of medicinally relevant compounds, the hydroxylamines of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and N-methylamine as model compounds were investigated. Formation of methamphetamine and amphetamine was analyzed by newly developed HPLC methods. All three hydroxylamines were easily reduced by benzamidoxime reductase to their parent amines with reduction rates of 220.6 nmol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) for methamphetamine, 5.25 nmol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) for amphetamine, and 153 nmol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) for N-methylhydroxylamine. Administration of synthetic hydroxylamines of amphetamine and methamphetamine to primary rat neuronal cultures produced frank cell toxicity. Compared with amphetamine or the oxime of amphetamine, the hydroxylamines were significantly more toxic to primary neuronal cells. The benzamidoxime reductase is therefore involved in the detoxication of these reactive hydroxylamines.

  12. Structure elucidation of aplidine metabolites formed in vitro by human liver microsomes using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Esther F A; van Ooijen, Ronald D; Sparidans, Rolf W; Lázaro, Luis López; Heck, Albert J R; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2005-06-01

    The cyclic depsipeptide aplidine is a new anti-cancer drug of marine origin. Four metabolites of this compound were found after incubation with pooled human microsomes using gradient high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. After chromatographic isolation, the metabolites have been identified using nano-electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A highly specific sodium-ion interaction with the cyclic structure opens the depsipeptide ring, and cleavage of the amino acid residues gives sequence information when activated by collision-induced dissociation in the second quadrupole. The aplidine molecule could undergo the following metabolic reactions: hydroxylation at the isopropyl group (metabolites apli-h 1 and apli-h 2); C-dealkylation at the N(Me)-leucine group (metabolite apli-da); hydroxylation at the isopropyl group and C-dealkylation at the N(Me)-leucine group (metabolite apli-da/h), and C-demethylation at the threonine group (metabolite apli-dm). The identification of these metabolites formed in vitro may greatly aid the elucidation of the metabolic pathways of aplidine in humans.

  13. Active smoking increases microsomal PGE2-synthase-1/PGE-receptor-4 axis in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Dilmé, Jaime-Félix; Solà-Villà, David; Bellmunt, Sergi; Romero, José-María; Escudero, José-Román; Camacho, Mercedes; Vila, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2/microsomal PGE-synthase- (mPGES-) 1/PGE-receptor- (EP-) 4 axis could play a key role in the physiopathology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in humans. In this study, we investigated the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on the expression of the PGE2 pathway in human AAA. Aortic (n = 89) and plasma (n = 79) samples from patients who underwent AAA repair were collected. Patients were grouped according to risk factors. COX-isoenzymes, mPGES-1, EPs, α-actin, and CD45 and CD68 transcripts levels were quantified by QRT-PCR and plasma PGE2 metabolites by EIA. Current smoking (CS) patients compared to no-CS had significantly higher local levels of mPGES-1 (P = 0.009), EP-4 (P = 0.007), and PGE2 metabolites plasma levels (P = 0.008). In the multiple linear regression analysis, these parameters remained significantly enhanced in CS after adding confounding factors. Results from association studies with cell type markers suggested that the increased mPGES-1/EP-4 levels were mainly associated with microvascular endothelial cells. This study shows that elements of the PGE2 pathway, which play an important role in AAA development, are increased in CS. These results provide insight into the relevance of tobacco smoking in AAA development and reinforce the potential of mPGES-1 and EP-4 as targets for therapy in AAA patients.

  14. In vitro inhibitory effect of 1-aminobenzotriazole on drug oxidations in human liver microsomes: a comparison with SKF-525A.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Chie; Murase, Shigeo; Sawada, Yasufusa; Iwasaki, Kazuhide

    2005-10-01

    1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) is extensively used as a non-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In this study, the inhibitory effect of ABT on CYP-dependent drug oxidations was investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM) and compared with that of SKF-525A, another non-specific inhibitor. The following probe activities for human CYP isoforms were determined using pooled HLM: phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2); diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation (CYP2C9); S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, (CYP2C19); bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation (CYP2D6); chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1); midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, nifedipine oxidation, and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A). ABT had the strongest inhibitory effect on the CYP3A-dependent drug oxidations and the weakest effect on the diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. SKF-525A potently inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, but weakly inhibited chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation. The inhibitory effects of ABT and SKF-525A were increased by preincubation in some probe reactions, and this preincubation effect was greater in ABT than in SKF-525A. The remarkable IC50 shift (> 10 times) by preincubation with ABT was observed on the phenacetin O-deethylation, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. In conclusion, ABT and SKF-525A had a wide range of IC50 values in inhibiting the drug oxidations by HLM with and without preincubation.

  15. Microsomal and cytosolic scaling factors in dog and human kidney cortex and application for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of renal metabolic clearance.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Daniel; Billington, Sarah; Brown, Jay; Jones, Christopher; Brown, Colin D A; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2017-03-07

    In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug metabolism data obtained in enriched preparations of sub-cellular fractions rely upon robust estimates of physiologically relevant scaling factors for prediction of clearance in vivo. The purpose of the current study was to measure the microsomal and cytosolic protein per gram of kidney (MPPGK and CPPGK) in dog and human kidney cortex using appropriate protein recovery markers, and evaluate functional activity of human cortex microsomes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were used as microsomal protein markers, whereas glutathione-S-transferase activity was a cytosolic marker. Functional activity of human microsomal samples was assessed by measuring mycophenolic acid glucuronidation. MPPGK was 33.9 and 44.0 mg/g dog kidney cortex, and 41.1 and 63.6 mg/g dog liver (n=17), using CYP content and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively. There were no trends between kidney, liver and intestinal scalars from the same animals. Species differences were evident, as human MPPGK and CPPGK were 26.2 and 53.3 mg/g kidney cortex (n=38), respectively. MPPGK was 2-fold higher than the commonly used in vitro-in vivo extrapolation scalar; difference was mainly attributed to tissue source (mixed kidney regions vs cortex). Robust human MPPGK and CPPGK scalars were measured for the first time. The work emphasized the importance of regional differences (cortex vs. whole kidney specific MPPGK, tissue weight and blood flow) and a need to account for these to improve assessment of renal metabolic clearance and its extrapolation to in vivo.

  16. Detection of a new N-oxidized metabolite of flutamide, N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]hydroxylamine, in human liver microsomes and urine of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Goda, Rika; Nagai, Daichi; Akiyama, Yuji; Nishikawa, Kiyohiro; Ikemoto, Isao; Aizawa, Yoshio; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2006-05-01

    Flutamide (2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide), a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer but is occasionally associated with hepatic dysfunction. In the present study, the metabolism of flutamide including the formation of the possible reactive toxic metabolites was investigated using human liver microsomes and 10 isoforms of recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450). 2-Hydroxyflutamide (OH-flutamide) and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (FLU-1) were the main products of flutamide metabolism in human liver microsomes. The formation of OH-flutamide was markedly inhibited by ellipticine, an inhibitor of CYP1A1/1A2, and was mainly catalyzed by the recombinant CYP1A2. FLU-1 was also produced from OH-flutamide, but its metabolic rate was much less than that from flutamide. An inhibitor of carboxylesterase, bis-(p-nitrophenyl)phosphoric acid, completely inhibited the formation of FLU-1 from flutamide in human liver microsomes. A new metabolite, N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]hydroxylamine (FLU-1-N-OH), was detected as a product of the reaction of FLU-1 with human liver microsomes and identified by comparison with the synthetic standard. The formation of FLU-1-N-OH was markedly inhibited by the addition of miconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4, and was mediated by recombinant CYP3A4. Furthermore, FLU-1-N-OH was detected mostly as the conjugates (glucuronide/sulfate) in the urine of prostate cancer patients collected for 3 h after treatment with flutamide. The formation of FLU-1-N-OH, however, did not differ between patients with and without abnormalities of hepatic functions among a total of 29 patients. The lack of an apparent association of the urinary excretion of FLU-1-N-OH and hepatic disorder may suggest the involvement of an additional unknown factor in the mechanisms of flutamide hepatotoxicity.

  17. Comparison between recombinant P450s and human liver microsomes in the determination of cytochrome P450 Michaelis-Menten constants.

    PubMed

    Youdim, K; Dodia, R

    2010-04-01

    Non-linear dose-exposure (supra-proportionality) occurs when plasma drug concentrations increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing dose. To predict the likelihood of this, an understanding is required of the K(M), which reflects a drug ability to saturate a specific enzyme involved in its metabolism. This study assessed the accuracy of K(M) and V(max) determinations for compounds using a substrate-depletion approach with those determined using the product-formation approach, using both recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and human liver microsomes. For the vast majority of the compounds studied, the K(M)'s using recombinant CYPs and human liver microsomes in the two approaches predicted within two-fold. Further comparisons between the K(M) and V(max)-values were made between those measured using the product-formation approach and those estimated following simultaneous fitting of the Michaelis-Menten equation to all substrate depletion plots. In each case values were comparable. In conclusion, the current study showed the substrate-depletion approach can be used to estimate K(M) and V(max) using both human liver microsomes and recombinant P450s. Estimation of these parameters during early discovery will aid in the understanding of dosages at which non-linearity may occur, but potentially aid predictions of likely clinical drug-drug interactions.

  18. Catalytic characterization of human microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2: identification of rate-limiting steps.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shabbir; Niegowski, Damian; Wetterholm, Anders; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Morgenstern, Ralf; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2013-03-12

    Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 (MGST2) is a 17 kDa trimeric integral membrane protein homologous to leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S). MGST2 has been suggested to catalyze the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in cells devoid of LTC4S. A detailed biochemical study of MGST2 is critical for the understanding of its cellular function and potential role as an LTC4-producing enzyme. Here we have characterized the substrate specificity and catalytic properties of purified MGST2 by steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments. In comparison with LTC4S, which has a catalytic efficiency of 8.7 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), MGST2, with a catalytic efficiency of 1.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), is considerably less efficient in producing LTC4. However, the two enzymes display a similar KM(LTA4) of 30-40 μM. While LTC4S has one activated glutathione (GSH) (forming a thiolate) per enzyme monomer, the MGST2 trimer seems to display only third-of-the-sites reactivity for thiolate activation, which in part would explain its lower catalytic efficiency. Furthermore, MGST2 displays GSH-dependent peroxidase activity of ∼0.2 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) toward several lipid hydroperoxides. MGST2, but not LTC4S, is efficient in catalyzing conjugation of the electrophilic substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with GSH. Using stopped-flow pre-steady-state kinetics, we have characterized the full catalytic reaction of MGST2 with CDNB and GSH as substrates, showing an initial rapid equilibrium binding of GSH followed by thiolate formation. Burst kinetics for the CDNB-GSH conjugation step was observed only at low GSH concentrations (thiolate anion formation becoming rate-limiting under these conditions). Product release is rapid and does not limit the overall reaction. Therefore, in general, the chemical conjugation step is rate-limiting for MGST2 at physiological GSH concentrations. MGST2 and LTC4S

  19. Lung retention of cerium in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, J C; Roos, F; Iwatsubo, Y; Janson, X; Billon-Galland, M A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate lung retention of particles containing cerium in subjects with and without previous occupational exposure to mineral dusts. Analytical transmission electron microscopy was performed on 459 samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and 75 samples of lung tissue. Study of the distribution of mineralogical species in human samples showed that particles containing cerium were encountered in less than 10% of subjects. The proportion of subjects with particles containing cerium in their biological samples was not different between controls and subjects with previous occupational exposure to fibrous or nonfibrous mineral dusts. This was considered as the background level of lung retention of cerium in the general population. By contrast, determination of the absolute concentration of particles containing cerium in BAL fluid and lung tissue samples showed that 1.2% (from BAL fluid) and 1.5% (from lung tissue) of subjects with previous exposure to mineral particles had high lung retention of particles containing cerium. This study is believed to be the first one in which lung retention of cerium was estimated in the general population. PMID:8130849

  20. Reduction of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone hydroxylamines by a microsomal enzyme system purified from pig liver and pig and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Clement, Bernd; Behrens, Detlef; Amschler, Juliane; Matschke, Katrin; Wolf, Stephanie; Havemeyer, Antje

    2005-05-27

    Biotransformation involving nitrogen are of pharmacological and toxicological relevance. In principle, nitrogen containing functional groups can undergo all the known biotransformation processes such as oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and formation of conjugates. For the N-reduction of benzamidoxime an oxygen-insensitive liver microsomal enzyme system that required cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and a cytochrome P450 isoenzyme of the subfamily 2D has been described. In previous studies it was demonstrated that N-hydroxylated derivates of strongly basic functional groups are easily reduced by this enzyme system. The N-hydroxylation of sulfonamides such sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS) to sulfamethoxazole-hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) and dapsone-hydroxylamine (DDS-N-OH), respectively is the first step in the formation of reactive metabolites. Therefore it seemed reasonable to study the potential of cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and CYP2D to detoxify these N-hydroxylated metabolites by N-reduction. Metabolites were analysed by HPLC analysis. SMX-HA and DDS-N-OH are reduced by cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and CYP2D but also only by cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase without addition of CYP2D. The reduction rate for SMX-HA by cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and CYP2D was 0,65 +/- 0,1 nmol SMX/min/mg protein. The reduction rate by b5 and b5 reductase was 0,37 +/- 0,15 nmol SMX/min/mg protein. For DDS-N-OH the reduction rate by cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and CYP2D was 1.79 +/- 0.85 nmol DDS/min/mg protein and by cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 1.25 +/- 0.15 nmol DDS/min/mg protein. Cytochrome b5, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase are therefore involved in the detoxification of these reactive hydroxylamines and CYP2D increased the N-reduction.

  1. Tiny Device Mimics Human Lung Function

    ScienceCinema

    McDonald, Rebecca; Harris, Jennifer; Nath, Pulak

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that mimics the response of the human lung to drugs, toxins and other agents. “We breathe in and out thousands of times every day. And while we have control over what we eat or drink, we don’t always have control over what we breathe in,” said Jennifer Harris of Biosecurity and Public Health at Los Alamos, "and so we’re making this miniature lung to be able to test on actual human cells whether something in the environment, or a drug, is toxic or harmful to us." Nicknamed “PuLMo” for Pulmonary Lung Model (Pulmo is also the Latin word for "lung")the device consists of two major parts, the bronchiolar unit and the alveolar unit—just like the human lung. The units are primarily made from various polymers and are connected by a microfluidic “circuit board” that manages fluid and air flow. “When we build our lung, we not only take into account the aspects of different cell types, the tissues that are involved, we also take into account that a lung is supposed to breathe, so PuLMo actually breathes,” said Pulak Nath of Applied Modern Physics, who leads engineering efforts for the project. The most exciting application of PuLMo is a potentially revolutionary improvement in the reliability of drug-toxicity assessments and the prediction of new pharmaceutical success in humans, according to Harris. The PuLMo may also be designed to mimic lung disease conditions, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma, and may be used to study lung air-flow dynamics to better understand the mechanisms of toxins and drug delivery and the effects of smoking, particularly the less-understood effects of e-cigarettes.

  2. In vitro metabolism of a novel PPAR gamma agonist, KR-62980, and its stereoisomer, KR-63198, in human liver microsomes and by recombinant cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-B; Seo, K-A; Yoon, Y-J; Bae, M-A; Cheon, H G; Shin, J-G; Liu, K-H

    2008-09-01

    1. KR-62980 and its stereoisomer KR-63198 are novel and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) modulators with activity profiles different from that of rosiglitazone. This study was performed to identify the major metabolic pathways for KR-62980 and KR-63198 in human liver microsomes. 2. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-62980 and KR-63198 in the presence of a beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating system resulted in hydroxy metabolite formation. In addition, the specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) responsible for KR-62980 and KR-63198 hydroxylation were identified by using a combination of chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes and metabolism by recombinant P450s. It is shown that CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 are the predominant enzymes in the hydroxylation of KR-62980 and KR-63198. 3. The intrinsic clearance through hydroxylation was consistently and significantly higher for KR-62980 than for KR-63198, indicating metabolic stereoselectivity (CL(int) of 0.012 +/- 0.001 versus 0.004 +/- 0.001 microl min(-1) pmol(-1) P450, respectively). 4. In a drug-drug interaction study, KR-62980 and KR-63198 had no effect on the activities of the P450s tested (IC(50) > 50 microM), suggesting that in clinical interactions between KR-62980 and KR-63198 the P450s tested would not be expected.

  3. Search for α3β₂/₃γ2 subtype selective ligands that are stable on human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Namjoshi, Ojas A; Wang, Zhi-jian; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Johnson, Edward Merle; Johnson, Yun-Teng; Ng, Hanna; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Sieghart, Werner; Majumder, Samarpan; Roth, Bryan L; Rowlett, James K; Cook, James M

    2013-01-01

    Selective modulation of specific benzodiazepine receptor (BzR) gamma amino butyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor ion channels has been identified as an important method for separating out the variety of pharmacological effects elicited by BzR-related drugs. Importantly, it has been demonstrated that both α2β(2/3)γ2 (α2BzR) and α3BzR (and/or α2/α3) BzR subtype selective ligands exhibit anxiolytic effects with little or no sedation. Previously we have identified several such ligands; however, three of our parent ligands exhibited significant metabolic liability in rodents in the form of a labile ester group. Here eight analogs are reported which were designed to circumvent this liability by utilizing a rational replacement of the ester moiety based on medicinal chemistry precedents. In a metabolic stability study using human liver microsomes, four compounds were found to undergo slower metabolic transformation, as compared to their corresponding ester analogs. These compounds were also evaluated in in vitro efficacy assays. Additionally, bioisostere 11 was evaluated in a rodent model of anxiety. It exhibited anxiolytic activity at doses of 10 and 100mg/kg and was devoid of sedative properties.

  4. Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy for Curcumin Metabolite Study in Human Liver Microsomes by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Chen, Xiaowu; Yang, Xiaomei; Wu, Qin; Jin, Feng; Wen, Hongliang; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-04-01

    The identification of drug metabolites is very important in drug development. Nowadays, the most widely used methods are isotopes and mass spectrometry. However, the commercial isotopic labeled reagents are usually very expensive, and the rapid and convenient identification of metabolites is still difficult. In this paper, an 18O isotope labeling strategy was developed and the isotopes were used as a tool to identify drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. Curcumin was selected as a model drug to evaluate the established method, and the 18O labeled curcumin was successfully synthesized. The non-labeled and 18O labeled curcumin were simultaneously metabolized in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The two groups of chromatograms obtained from metabolic reaction mixture with and without cofactors were compared and analyzed using Metabolynx software (Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA). The mass spectra of the newly appearing chromatographic peaks in the experimental sample were further analyzed to find the metabolite candidates. Their chemical structures were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Three metabolites, including two reduction products and a glucuronide conjugate, were successfully detected under their specific HLMs metabolic conditions, which were in accordance with the literature reported results. The results demonstrated that the developed isotope labeling method, together with post-acquisition data processing using Metabolynx software, could be used for fast identification of new drug metabolites.

  5. In vitro enantioselective human liver microsomal metabolism and prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of tetrabenazine by DLLME-CE.

    PubMed

    Bocato, Mariana Zuccherato; de Lima Moreira, Fernanda; de Albuquerque, Nayara Cristina Perez; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2016-09-05

    A new capillary electrophoresis method for the enantioselective analysis of cis- and trans- dihydrotetrabenazine (diHTBZ) after in vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes (HLMs) was developed. The chiral electrophoretic separations were performed by using tris-phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 1% (w/v) carboxymethyl-β-CD as background electrolyte with an applied voltage of +15kV and capillary temperature kept at 15°C. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was employed to extract the analytes from HLMs. Dichloromethane was used as extraction solvent (75μL) and acetone as disperser solvent (150μL). The method was validated according to official guidelines and showed to be linear over the concentration range of 0.29-19.57μmolL(-1) (r=0.9955) for each metabolite enantiomer. Within- and between-day precision and accuracy evaluated by relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15% for all enantiomers. The stability assay showed that the analytes kept stable under handling, storage and in metabolism conditions. After method validation, an enantioselective in vitro metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetic prediction was carried out. This study showed a stereoselective metabolism and the observed kinetic profile indicated a substrate inhibition behavior. DiHTBZ enantiomers were catalyzed mainly by CYP2C19 and the predicted clearance suggests that liver metabolism is the main route for TBZ elimination which supports the literature data.

  6. Comparative effects of the antimycotic drugs ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine on the metabolism of cyclosporin by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Back, D J; Tjia, J F

    1991-01-01

    Four antimycotic drugs, the azoles ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole, and the allylamine terbinafine have been studied for their effect on the metabolism of cyclosporin by human liver microsomes (n = 3) in vitro. Ketoconazole caused marked inhibition of cyclosporin hydroxylase (to metabolites M17 and M1) with IC50 and Ki values of 0.24 +/- 0.01 and 0.022 +/- 0.004 microM, respectively. Based on IC50 values, itraconazole was ten times less potent (IC50 value of 2.2 +/- 0.2 microM) and both fluconazole and terbinafine had values above 100 microM. Ki values for itraconazole and fluconazole were 0.7 +/- 0.2 and 40 +/- 5.6 microM, respectively. No kinetic parameters were calculated for terbinafine because of the lack of inhibitory effects. Based on these data, ketoconazole is confirmed as being a potent inhibitor of cyclosporin metabolism and this has clinical relevance. Although inhibition by fluconazole was much less than that by itraconazole at equimolar concentrations, it should be noted that in patients plasma concentrations of fluconazole are much greater than those of itraconazole. Clinical interactions of cyclosporin with both fluconazole and itraconazole have been reported. In contrast to the azoles, terbinafine does not have the same potential for interaction. PMID:1659439

  7. Stable isotope labeling strategy for curcumin metabolite study in human liver microsomes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Chen, Xiaowu; Yang, Xiaomei; Wu, Qin; Jin, Feng; Wen, Hongliang; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-04-01

    The identification of drug metabolites is very important in drug development. Nowadays, the most widely used methods are isotopes and mass spectrometry. However, the commercial isotopic labeled reagents are usually very expensive, and the rapid and convenient identification of metabolites is still difficult. In this paper, an (18)O isotope labeling strategy was developed and the isotopes were used as a tool to identify drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. Curcumin was selected as a model drug to evaluate the established method, and the (18)O labeled curcumin was successfully synthesized. The non-labeled and (18)O labeled curcumin were simultaneously metabolized in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The two groups of chromatograms obtained from metabolic reaction mixture with and without cofactors were compared and analyzed using Metabolynx software (Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA). The mass spectra of the newly appearing chromatographic peaks in the experimental sample were further analyzed to find the metabolite candidates. Their chemical structures were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Three metabolites, including two reduction products and a glucuronide conjugate, were successfully detected under their specific HLMs metabolic conditions, which were in accordance with the literature reported results. The results demonstrated that the developed isotope labeling method, together with post-acquisition data processing using Metabolynx software, could be used for fast identification of new drug metabolites.

  8. Primary deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in human abetalipoproteinemia is associated with loss of CD1 function.

    PubMed

    Zeissig, Sebastian; Dougan, Stephanie K; Barral, Duarte C; Junker, Yvonne; Chen, Zhangguo; Kaser, Arthur; Ho, Madelyn; Mandel, Hannah; McIntyre, Adam; Kennedy, Susan M; Painter, Gavin F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Yue, Simon; Beladi, Sarah; Behar, Samuel M; Chen, Xiuxu; Gumperz, Jenny E; Breckpot, Karine; Raper, Anna; Baer, Amanda; Exley, Mark A; Hegele, Robert A; Cuchel, Marina; Rader, Daniel J; Davidson, Nicholas O; Blumberg, Richard S

    2010-08-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a rare Mendelian disorder of lipid metabolism due to genetic deficiency in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). It is associated with defects in MTP-mediated lipid transfer onto apolipoprotein B (APOB) and impaired secretion of APOB-containing lipoproteins. Recently, MTP was shown to regulate the CD1 family of lipid antigen-presenting molecules, but little is known about immune function in ABL patients. Here, we have shown that ABL is characterized by immune defects affecting presentation of self and microbial lipid antigens by group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 molecules. In dendritic cells isolated from ABL patients, MTP deficiency was associated with increased proteasomal degradation of group 1 CD1 molecules. Although CD1d escaped degradation, it was unable to load antigens and exhibited functional defects similar to those affecting the group 1 CD1 molecules. The reduction in CD1 function resulted in impaired activation of CD1-restricted T and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and reduced numbers and phenotypic alterations of iNKT cells consistent with central and peripheral CD1 defects in vivo. These data highlight MTP as a unique regulator of human metabolic and immune pathways and reveal that ABL is not only a disorder of lipid metabolism but also an immune disease involving CD1.

  9. Different effects of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists on CYP3A4 enzyme of human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongling; Wang, Mingli; Zou, Sulan; Chen, Rong

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated inhibitory effects of 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) calcium channel antagonists (1,4-DHP-CCAs) on cytochromeP450 3A4 (CYP3A4) of human liver microsomes and further explored importance of 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors. Partial Least Squares method was applied to probe the quantitative relationships between the 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors and its inhibitory actions, which demonstrated that different 1,4-DHP-CCAs could inhibit CYP3A4 enzyme's activity differently. The K (i) values of nicardipine, lercandipine, cilnidipine, nitrendipine, lacidipine, nifedipine, felodipine were 10.13, 10.17, 11.44, 23.90, 29.34, 29.06 and 32.64 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. It is suggested that the 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors are the most important for its inhibitory effects based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) formula. The LogP was positively correlated to the K (i), whereas molecular weight and molecule volume were negatively correlated. It is concluded that analysis of K (i) of 1,4-DHPs derivatives on the CYP3A4 activity may apply for the QSAR formula at the initial stage of clinical application of new drugs.

  10. Inhibitory effect of six herbal extracts on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-05-01

    1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 24.7 ± 2.7 μg/ml for cranberry and 15.4 ± 1.7 μg/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction.

  11. Effects of anticancer drugs on the metabolism of the anticancer drug 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic (DMXAA) by human liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shufeng; Chin, Rebecca; Kestell, Philip; Tingle, Malcolm D; Paxton, James W

    2001-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effects of various anticancer drugs on the major metabolic pathways (glucuronidation and 6-methylhydroxylation) of DMXAA in human liver microsomes. Methods The effects of various anticancer drugs at 100 and 500 µm on the formation of DMXAA acyl glucuronide (DMXAA-G) and 6-hydroxymethyl-5-methylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (6-OH-MXAA) in human liver microsomes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). For those anticancer drugs showing significant inhibition of DMXAA metabolism, the inhibition constants (Ki) were determined. The resulting in vitro data were extrapolated to predict in vivo changes in DMXAA pharmacokinetics. Results Vinblastine, vincristine and amsacrine at 500 µm significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited DMXAA glucuronidation (Ki = 319, 350 and 230 µm, respectively), but not 6-methylhydroxylation in human liver microsomes. Daunorubicin and N-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) at 100 and 500 µm showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of DMXAA 6-methylhydroxylation (Ki = 131 and 0.59 µm, respectively), but not glucuronidation. Other drugs such as 5-fluoroucacil, paclitaxel, tirapazamine and methotrexate exhibited little or negligible inhibition of the metabolism of DMXAA. Pre-incubation of microsomes with the anticancer drugs (100 and 500 µm) did not enhance their inhibitory effects on DMXAA metabolism. Prediction of DMXAA–drug interactions in vivo based on these in vitro data indicated that all the anticancer drugs investigated except DACA appear unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of DMXAA, whereas DACA may increase the plasma AUC of DMXAA by 6%. Conclusions These results indicate that alteration of the pharmacokinetics of DMXAA appears unlikely when used in combination with other common anticancer drugs. However, this does not rule out the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs used concurrently with this combination of anticancer drugs. PMID:11488768

  12. An investigation of the interaction between halofantrine, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4: studies with human liver microsomes and heterologous enzyme expression systems.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, R C; Jones, B C; Smith, D A; Kitteringham, N R; Park, B K

    1995-01-01

    1. We have assessed the interaction of the antimalarial halofantrine with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro, with the use of microsomes from human liver and recombinant cell lines. 2. Rac-halofantrine was a potent inhibitor (IC50 = 1.06 microM, Ki = 4.3 microM) of the 1-hydroxylation of bufuralol, a marker for CYP2D6 activity. Of a group of structurally related antimalarials tested, only quinidine (IC50 = 0.04 microM) was more potent. 3. Microsomes prepared from recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 cell lines were shown to catalyse halofantrine N-debutylation. 4. The metabolism of halofantrine to its N-desbutyl metabolite by human liver microsomes showed no correlation with CYP2D6 genotypic or phenotypic status and there was no consistent inhibition by quinidine. 5. The rate of halofantrine metabolism showed a significant correlation with both CYP3A4 protein levels (r = 0.88, P = 0.01) and the rate of felodipine metabolism (r = 0.86, P = 0.013), a marker substrate for CYP3A4 activity. Inhibition studies showed that ketoconazole is a potent inhibitor of halofantrine metabolism (IC50 = 1.57 microM). 6. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that halofantrine is a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vitro and can also be metabolised by the enzyme. However, in human liver microsomes it appears to be metabolised largely by CYP3A4. PMID:8554939

  13. Analysis of R- and S-Hydroxywarfarin Glucuronidation Catalyzed by Human Liver Microsomes and Recombinant UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Stacie M.; Mosher, Carrie M.; Khallouki, Farid; Finel, Moshe; Court, Michael H.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2012-01-01

    Coumadin (R-, S-warfarin) is a challenging drug to accurately dose, both initially and for maintenance, because of its narrow therapeutic range and wide interpatient variability and is typically administered as a racemic (Rac) mixture, which complicates the biotransformation pathways. The goal of the current work was to identify the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in the glucuronidation of the separated R- and S-enantiomers of 6-, 7-, and 8-hydroxywarfarin and the possible interactions between these enantiomers. The kinetic and inhibition constants for human recombinant 1A family UGTs toward these separated enantiomers have been assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV-visible analysis, and product confirmations have been made using HPLC-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. We found that separated R- and S-enantiomers of 6-, 7-, and 8-hydroxywarfarin demonstrate significantly different glucuronidation kinetics and can be mutually inhibitory. In some cases significant substrate inhibition was observed, as shown by Km, Vmax, and Ki, comparisons. In particular, UGT1A1 and extrahepatic UGT1A10 have significantly higher capacities than other isoforms for S-7-hydroxywarfarin and R-7-hydroxywarfarin glucuronidation, respectively. Activity data generated using a set of well characterized human liver microsomes supported the recombinant enzyme data, suggesting an important (although not exclusive) role for UGT1A1 in glucuronidation of the main warfarin metabolites, including Rac-6- and 7-hydroxywarfarin and their R- and S-enantiomers in the liver. This is the first demonstration that the R- and S-enantiomers of hydroxywarfarins are glucuronidated, with significantly different enzymatic affinity and capacity, and supports the importance of UGT1A1 as the major hepatic isoform involved. PMID:21972237

  14. MALDI Profiling of Human Lung Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Nistal, Manuel; Calvo, Enrique; Madero, Rosario; Díaz, Esther; Camafeita, Emilio; de Castro, Javier; López, Juan Antonio; González-Barón, Manuel; Espinosa, Enrique; Fresno Vara, Juan Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteomics is expected to play a key role in cancer biomarker discovery. Although it has become feasible to rapidly analyze proteins from crude cell extracts using mass spectrometry, complex sample composition hampers this type of measurement. Therefore, for effective proteome analysis, it becomes critical to enrich samples for the analytes of interest. Despite that one-third of the proteins in eukaryotic cells are thought to be phosphorylated at some point in their life cycle, only a low percentage of intracellular proteins is phosphorylated at a given time. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we have applied chromatographic phosphopeptide enrichment techniques to reduce the complexity of human clinical samples. A novel method for high-throughput peptide profiling of human tumor samples, using Parallel IMAC and MALDI-TOF MS, is described. We have applied this methodology to analyze human normal and cancer lung samples in the search for new biomarkers. Using a highly reproducible spectral processing algorithm to produce peptide mass profiles with minimal variability across the samples, lineal discriminant-based and decision tree–based classification models were generated. These models can distinguish normal from tumor samples, as well as differentiate the various non–small cell lung cancer histological subtypes. Conclusions/Significance A novel, optimized sample preparation method and a careful data acquisition strategy is described for high-throughput peptide profiling of small amounts of human normal lung and lung cancer samples. We show that the appropriate combination of peptide expression values is able to discriminate normal lung from non-small cell lung cancer samples and among different histological subtypes. Our study does emphasize the great potential of proteomics in the molecular characterization of cancer. PMID:19890392

  15. Cell-free synthesis of functional human epidermal growth factor receptor: Investigation of ligand-independent dimerization in Sf21 microsomal membranes using non-canonical amino acids.

    PubMed

    Quast, Robert B; Ballion, Biljana; Stech, Marlitt; Sonnabend, Andrei; Varga, Balázs R; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M; Kubick, Stefan

    2016-09-27

    Cell-free protein synthesis systems represent versatile tools for the synthesis and modification of human membrane proteins. In particular, eukaryotic cell-free systems provide a promising platform for their structural and functional characterization. Here, we present the cell-free synthesis of functional human epidermal growth factor receptor and its vIII deletion mutant in a microsome-containing system derived from cultured Sf21 cells. We provide evidence for embedment of cell-free synthesized receptors into microsomal membranes and asparagine-linked glycosylation. Using the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site and a repetitive synthesis approach enrichment of receptors inside the microsomal fractions was facilitated thereby providing analytical amounts of functional protein. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation was demonstrated by monitoring receptor phosphorylation. Furthermore, an orthogonal cell-free translation system that provides the site-directed incorporation of p-azido-L-phenylalanine is characterized and applied to investigate receptor dimerization in the absence of a ligand by photo-affinity cross-linking. Finally, incorporated azides are used to generate stable covalently linked receptor dimers by strain-promoted cycloaddition using a novel linker system.

  16. Pharmacokinetic study in pigs and in vitro metabolic characterization in pig- and human-liver microsomes reveal marked differences in disposition and metabolism of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Mann, Henry J; Remmel, Rory P; Beilman, Greg J; Kaila, Nitin

    2014-04-01

    1. An equal-dose combination of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) is used as a veterinary anesthetic. There also have been reports of human abuse of Telazol®. The pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of tiletamine and zolazepam and the rationale for their administration as an equal-dose combination are unclear. 2. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of intramuscular tiletamine and zolazepam (3 mg/kg each) in 16 Yorkshire-crossbred pigs were determined. The metabolites of tiletamine and zolazepam in pig plasma and urine were identified by mass spectrometry. The metabolic stability of tiletamine and zolazepam and the kinetics of formation of their metabolites by pig- and human-liver microsomes were determined. 3. Higher concentrations of zolazepam were observed in pig plasma and it was cleared more slowly compared to tiletamine (apparent clearance: 11 versus 134 l/h; half-life: 2.76 versus 1.97 h). Three metabolites of zolazepam and one metabolite of tiletamine were identified in pig urine, plasma and in microsomal incubations. In vitro formation of each of these metabolites in microsomes was biphasic involving a high-affinity/low-capacity and a low-affinity/high-capacity enzyme. The in vitro metabolic stability of tiletamine was considerably lower compared to zolazepam. 4. These results collectively point to major pharmacokinetic and metabolic differences between the two components of this fixed-dose anesthetic combination.

  17. Cell-free synthesis of functional human epidermal growth factor receptor: Investigation of ligand-independent dimerization in Sf21 microsomal membranes using non-canonical amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Robert B.; Ballion, Biljana; Stech, Marlitt; Sonnabend, Andrei; Varga, Balázs R.; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.; Kubick, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis systems represent versatile tools for the synthesis and modification of human membrane proteins. In particular, eukaryotic cell-free systems provide a promising platform for their structural and functional characterization. Here, we present the cell-free synthesis of functional human epidermal growth factor receptor and its vIII deletion mutant in a microsome-containing system derived from cultured Sf21 cells. We provide evidence for embedment of cell-free synthesized receptors into microsomal membranes and asparagine-linked glycosylation. Using the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site and a repetitive synthesis approach enrichment of receptors inside the microsomal fractions was facilitated thereby providing analytical amounts of functional protein. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation was demonstrated by monitoring receptor phosphorylation. Furthermore, an orthogonal cell-free translation system that provides the site-directed incorporation of p-azido-L-phenylalanine is characterized and applied to investigate receptor dimerization in the absence of a ligand by photo-affinity cross-linking. Finally, incorporated azides are used to generate stable covalently linked receptor dimers by strain-promoted cycloaddition using a novel linker system. PMID:27670253

  18. Does diesel exhaust cause human lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Cox, L A

    1997-12-01

    Recent reviews of epidemiological evidence on the relation between exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and lung cancer risk have reached conflicting conclusions, ranging from belief that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that DE is a human lung carcinogen (California EPA, 1994) to conclusions that there is inadequate evidence to support a causal association between DE and human lung cancer (Muscat and Wynder, 1995). Individual studies also conflict, with both increases and decreases in relative risks of lung cancer mortality being cited with 95% statistical confidence. On balance, reports of elevated risk outnumber reports of reduced risk. This paper reexamines the evidence linking DE exposures to lung cancer risk. After briefly reviewing animal data and biological mechanisms, it surveys the relevant epidemiological literature and examines possible explanations for the discrepancies. These explanations emphasize the distinction between statistical associations, which have been found in many studies, and causal associations, which appear not to have been established. Methodological threats to valid causal inference are identified and new approaches for controlling them are proposed using recent techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) and computational statistics. These threats have not been adequately controlled for in previous epidemiological studies. They provide plausible noncausal explanations for the reported increases in relative risks, making it impossible to infer causality between DE exposure and lung cancer risk from these studies. A key contribution is to show how recent techniques developed in the AI-and-statistics literature can help clarify the causal interpretation of complex multivariate data sets used in epidemiological risk assessments. Applied to the key study of Garshick et al. (1988), these methods show that DE concentration has no positive causal association with occupational lung cancer mortality risk.

  19. Human microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics: well-known and promising members of the SDR superfamily.

    PubMed

    Skarydová, Lucie; Wsól, Vladimír

    2012-05-01

    The best known, most widely studied enzyme system in phase I biotransformation is cytochrome P450 (CYP), which participates in the metabolism of roughly 9 of 10 drugs in use today. The main biotransformation isoforms of CYP are associated with the membrane of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). Other enzymes that are also active in phase I biotransformation are carbonyl reducing enzymes. Much is known about the role of cytosolic forms of carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics, but their microsomal forms have been mostly poorly studied. The only well-known microsomal carbonyl reducing enzyme taking part in the biotransformation of xenobiotics is 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Physiological roles of microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes are better known than their participation in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This review is a summary of the fragmentary information known about the roles of the microsomal forms. Besides 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, it has been reported, so far, that retinol dehydrogenase 12 participates only in the detoxification of unsaturated aldehydes formed upon oxidative stress. Another promising group of microsomal biotransformation carbonyl reducing enzymes are some members of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Generally, it is clear that this area is, overall, quite unexplored, but carbonyl reducing enzymes located in the ER have proven very interesting. The study of these enzymes could shed new light on the metabolism of several clinically used drugs or they could become an important target in connection with some diseases.

  20. 4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, J G; Ricci, M J; Jefcoate, C R; Hannigan, E V; Hokanson, J A; Zhu, B T

    1995-01-01

    Estradiol is converted to catechol estrogens via 2- and 4-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 enzymes. 4-Hydroxyestradiol elicits biological activities distinct from estradiol, most notably an oxidant stress response induced by free radicals generated by metabolic redox cycling reactions. In this study, we have examined 2- and 4-hydroxylation of estradiol by microsomes of human uterine myometrium and of associated myomata. In all eight cases studied, estradiol 4-hydroxylation by myoma has been substantially elevated relative to surrounding myometrial tissue (minimum, 2-fold; mean, 5-fold). Estradiol 2-hydroxylation in myomata occurs at much lower rates than 4-hydroxylation (ratio of 4-hydroxyestradiol/2-hydroxyestradiol, 7.9 +/- 1.4) and does not significantly differ from rates in surrounding myometrial tissue. Rates of myometrial 2-hydroxylation of estradiol were also not significantly different from values in patients without myomata. We have used various inhibitors to establish that 4-hydroxylation is catalyzed by a completely different cytochrome P450 than 2-hydroxylation. In myoma, alpha-naphthoflavone and a set of ethynyl polycyclic hydrocarbon inhibitors (5 microM) each inhibited 4-hydroxylation more efficiently (up to 90%) than 2-hydroxylation (up to 40%), indicating > 10-fold differences in Ki (<0.5 microM vs. > 5 microM). These activities were clearly distinguished from the selective 2-hydroxylation of estradiol in placenta by aromatase reported previously (low Km, inhibition by Fadrozole hydrochloride or ICI D1033). 4-Hydroxylation was also selectively inhibited relative to 2-hydroxylation by antibodies raised against cytochrome P450 IB1 (rat) (53 vs. 17%). These data indicate that specific 4-hydroxylation of estradiol in human uterine tissues is catalyzed by a form(s) of cytochrome P450 related to P450 IB1, which contribute(s) little to 2-hydroxylation. This enzyme(s) is therefore a marker for uterine myomata and may play a role in the etiology of the

  1. Development of an In Vitro System with Human Liver Microsomes for Phenotyping of CYP2C9 Genetic Polymorphisms with a Mechanism-Based Inactivator

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Darcy R.

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 enzymes can significantly alter the rate of drug metabolism, as well as the extent of drug-drug interactions. Individuals who homozygotically express the CYP2C9*3 allele (I359L) of CYP2C9 exhibit ∼70 to 80% reductions in the oral clearance of drugs metabolized through this pathway; the reduction in clearance is ∼40 to 50% for heterozygotic individuals. Although these polymorphisms result in a decrease in the activity of individual enzyme molecules, we hypothesized that decreasing the total number of active enzyme molecules in an in vitro system (CYP2C9*1/*1 human liver microsomes) by an equivalent percentage could produce the same net change in overall metabolic capacity. To this end, the selective CYP2C9 mechanism-based inactivator tienilic acid was used to reduce irreversibly the total CYP2C9 activity in human liver microsomes. Tienilic acid concentrations were effectively titrated to produce microsomal preparations with 43 and 73% less activity, mimicking the CYP2C9*1/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes, respectively. With probe substrates specific for other major cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4), no apparent changes in the rate of metabolism were noted for these enzymes after the addition of tienilic acid, which suggests that this model is selective for CYP2C9. In lieu of using rare human liver microsomes from CYP2C9*1/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 individuals, a tienilic acid-created knockdown in human liver microsomes may be an appropriate in vitro model to determine CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of a given substrate, to determine whether other drug-metabolizing enzymes may compensate for reduced CYP2C9 activity, and to predict the extent of genotype-dependent drug-drug interactions. PMID:22205778

  2. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Israel L; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M; Mariani, Alessandro W; Fernandes, Flávio G; Unterpertinger, Fernando V; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71). The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  3. Human Lung Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Stephan; Dheda, Keertan

    2011-01-01

    The study of human pulmonary immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) provides a unique window into the biological interactions between the human host and M.tb within the broncho-alveolar microenvironment, the site of natural infection. Studies of bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and lung tissue evaluate innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune mechanisms that collectively contribute to immunological protection or its failure. In aerogenically M.tb–exposed healthy persons lung immune responses reflect early host pathogen interactions that may contribute to sterilization, the development of latent M.tb infection, or progression to active disease. Studies in these persons may allow the identification of biomarkers of protective immunity before the initiation of inflammatory and disease-associated immunopathological changes. In healthy close contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and during active pulmonary TB, immune responses are compartmentalized to the lungs and characterized by an exuberant helper T-cell type 1 response, which as suggested by recent evidence is counteracted by local suppressive immune mechanisms. Here we discuss how exploring human lung immunity may provide insights into disease progression and mechanisms of failure of immunological protection at the site of the initial host–pathogen interaction. These findings may also aid in the identification of new biomarkers of protective immunity that are urgently needed for the development of new and the improvement of current TB vaccines, adjuvant immunotherapies, and diagnostic technologies. To facilitate further work in this area, methodological and procedural approaches for bronchoalveolar lavage studies and their limitations are also discussed. PMID:21075901

  4. Identification of a novel glutathione adduct of diclofenac, 4'-hydroxy-2'-glutathion-deschloro-diclofenac, upon incubation with human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li J; Chen, Yue; Deninno, Michael P; O'Connell, Thomas N; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2005-04-01

    Clinical use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DF) is associated with an incidence of idiosyncratic hepatoxicity. The formation of reactive metabolites of DF in vivo has been proposed to be responsible for such toxicity. One type of reactive metabolite, a benzoquinone imine of DF formed through oxidation by cytochromes P450, can be trapped by glutathione in vitro in liver microsomes to form glutathione (GS) adducts. Three GS adducts from DF were reported in the literature, namely, 5-hydroxy (OH)-4-glutathione-DF, 4'-OH-3'-glutathione-DF and 5-OH-6-glutathione-DF, and they all have the same molecular weight of 616. Recently, we developed a sensitive and high throughput method for the detection of GS adducts from liver microsome incubation. This method uses a constant neutral loss scan of m/z 129, a "structure-characteristic" fragment for GS adduct, on an automated chip-based nanoelectrospray (Advion NanoMate 100) attached to a tandem mass spectrometer (Sciex API 3000). The analysis of GS adducts from human liver microsome incubation with DF by the NanoMate 100-API 3000 method unambiguously revealed a new adduct ion with m/z 583 (MH+), in addition to the known adduct peak with m/z 617 (MH+). This new adduct was further confirmed to be 4'-OH-2'-glutathion-deschloro-diclofenac by liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), LC/MS-NMR, and comparison to a synthetic standard.

  5. Photodynamic effects of new silicon phthalocyanines: in vitro studies utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S I; Agarwal, R; Eichler, G; Rihter, B D; Kenney, M E; Mukhtar, H

    1993-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is a modality that relies upon the irradiation of tumors with visible light following selective uptake of a photosensitizer by the tumor tissue. There is considerable emphasis to define new photosensitizers suitable for PDT of cancer. In this study we evaluated six phthalocyanines (Pc) for their photodynamic effects utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources. Of the newly synthesized Pc, two showed significant destruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities, and enhancement of lipid peroxidation, when added to microsomal suspension followed by irradiation with approximately 675 nm light. These two Pc named SiPc IV (HOSiPcOSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]2) and SiPc V (HOSiPc-OSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]3+I-) showed dose-dependent photodestruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities in liver microsomes, and photoenhancement of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxide formation and lipid fluorescence in microsomes and erythrocyte ghosts. Compared to chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate, SiPc IV and SiPc V produced far more pronounced photodynamic effects. Sodium azide, histidine, and 2,5-dimethylfuran, the quenchers of singlet oxygen, afforded highly significant protection against SiPc IV- and SiPc V-mediated photodynamic effects. However, to a lesser extent, the quenchers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical also showed some protective effects. These results suggest that SiPc IV and SiPc V may be promising photosensitizers for the PDT of cancer.

  6. OXIDATIVE AND HYDROLYTIC METABOLISM OF TYPE I PYRETHROIDS IN RAT AND HUMAN HEPATIC MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are a class of neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of agricultural and household activities. Increased potential for human exposure to pyrethroids has prompted pharmacokinetic research. To that end, our laboratory has determined the in vitro clearance of the T...

  7. OXIDATIVE AND HYDROLYTIC METABOLISM OF TYPE I PYRETHROIDS IN RAT AND HUMAN HEPATIC MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are a class of neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of agricultural and household activities. Increased potential for human exposure to pyrethroids has prompted pharmacokinetic research. To that end, our laboratory has determined the in vitro clearance of the T...

  8. The effect of trimethoprim on CYP2C8 mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in human liver microsomes and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, M W; Amico, J A; Langaee, T Y; Ferrell, R E; Fitzgerald, S M; Frye, R F

    2005-01-01

    Aims Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic medication used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C8. The anti-infective drug trimethoprim has been shown in vitro to be a selective inhibitor of CYP2C8. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trimethoprim on the CYP2C8 mediated metabolism of rosiglitazone in vivo and in vitro. Methods The effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of rosiglitazone in vitro was assessed in pooled human liver microsomes. The effect in vivo was determined by evaluating rosiglitazone pharmacokinetics in the presence and absence of trimethoprim. Eight healthy subjects (four men and four women) completed a randomized, cross-over study. Subjects received single dose rosiglitazone (8 mg) in the presence and absence of trimethoprim 200 mg given twice daily for 5 days. Results Trimethoprim inhibited rosiglitazone metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of rosiglitazone para-hydroxylation by trimethoprim in vitro was found to be competitive with apparent Ki and IC50 values of 29 µm and 54.5 µm, respectively. In the presence of trimethoprim, rosiglitazone plasma AUC was increased by 31% (P = 0.01) from 2774 ± 645 µg l−1 h to 3643 ± 1051 µg l−1 h (95% confidence interval (Cl) for difference 189, 1549), and half-life was increased by 27% (P = 0.006) from 3.3 ± 0.5 to 4.2 ± 0.8 h (95% Cl for difference 0.36, 1.5). Trimethoprim reduced the para-O-sulphate rosiglitazone/rosiglitazone and the N-desmethylrosiglitazone/rosiglitazone AUC(0–24) ratios by 22% and 38%, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that trimethoprim is a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in vitro and that trimethoprim administration increases plasma rosiglitazone concentrations in healthy subjects. PMID:15606443

  9. The effect of trimethoprim on CYP2C8 mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in human liver microsomes and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hruska, M W; Amico, J A; Langaee, T Y; Ferrell, R E; Fitzgerald, S M; Frye, R F

    2005-01-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic medication used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C8. The anti-infective drug trimethoprim has been shown in vitro to be a selective inhibitor of CYP2C8. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trimethoprim on the CYP2C8 mediated metabolism of rosiglitazone in vivo and in vitro. The effect of trimethoprim on the metabolism of rosiglitazone in vitro was assessed in pooled human liver microsomes. The effect in vivo was determined by evaluating rosiglitazone pharmacokinetics in the presence and absence of trimethoprim. Eight healthy subjects (four men and four women) completed a randomized, cross-over study. Subjects received single dose rosiglitazone (8 mg) in the presence and absence of trimethoprim 200 mg given twice daily for 5 days. Trimethoprim inhibited rosiglitazone metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of rosiglitazone para-hydroxylation by trimethoprim in vitro was found to be competitive with apparent K(i) and IC(50) values of 29 microm and 54.5 microm, respectively. In the presence of trimethoprim, rosiglitazone plasma AUC was increased by 31% (P = 0.01) from 2774 +/- 645 microg l(-1) h to 3643 +/- 1051 microg l(-1) h (95% confidence interval (CI) for difference 189, 1549), and half-life was increased by 27% (P = 0.006) from 3.3 +/- 0.5 to 4.2 +/- 0.8 h (95% CI for difference 0.36, 1.5). Trimethoprim reduced the para-O-sulphate rosiglitazone/rosiglitazone and the N-desmethylrosiglitazone/rosiglitazone AUC(0-24) ratios by 22% and 38%, respectively. These results indicate that trimethoprim is a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in vitro and that trimethoprim administration increases plasma rosiglitazone concentrations in healthy subjects.

  10. Oxidative metabolism of flunarizine and cinnarizine by microsomes from B-lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Uchino, K; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1996-11-01

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine [(E)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, CZ] and flunarizine [(E)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, FZ] was examined in microsomes from lymphoblastoid cells that expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among 10 kinds of CYP enzymes examined, only CYP2D6 catalyzed p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl ring of CZ (C-2 formation) and FZ (F-2 formation), and only CYP2B6 exhibited activity for p-hydroxylation (C-4 formation) of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ at a substrate concentration of 50 microM. On the other hand, CYP2C9 together with CYP1A1, -1A2 and/or -2A6 mediated N-desalkylation at the 1- and 4-positions of the piperazine ring of the two drugs that formed C-1 and C-3 from CZ and F-1 and F-3 from FZ, respectively, whereas CYP2C8, -2C19, -2E1 or -3A4 did not show detectable activity for these reactions under the conditions used. We then examined kinetics for the oxidative metabolism of CZ and FZ using CYP2B6 and -2D6 that have considerable activities. CYP2D6 with Km values of 2 to 4 microM had intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) of 0.31 and 0.14 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-2 and F-2 formation, respectively, while CYP2B6 with a Km value of 17 microM exhibited the clearance value of 0.10 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-4 formation. These results suggest that CYP2D6 mainly mediates p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl rings of CZ and FZ, and CYP2B6 mediates that of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ.

  11. Prediction of human drug clearance by multiple metabolic pathways: integration of hepatic and intestinal microsomal and cytosolic data.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Helen E; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    The current study assesses hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, sulfation, and cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism of raloxifene, quercetin, salbutamol, and troglitazone using different in vitro systems. The fraction metabolized by conjugation and P450 metabolism was estimated in liver and intestine, and the importance of multiple metabolic pathways on accuracy of clearance prediction was assessed. In vitro intrinsic sulfation clearance (CL(int, SULT)) was determined in human intestinal and hepatic cytosol and compared with hepatic and intestinal microsomal glucuronidation (CL(int, UGT)) and P450 clearance (CL(int, CYP)) expressed per gram of tissue. Hepatic and intestinal cytosolic scaling factors of 80.7 mg/g liver and 18 mg/g intestine were estimated from published data. Scaled CL(int, SULT) ranged between 0.7 and 11.4 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) liver and 0.1 and 3.3 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) intestine (salbutamol and quercetin were the extremes). Salbutamol was the only compound with a high extent of sulfation (51 and 28% of total CL(int) for liver and intestine, respectively) and also significant renal clearance (26-57% of observed plasma clearance). In contrast, the clearance of quercetin was largely accounted for by glucuronidation. Drugs metabolized by multiple pathways (raloxifene and troglitazone) demonstrated improved prediction of intravenous clearance using data from all hepatic pathways (44-86% of observed clearance) compared with predictions based only on the primary pathway (22-36%). The assumption of no intestinal first pass resulted in underprediction of oral clearance for raloxifene, troglitazone, and quercetin (3-22% of observed, respectively). Accounting for the intestinal contribution to oral clearance via estimated intestinal availability improved prediction accuracy for raloxifene and troglitazone (within 2.5-fold of observed). Current findings emphasize the importance of both hepatic and intestinal conjugation for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation

  12. Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and <10 μM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and was 2.8, 4.3, and <10 μM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  13. Inhibitory effects of seven components of danshen extract on catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jianguo; Jiye, A; Hao, Haiping; Peng, Ying; Ai, Hua; Wang, Guangji

    2008-07-01

    The potential for herb-drug interactions has recently received greater attention worldwide, considering the fact that the use of herbal products becomes more and more widespread. The goal of this work was to examine the potential for the metabolism-based drug interaction arising from seven active components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, salvianolic acid B, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone) of danshen extract. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without each component of danshen extract. IC(50) and K(i) values were estimated, and the types of inhibition were determined. Among the seven components of danshen extract, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone were potent competitive inhibitors of CYP1A2 (K(i) = 0.48, 1.0, and 0.45 microM, respectively); danshensu was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 35 microM), and cryptotanshinone was a moderate mixed-type inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 8 microM); cryptotanshinone inhibited weakly and in mixed mode against CYP2D6 activity (K(i) = 68 microM), and tanshinone I was a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 (IC(50) = 120 microM); and protocatechuic aldehyde was a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 130 and 160 microM for midazolam and testosterone, respectively). These findings provided some useful information for safe and effective use of danshen preparations in clinical practice. Our data indicated that it was necessary to study the in vivo interactions between drugs and pharmaceuticals with danshen extract.

  14. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase and Analysis of “Preneoplastic Antigen”-Like Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongying; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. PMID:22310175

  15. Drug-drug Interaction between Losartan and Paclitaxel in Human Liver Microsomes with Different CYP2C8 Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Hayakawa, Toru; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2015-06-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8*3 allele is associated with reduced metabolic activity of paclitaxel. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of losartan on paclitaxel metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and to determine the impact of the CYP2C8*3 polymorphism. HLMs that contained the CYP2C8*1 homozygote (HL60) or CYP2C8*3 heterozygote (HL54) genotype were used for the inhibition study. Losartan, at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, significantly inhibited paclitaxel metabolism by 29% and 57% in the HL60 (p < 0.001) and HL54 (p < 0.01), respectively. When using HL60, losartan and the CYP3A4-selective inhibitors, erythromycin and ketoconazole, caused a greater inhibition of the paclitaxel metabolism than quercetin, a CYP2C8-selective inhibitor. This demonstrated that the paclitaxel metabolism was mainly catalysed by CYP3A4 in HL60. There were no significant differences found for the inhibitory effects caused by the four inhibitors of the paclitaxel metabolism in HL54, indicating that both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 play important roles in paclitaxel metabolism in HL54. These findings suggest that 50 μmol/L of losartan inhibits both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in HLMs. In summary, losartan inhibited paclitaxel metabolism, with concentrations over 50 μmol/L in HLMs. The CYP2C8*3 allele carriers are likely susceptible to the interactions of losartan and CYP3A4 inhibitors to paclitaxel metabolism.

  16. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-02-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Kinetics of ethylene and ethylene oxide in subcellular fractions of lungs and livers of male B6C3F1 mice and male fischer 344 rats and of human livers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Csanády, György András; Kessler, Winfried; Klein, Dominik; Pankratz, Helmut; Pütz, Christian; Richter, Nadine; Filser, Johannes Georg

    2011-10-01

    Ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic ethylene oxide (EO). Although both gases are of high industrial relevance, only limited data exist on the toxicokinetics of ET in mice and of EO in humans. Metabolism of ET is related to cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase (CYP) and of EO to epoxide hydrolase (EH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Kinetics of ET metabolism to EO and of elimination of EO were investigated in headspace vessels containing incubations of subcellular fractions of mouse, rat, or human liver or of mouse or rat lung. CYP-associated metabolism of ET and GST-related metabolism of EO were found in microsomes and cytosol, respectively, of each species. EH-related metabolism of EO was not detectable in hepatic microsomes of rats and mice but obeyed saturation kinetics in hepatic microsomes of humans. In ET-exposed liver microsomes, metabolism of ET to EO followed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. Mean values of V(max) [nmol/(min·mg protein)] and of the apparent Michaelis constant (K(m) [mmol/l ET in microsomal suspension]) were 0.567 and 0.0093 (mouse), 0.401 and 0.031 (rat), and 0.219 and 0.013 (human). In lung microsomes, V(max) values were 0.073 (mouse) and 0.055 (rat). During ET exposure, the rate of EO production decreased rapidly. By modeling a suicide inhibition mechanism, rate constants for CYP-mediated catalysis and CYP inactivation were estimated. In liver cytosol, mean GST activities to EO expressed as V(max)/K(m) [μl/(min·mg protein)] were 27.90 (mouse), 5.30 (rat), and 1.14 (human). The parameters are most relevant for reducing uncertainties in the risk assessment of ET and EO.

  18. Kinetics of Ethylene and Ethylene Oxide in Subcellular Fractions of Lungs and Livers of Male B6C3F1 Mice and Male Fischer 344 Rats and of Human Livers

    PubMed Central

    Csanády, György András; Kessler, Winfried; Klein, Dominik; Pankratz, Helmut; Pütz, Christian; Richter, Nadine; Filser, Johannes Georg

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic ethylene oxide (EO). Although both gases are of high industrial relevance, only limited data exist on the toxicokinetics of ET in mice and of EO in humans. Metabolism of ET is related to cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase (CYP) and of EO to epoxide hydrolase (EH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Kinetics of ET metabolism to EO and of elimination of EO were investigated in headspace vessels containing incubations of subcellular fractions of mouse, rat, or human liver or of mouse or rat lung. CYP-associated metabolism of ET and GST-related metabolism of EO were found in microsomes and cytosol, respectively, of each species. EH-related metabolism of EO was not detectable in hepatic microsomes of rats and mice but obeyed saturation kinetics in hepatic microsomes of humans. In ET-exposed liver microsomes, metabolism of ET to EO followed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. Mean values of Vmax [nmol/(min·mg protein)] and of the apparent Michaelis constant (Km [mmol/l ET in microsomal suspension]) were 0.567 and 0.0093 (mouse), 0.401 and 0.031 (rat), and 0.219 and 0.013 (human). In lung microsomes, Vmax values were 0.073 (mouse) and 0.055 (rat). During ET exposure, the rate of EO production decreased rapidly. By modeling a suicide inhibition mechanism, rate constants for CYP-mediated catalysis and CYP inactivation were estimated. In liver cytosol, mean GST activities to EO expressed as Vmax/Km [μl/(min·mg protein)] were 27.90 (mouse), 5.30 (rat), and 1.14 (human). The parameters are most relevant for reducing uncertainties in the risk assessment of ET and EO. PMID:21785163

  19. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira; Kayano, Hidekazu; Koyama, Isamu; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell

  20. Metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline ethers by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed human cytochromes P450: identification of CYP2A6 as a major catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hong, J Y; Wang, Y Y; Bondoc, F Y; Lee, M; Yang, C S; Hu, W Y; Pan, J

    1999-10-01

    To reduce the production of carbon monoxide and other pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are added to gasoline as oxygenates for more complete combustion. Previously, we demonstrated that human liver is active in metabolizing MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a critical role in the metabolism of MTBE. The present study demonstrates that human liver is also active in the oxidative metabolism of ETBE and TAME. A large interindividual variation in metabolizing these gasoline ethers was observed in 15 human liver microsomal samples. The microsomal activities in metabolizing MTBE, ETBE, and TAME were highly correlated among each other (r, 0.91-0. 96), suggesting that these ethers are metabolized by the same enzyme(s). Correlation analysis of the ether-metabolizing activities with individual CYP enzyme activities in the liver microsomes showed that the highest degree of correlation was with human CYP2A6 (r, 0. 90-0.95), which is constitutively expressed in human livers and known to be polymorphic. CYP2A6 displayed the highest turnover number in metabolizing gasoline ethers among a battery of human CYP enzymes expressed in human B-lymphoblastoid cells. Kinetic studies on MTBE metabolism with three human liver microsomes exhibited apparent Km values that ranged from 28 to 89 microM and the V(max) values from 215 to 783 pmol/min/mg, with similar catalytic efficiency values (7.7 to 8.8 microl/min/mg protein). Metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME by human liver microsomes was inhibited by coumarin, a known substrate of human CYP2A6, in a concentration-dependent manner. Monoclonal antibody against human CYP2A6 caused a significant inhibition (75% to 95%) of the metabolism of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in human liver microsomes. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that in human liver, CYP2A6 is the major enzyme responsible for the

  1. Amiloride-inhibited Na -H exchange in human kidney medulla microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, E.F.

    1986-08-01

    Membrane vesicles from the medulla of the human kidney are capable of amiloride-inhibited sodium-proton exchange. Sodium uptake into the vesicles in stimulated by low intravesicular pH (6.0) and inhibited by both low extravesicular pH (6.0) and amiloride (2 mM). Sodium uptake is a linear function of the vesicular protein concentration and can be reversed by raising the osmotic strength of the solution to shrink the vesicle or by adding the inophore nigericin. Acridine orange was accumulated by the vesicles in response to a pH gradient (pH 6.0, inside, 8.0 outside), and the accumulation of acridine orange could be reduced by increase extravesicular sodium. Thus sodium could stimulate proton movement just as protons could stimulate sodium movement across the vesicular membrane.

  2. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  3. In Vitro Glucuronidation of Fenofibric Acid by Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Tojcic, Jelena; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Court, Michael H.; Straka, Robert J.; Caron, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Fenofibric acid (FA), the active moiety of fenofibrate, is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor α that modulates triglyceride and cholesterol profiles. Lipid response to fenofibrate and FA serum concentrations is highly variable. Although FA is reported to be almost exclusively inactivated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) into FA-glucuronide (FA-G), the contribution of UGT isoenzymes has never been systematically assessed. Heterologously expressed human UGT1A and UGT2B and their coding variants were tested for FA glucuronidation using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recombinant UGT2B7 presented the highest Vmax/Km value (2.10 μl/min/mg), 16-fold higher than the activity of other reactive UGTs, namely, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 (0.13, 0.09, and 0.02 μl/min/mg, respectively). UGT2B7.1 (His268) and UGT2B7.2 (Tyr268) enzyme activity was similar, whereas UGT1A3.2 (R11A47), UGT1A3.3 (Trp11), and UGT1A9.3 (Thr33) showed 61 to 96% reduced Vmax/Km values compared with the respective (1) reference proteins. FA-G formation by a human liver bank (n = 48) varied by 10-fold, but the rate of formation was not associated with common genetic variations in UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Correlation with activities for the probe substrates zidovudine (UGT2B7; r2 = 0.75), mycophenolic acid (UGT1A9; r2 = 0.42), fulvestrant (UGT1A3; r2 = 0.36), but not serotonin (UGT1A6; r2 = 0.06) indicated a primary role for UGT2B7 and lesser roles of UGT1A9 and UGT1A3 in hepatic FA glucuronidation. This was confirmed by a strong correlation of FA-G formation with UGT2B7 protein content and inhibition by fluconazole, a known UGT2B7 selective inhibitor. Additional studies are required to identify genetic factors contributing to the observed FA glucuronidation variability. PMID:19661212

  4. Metabolic activation of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by cytochrome P450 2A13 in human fetal nasal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hansen L; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Ding, Xinxin; Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E

    2005-06-01

    Among human P450s studied to date, P450 2A13 is the most efficient catalyst of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) alpha-hydroxylation. This reaction is a key bioactivation pathway in NNK-induced carcinogenesis. P450 2A13 mRNA has been detected in human tissues, but it is unknown whether the enzyme is functional in vivo. Therefore, we studied NNK alpha-hydroxylation in human fetal nasal mucosal microsomes, which have been shown to contain high levels of P450 2A protein, presumed to be a mixture of P450 2A6 and 2A13. The microsomes efficiently catalyzed NNK alpha-hydroxylation at the methylene and methyl carbons, as well as carbonyl reduction. Antibodies against mouse P450 2A5 inhibited alpha-hydroxylation by these microsomes greater than 90%. K(m) and V(max) values for alpha-methylene hydroxylation were 6.5 +/- 1.1 muM and 3.0 +/- 0.1 pmol/min/mg; for alpha-methyl hydroxylation, they were 6.7 +/- 0.8 microM and 0.85 +/- 0.03 pmol/min/mg. The K(m) values agree closely with those for NNK metabolism by P450 2A13. Using a new technique, we separated P450 2A13 from P450 2A6 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Quantitative immunoblot analysis indicated that the level of P450 2A13 in the pooled fetal nasal microsome sample used for kinetic analysis was approximately 1.6 pmol/mg protein. In the same sample, P450 2A6 was not detected (detection limit, 67 fmol/mg protein). These kinetic, immunoinhibition, and immunoblot data confirm that P450 2A13 is a functional enzyme and the catalyst of NNK alpha-hydroxylation in human fetal nasal mucosa. The results are also the first to demonstrate high efficiency NNK alpha-hydroxylation in a human tissue.

  5. Prediction of the in vivo interaction between midazolam and macrolides based on in vitro studies using human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiyomi; Ogihara, Kanako; Kanamitsu, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Tomoo

    2003-07-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that plasma concentrations of midazolam after oral administration are greatly increased by coadministration of erythromycin and clarithromycin, whereas azithromycin has little effect on midazolam concentrations. Several macrolide antibiotics are known to be mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 isoform responsible for midazolam hydroxylation. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively predict in vivo drug interactions in humans involving macrolide antibiotics with different inhibitory potencies based on in vitro studies. alpha- and 4-Hydroxylation of midazolam by human liver microsomes were evaluated as CYP3A-mediated metabolic reactions, and the effect of preincubation with macrolides was examined. The hydroxylation of midazolam was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner following preincubation with macrolides in the presence of NADPH, whereas almost no inhibition was observed without preincubation. The kinetic parameters for enzyme inactivation (K'app and kinact) involved in midazolam alpha-hydroxylation were 12.6 microM and 0.0240 min-1, respectively, for erythromycin, 41.4 microM and 0.0423 min-1, respectively, for clarithromycin, and 623 microM and 0.0158 min-1, respectively, for azithromycin. Similar results were obtained for the 4-hydroxylation pathway. These parameters and the reported pharmacokinetic parameters of midazolam and macrolides were then used to simulate in vivo interactions based on a physiological flow model. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam after oral administration was predicted to increase 2.9- or 3.0-fold following pretreatment with erythromycin (500 mg t.i.d. for 5 or 6 days, respectively) and 2.1- or 2.5-fold by clarithromycin (250 mg b.i.d. for 5 days or 500 mg b.i.d. for 7 days, respectively), whereas azithromycin (500 mg o.d. for 3 days) was predicted to have little effect on midazolam AUC. These results agreed well with the reported

  6. Cross-species comparison of conazole fungicide metabolites using rat and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) hepatic microsomes and purified human CYP 3A4.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Christopher S; Kenneke, John F

    2008-02-01

    Ecological risk assessment frequently relies on cross-species extrapolation to predict acute toxicity from chemical exposures. A major concern for environmental risk characterization is the degree of uncertainty in assessing xenobiotic biotransformation processes. Although inherently complex, metabolite identification is critical to risk assessment since the product(s) formed may pose a greater toxicological threat than the parent molecule. This issue is further complicated by differences observed in metabolic transformation pathways among species. Conazoles represent an important class of azole fungicides that are widely used in both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. The antifungal property of conazoles occurs via complexation with the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) responsible for mediating fungal cell wall synthesis. This mode of action has cause for concern regarding the potential adverse impact of conazoles on the broad spectrum of CYP-based processes within mammalian and aquatic species. In this study, in vitro metabolic profiles were determined for thirteen conazole fungicides using rat and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver microsomes and purified human CYP 3A4. Results showed that 10 out of the 13 conazoles tested demonstrated identical metabolite profiles among rat and trout microsomes, and these transformations were well conserved via both aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylation and carbonyl reduction processes. Furthermore, nearly all metabolites detected in the rat and trout microsomal assays were detected within the human CYP 3A4 assays. These results indicate a high degree of metabolic conservation among species with an equivalent isozyme activity of human CYP 3A4 being present in both the rat and trout, and provides insight into xenobiotic biotransformations needed for accurate risk assessment.

  7. Metabolism of novel opioid agonists U-47700 and U-49900 using human liver microsomes with confirmation in authentic urine specimens from drug users.

    PubMed

    Krotulski, Alex J; Mohr, Amanda L A; Papsun, Donna M; Logan, Barry K

    2017-06-13

    Recently, the number of adverse events, including death, involving novel opioids has continued to increase, providing additional and sustained challenges for forensic and medical communities. Identification of emerging novel opioids can be challenging, compounded by detection windows and unknown metabolic profiles. In this study, human liver microsomes were used for the generation of in vitro metabolic profiles of U-47700 and U-49900. Generated metabolites were analyzed via a SCIEX TripleTOF® 5600+ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and resulting data files were processing using MetabolitePilot™. Characterized metabolites were verified in vivo by analysis of authentic human urine specimens collected after analytically confirmed cases of overdose involving U-47700 or U-49900. In total, four metabolites were identified and present in urine specimens for U-47700, and five metabolites for U-49900. N-Desmethyl-U-47700 was determined to be the primary metabolite of U-47700. Parent U-47700 was identified in all urine specimens. N-Desmethyl-U-47700 and N,N-didesmethyl-U-47700 were structurally confirmed for the first time during this study following acquisition of standard reference material. N-Desethyl-U-49900 was determined to be the primary metabolite of U-49900 following microsomal incubations, while N,N-didesethyl-N-desmethyl-U-49900 was the most abundant in a urine specimen. Similarities in metabolic transformation were identified between U-47700 and U-49900, resulting in a common metabolite and isomeric species. These phenomena should be considered in cases involving U-47700 or U-49900. This study is the first to map the metabolic profiles of U-47700 and U-49900 using human liver microsomes, as well as the first to report any literature involving U-49900 and analysis of case specimens. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Identification of cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, a novel scheduled designer drug, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Springer, Dietmar; Paul, Liane D; Staack, Roland F; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-08-01

    4'-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) is a new drug of abuse. It is believed to have an abuse potential similar to that of amphetamines. Previous studies with Wistar rats had shown that MPPP was metabolized mainly by hydroxylation in position 4' followed by dehydrogenation to the corresponding carboxylic acid. The aim of the study presented here was to identify the human hepatic cytochrome p450 (p450) enzymes involved in the biotransformation of MPPP to 4'-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidinopropiophenone. Baculovirus-infected insect cell microsomes and human liver microsomes were used for this purpose. Only CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 catalyzed this hydroxylation. The apparent Km and Vmax values for the latter were 9.8 +/- 2.5 microM and 13.6 +/- 0.7 pmol/min/pmol p450, respectively. CYP2C19 was not saturable over the tested substrate range (2-1000 microM) and interestingly showed a biphasic kinetic profile with apparent Km,1 and Vmax,1 values of 47.2 +/- 12.5 microM and 8.1 +/- 1.4 pmol/min/pmol p450, respectively. Experiments with pooled human liver microsomes also revealed biphasic nonsaturable kinetics with apparent Km,1 and Vmax,1 values of 57.0 +/- 20.9 microM and 199.7 +/- 59.7 pmol/min/mg of protein for the high affinity enzyme, respectively. Incubation of 2 microM MPPP with 3 microM of the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine resulted in significant (p < 0.01) turnover inhibition (11.8 +/- 1.6% of control). Based on kinetic data corrected for the relative activity factors, CYP2D6 is the enzyme mainly responsible for MPPP hydroxylation, confirmed by CYP2D6 inhibition studies.

  9. In vitro inhibition of human CYP2E1 and CYP3A by quercetin and myricetin in hepatic microsomes is not gender dependent.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Johanna; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2017-04-15

    This is the first in vitro study to investigate gender-related differences in the regulation of human cytochrome P450 by the flavonoids. Activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A were measured in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, or isorhamnetin in hepatic microsomal pools from male and female donors. Hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (PNPH) was measured to determine CYP2E1 activity, and O-dealkylation of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC) was measured to determine CYP3A activity. Quercetin, but not myricetin or isorhamnetin, competitively inhibited PNPH activity in human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP2E1 with the Ki=52.1±6.31μM. In the human microsomes, slight inhibition of PNPH activity by quercetin was not considered as physiologically relevant. Quercetin inhibited BFC activity in human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 competitively with the Ki=15.4±1.52μM, and myricetin - noncompetitively with the Ki=74.6±7.99μM. The degree of inhibition by quercetin was similar between genders. Myricetin showed somewhat stronger inhibition in female pools, but the Ki values were higher than physiologically relevant concentrations. Isorhamnetin did not affect either PNPH or BFC activity. We concluded that observed inhibition of CYP2E1 and CYP3A by some flavonols were not gender-dependent.

  10. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on activity of cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme in human and 2C11 in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Sun, Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Wang, Li; Xia, Meng-Ming; Cui, Xiao; Hu, Guo-Xin; Wang, Zeng-Shou

    2015-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), one of the most important phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, could catalyze the reactions that convert diclofenanc into diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. Evaluation of the inhibitory effects of compounds on CYP2C9 is clinically important because inhibition of CYP2C9 could result in serious drug-drug interactions. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of curcumin on CYP2C9 in human and cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) in rat liver microsomes. The results showed that curcumin inhibited CYP2C9 activity (10 µmol L(-1) diclofenac) with half-maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15.25 µmol L(-1) and Ki = 4.473 µmol L(-1) in human liver microsomes. Curcumin's mode of action on CYP2C9 activity was noncompetitive for the substrate diclofenanc and uncompetitive for the cofactor NADPH. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in human, diclofenanc had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat, with an IC50 ≥100 µmol L(-1). The observations imply that curcumin has the inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 activity in human. These in vitro findings suggest that more attention should be paid to special clinical caution when intake of curcumin combined with other drugs in treatment.

  11. Cytokine expression profile in human lungs undergoing normothermic ex-vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sadaria, Miral R; Smith, Phillip D; Fullerton, David A; Justison, George A; Lee, Joon H; Puskas, Ferenc; Grover, Frederick L; Cleveland, Joseph C; Reece, T Brett; Weyant, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    A donor lung shortage prevents patients from receiving life-saving transplants. Ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a viable means of expanding the donor pool by evaluating and potentially improving donor lung function. The metabolic and inflammatory effects of EVLP on human lung tissue are currently unknown. We sought to establish representative cytokine expression in human donor lungs meeting acceptable lung transplant criteria after prolonged normothermic EVLP. Seven single human lungs not meeting traditional transplantation criteria for various reasons underwent normothermic EVLP. Lungs were perfused with deoxygenated colloid, rewarmed, and ventilated per standard protocol. Lung function was evaluated every hour. Biopsies were taken at 1, 6, and 12 hours. Inflammatory cytokines were quantitatively measured using a human cytokine magnetic bead-based multiplex assay. All lungs met traditional transplant criteria after EVLP. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen and physiologic lung function significantly improved (p<0.05). No pulmonary edema was formed, and histology demonstrated no evidence of acute lung injury. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were upregulated, while granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor was downregulated during EVLP (p<0.05). IL-1β, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12, interferon-γ, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were detectable and unchanged. Ex-vivo lung perfusion demonstrates the ability to improve oxygenation and physiologic lung function in donor lungs unacceptable for transplantation without injury to the lung. We establish here a cytokine expression profile in human lungs undergoing normothermic EVLP. These data can be used in the future to explore novel targeted therapies for ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of niflumic acid as a selective inhibitor of human liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9: application to the reaction phenotyping of acetaminophen glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Miners, John O; Bowalgaha, Kushari; Elliot, David J; Baranczewski, Pawel; Knights, Kathleen M

    2011-04-01

    Enzyme selective inhibitors represent the most valuable experimental tool for reaction phenotyping. However, only a limited number of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme-selective inhibitors have been identified to date. This study characterized the UGT enzyme selectivity of niflumic acid (NFA). It was demonstrated that 2.5 μM NFA is a highly selective inhibitor of recombinant and human liver microsomal UGT1A9 activity. Higher NFA concentrations (50-100 μM) inhibited UGT1A1 and UGT2B15 but had little effect on the activities of UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17. NFA inhibited 4-methylumbelliferone and propofol (PRO) glucuronidation by recombinant UGT1A9 and PRO glucuronidation by human liver microsomes (HLM) according to a mixed (competitive-noncompetitive) mechanism, with K(i) values ranging from 0.10 to 0.40 μM. Likewise, NFA was a mixed or noncompetitive inhibitor of recombinant and human liver microsomal UGT1A1 (K(i) range 14-18 μM), whereas competitive inhibition (K(i) 62 μM) was observed with UGT2B15. NFA was subsequently applied to the reaction phenotyping of human liver microsomal acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation. Consistent with previous reports, APAP was glucuronidated by recombinant UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15. NFA concentrations in the range of 2.5 to 100 μM inhibited APAP glucuronidation by UGT1A1, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15 but not by UGT1A6. The mean V(max) for APAP glucuronidation by HLM was reduced by 20, 35, and 40%, respectively, in the presence of 2.5, 50, and 100 μM NFA. Mean K(m) values decreased in parallel with V(max), although the magnitude of the decrease was smaller. Taken together, the NFA inhibition data suggest that UGT1A6 is the major enzyme involved in APAP glucuronidation.

  13. In vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methedrone by human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Negreira, Noelia; Erratico, Claudio; Kosjek, Tina; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Heath, Ester; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolites of three new psychoactive substances: α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and methedrone, using human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol. Accurate-mass spectra of metabolites were obtained using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Six Phase I metabolites of α-PVP were identified, which were formed involving reduction, hydroxylation, and pyrrolidine ring opening reactions. The lactam compound was the major metabolite observed for α-PVP. Two glucuronidated metabolites of α-PVP, not reported in previous in vitro studies, were further identified. MDPV was transformed into 10 Phase I metabolites involving reduction, hydroxylation, and loss of the pyrrolidine ring. Also, six glucuronidated and two sulphated metabolites were detected. The major metabolite of MDPV was the catechol metabolite. Methedrone was transformed into five Phase I metabolites, involving N- and O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and reduction of the ketone group. Three metabolites of methedrone are reported for the first time. In addition, the contribution of individual human CYP enzymes in the formation of the detected metabolites was investigated.

  14. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of “preneoplastic antigen”-like molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. -- Highlights: ► Monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH were developed. ► They discriminate between the membrane-bound and the linearized forms of mEH. ► We analyze the antigenic structure of the altered form of mEH in tumor cells. ► Preneoplastic antigen is a multimolecular complex of mEH with

  15. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  16. A novel SCID mouse model for studying spontaneous metastasis of human lung cancer to human tissue.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, S; Kyoizumi, S; Seyama, T; Yamakido, M; Akiyama, M

    1995-05-01

    We established a novel severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model for the study of human lung cancer metastasis to human lung. Implantation of both human fetal and adult lung tissue into mammary fat pads of SCID mice showed a 100% rate of engraftment, but only fetal lung implants revealed normal morphology of human lung tissue. Using these chimeric mice, we analyzed human lung cancer metastasis to both mouse and human lungs by subcutaneous inoculation of human squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines into the mice. In 60 to 70% of SCID mice injected with human-lung squamous-cell carcinoma, RERF-LC-AI, cancer cells were found to have metastasized to both mouse lungs and human fetal lung implants but not to human adult lung implants 80 days after cancer inoculation. Furthermore, human-lung adenocarcinoma cells, RERF-LC-KJ, metastasized to the human lung implants within 90 days in about 40% of SCID mice, whereas there were no metastases to the lungs of the mice. These results demonstrate the potential of this model for the in vivo study of human lung cancer metastasis.

  17. Metabolism of Carfentanil, an Ultra-Potent Opioid, in Human Liver Microsomes and Human Hepatocytes by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feasel, Michael G; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Nilles, John M; Pang, Shaokun; Kristovich, Robert L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Carfentanil is an ultra-potent synthetic opioid. No human carfentanil metabolism data are available. Reportedly, Russian police forces used carfentanil and remifentanil to resolve a hostage situation in Moscow in 2002. This alleged use prompted interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of carfentanil in humans. Our study was conducted to identify human carfentanil metabolites and to assess carfentanil's metabolic clearance, which could contribute to its acute toxicity in humans. We used Simulations Plus's ADMET Predictor™ and Molecular Discovery's MetaSite™ to predict possible metabolite formation. Both programs gave similar results that were generally good but did not capture all metabolites seen in vitro. We incubated carfentanil with human hepatocytes for up to 1 h and analyzed samples on a Sciex 3200 QTRAP mass spectrometer to measure parent compound depletion and extrapolated that to represent intrinsic clearance. Pooled primary human hepatocytes were then incubated with carfentanil up to 6 h and analyzed for metabolite identification on a Sciex 5600+ TripleTOF (QTOF) high-resolution mass spectrometer. MS and MS/MS analyses elucidated the structures of the most abundant metabolites. Twelve metabolites were identified in total. N-Dealkylation and monohydroxylation of the piperidine ring were the dominant metabolic pathways. Two N-oxide metabolites and one glucuronide metabolite were observed. Surprisingly, ester hydrolysis was not a major metabolic pathway for carfentanil. While the human liver microsomal system demonstrated rapid clearance by CYP enzymes, the hepatocyte incubations showed much slower clearance, possibly providing some insight into the long duration of carfentanil's effects.

  18. Morphometric examination of native lungs in human lung allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, B M; Burton, C M; Milman, N; Iversen, M; Andersen, C B

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the degree of lung damage in patients with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) at the time of lung transplantation. Using unbiased stereological methods, lung-, bronchial- and vessel-volume, capillary length, and alveolar surface area and densities were estimated in recipient lungs from 21 consecutive patients with pre-transplant diagnoses including COPD (n=7), alpha1AT deficiency (n=6) and CF (n=8). Six unused adult donor lungs served as controls. Information relating to patient demography and pre-transplant lung function was obtained by retrospective chart review. Disease groups differed significantly with respect to demographics and pre-transplant lung function. Total lung volume was similar in all groups. Bronchial volume was significantly larger in CF patients compared to the control group (p<0.0001) and to the other two diagnostic groups: alpha1AT deficiency (p=0.0001) and COPD (p<0.0001). Alveolar surface density and capillary length density were significantly lower in patients with alpha1AT deficiency and COPD compared to controls (p<0.0001, respectively) and to patients with CF (p<0.0002, respectively). There were no correlations between clinical lung function and morphometric measurements. We conclude that unbiased microscopic stereological morphometry is an evolving science with the potential to elucidate pulmonary disease pathogenesis.

  19. VARIANCE OF MICROSOMAL PROTEIN AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Differences in the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics among humans makes them differentially susceptible to risk. Differences in enzyme content can mediate pharmacokinetic differences. Microsomal protein is often isolated fromliver to characterize enzyme content and activity, but no measures exist to extrapolate these data to the intact liver. Measures were developed from up to 60 samples of adult human liver to characterize the content of microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Statistical evaluations are necessary to estimate values far from the mean value. Adult human liver contains 52.9 - 1.476 mg microsomal protein per g; 2587 - 1.84 pmoles CYP2E1 per g; and 5237 - 2.214 pmols CYP3A per g (geometric mean - geometric standard deviation). These values are useful for identifying and testing susceptibility as a function of enzyme content when used to extrapolate in vitro rates of chemical metabolism for input to physiologically based pharmacokinetic models which can then be exercised to quantify the effect of variance in enzyme expression on risk-relevant pharmacokinetic outcomes.

  20. Characterization of In Vitro Glucuronidation Clearance of a Range of Drugs in Human Kidney Microsomes: Comparison with Liver and Intestinal Glucuronidation and Impact of Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine L.; Houston, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CLint, UGT) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CLint, UGT on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CLint, UGT in different tissues. Although BSA increased CLint, UGT in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CLint, UGT in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min−1 · g tissue−1 in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CLint, UGT (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CLint, UGT for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CLint, UGT (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CLint, UGT is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. PMID:22275465

  1. Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL(int, UGT)) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL(int, UGT) on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CL(int, UGT) in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL(int, UGT) in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL(int, UGT) in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min(-1) · g tissue(-1) in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CL(int, UGT) (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL(int, UGT) for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL(int, UGT) (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL(int, UGT) is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates.

  2. Metabolism studies on prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin in human liver microsomes by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peipei; Zhang, Yuqian; Zhang, Qiaoyue; Sun, Yupeng; Yang, Haotian; Shi, He; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Lantong

    2016-09-01

    Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN) and cimifugin (CN) are major constituents of Radix Saposhnikoviae that have antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory pharmacological activities. However, there were few reports with respect to the metabolism of PGCN and CN in vitro. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of PGCN and CN in human liver microsomes. In total, five phase I metabolites of PGCN, seven phase I metabolites and two phase II metabolites of CN were identified in the incubation of human liver microsomes. The results revealed that the main phase I metabolic pathways of PGCN were hydroxylation and hydrolysis reactions. The phase I metabolic pathways of CN were found to be hydroxylation, demethylation and dehydrogenation. Meanwhile, the results indicated that O-glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway of CN in phase II metabolism. The specific UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes responsible for CN glucuronidation metabolites were identified using recombinant UGT enzymes. The results indicated that UGT1A1, UGT1A9, UGT2B4 and UGT2B7 might play major roles in the glucuronidation of CN. Overall, this study may be useful for the investigation of metabolic mechanism of PGCN and CN, and it can provide reference and evidence for further pharmacodynamic experiments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Structural identification of SAR-943 metabolites generated by human liver microsomes in vitro using mass spectrometry in combination with analysis of fragmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Strom, Tobin; Shokati, Touraj; Klawitter, Jost; Klawitter, Jelena; Hoffman, Keith; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Christians, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    SAR-943 (32-deoxo rapamycin) is a proliferation signal inhibitor via interaction with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Most importantly, SAR-943 has improved chemical stability compared to rapamycin (sirolimus) and is currently under investigation as a drug coated on coronary stents. It was the goal of this study to identify the SAR-943 metabolites generated after incubation with human liver microsomes using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/iontrap (MS(n)) and comparison of fragmentation patterns of the metabolites with those of SAR-943 and other known rapamycin derivatives. Our study showed that SAR-943 is mainly hydroxylated and/or demethylated by human liver microsomes. The structures of the following metabolites were identified: O-demethylated metabolites: 39-O-desmethyl, 16-O-desmethyl and 27-O-desmethyl SAR-943; hydroxylated metabolites: hydroxy piperidine SAR-943, 11-hydroxy, 12-hydroxy, 14-hydroxy, 23-hydroxy, 24-hydroxy, 25-hydroxy, 46-hydroxy and 49-hydroxy SAR-943; didemethylated metabolites: 16,39-O-didesmethyl and 27,39-O-didesmethyl SAR-943; demethylated-hydroxylated metabolites: 39-O-desmethyl, 23- or 24-hydroxy and 39-O-desmethyl, hydroxy piperidine SAR-943 and dihydroxylated metabolites: 12-,23- or 24-dihydroxy SAR-943. In addition, several other demethylated-hydroxylated and dihydroxylated metabolites were detected. However, their exact structures could not be identified. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  5. Metabolism of the major Echinacea alkylamide N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Toselli, F; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Gillam, E M J; Lehmann, R P

    2010-08-01

    Echinacea preparations are used for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. The phytochemicals believed responsible for the immunomodulatory properties are the alkylamides found in ethanolic extracts, with one of the most abundant being the N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide (1). In this study, we evaluated the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of this alkylamide using recombinant P450s, human liver microsomes and pure synthetic compound. Epoxidation, N-dealkylation and hydroxylation products were detected, with different relative amounts produced by recombinant P450s and microsomes. The major forms showing activity toward the metabolism of 1 were CYP1A1, CYP1A2 (both producing the same epoxide and N-dealkylation product), CYP2A13 (producing two epoxides), and CYP2D6 (producing two epoxides and an hydroxylated metabolite). Several other forms showed less activity. In incubations with human liver microsomes and selective inhibitors, CYP2E1 was found to be principally responsible for producing the dominant, hydroxylation product, whereas CYP2C9 was the principal source of the epoxides and CYP1A2 was responsible for the dealkylation product. In summary, in this study the relative impacts of the main human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s on the metabolism of a major Echinacea alkylamide have been established and the metabolites formed have been identified.

  6. Predictions of the in vivo clearance of drugs from rate of loss using human liver microsomes for phase I and phase II biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Mohutsky, Michael A; Chien, Jenny Y; Ring, Barbara J; Wrighton, Steven A

    2006-04-01

    The utility of in vitro metabolism to accurately predict the clearance of hepatically metabolized drugs was evaluated. Three major goals were: (1) to optimize substrate concentration for the accurate prediction of clearance by comparing to Km value, (2) to prove that clearance of drugs by both oxidation and glucuronidation may be predicted by this method, and (3) to determine the effects of nonspecific microsomal binding and plasma protein binding. The apparent Km values for five compounds along with scaled intrinsic clearances and predicted hepatic clearances for eight compounds were determined using a substrate loss method. Nonspecific binding to both plasma and microsomal matrices were also examined in the clearance calculations. The Km values were well within the 2-fold variability expected for between laboratory comparisons. Using both phase I and/or phase II glucuronidation incubation conditions, the predictions of in vivo clearance using the substrate loss method were shown to correlate with published human clearance values. Of particular interest, for highly bound drugs (>95% plasma protein bound), the addition of a plasma protein binding term increased the accuracy of the prediction of in vivo clearance. The substrate loss method may be used to accurately predict hepatic clearance of drugs.

  7. Preconditioning allows engraftment of mouse and human embryonic lung cells, enabling lung repair in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Chava; Shezen, Elias; Aronovich, Anna; Klionsky, Yael Zlotnikov; Yaakov, Yasmin; Assayag, Miri; Biton, Inbal Eti; Tal, Orna; Shakhar, Guy; Ben-Hur, Herzel; Shneider, David; Vaknin, Zvi; Sadan, Oscar; Evron, Shmuel; Freud, Enrique; Shoseyov, David; Wilschanski, Michael; Berkman, Neville; Fibbe, Willem E; Hagin, David; Hillel-Karniel, Carmit; Krentsis, Irit Milman; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2015-08-01

    Repair of injured lungs represents a longstanding therapeutic challenge. We show that human and mouse embryonic lung tissue from the canalicular stage of development (20-22 weeks of gestation for humans, and embryonic day 15-16 (E15-E16) for mouse) are enriched with progenitors residing in distinct niches. On the basis of the marked analogy to progenitor niches in bone marrow (BM), we attempted strategies similar to BM transplantation, employing sublethal radiation to vacate lung progenitor niches and to reduce stem cell competition. Intravenous infusion of a single cell suspension of canalicular lung tissue from GFP-marked mice or human fetal donors into naphthalene-injured and irradiated syngeneic or SCID mice, respectively, induced marked long-term lung chimerism. Donor type structures or 'patches' contained epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Transplantation of differentially labeled E16 mouse lung cells indicated that these patches were probably of clonal origin from the donor. Recipients of the single cell suspension transplant exhibited marked improvement in lung compliance and tissue damping reflecting the energy dissipation in the lung tissues. Our study provides proof of concept for lung reconstitution by canalicular-stage human lung cells after preconditioning of the pulmonary niche.

  8. Inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers found in human lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Pauly, J L; Stegmeier, S J; Allaart, H A; Cheney, R T; Zhang, P J; Mayer, A G; Streck, R J

    1998-05-01

    We report the results of studies undertaken to determine whether inhaled plant (i.e., cellulosic; e.g., cotton) and plastic (e.g., polyester) fibers are present in human lungs and, if so, whether inhaled fibers are also present in human lung cancers. Specimens of lung cancer of different histological types and adjacent nonneoplastic lung tissue were obtained from patients undergoing a lung resection for removal of a tumor. With the protection of a laminar flow hood and safeguards to prevent contamination by extraneous fibers, fresh, nonfixed, and nonstained samples of lung tissue were compressed between two glass microscope slides. Specimens in these dual slide chambers were examined with a microscope configured to permit viewing with white light, fluorescent light, polarizing light, and phase-contrast illumination. Near-term fetal bovine lungs and nonlung human tumors were used as controls. In contrast to the observations of these control tissues, morphologically heterogeneous fibers were seen repetitively in freshly excised human lung tissue using polarized light. Inhaled fibers were present in 83% of nonneoplastic lung specimens (n = 67/81) and in 97% of malignant lung specimens (n = 32/33). Thus, of the 114 human lung specimens examined, fibers were observed in 99 (87%). Examination of histopathology slides of lung tissue with polarized light confirmed the presence of inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers. Of 160 surgical histopathology lung tissue slides, 17 were selected for critical examination; of these, fibers were identified in 13 slides. The inhalation of mineral (e.g., asbestos) fibers has been described by many investigators; we believe, however, that this is the first report of inhaled nonmineral (e.g., plant and plastic) fibers. These bioresistant and biopersistent cellulosic and plastic fibers are candidate agents contributing to the risk of lung cancer.

  9. Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rats and other rodents are exposed by inhalation to identify agents that might present hazards for lung cancer in humans exposed by inhalation. In some cases, the results are used in attempts to develop quantitative estimates of human lung cancer risk. This report reviews evidence for the usefulness of the rat for evaluation of lung cancer hazards from inhaled particles. With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation. The rat is more sensitive to carcinogenesis from nonfibrous particles than mice or Syrian hamsters, which have both produced false negatives. However, rats differ from mice and nonhuman primates in both the pattern of particle retention in the lung and alveolar epithelial hyperplastic responses to chronic particle exposure. Present evidence warrants caution in extrapolation from the lung tumor response of rats to inhaled particles to human lung cancer hazard, and there is considerable uncertainty in estimating unit risks for humans from rat data. It seems appropriate to continue using rats in inhalation carcinogenesis assays of inhaled particles, but the upper limit of exposure concentrations must be set carefully to avoid false-positive results. A positive finding in both rats and mice would give greater confidence that an agent presents a carcinogenic hazard to man, and both rats and mice should be used if the agent is a gas or vapor. There is little justification for including Syrian hamsters in assays of the intrapulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled agents. PMID:9400748

  10. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus.

    PubMed

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16-25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  11. CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyze the primary oxidative metabolism of perhexiline enantiomers by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Benjamin J; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Milne, Robert W; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2007-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated 4-monohydroxylations of the individual enantiomers of the racemic antianginal agent perhexiline (PHX) were investigated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) to identify stereoselective differences in metabolism and to determine the contribution of the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6 and other P450s to the intrinsic clearance of each enantiomer. The cis-, trans1-, and trans2-4-monohydroxylation rates of (+)- and (-)-PHX by human liver microsomes from three extensive metabolizers (EMs), two intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and two poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2D6 were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. P450 isoform-specific inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies directed against P450 isoforms, and recombinantly expressed human P450 enzymes were used to define the P450 isoform profile of PHX 4-monohydroxylations. The total in vitro intrinsic clearance values (mean +/- S.D.) of (+)- and (-)-PHX were 1376 +/- 330 and 2475 +/- 321, 230 +/- 225 and 482 +/- 437, and 63.4 +/- 1.6 and 54.6 +/- 1.2 microl/min/mg for the EM, IM, and PM HLMs, respectively. CYP2D6 catalyzes the formation of cis-OH-(+)-PHX and trans1-OH-(+)-PHX from (+)-PHX and cis-OH-(-)-PHX from (-)-PHX with high affinity. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 each catalyze the trans1- and trans2-4-monohydroxylation of both (+)- and (-)-PHX with low affinity. Both enantiomers of PHX are subject to significant polymorphic metabolism by CYP2D6, although this enzyme exhibits distinct stereoselectivity with respect to the conformation of metabolites and the rate at which they are formed. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are minor contributors to the intrinsic P450-mediated hepatic clearance of both enantiomers of PHX, except in CYP2D6 PMs.

  12. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Dempsey, Sara K.; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K.; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    ‘NBOMe’ (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing. PMID:26378134

  13. The inhibitory effect of tannic acid on cytochrome P450 enzymes and NADPH-CYP reductase in rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Wei; Lan, Shih-Jung; Yeh, Teng-Kuang

    2008-02-01

    Tannic acid has been shown to decrease mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity of several amine derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rodents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tannic acid on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed oxidations using rat liver microsomes (RLM) and human liver microsomes (HLM) as the enzyme sources. In RLM, tannic acid showed a non-selective inhibitory effect on 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), tolbutamide hydroxylation, p-nitrophenol hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activities with IC(50) values ranged from 14.9 to 27.4 microM. In HLM, tannic acid inhibited EROD, MROD and phenacetin O-deethylation activities with IC(50) values ranged from 5.1 to 7.5 microM, and diclofenac 4-hydroxylation, dextromethorphan O-demethylation, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation with IC(50) values ranged from 20 to 77 microM. In baculovirus-insect cell-expressed human CYP 1A1 and 1A2, the IC(50) values of tannic acid for CYP 1A1- and 1A2-catalyzed EROD activities were 23.1 and 2.3 microM, respectively, indicating that tannic acid preferably inhibited the activity of CYP1A2. Tannic acid inhibited human CYP1A2 non-competitively with a Ki value of 4.8 microM. Tannic acid was also found to inhibit NADPH-CYP reductase in RLM and HLM with IC(50) values of 11.8 and 17.4 microM, respectively. These results suggested that the inhibition of CYP enzyme activities by tannic acid may be partially attributed to its inhibition of NADPH-CYP reductase activity.

  14. Identification of Metabolite Biomarkers of the Designer Hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in Mouse Hepatic Microsomal Preparations and Human Urine Samples Associated with Clinical Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Dempsey, Sara K; Liu, Kai; Ritter, Joseph K; Wolf, Carl; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-10-01

    'NBOMe' (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe, M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing.

  15. Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6 by chalepensin in recombinant systems, in human liver microsomes and in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Souček, Pavel; Chau, Gar-Yang; Chi, Chin-Wen; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Li, Ding-Tzai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chalepensin is a pharmacologically active furanocoumarin compound found in rue, a medicinal herb. Here we have investigated the inhibitory effects of chalepensin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mechanism-based inhibition was studied in vitro using human liver microsomes and bacterial membranes expressing genetic variants of human CYP2A6. Effects in vivo were studied in C57BL/6J mice. CYP2A6 activity was assayed as coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CH) using HPLC and fluorescence measurements. Metabolism of chalepensin was assessed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). KEY RESULTS CYP2A6.1, without pre-incubation with NADPH, was competitively inhibited by chalepensin. After pre-incubation with NADPH, inhibition by chalepensin was increased (IC50 value decreased by 98%). This time-dependent inactivation (kinact 0.044 min−1; KI 2.64 µM) caused the loss of spectrally detectable P450 content and was diminished by known inhibitors of CYP2A6, pilocarpine or tranylcypromine, and by glutathione conjugation. LC/MS analysis of chalepensin metabolites suggested an unstable epoxide intermediate was formed, identified as the corresponding dihydrodiol, which was then conjugated with glutathione. Compared with the wild-type CYP2A6.1, the isoforms CYP2A6.7 and CYP2A6.10 were less inhibited. In mouse liver microsomes, pre-incubation enhanced inhibition of CH activity. Oral administration of chalepensin to mice reduced hepatic CH activity ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Chalepensin was a substrate and a mechanism-based inhibitor of human CYP2A6. Formation of an epoxide could be a key step in this inactivation. ‘Poor metabolizers’ carrying CYP2A6*7 or *10 may be less susceptible to inhibition by chalepensin. Given in vivo, chalepensin decreased CYP2A activity in mice. PMID:21418183

  16. Assessment of the effects of metabolism on the estrogenic activity of xenoestrogens: a two-stage approach coupling human liver microsomes and a yeast estrogenicity assay.

    PubMed

    Elsby, R; Maggs, J L; Ashby, J; Paton, D; Sumpter, J P; Park, B K

    2001-02-01

    Concern that the reproductive health of humans is being affected by exposure to xenoestrogens has led to the development of various in vitro and in vivo screening assays for the identification of suspected xenoestrogens. However, the estrogenic activity of a chemical determined in vitro may not necessarily predict its activity in vivo if the chemical is metabolized during the assay and/or in vivo. Therefore, to investigate the role of metabolism in modulating the estrogenic activity of suspected xenoestrogens, we have devised a two-stage approach coupling incubations with either human or rat hepatic microsomes with a yeast estrogenicity (transcription) assay. We have assessed the activity of the proestrogenic pesticide 99.5% methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, MXC] (EC(50) = 4.45 +/- 1.9 ,icroM, n = 6) and a structural analog, methoxybisphenol A [2,2-bis-(4-methoxyphenyl) propane, MBPA], in the yeast estrogenicity assay and also established that yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), unlike human liver microsomes, are not able to demethylate MXC or MBPA to estrogenic metabolites. This indicates that the proestrogen MXC has weak intrinsic estrogenic activity. Using 99.5% MXC and 17beta-estradiol as paradigms, we have demonstrated how metabolism can enhance or suppress, respectively, estrogenic activity. The effect of metabolism on the activities of the weak xenoestrogens 3,17beta-bisdesoxyestradiol [1,3,5(10)-estratriene] and 6-hydroxytetralin (5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthol) was also assessed. This two-stage approach can distinguish the estrogenic activity of a suspect chemical from the activity due to its more, or less, active metabolites and will aid in the evaluation of novel xenoestrogens and, more importantly, proestrogens.

  17. The glucuronidation of R- and S-lorazepam: human liver microsomal kinetics, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme selectivity, and inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed

    Uchaipichat, Verawan; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Miners, John O

    2013-06-01

    The widely used hypnosedative-anxiolytic agent R,S-lorazepam is cleared predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid in humans, but the enantioselective glucuronidation of lorazepam has received little attention. The present study characterized the kinetics of the separate R and S enantiomers of lorazepam by human liver microsomes (HLMs) and by a panel of recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Respective mean K(m) and V(max) values for R- and S-lorazepam glucuronidation by HLM were 29 ± 8.9 and 36 ± 10 µM, and 7.4 ± 1.9 and 10 ± 3.8 pmol/min ⋅ mg. Microsomal intrinsic clearances were not significantly different, suggesting the in vivo clearances of R- and S-lorazepam are likely to be similar. Both R- and S-lorazepam were glucuronidated by UGT2B4, 2B7, and 2B15, whereas R-lorazepam was additionally metabolized by the extrahepatic enzymes UGT1A7 and 1A10. Based on in vitro clearances and consideration of available in vivo and in vitro data, UGT2B15 is likely to play an important role in the glucuronidation of R- and S-lorazepam. However, the possible contribution of other enzymes and the low activities observed in vitro indicate that the lorazepam enantiomers are of limited use as substrate probes for UGT2B15. To identify potential drug-drug interactions, codeine, fluconazole, ketamine, ketoconazole, methadone, morphine, valproic acid, and zidovudine were screened as inhibitors of R- and S-lorazepam glucuronidation by HLM. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation suggested that, of these drugs, only ketoconazole had the potential to inhibit lorazepam clearance to a clinically significant extent.

  18. Influence of human serum albumin on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yorio; Funagayama, Mayumi; Shinohara, Akio; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Furusawa, Hidemi; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Saitoh, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Komaki, Kansei

    2014-09-01

    The influence of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) was studied in vitro. A rat liver microsomal fraction was prepared, and the 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in the presence of various concentrations of bile acids and HSA was determined using hydrocortisone as the substrate. The products of the reaction were extracted and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The magnitude of the inhibition decreased with the addition of HSA in a dose-dependent manner. Four percent human albumin decreased the inhibitory effects of 100 μM chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from 89.9 ± 5.6 to 54.5 ± 6.1% and from 83.8 ± 4.8 to 20.8 ± 4.2%, respectively. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid showed no inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity in the presence of 4% human serum albumin, and the addition of 1% γ-globulin to the assay mixture in the presence of bile acids did not affect the enzyme activity. Our in vitro study showed that the addition of HSA ameliorated the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and that the magnitude of the change is dependent on the species of bile acid, presumably based on the numbers of hydroxyl groups. These results suggest that HSA seems to protect the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 in the healthy subject. On the other hand, in the patients with obstructive biliary diseases, not only elevated serum bile acid but also the accompanying hypoalbuminemia is important to evaluate the pathophysiology of the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 of the disease.

  19. The effect of ex vivo lung perfusion on microbial load in human donor lungs.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Anders; Karamanou, Danai M; Perry, John D; Perry, Audrey; Ӧzalp, Faruk; Butt, Tanveer; Morley, Katie E; Walden, Hannah R; Clark, Stephen C; Prabhu, Mahesh; Corris, Paul A; Gould, Kate; Fisher, Andrew J; Dark, John H

    2014-09-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a technique to potentially recondition unusable donor lungs for transplantation. Beneficial effects of EVLP on physiologic function have been reported, but little is known about the effect of normothermic perfusion on the infectious burden of the donor lung. In this study, we investigated the effect of EVLP on the microbial load of human donor lungs. Lungs from 18 human donors considered unusable for transplantation underwent EVLP with a perfusate containing high-dose, empirical, broad-spectrum anti-microbial agents. Quantitative cultures of bacteria and fungi were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the donor lung before and after 3 to 6 hours of perfusion. The identification of any organisms and changes in number of colony forming units before and after EVLP were assessed and anti-microbial susceptibilities identified. Thirteen out of 18 lungs had positive cultures, with bacterial loads significantly decreasing after EVLP. Yeast loads increased when no anti-fungal treatment was given, but were reduced when prophylactic anti-fungal treatment was added to the circuit. Six lungs were ultimately transplanted into patients, all of whom survived to hospital discharge. There was 1 death at 11 months. Our study shows that EVLP with high-dose, empirical anti-microbial agents in the perfusate is associated with an effective reduction in the microbial burden of the donor lung, a benefit that has not previously been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure-activity relationship study of human liver microsomes-catalyzed hydrolysis rate of ester prodrugs of MENT by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA).

    PubMed

    Bursi, Roberta; Grootenhuis, Arijan; van der Louw, Jaap; Verhagen, Jos; de Gooyer, Marcel; Jacobs, Peter; Leysen, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    A series of MENT esters (3-71) was designed, prepared and tested to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the hydrolysis rate with human liver microsomes of these prodrugs. Compounds were obtained covering a wide range of metabolic stability. The results are useful for the proper selection of prodrugs for different pharmaceutical formulations to deliver the potent and prostate-sparing androgen MENT. The MENT esters can especially be administered for male hormone replacement therapy and male contraception. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was applied to a dataset of 28 esters, for which ED50 values could be obtained. The CoMFA model where the electrostatic and H-bond molecular fields were combined turned out to be most predictive. Despite the limited size of the dataset, CoMFA can help to rationalize the SAR of the ester hydrolysis rate of ester prodrugs of MENT.

  1. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm; Moon, Yuseok

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  2. Participation of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in the N-demethylation of imatinib in human hepatic microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, Noelia; Crettol, Severine; d'Esposito, Fabrizio; Tattam, Bruce; Hibbs, David E; Murray, Michael

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Imatinib is a clinically important inhibitor of tyrosine kinases that are dysregulated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Inter-individual variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics is extensive, and influences drug safety and efficacy. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 has been implicated in imatinib N-demethylation, but the clearance of imatinib decreases during prolonged therapy. CYP3A phenotype correlates with imatinib clearance at the commencement of therapy, but not at steady state. The present study evaluated the possibility that multiple CYPs may contribute to imatinib oxidation in liver. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Imatinib biotransformation in human liver microsomes (n = 20) and by cDNA-expressed CYPs was determined by LC–MS. Relationships between imatinib N-demethylation and other drug metabolizing CYPs were assessed. KEY RESULTS N-desmethylimatinib formation was correlated with microsomal oxidation of the CYP3A4 substrates testosterone (ρ= 0.60; P < 0.01) and midazolam (ρ= 0.46; P < 0.05), and the CYP2C8 substrate paclitaxel (ρ= 0.58; P < 0.01). cDNA-derived CYPs 2C8, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 supported imatinib N-demethylation, but 10 other CYPs were inactive; in kinetic studies, CYP2C8 was a high-affinity enzyme with a catalytic efficiency ∼15-fold greater than those of CYPs 3A4 and 3A5. The CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and troleandomycin, and the CYP2C8 inhibitors quercetin and paclitaxel decreased imatinib oxidation. From molecular modelling, the imatinib structure could be superimposed on a pharmacophore for CYP2C8 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CYP2C8 and CYPs 3A contribute to imatinib N-demethylation in human liver. The involvement of CYP2C8 may account in part for the wide inter-patient variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics observed in clinical practice. PMID:20977456

  3. Production and Assessment of Decellularized Pig and Human Lung Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Jean; Riddle, Michael; Vargas, Gracie; Schilagard, Tuya; Ma, Liang; Edward, Kert; La Francesca, Saverio; Sakamoto, Jason; Vega, Stephanie; Ogadegbe, Marie; Mlcak, Ronald; Deyo, Donald; Woodson, Lee; McQuitty, Christopher; Lick, Scott; Beckles, Daniel; Melo, Esther; Cortiella, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that acellular (AC) trachea-lung scaffolds can (1) be produced from natural rat lungs, (2) retain critical components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen-1 and elastin, and (3) be used to produce lung tissue after recellularization with murine embryonic stem cells. The aim of this study was to produce large (porcine or human) AC lung scaffolds to determine the feasibility of producing scaffolds with potential clinical applicability. We report here the first attempt to produce AC pig or human trachea-lung scaffold. Using a combination of freezing and sodium dodecyl sulfate washes, pig trachea-lungs and human trachea-lungs were decellularized. Once decellularization was complete we evaluated the structural integrity of the AC lung scaffolds using bronchoscopy, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), assessment of the ECM utilizing immunocytochemistry and evaluation of mechanics through the use of pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Immunocytochemistry indicated that there was loss of collagen type IV and laminin in the AC lung scaffold, but retention of collagen-1, elastin, and fibronectin in some regions. MPM scoring was also used to examine the AC lung scaffold ECM structure and to evaluate the amount of collagen I in normal and AC lung. MPM was used to examine the physical arrangement of collagen-1 and elastin in the pleura, distal lung, lung borders, and trachea or bronchi. MPM and bronchoscopy of trachea and lung tissues showed that no cells or cell debris remained in the AC scaffolds. PFT measurements of the trachea-lungs showed no relevant differences in peak pressure, dynamic or static compliance, and a nonrestricted flow pattern in AC compared to normal lungs. Although there were changes in content of collagen I and elastin this did not affect the mechanics of lung function as evidenced by normal PFT values. When repopulated with a variety of stem or adult cells including human adult primary alveolar epithelial type II

  4. Size- and time-dependent alteration in metabolic activities of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes by gold nanoparticles via microsomal coincubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meiling; Tang, Ling; Luo, Mengjun; Zhou, Jing; Guo, Bin; Liu, Yangyuan; Chen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Nano-sized particles are known to interfere with drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which can be anticipated to be a potential source of unintended adverse reactions, but the mechanisms underlying the inhibition are still not well understood. Herein we report a systematic investigation of the impacts of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on five major CYP isozymes under in vitro incubations of human liver microsomes (HLMs) with tannic acid (TA)-stabilized AuNPs in the size range of 5 to 100 nm. It is found that smaller AuNPs show more pronounced inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in a dose-dependent manner, while 1A2 is the least susceptible to the AuNP inhibition. The size- and dose-dependent CYP-specific inhibition and the nonspecific drug-nanogold binding in the coincubation media can be significantly reduced by increasing the concentration ratio of microsomal proteins to AuNPs, probably via a noncompetitive mode. Remarkably, AuNPs are also found to exhibit a slow time-dependent inactivation of 2D6 and 3A4 in a β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH)-independent manner. During microsomal incubations, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential measurements were used to monitor the changes in particle properties under the miscellaneous AuNP/HLM/CYP dispersion system. An improved stability of AuNPs by mixing HLM with the gold nanocolloid reveals that the stabilization via AuNP-HLM interactions may occur on a faster time scale than the salt-induced nanoaggregation by incubation in phosphate buffer. The results suggest that the AuNP induced CYP inhibition can be partially attributed to its adhesion onto the enzymes to alter their structural conformations or onto the HLM membrane therefore impairing the integral membrane proteins. Additionally, AuNPs likely block the substrate pocket on the CYP surface, depending on both the particle characteristics and the

  5. Human sweat metabolomics for lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Turck, Natacha; Robin, Xavier; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Sanchez, Jean C; Luque de Castro, María D

    2015-07-01

    Sweat is one of the less employed biofluids for discovery of markers in spite of its increased application in medicine for detection of drugs or for diagnostic of cystic fibrosis. In this research, human sweat was used as clinical sample to develop a screening tool for lung cancer, which is the carcinogenic disease with the highest mortality rate owing to the advanced stage at which it is usually detected. In this context, a method based on the metabolite analysis of sweat to discriminate between patients with lung cancer versus smokers as control individuals is proposed. The capability of the metabolites identified in sweat to discriminate between both groups of individuals was studied and, among them, a trisaccharide phosphate presented the best independent performance in terms of the specificity/sensitivity pair (80 and 72.7%, respectively). Additionally, two panels of metabolites were configured using the PanelomiX tool as an attempt to reduce false negatives (at least 80% specificity) and false positives (at least 80% sensitivity). The first panel (80% specificity and 69% sensitivity) was composed by suberic acid, a tetrahexose, and a trihexose, while the second panel (69% specificity and 80% sensitivity) included nonanedioic acid, a trihexose, and the monoglyceride MG(22:2). Thus, the combination of the five metabolites led to a single panel providing 80% specificity and 79% sensitivity, reducing the false positive and negative rates to almost 20%. The method was validated by estimation of within-day and between-days variability of the quantitative analysis of the five metabolites.

  6. Human embryonic stem cells and lung regeneration.

    PubMed

    Varanou, A; Page, C P; Minger, S L

    2008-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation stage embryos. Their unique potential to give rise to all differentiated cell types has generated great interest in stem cell research and the potential that it may have in developmental biology, medicine and pharmacology. The main focus of stem cell research has been on cell therapy for pathological conditions with no current methods of treatment, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac pathology, retinal dysfunction and lung and liver disease. The overall aim is to develop methods of application either of pure cell populations or of whole tissue parts to the diseased organ under investigation. In the field of pulmonary research, studies using human embryonic stem cells have succeeded in generating enriched cultures of type II pneumocytes in vitro. On account of their potential of indefinite proliferation in vitro, embryonic stem cells could be a source of an unlimited supply of cells available for transplantation and for use in gene therapy. Uncovering the ability to generate such cell types will expand our understanding of biological processes to such a degree that disease understanding and management could change dramatically.

  7. DETECTION AND QUANTITATION OF FALLOUT PARTICLES IN A HUMAN LUNG.

    PubMed

    WEGST, A V; PELLETIER, C A; WHIPPLE, G H

    1964-02-28

    Portions of an adult human lung were studied by autoradiography in order to detect the presence of fallout particles. The radioactivity in the remainder of the tissue was determined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. Four particles were found and their activities were determined. From the measurement for total-fission-product activity in the lung tissue it was calculated that there were approximately 264 particles in the right lung at the time of death.

  8. Elucidation of a novel bioactivation pathway of a 3,4-unsubstituted isoxazole in human liver microsomes: formation of a glutathione adduct of a cyanoacrolein derivative after isoxazole ring opening.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Folmer, James J; Hoesch, Valerie; Doherty, James; Campbell, James B; Burdette, Doug

    2011-02-01

    Studies on the biotransformation of isoxazole rings have shown that molecules containing a C3-substituted isoxazole or a 1,2-benzisoxazole can undergo a two-electron reductive ring cleavage to form an imine. In the absence of a C3 substituent, the isoxazole ring opens via deprotonation of the C3 proton followed by N-O bond cleavage to yield an α-cyanoenol analog. We report the identification of a novel bioactivation pathway of a 3,4-unsubstituted isoxazole in human liver microsomes. After the enzyme-catalyzed cleavage of the 3,4-unsubstituted isoxazole ring of N-((2-isopropyl-7-methyl-1-oxoisoindolin-5-yl)methyl)isoxazole-5-carboxamide (P) in human liver microsomes, the formed α-cyanoenol (M1) condenses with formaldehyde to generate an α,β-unsaturated Michael acceptor intermediate (a cyanoacrolein derivative, VII), which further reacts with the cysteinyl thiol of glutathione to yield a GSH adduct of a cyanoacrolein derivative (M3). The same adduct also is formed when M1, generated in 0.1 N NaOH aqueous solution, reacts with formaldehyde and GSH. (13)C-labeled methanol was used to confirm that methanol from the drug stock solution was oxidized by liver microsomal enzymes to formaldehyde and the carbon atom from methanol was finally incorporated in the corresponding GSH adduct. The formation of isoxazole ring-opened products (M1 and M2) in human liver microsomes is NADPH-dependent. M1 and M2 were found in human liver microsomes preincubated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (1 mM) and NADPH (5 mM) at ∼ 10% of the levels found in the samples in the absence of 1-aminobenzotriazole, suggesting that this biotransformation pathway is primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P450. The formation of M3 also was inhibited by 1-aminobenzotriazole at a similar level.

  9. A human breathing lung-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongeun Dan

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe a microphysiological system that replicates the functional unit of the living human lung. This human "breathing lung-on-a-chip" microdevice provides unique capabilities to reconstitute three-dimensional microarchitecture, dynamic mechanical activity, and integrated physiological function of the alveolar-capillary interface. We demonstrate the potential of this microengineered biomimetic model for screening environmental particulates and modeling complex human disease processes.

  10. Regional differences in alveolar density in the human lung are related to lung height.

    PubMed

    McDonough, John E; Knudsen, Lars; Wright, Alexander C; Elliott, W Mark; Ochs, Matthias; Hogg, James C

    2015-06-01

    The gravity-dependent pleural pressure gradient within the thorax produces regional differences in lung inflation that have a profound effect on the distribution of ventilation within the lung. This study examines the hypothesis that gravitationally induced differences in stress within the thorax also influence alveolar density in terms of the number of alveoli contained per unit volume of lung. To test this hypothesis, we measured the number of alveoli within known volumes of lung located at regular intervals between the apex and base of four normal adult human lungs that were rapidly frozen at a constant transpulmonary pressure, and used microcomputed tomographic imaging to measure alveolar density (number alveoli/mm3) at regular intervals between the lung apex and base. These results show that at total lung capacity, alveolar density in the lung apex is 31.6 ± 3.4 alveoli/mm3, with 15 ± 6% of parenchymal tissue consisting of alveolar duct. The base of the lung had an alveolar density of 21.2 ± 1.6 alveoli/mm3 and alveolar duct volume fraction of 29 ± 6%. The difference in alveolar density can be negated by factoring in the effects of alveolar compression due to the pleural pressure gradient at the base of the lung in vivo and at functional residual capacity.

  11. Comparative decellularization and recellularization of normal versus emphysematous human lungs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Parsons, Charles S; Sokocevic, Dino; Brooks, Elice M; Borg, Zachary D; Lathrop, Melissa J; Wallis, John D; Daly, Amanda B; Lam, Ying Wai; Deng, Bin; DeSarno, Michael J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Loi, Roberto; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Acellular whole human lung scaffolds represent a unique opportunity for ex vivo tissue engineering. However, it remains unclear whether lungs from individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be appropriately decellularized and recellularized. To assess this, cadaveric human lungs from normal (non-smoking) patients and from patients with COPD (smoking history) were decellularized and found by histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to retain characteristic histological architecture and extracellular matrix components (ECM) reflecting either normal or COPD, particularly emphysematous, origin. Inoculation of human bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and lung fibroblasts via airway or vascular routes into small, excised segments of the decellularized lungs demonstrated that normal lung scaffolds robustly supported initial engraftment and growth of each cell type for up to one month. In contrast, despite initial binding, all cell types inoculated into decellularized emphysematous lungs did not survive beyond one week. However, cell attachment and proliferation on solubilized ECM homogenates of decellularized normal and emphysematous lungs coated onto tissue culture plates was comparable and not impaired, suggesting that the 3-dimensional decellularized emphysematous scaffolds may lack the necessary ECM architecture to support sustained cell growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Decellularization and Recellularization of Normal versus Emphysematous Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy. E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas. R.; Parsons, Charles; Sokocevic, Dino; Brooks, Elice. M.; Borg, Zachary. D.; Lathrop, Melissa. J.; Wallis, John. D.; Daly, Amanda. B.; Lam, Ying Wai; Deng, Bin; DeSarno, Michael. J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Loi, Roberto; Weiss, Daniel. J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular whole human lung scaffolds represent a unique opportunity for ex vivo tissue engineering. However, it remains unclear whether lungs from individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be appropriately decellularized and recellularized. To assess this, cadaveric human lungs from normal (non-smoking) patients and from patients with COPD (smoking history) were decellularized and found by histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to retain characteristic histological architecture and extracellular matrix components (ECM) reflecting either normal or COPD, particularly emphysematous, origin. Inoculation of human bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and lung fibroblasts via airway or vascular routes into small, excised segments of the decellularized lungs demonstrated that normal lung scaffolds robustly supported initial engraftment and growth of each cell type for up to one month. In contrast, despite initial binding, all cell types inoculated into decellularized emphysematous lungs did not survive beyond one week. However, cell attachment and proliferation on solubilized ECM homogenates of decellularized normal and emphysematous lungs coated onto tissue culture plates was comparable and not impaired, suggesting that the 3-dimensional decellularized emphysematous scaffolds may lack the necessary ECM architecture to support sustained cell growth. PMID:24461327

  13. Quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronidation of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, by human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kenichiro; Ishikawa, Yuko; Kaku, Teppei; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Muro, Kei; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2006-04-28

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, is the most widely used drug for chemotherapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer in women. Trans-4-hydroxy-TAM (trans-4-HO-TAM), one of the TAM metabolites in humans, has been considered to be an active metabolite of TAM because of its higher affinity toward estrogen receptors (ERs) than the parent drug and other side-chain metabolites. In the present study, we found a new potential metabolic pathway of trans-4-HO-TAM and its geometrical isomer, cis-4-HO-TAM, via N-linked glucuronic acid conjugation for excretion in humans. N+-Glucuronides of 4-HO-TAM isomers were isolated along with O-glucuronides from a reaction mixture consisting of trans- or cis-4-HO-TAM and human liver microsomes fortified with UDP-glucuronic acid and identified with their respective synthetic specimens by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although N- and O-glucuronidating activities of human liver microsomes toward trans-4-HO-TAM were nearly comparable, O-glucuronidation was predominant for cis-4-HO-TAM conjugation. Only UGT1A4 catalyzed the N-linked glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM among recombinant human UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) expressed in insect cells. In contrast, all UGT isoforms, except for UGT1A3 and UGT1A4, catalyzed O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM. Although O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM greatly decreased binding affinity for human ERs, 4-HO-TAM N+-glucuronide still had binding affinity similar to 4-HO-TAM itself, suggesting that N+-glucuronide might contribute to the biological activity of TAM in vivo.

  14. Large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human intestine, liver, and kidney microsomes by SWATH-MS: Comparison with MRM/SRM and HR-MRM/PRM.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Kuno, Takuya; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Obuchi, Wataru; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine simultaneously the absolute protein amounts of 152 membrane and membrane-associated proteins, including 30 metabolizing enzymes and 107 transporters, in pooled microsomal fractions of human liver, kidney, and intestine by means of SWATH-MS with stable isotope-labeled internal standard peptides, and to compare the results with those obtained by MRM/SRM and high resolution (HR)-MRM/PRM. The protein expression levels of 27 metabolizing enzymes, 54 transporters, and six other membrane proteins were quantitated by SWATH-MS; other targets were below the lower limits of quantitation. Most of the values determined by SWATH-MS differed by less than 50% from those obtained by MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. Various metabolizing enzymes were expressed in liver microsomes more abundantly than in other microsomes. Ten, 13, and eight transporters listed as important for drugs by International Transporter Consortium were quantified in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes, respectively. Our results indicate that SWATH-MS enables large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification while retaining similar quantitative capability to MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. SWATH-MS is expected to be useful methodology in the context of drug development for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion in the human body based on protein profile information.

  15. Glucuronidation of macelignan by human liver microsomes and expressed UGT enzymes: identification of UGT1A1 and 2B7 as the main contributing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Wu, Zhufeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-12-01

    Macelignan is a natural phenolic compound that possesses many types of health benefits such as antiinflammation. This study aimed to characterize the metabolism of macelignan via the glucuronidation pathway and to identify the main UGT enzymes involved in macelignan glucuronidation. The rates of glucuronidation were determined by incubating macelignan with UDPGA-supplemented microsomes. Kinetic parameters were derived by fitting an appropriate model to the data. Reaction phenotyping, the relative activity factor (RAF) approach and activity correlation analysis were employed to identify the main UGT enzymes contributing to the hepatic metabolism of macelignan. Glucuronidation of macelignan in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) was rather efficient with a high CLint (the intrinsic clearance) value of 13.90 ml/min/mg. All UGT enzymes, except UGT1A4, 1A6 and 2B10, showed metabolic activities toward macelignan. UGT1A1 and 2B7 were the enzymes with the highest activities; the CLint values were 4.92 and 2.13 ml/min/mg, respectively. Further, macelignan glucuronidation was significantly correlated with 3-O-glucuronidation of β-estradiol (r = 0.69; p < 0.01) and glucuronidation of zidovudine (r = 0.60; p < 0.05) in a bank of individual HLMs (n = 14). Based on the RAF approach, UGT1A1 and 2B7, respectively, contributed 55.40% and 32.20% of macelignan glucuronidation in pHLM. In conclusion, macelignan was efficiently metabolized via the glucuronidation pathway. It was also shown that UGT1A1 and 2B7 were probably the main contributors to the hepatic glucuronidation of macelignan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of pharmaceutical excipients as cosolvents in 4-methyl umbelliferone glucuronidation in human liver microsomes: applications for compounds with low solubility.

    PubMed

    Argikar, Upendra A; Liang, Guiqing; Bushee, Jennifer L; Hosagrahara, Vinayak P; Lee, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Standard incubation procedures for carrying out microsomal assays involve the use of less than 1% w/v organic solvents to minimize the potential inhibitory effects of organic solvents on metabolic activity. This presents a practical limitation for poorly soluble xenobiotics, which cannot be incubated at concentrations high enough to obtain a V(max), and therefore subsequent values for K(m) and Cl(int) cannot be calculated. Our goal was to study the application of a variety of pharmaceutical excipients to aid the solubilization of compounds in vitro in glucuronidation incubations, without affecting the reaction kinetics. In vitro glucuronidation incubations were carried out in human liver microsomes with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) and the kinetics of 4-MU glucuronidation in the presence of excipients were compared to that in control incubations without any excipients. In addition, IC(75) values were calculated for each excipient. We observed that HPBCD (Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) may be employed in in vitro glucuronidation incubations up to 0.5% w/v without affecting the Cl(int) of 4-MU. Although NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) and DMA (N,N-dimethylacetamide); showed low IC(75) values approximately 0.1% w/v each, neither excipients altered the Cl(int) of 4-MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide) formation. Our studies point toward possible applications of pharmaceutical excipients to carry out in vitro glucuronidation of substrates with poor aqueous solubility, in order to estimate Cl(int) and subsequently scaled organ clearance values.

  17. Cyclosporin A drug interactions. Screening for inducers and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 (cyclosporin A oxidase) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Pichard, L; Fabre, I; Fabre, G; Domergue, J; Saint Aubert, B; Mourad, G; Maurel, P

    1990-01-01

    In previous papers we demonstrated that cyclosporin A (CsA) was specifically oxidized in rabbit and human liver by cytochrome P-450IIIA. We therefore anticipated that any drug that is an inducer or an inhibitor of this cytochrome should lead to interaction with CsA when given in association with it. In order to confirm this hypothesis, primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes were used to "reproduce" in vitro clinically significant interactions observed between CsA and drugs known either as specific inducers (i.e., rifampicin) or as specific inhibitors (i.e., erythromycin) of P-450IIIA. Our results were in close agreement with the clinical reports. Human hepatocytes maintained in primary cultures for 72 hr in the presence of 50 microM rifampicin exhibited increased levels of P-450IIIA, determined by Western blot using specific antibodies, and concomitant increase in CsA oxidase activity, determined by HPLC analysis of extra and intracellular media. Conversely, these cultures exhibited erythromycin concentration-dependent decreases in CsA oxidase activity when incubated in the presence of 5, 20, and 100 microM erythromycin. In addition, a Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the erythromycin-mediated inhibition of CsA oxidase activity in human liver microsomes revealed competitive inhibition (with Ki of 75 microM) as expected, this macrolide being a specific substrate of P-450IIIA. Using this experimental approach, 59 molecules representative of 17 different therapeutic classes were screened for inducers and inhibitors of CsA oxidase activity. Our results allowed us to elucidate the molecular mechanism of previously observed, but unexplained, drug interactions involving CsA, and to detect drugs that should interfere with CsA metabolism as inducers or inhibitors. Drugs detected as potential inducers of CsA oxidase included: rifampicin, sulfadimidine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, sulfinpyrazone, and carbamazepine. Drugs

  18. New IVIVE method for the prediction of total human clearance and relative elimination pathway contributions from in vitro hepatocyte and microsome data.

    PubMed

    Riede, Julia; Poller, Birk; Umehara, Ken-ichi; Huwyler, Jörg; Camenisch, Gian

    2016-04-30

    Total human clearance is a key determinant for the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug candidates. Our group recently introduced the Extended Clearance Model (ECM) as an accurate in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) method for the prediction of hepatic clearance. Yet, knowledge about relative elimination pathway contributions is needed in order to predict the total human clearance of drug candidates. In the present work, a training set of 18 drug compounds was used to describe the affiliations between in vitro sinusoidal uptake clearance and the fractional contributions of hepatic (metabolic and biliary) or renal clearance to overall in vivo elimination. By means of these quantitative relationships and using a validation set of 10 diverse drug molecules covering different (sub)classes of the Extended Clearance Concept Classification System (ECCCS), the relative contributions of elimination pathways were calculated and demonstrated to well correlate with human reference data. Likewise, ECM- and pathway-based predictions of total clearances from both data sets demonstrated a strong correlation with the observed clinical values with 26 out of 28 compounds within a three-fold deviation. Hence, total human clearance and relative contributions of elimination pathways were successfully predicted by the presented method using solely hepatocyte and microsome in vitro data.

  19. Subcellular fractionation of rough microsomes.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, David D

    2014-09-02

    When eukaryotic cells are homogenized, the rough endoplasmic reticula are converted into small vesicles, called rough microsomes. Strategies for the isolation of rough microsomes are introduced here, as are methods for evaluating the purity and intactness of an isolated rough microsomal fraction. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Traditional Herbal Formulas to as Treatments for Musculoskeletal Disorders: Their Inhibitory Effects on the Activities of Human Microsomal Cytochrome P450s and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Ha, Hyekyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of traditional herbal formulas, including Bangpungtongseong-san (BPTSS; Fangfengtongsheng-san, Bofu-tsusho-san), Ojeok-san (OJS; Wuji-san, Goshaku-san), and Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS; Wuyaoshungi-san, Uyakujyunki-san), on the activities of the human cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are drug-metabolizing enzymes. Materials and Methods: The activities of the major human CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) and UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7) were investigated using in vitro fluorescence-based and luminescence-based enzyme assays, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the herbal formulas were characterized, and their IC50 values were determined. Results: BPTSS inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1 while it exerted relatively weak inhibition on CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. BPTSS also negligibly inhibited the activities of UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in the excess of 1000 μg/mL. OJS and OYSGS inhibited the activity of CYP2D6, whereas they exhibited no inhibition of the UGT1A4 activity at doses <1000 μg/mL. In addition, OJS inhibited the CYP1A2 activity but exerted a relatively weak inhibition on the activities of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Conversely, OJS negligibly inhibited the activities of CYP2B6, UGT1A1, and UGT2B7 with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. OYSGS weakly inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1, with a negligible inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: These results provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of BPTSS, OJS, and OYSGS when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Bangpungtongseong-san inhibited the activities of human microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1, with a negligibly inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6

  1. Metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin, a serotonergic constituent of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa, L. (Nutt.)), by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Dejan; Li, Jinghu; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-12-01

    The roots/rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L. (Nutt.) (syn. Actaea racemosa L.) are a popular dietary supplements among women for management of menopausal symptoms. Although not estrogenic, Nω -methylserotonin has been identified in black cohosh as a potent agonist of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin was investigated to gain insights into aspects of the bioavailability of this compound. The major metabolic pathway was determined to be conversion into 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde catalyzed by the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). 5-Hydroxyindole acetaldehyde could be further oxidized to form 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid by the action of microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase or reduced to 5-hydroxy tryptophol by the action of aldehyde reductase. The cytochrome P450 enzymes had only a minor role in the metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin and then only when MAO-A was inhibited. In many aspects, the metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin was similar to the metabolism of serotonin, suggesting that this compound is unlikely to elicit CNS effects due to rapid metabolism by the widely distributed MAO-A. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver microsomes glucuronidate both R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin into two metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C Preston; Pouncey, Dakota L; Hartman, Jessica H; Nshimiyimana, Robert; Desrochers, Linda P; Goodwin, Thomas E; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P

    2014-12-15

    The widely used anticoagulant Coumadin (R/S-warfarin) undergoes oxidation by cytochromes P450 into hydroxywarfarins that subsequently become conjugated for excretion in urine. Hydroxywarfarins may modulate warfarin metabolism transcriptionally or through direct inhibition of cytochromes P450 and thus, UGT action toward hydroxywarfarin elimination may impact levels of the parent drugs and patient responses. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about conjugation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in warfarin metabolism. Herein, we identified probable conjugation sites, kinetic mechanisms and hepatic UGT isoforms involved in microsomal glucuronidation of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. Both compounds underwent glucuronidation at C4 and C7 hydroxyl groups based on elution properties and spectral characteristics. Their formation demonstrated regio- and enantioselectivity by UGTs and resulted in either Michaelis-Menten or substrate inhibition kinetics. Glucuronidation at the C7 hydroxyl group occurred more readily than at the C4 group, and the reaction was overall more efficient for R-7-hydroxywarfarin due to higher affinity and rates of turnover. The use of these mechanisms and parameters to model in vivo clearance demonstrated that contributions of substrate inhibition would lead to underestimation of metabolic clearance than that predicted by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Lastly, these processes were driven by multiple UGTs indicating redundancy in glucuronidation pathways and ultimately metabolic clearance of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhaled histamine increases human lung mucociliary transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mussatto, D.J.; Garrard, C.S.; Trumbull, J.J.; Bowers, M.W.; Sanders, C.J.; Yeates, D.B.; Lourenco, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    Histamine, a mediator of airways constriction, alters ciliary beat frequency, bronchial mucus production, and epithelial ion transport; and in dogs, increases mucociliary transport. To evaluate the effect of inhaled histamine on human tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance, the authors measured lung mucociliary clearance (LMC) and tracheal mucociliary transport rate (TMTR) in 5 healthy, nonsmoking subjects in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The concentration of inhaled histamine which produced a 20% fall in FEV/sub 1/ was established for each subject. On a separate day the subjects inhaled a 9 ..mu..m MMAD /sup 99m/Tc-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol. LMC and TMTR were then measured for 2.5h using a gamma camera and a tracheal multidetector probe. Simultaneously, the subjects were challenged every 26 +/- 4 min with either PBS or histamine in PBS. The Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ retained after 24h for histamine (14.4 +/- 7.6%) and PBS studies (13.1 +/- 8.6%) indicated no difference in deposition of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (ANOVA). Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ clearance at 30 min was increased in the histamine studies (61 +/- 21% compared to the PBS studies (44 +/- 29%; p < 0.02, ANOVA)). TMTR was also increased with histamine (7.6 +/- 3.4 mm/min) compared to PBS (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm/min; p < 0.001, ANOVA). Results indicate an acute stimulatory effect of inhaled histamine on mucous transport in humans.

  4. Arsenic is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Primary Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong; Huang, ShouPing; Martin, Sarah; Wise, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic originates from both geochemical and numerous anthropogenic activities. Exposure of the general public to significant levels of arsenic is widespread. Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. Long-term exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water have been linked to bladder, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, and skin cancer. Among them, lung cancer is of great public concern. However, little is known about how arsenic causes lung cancer and few studies have considered effects in normal human lung cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of arsenic in human primary bronchial fibroblast and epithelial cells. Our data show that arsenic induces a concentration-dependent decrease in cell survival after short (24 h) or long (120 h) exposures. Arsenic induces concentration-dependent but not time-dependent increases in chromosome damage in fibroblasts. No chromosome damage is induced after either 24 h or 120 h arsenic exposure in epithelial cells. Using neutral comet assay and gamma-H2A.X foci forming assay, we found that 24 h or 120 h exposure to arsenic induces increases in DNA double strand breaks in both cell lines. These data indicate that arsenic is cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung primary cells but lung fibroblasts are more sensitive to arsenic than epithelial cells. Further research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced genotoxicity in human lung cells. PMID:24291234

  5. In vitro metabolism of BIIB021, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, in liver microsomes and hepatocytes of rats, dogs, and humans and recombinant human cytochrome P450 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Woodward, Caroline; Khan, Samina; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) results in the degradation of oncoproteins that drive malignant progression and induce cell death, thus making HSP90 a potential target of cancer therapy. 6-Chloro-9-(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-9H-purin-2-ylamine (BIIB021), a synthetic HSP90 inhibitor, exhibited promising antitumor activity in preclinical models. It is currently in phase II clinical trials for the oral treatment of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to obtain both quantitative and qualitative metabolic profiles of [(14)C]BIIB021 in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes and hepatocytes to provide support for in vivo safety and clinical studies. The metabolites of [(14)C]BIIB021 were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with radiometric detection. BIIB021 was extensively metabolized in both liver microsomes and hepatocytes. The major oxidative metabolic pathways identified for all species were due to hydroxylation (M7) and O-demethylation (M2) of the methoxy-dimethylpyridine moiety. The majority of M7 in dog hepatocytes was further conjugated to form the glucuronide (M4). Oxidative dechlorination (M6), monooxygenation (M10), and oxidative N-dealkylation of the methoxy-dimethylpyridine moiety (M11 and M12) were observed as the minor metabolic pathways in hepatocytes of all three species. A glutathione conjugate (M18) was also identified in all species. Its formation was catalyzed, in part, by soluble glutathione transferase via direct displacement of the chlorine on the amino-chloropurine moiety. Subsequent minor secondary metabolites M13, M14, M15, and M17 were observed in human, dog, and rat hepatocytes. Results from incubations of BIIB021 with human recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms and a P450 antibody inhibition study in human liver microsomes suggested that the formation of M7 is mainly catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, whereas the formation of minor metabolite M2 in human liver

  6. A liquid chromatographic-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitation of quetiapine in human plasma and liver microsomes: application to study in vitro metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen-Nan; Chang, Yan; Moody, David E; Foltz, Rodger L

    2004-09-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. After an oral dose it is absorbed rapidly and extensively metabolized in the liver, resulting in low plasma concentrations of the parent drug. A sensitive analytical method is needed. A liquid chromatographic-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method combined with a simple liquid-liquid extraction has been developed for the measurement of quetiapine in human plasma and in human liver microsomes (HLM). Clozapine is used as internal standard. Plasma samples or microsomes quenched with methanol (100 microL) were made basic and extracted with 3 mL n-butyl chloride. The reconstituted extracts were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS-MS. Selective reaction monitoring of MH(+) at m/z 384 and 327 resulted in strong fragment ions at m/z 253 and 192 for quetiapine and clozapine, respectively. Recovery of quetiapine and clozapine ranged from 62 to 73%. Intrarun accuracy and precision determined at 1.0 (lower limit of quantitation), 2.5, 200, and 400 ng/mL did not exceed 7% deviation from target and the %CV did not exceed 5.5%. The % target +/- %CV for interrun accuracy and precision were at least 95% +/- 7.4% at concentrations of 2.5, 200, and 400 ng/mL. Plasma samples (2.5 and 400 ng/mL) stored at room temperature for 24 h or after 3 cycles of freeze/thaw were all stable (maximum % deviation < or = 11.0%). Processed extracts (2.5 and 400 ng/mL) stored for 7 days at -20 degrees C or 6 days on the autosampler were all stable (maximum % deviation < or = 11.5%). The method has been used to study quetiapine utilization during incubation with HLM or with cDNA-expressed human cytochrom P450s (CYP). Quetiapine is extensively metabolized by CYP 3A4 and CYP 2D6 and to a lesser extent by CYP 3A7, CYP 3A5, and CYP 2C19.

  7. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  8. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  9. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  10. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Mononuclear Phagocytes in Nondiseased Human Lung and Lung-Draining Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Desch, A. Nicole; Gibbings, Sophie L.; Goyal, Rajni; Kolde, Raivo; Bednarek, Joe; Bruno, Tullia; Slansky, Jill E.; Jacobelli, Jordan; Mason, Robert; Ito, Yoko; Messier, Elise; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Prabagar, Miglena; Atif, Shaikh M.; Segura, Elodie; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Bratton, Donna L.; Janssen, William J.; Henson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The pulmonary mononuclear phagocyte system is a critical host defense mechanism composed of macrophages, monocytes, monocyte-derived cells, and dendritic cells. However, our current characterization of these cells is limited because it is derived largely from animal studies and analysis of human mononuclear phagocytes from blood and small tissue resections around tumors. Objectives: Phenotypic and morphologic characterization of mononuclear phagocytes that potentially access inhaled antigens in human lungs. Methods: We acquired and analyzed pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes from fully intact nondiseased human lungs (including the major blood vessels and draining lymph nodes) obtained en bloc from 72 individual donors. Differential labeling of hematopoietic cells via intrabronchial and intravenous administration of antibodies within the same lobe was used to identify extravascular tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes and exclude cells within the vascular lumen. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to identify mononuclear phagocyte populations among cells labeled by each route of antibody delivery. Measurements and Main Results: We performed a phenotypic analysis of pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes isolated from whole nondiseased human lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes. Five pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes were observed, including macrophages, monocyte-derived cells, and dendritic cells that were phenotypically distinct from cell populations found in blood. Conclusions: Different mononuclear phagocytes, particularly dendritic cells, were labeled by intravascular and intrabronchial antibody delivery, countering the notion that tissue and blood mononuclear phagocytes are equivalent systems. Phenotypic descriptions of the mononuclear phagocytes in nondiseased lungs provide a precedent for comparative studies in diseased lungs and potential targets for therapeutics. PMID:26551758

  11. Linear dimensions and volumes of human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, David P.

    2012-03-30

    TOTAL LUNG Capacity is defined as “the inspiratory capacity plus the functional residual capacity; the volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration; also equals vital capacity plus residual volume” (from MediLexicon.com). Within the Results and Discussion section of their April 2012 Health Physics paper, Kramer et al. briefly noted that the lungs of their experimental subjects were “not fully inflated.” By definition and failure to obtain maximal inspiration, Kramer et. al. did not measure Total Lung Capacity (TLC). The TLC equation generated from this work will tend to underestimate TLC and does not improve or update total lung capacity data provided by ICRP and others. Likewise, the five linear measurements performed by Kramer et. al. are only representative of the conditions of the measurement (i.e., not at-rest volume, but not fully inflated either). While there was significant work performed and the data are interesting, the data does not represent a maximal situation, a minimal situation, or an at-rest situation. Moreover, while interesting, the linear data generated by this study is limited by the conditions of the experiment and may not be fully comparative with other lung or inspiratory parameters, measures, or physical dimensions.

  12. Linear dimensions and volumes of human lungs

    DOE PAGES

    Hickman, David P.

    2012-03-30

    TOTAL LUNG Capacity is defined as “the inspiratory capacity plus the functional residual capacity; the volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration; also equals vital capacity plus residual volume” (from MediLexicon.com). Within the Results and Discussion section of their April 2012 Health Physics paper, Kramer et al. briefly noted that the lungs of their experimental subjects were “not fully inflated.” By definition and failure to obtain maximal inspiration, Kramer et. al. did not measure Total Lung Capacity (TLC). The TLC equation generated from this work will tend to underestimate TLC and does notmore » improve or update total lung capacity data provided by ICRP and others. Likewise, the five linear measurements performed by Kramer et. al. are only representative of the conditions of the measurement (i.e., not at-rest volume, but not fully inflated either). While there was significant work performed and the data are interesting, the data does not represent a maximal situation, a minimal situation, or an at-rest situation. Moreover, while interesting, the linear data generated by this study is limited by the conditions of the experiment and may not be fully comparative with other lung or inspiratory parameters, measures, or physical dimensions.« less

  13. Role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in the conversion of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogs in human liver microsomes to potent antimalarial dihydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Damaris S; Kozar, Michael P; Smith, Kirsten S; Asher, Constance O; Sousa, Jason C; Schiehser, Guy A; Jacobus, David P; Milhous, Wilbur K; Skillman, Donald R; Shearer, Todd W

    2008-02-01

    Phenoxypropoxybiguanides, such as PS-15, are antimalarial prodrugs analogous to the relationship of proguanil and its active metabolite cycloguanil. Unlike cycloguanil, however, WR99210, the active metabolite of PS-15, has retained in vitro potency against newly emerging antifolate-resistant malaria parasites. Recently, in vitro metabolism of a new series of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogs has examined the production of the active triazine metabolites by human liver microsomes. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the primary cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the production of active metabolites in the current lead candidate. By using expressed human recombinant isoform preparations, specific chemical inhibitors, and isoform-specific inhibitory antibodies, the primary cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the in vitro metabolic activation of JPC-2056 were elucidated. Unlike proguanil, which is metabolized primarily by CYP2C19, the results indicate that CYP3A4 plays a more important role in the metabolism of both PS-15 and JPC-2056. Whereas CYP2D6 appears to play a major role in the metabolism of PS-15 to WR99210, it appears less important in the conversion of JPC-2056 to JPC-2067. These results are encouraging, considering the prominence of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in certain populations at risk for contracting malaria, because the current clinical prodrug candidate from this series may be less dependent on these enzymes for metabolic activation.

  14. In vitro assessment of CYP1A2 and 2C9 inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-06-01

    Several herbal drugs and allopathic medicines when co-administered can lead to severe herb-drug interactions. Hence, this study was undertaken in order to assess the in vitro inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and 2C9 enzyme using human liver microsomes. Inhibitory potential of crude extracts of both the medicinal plants along with their principal phytoconstituents were investigated using selective probe substrate technique. IC50, Ki values and mode of inhibition were determined. The results of the study revealed that W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both the isoforms of CYP. However, ethanolic extract of C. asiatica significantly inhibited both CYP1A2 (IC50 value - 42.23±3.65 μg/mL/Ki value - 14.93±4.59 μg/mL) and 2C9 enzyme (IC50 value - 48.41±4.64 μg/mL/Ki value - 23.89±3.14 μg/mL) in a competitive manner. The flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 10 μM) inhibition of CYP1A2 activity with no significant inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Thus, these findings of the study might be helpful for safe and effective use of C. asiatica in clinical practice. However, its in vivo interaction study in humans is still warranted.

  15. Solubility of Freon 22 in human blood and lung tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Varene, N.; Choukroun, M.L.; Marthan, R.; Varene, P.

    1989-05-01

    The solubility of Freon 22 in human blood and lung tissue was determined using the chromatographic method of Wagner et al. In normal human blood, the mean Bunsen coefficient of solubility (alpha B) was 0.804 cm3 STPD.cm-3.ATA-1 at 37 degrees C. It increased with hematocrit (Hct) according to the equation alpha B = 0.274 Hct + 0.691. Tissue homogenates were prepared from macroscopically normal lung pieces obtained at thoracotomy from eight patients undergoing resection for lung carcinoma. The Bunsen solubility coefficients were 0.537 +/- 0.068 and 0.635 +/- 0.091 in washed and unwashed lung, respectively. These values can be used in the determination of both cardiac output and pulmonary tissue volume in humans by use of the rebreathing technique.

  16. Comparative metabolism of tussilagone in rat and human liver microsomes using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Shi; Ren, Wei; Bian, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Wang, Shu

    2015-09-30

    Tussilagone is a major component in Tussilago farfara that has been widely used as an anti-tussive herbal medicine for the treatment of bronchitis, cough and asthmatic disorders in the clinic. However, its metabolism has been poorly investigated. In order to clarify its in vitro metabolism, a comparative analysis of its metabolic profile in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs) was carried out. Further, the cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYPs) involved in the metabolism were investigated. In this work, the biotransformation of tussilagone in RLMs and HLMs was compared using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/HRMS) and the CYPs involved in the metabolism were further investigated by recombinant human CYP enzymes. Totally, nine metabolites of tussilagone were identified in RLMs and HLMs based on the proposed MS/MS fragmentation pathways of tussilagone and the accurate MS/MS spectra. Among them, one metabolite (M9) was detected in both RLMs and HLMs while the other eight metabolites were only detected in HLMs. Three hydroxylation metabolites (M6, M7 and M8) were detected in the assay with individual recombinant P450s incubation. M6 was detected in all CYPs except CYP2A6 while M7 and M8 were only observed in CYP3A4. The HR-ESI-MS/MS fragmentation behavior of tussilagone and its metabolic profile in RLMs and HLMs were investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated that the biotransformation of tussilagone involved hydrolysis of ester bonds at C-14 and hydroxylation in the side chains at C-12, C-5' or C-6'. Among the CYPs, CYP3A4 played an important role in the hydroxylation reaction of tussilagone in vitro. Furthermore, the results indicated a species-related difference in the metabolism of tussilagone between RLMs and HLMs. This work provided basic information for the metabolism of tussilagone in RLMs and HLMs, which would help to better understand the

  17. Formation of N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX from metabolism of diallyl sulfone in lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Black, Gordon P; Collins, Kathy S; Blacquiere, Dylan P; Forkert, Poh-Gek

    2006-06-01

    Diallyl sulfone (DASO2) is a garlic derivative formed during cooking or after ingestion. Bioactivation of DASO2 in murine lung and liver results in formation of an epoxide that inactivates CYP2E1 and significantly decreases cytochrome P450 and heme levels. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DASO2 metabolism leads to production of the heme adduct, N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX (N-alkylPP). Formation of N-alkylPP in vivo and in vitro was determined by spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods, respectively. In in vivo studies, N-alkylPP was generated in the livers of male and female mice treated with DASO2, but was not detectable in the lungs of DASO2-treated mice. In in vitro studies, rates of formation of N-alkylPP in liver and lung microsomes incubated with DASO2 and NADPH were dependent on time and protein concentrations, but were negligible in control incubations performed in the absence of NADPH or DASO2 or with boiled microsomes. The rates of N-alkylPP formation generated in murine liver were higher than those in either murine lung or human liver. Kinetic analysis revealed that murine liver microsomes metabolized DASO2 to N-alkylPP with higher affinity and catalytic efficiency than did murine lung or human liver microsomes. Recombinant rat CYP2E1 also metabolized DASO2 to N-alkylPP; however, rates of formation of the heme adduct was minimal in incubations of recombinant human CYP2E1 with DASO2. These findings demonstrated that the N-alkylPP adduct was produced via metabolism of DASO2 in murine liver and lung microsomes, in human liver microsomes, in recombinant CYP2E1, and in vivo in murine liver.

  18. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan N; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R; Corley, Richard A

    2017-03-05

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14μM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07μM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  19. Human lung expresses unique gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, L A; Gerard, C; Drazen, J M

    1993-01-01

    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (EC 2.3.2.2, gamma GT) is a membrane-bound ectoenzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of glutathione. It is composed of two subunits, both of which are encoded by a common mRNA. We examined the expression of gamma GT in human lung tissue by Northern blot analysis and screening a cDNA library made from human lung poly(A)+ RNA. Our results show that there are two gamma GT mRNA populations in human lung tissue. We define these as group I (2.4 kb) and group II (approximately 1.2 kb) transcripts. In the present communication, we characterize the unique lung transcript. Sequence analysis of representative clones shows that group I transcripts are virtually identical to those previously isolated from liver and placenta but possess a unique 5' untranslated region. In marked contrast, group II transcripts appear to be human-lung-specific. Group II transcripts appear on Northern blots probed with full-length or 3'-biased gamma GT cDNA. Sequence analysis of group II clones shows them to be homologous with group I clones in the region that encodes the reading frame for the light chain; however, they possess a series of unique 5' untranslated regions, which suggests that they arise from lung-specific message processing. Additionally, approximately 50% of the isolated group II clones contain 34 nt substitutions compared with the "wild-type" gamma GT transcripts. These data indicate that human lung expresses unique gamma GT transcripts of unknown function as well as the classical form. The abundant group II transcripts may encode part of a heterodimer related to gamma GT or represent processed lung-specific pseudogenes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7689219

  20. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Banat, G-Andre; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weigert, Andreas; Olesch, Catherine; Ebel, Katharina; Stiewe, Thorsten; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Savai, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+), cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+), T-helper cells (CD4+), B cells (CD20+), macrophages (CD68+), mast cells (CD117+), mononuclear cells (CD11c+), plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+), B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+) and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+) compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells) in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition. PMID:26413839

  1. Follistatin is a novel biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Ren, Ping; Feng, Ye; Liu, Haiyan; Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhonghui; Ge, Jingyan; Cui, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (FST), a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear. The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80), which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40) using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis. These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Follistatin Is a Novel Biomarker for Lung Adenocarcinoma in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ye; Liu, Haiyan; Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhonghui; Ge, Jingyan; Cui, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Background Follistatin (FST), a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear. Methods and Results The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80), which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40) using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis. Conclusions These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25347573

  3. Contribution of carboxylesterase and cytochrome P450 to the bioactivation and detoxification of isocarbophos and its enantiomers in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xia; Tan, Yan; Xiao, Wei-Bin; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xie, Jian-Wei; Lu, Chuang; Li, Hua

    2014-07-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in modern agricultural systems to ensure good harvests. Isocarbophos (ICP), with a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect is widely utilized to control a variety of leaf-eating and soil insects. However, the characteristics of the bioactivation and detoxification of ICP in humans remain unclear. In this study, the oxidative metabolism, esterase hydrolysis, and chiral inversion of ICP in human liver microsomes (HLMs) were investigated with the aid of a stereoselective LC/MS/MS method. The depletion of ICP in HLMs was faster in the absence of carboxylesterase inhibitor (BNPP) than in the presence of NADPH and BNPP, with t1/2 of 5.2 and 90 min, respectively. Carboxylesterase was found to be responsible for the hydrolysis of ICP, the major metabolic pathway. CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 were all involved in the secondary metabolism pathway of desulfuration of ICP. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) did not contribute to the clearance of ICP. The hydrolysis and desulfuration of (±)ICP, (+)ICP, and (-)ICP in HLMs follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Individual enantiomers of ICP and its oxidative desulfuration metabolite isocarbophos oxon (ICPO) were found to be inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases at different extents. For example, (±)ICPO is more potent than ICP (IC50 0.031μM vs. 192μM), whereas (+)ICPO is more potent than (-)ICPO (IC50 0.017μM vs. 1.55μM). Given the finding of rapid hydrolysis of ICP and low abundance of oxidative metabolites presence in human liver, the current study highlights that human liver has a greater capacity for detoxification of ICP.

  4. Ex Vivo Perfusion Treatment of Infection in Human Donor Lungs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, D; Cypel, M; Bonato, R; Machuca, T N; Iskender, I; Hashimoto, K; Linacre, V; Chen, M; Coutinho, R; Azad, S; Martinu, T; Waddell, T K; Hwang, D M; Husain, S; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2016-04-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a platform to treat infected donor lungs with antibiotic therapy before lung transplantation. Human donor lungs that were rejected for transplantation because of clinical concern regarding infection were randomly assigned to two groups. In the antibiotic group (n = 8), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h with high-dose antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 400 mg or azithromycin 500 mg, vancomycin 15 mg/kg, and meropenem 2 g). In the control group (n = 7), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h without antibiotics. A quantitative decrease in bacterial counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was found in all antibiotic-treated cases but in only two control cases. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were significantly lower in the antibiotic group compared with the control group. EVLP with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy significantly improved pulmonary oxygenation and compliance and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were strongly correlated with levels of perfusates tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β at 12 h. In conclusion, EVLP treatment of infected donor lungs with broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduced BAL bacterial counts and endotoxin levels and improved donor lung function. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Decreased expression of interleukin 13 in human lung emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Boutten, A; Bonay, M; Laribe, S; Leseche, G; Castier, Y; Lecon-Malas, V; Fournier, M; Durand, G; Aubier, M; Dehoux, M; Crestani, B

    2004-01-01

    Background: The overexpression of interferon (IFN)γ or interleukin (IL)-13 in the adult murine lung induces the development of changes that mirror human lung emphysema. Methods: IL-13 and IFNγ expression was determined in lung samples from five groups of patients: severe emphysema without α1-antitrypsin deficiency (SE+, n = 10); severe emphysema with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (SE–, n = 5); mild localised emphysema (ME, n = 8); non-emphysema smokers (NE-S, n = 9), and non-emphysema non-smokers (NE-NS, n = 11). Lung IL-13 and IFNγ mRNA were analysed by RT-PCR. Lung concentrations of IL-13 protein were assessed by ELISA. Results: The expression of IFNγ mRNA was similar in patients with or without emphysema. IL-13 mRNA was markedly decreased in the SE+ group compared with the SE– (p = 0.04), ME (p = 0.02), and non-emphysema groups (p = 0.01). IL-13 mRNA correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = 0.5, p = 0.04) and arterial oxygen tension (r = 0.45, p = 0.03) in emphysema patients. In contrast to the non-emphysematous lung, IL-13 protein was below the detection limit of the assay in most emphysematous lung homogenates. Conclusion: The lung IL-13 content is reduced in patients with severe emphysema without α1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:15454650

  6. Metabolic activation of the phenothiazine antipsychotics chlorpromazine and thioridazine to electrophilic iminoquinone species in human liver microsomes and recombinant P450s.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bo; Zhou, Mingyan

    2009-10-07

    The phenothiazine-derived antipsychotics, namely chlorpromazine and thioridazine, have been associated with very rare but severe incidences of hepatotoxicity in patients. While the mechanism of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity remains unknown, it is possible that metabolic activation and subsequent covalently binding of reactive metabolites to cellular proteins play a causative role. Studies were initiated to determine whether chlorpromazine and thioridazine undergo cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation in human liver microsomes to electrophilic intermediates. LC/MS/MS analysis of incubations containing chlorpromazine or thioridazine in the presence of NADPH and glutathione (GSH) revealed the formation of GSH conjugates derived from the addition of the sulfydryl nucleophile to monohydroxy metabolites of chlorpromazine and thioridazine, respectively. Formation of reactive intermediates of chlorpromazine and thioridazine was primarily mediated by heterologously expressed recombinant CYP2D6, and to a less extent, CYP1A2. The 7-hydroxyl metabolites of chlorpromazine and thioridazine were also detected by tandem mass spectrometry. A tentative pathway states that after initial 7-hydroxylation, a bioactivation sequence involves P450-catalyzed oxidation of the phenothiazine core to an electrophilic quinone imine intermediate, which is subsequently attacked by glutathione yielding the sulfydryl conjugates. The results from the current investigation constitute the first report on the cytochrome P450-catalyzed bioactivation of the phenothiazine antipsychotics chlorpromazine and thioridazine.

  7. Inhibitory and synergistic effects of natural olive phenols on human platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation of microsomes from vitamin E-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Senent, Fátima; de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Garry; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the in vitro antioxidant and anti-platelet activities of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol acetate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and two phenolic olive extracts. These compounds and extracts were obtained from a new industrial process to hydrothermally treat the alperujo (160 °C/60 min), a by-product of olive oil extraction. The extracts and the purified compounds were obtained chromatographically using both ionic and adsorbent resins. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring inhibition of human platelet aggregation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes of vitamin E-deficient rats. The positive effect of the extracts on the inhibition of platelet aggregation is showed, being higher in the case of hydroxytyrosol acetate up to 38%, and for the first time, its synergist effect with hydroxytyrosol has been proved, obtaining more than double of inhibition. The phenolic extracts and the isolated phenols showed good results for inhibiting the lipid oxidation, up to 62 and 25%, respectively. A synergistic effect occurred when the hydroxytyrosol acetate and the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were supplemented by hydroxytyrosol. These results suggest the extract and these compounds obtained from a novel industrial process could be natural alternatives for the prevention of diseases related to cardiovascular disorder or oxidative damage.

  8. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-01-15

    1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a designer drug with serotonergic properties. Previous studies with male Wistar rats (WI) had shown, that TFMPP was metabolized mainly by aromatic hydroxylation. In the current study, it was examined whether this reaction may be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 by comparing TFMPP vs. hydroxy TFMPP ratios in urine from female Dark Agouti rats, a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats, an intermediate model, and WI, a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Furthermore, the human hepatic CYPs involved in TFMPP hydroxylation were identified using cDNA-expressed CYPs and human liver microsomes. Finally, TFMPP plasma levels in the above mentioned rats were compared. The urine studies suggested that TFMPP hydroxylation might be catalyzed by CYP2D6 in humans. Studies using human CYPs showed that CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed TFMPP hydroxylation, with CYP2D6 being the most important enzyme accounting for about 81% of the net intrinsic clearance, calculated using the relative activity factor approach. The hydroxylation was significantly inhibited by quinidine (77%) and metabolite formation in poor metabolizer genotype human liver microsomes was significantly lower (63%) compared to pooled human liver microsomes. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that female Dark Agouti rats exhibited significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels compared to those of male Dark Agouti rats and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels. In conclusion, the presented data give hints for possible differences in pharmacokinetics in human PM and human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype subjects relevant for risk assessment.

  9. Microsomal metabolism of picene.

    PubMed

    Platt, K L; Petrovic, P; Seidel, A; Beermann, D; Oesch, F

    1988-01-01

    Picene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of environmental relevance has recently been predicted to be carcinogenic, based on quantum mechanical calculation, although in several animal studies no carcinogenicity could be detected. In order to find out if the metabolism of this PAH can provide an explanation for its lack of carcinogenicity, picene was incubated with the hepatic microsomal fraction of Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been pretreated with Aroclor 1254. Sixteen ethyl acetate-extractable metabolites could be separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparison of the chromatographic behavior and the UV and mass spectral properties of the metabolites with those of synthetic derivatives of picene allowed the identification of trans-1,2-, -3,4-, -5,6-dihydrodiol as well as 2- and 4-phenol as microsomal metabolites of picene. At a substrate concentration of 2.7 microM and an amount of 68 micrograms microsomal protein per ml incubation volume, 4-picenol was the main microsomal metabolite with 32.2% of total metabolic conversion, followed by the 1,2-(bay-region)dihydrodiol with 16.7%, the 3,4-(M-region)dihydrodiol with 15.9%, 2-picenol with 9.1% and the 5,6-(K-region)dihydrodiol with 1.6%. In this respect the metabolism of picene is not significantly different from that of the carcinogenic PAH benzo[a]pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The M-region dihydrodiols, potential precursors of electrophilically reactive dihydrodiol bay-region epoxides, are formed from all three PAHs at 11-16% of total metabolic conversion. From the 2.8- to 4.4-fold lower amounts of polar and water-soluble metabolites of picene as compared to dibenz[a,h]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene it is deduced that dihydrodiol epoxides are generated from picene to a much smaller extent than from the two carcinogenic PAHs. The lacking carcinogenicity of picene could therefore result from the inability of microsomal enzymes to transform its M-region dihydrodiol to

  10. Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranath, V.; Boyd, M.R.

    1985-05-01

    2-Methylfuran (2-MF), a constituent of cigarette smoke and coffee, causes necrosis of liver, lungs, and kidneys in rodents. 2-MF is metabolically activated by mixed-function oxidases to acetylacrolein, a reactive metabolite that binds covalently to microsomal protein. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of 2-MF to reactive metabolite required the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was dependent on incubation time and substrate concentration. The microsomal metabolism of 2-MF was inducible by pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital and was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and N-octyl imidazole, which indicates that the metabolism of 2-MF may be mediated by cytochrome P-450. Acetylacrolein was a potent inhibitor of mixed-function oxidase and completely inhibited the microsomal metabolism of 2-MF, indicating that 2-MF is a suicide substrate for the enzyme. The sulfhydryl nucleophile cysteine was a better trapping agent of the reactive metabolite of 2-MF than N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Lysine decreased the covalent binding of 2-MF metabolites, presumably by reacting with the aldehyde group of acetylacrolein. In addition, in the presence of NADPH, 2-MF was bioactivated by both pulmonary and renal cortical microsomes to reactive metabolites that were covalently bound to microsomal proteins.

  11. Potent inhibition of human 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E₂ synthase-1 by the anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory agent embelin.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Anja M; Traber, Heidi; Temml, Veronika; Noha, Stefan M; Filosa, Rosanna; Peduto, Antonella; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Schuster, Daniela; Werz, Oliver

    2013-08-15

    Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties in vivo, and these features have been related to interference with multiple targets including XIAPs, NFκB, STAT-3, Akt and mTOR. However, interference with these proteins requires relatively high concentrations of embelin (IC₅₀>4 μM) and cannot fully explain its bioactivity observed in several functional studies. Here we reveal human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and microsomal prostaglandin E₂ synthase (mPGES)-1 as direct molecular targets of embelin. Thus, embelin potently suppressed the biosynthesis of eicosanoids by selective inhibition of 5-LO and mPGES-1 with IC₅₀=0.06 and 0.2 μM, respectively. In intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, embelin consistently blocked the biosynthesis of various 5-LO products regardless of the stimulus (fMLP or A23187) with IC₅₀=0.8-2 μM. Neither the related human 12- and 15-LO nor the cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 or cytosolic phospholipase A₂ were significantly affected by 10 μM embelin. Inhibition of 5-LO and mPGES-1 by embelin was (I) essentially reversible after wash-out, (II) not impaired at higher substrate concentrations, (III) unaffected by inclusion of Triton X-100, and (IV) did not correlate to its proposed antioxidant properties. Docking simulations suggest concrete binding poses in the active sites of both 5-LO and mPGES-1. Because 5-LO- and mPGES-1-derived eicosanoids play roles in inflammation and cancer, the interference of embelin with these enzymes may contribute to its biological effects and suggests embelin as novel chemotype for development of dual 5-LO/mPGES-1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro profiling of the metabolism and drug-drug interaction of tofogliflozin, a potent and highly specific sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, using human liver microsomes, human hepatocytes, and recombinant human CYP.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Mizuki; Kawashima, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Koji; Nagao, Shunsuke; Sato, Mika; Suzuki, Masayuki; Honda, Kiyofumi; Hagita, Hitoshi; Kuhlmann, Olaf; Poirier, Agnes; Fowler, Stephen; Funk, Christoph; Simon, Sandrine; Aso, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Sachiya; Ishigai, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    Abstract 1. The metabolism and drug-drug interaction (DDI) risk of tofogliflozin, a potent and highly specific sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, were evaluated by in vitro studies using human liver microsomes, human hepatocytes, and recombinant human CYPs. 2. The main metabolite of tofogliflozin was the carboxylated derivative (M1) in human hepatocytes, which was the same as in vivo. The metabolic pathway of tofogliflozin to M1 was considered to be as follows: first, tofogliflozin was catalyzed to the primary hydroxylated derivative (M4) by CYP2C18, CYP4A11 and CYP4F3B, then M4 was oxidized to M1. 3. Tofogliflozin had no induction potential on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. Neither tofogliflozin nor M1 had inhibition potential on CYPs, with the exception of a weak CYP2C19 inhibition by M1. 4. Not only are multiple metabolic enzymes involved in the tofogliflozin metabolism, but the drug is also excreted into urine after oral administration, indicating that tofogliflozin is eliminated through multiple pathways. Thus, the exposure of tofogliflozin would not be significantly altered by DDI caused by any co-administered drugs. Also, tofogliflozin seems not to cause significant DDI of co-administered drugs because tofogliflozin has no CYP induction or inhibition potency, and the main metabolite M1 has no clinically relevant CYP inhibition potency.

  13. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  14. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans.

  15. Utility of intersystem extrapolation factors in early reaction phenotyping and the quantitative extrapolation of human liver microsomal intrinsic clearance using recombinant cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Liling; Nguyen, Khanh; Fretland, Adrian J

    2011-03-01

    Reaction phenotyping using recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450) has great utility in early discovery. However, to fully realize the advantages of using recombinant expressed P450s, the extrapolation of data from recombinant systems to human liver microsomes (HLM) is required. In this study, intersystem extrapolation factors (ISEFs) were established for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 using 11 probe substrates, based on substrate depletion and/or metabolite formation kinetics. The ISEF values for CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 determined using multiple substrates were similar across substrates. When enzyme kinetics of metabolite formation for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were used, the ISEFs determined were generally within 2-fold of that determined on the basis of substrate depletion. Validation of ISEFs was conducted using 10 marketed drugs by comparing the extrapolated data with published data. The major isoforms responsible for the metabolism were identified, and the contribution of the predominant P450s was similar to that of previously reported data. In addition, phenotyping data from internal compounds, extrapolated using the rhP450-ISEF method, were comparable to those obtained using an HLM-based inhibition assay approach. Moreover, the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) calculated from extrapolated rhP450 data correlated well with measured HLM CL(int). The ISEF method established in our laboratory provides a convenient tool in early reaction phenotyping for situations in which the HLM-based inhibition approach is limited by low turnover and/or unavailable metabolite formation. Furthermore, this method allows for quantitative extrapolation of HLM intrinsic clearance from rhP450 phenotyping data simultaneously to obtaining the participating metabolizing enzymes.

  16. Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 3',4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP), a designer drug, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Springer, D; Staack, R F; Paul, L D; Kraemer, T; Maurer, H H

    2005-03-01

    The metabolism of 3',4'-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP), a novel designer drug, to its demethylenated major metabolite 3',4'-dihydroxy-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (di-HO-PPP) was studied in pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) and in cDNA-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. CYP2C19 catalysed the demethylenation with apparent Km and Vmax values of 120.0+/-13.4 microM and 3.2+/-0.1 pmol/min/pmol CYP, respectively (mean+/-standard deviation). CYP2D6 catalysed the demethylenation with apparent Km and Vmax values of 13.5+/-1.5 microM and 1.3+/-0.1 pmol/min/pmol CYP, respectively. HLM exhibited a clear biphasic profile with an apparent Km,1 value of 7.6+/-9.0 and a Vmax,1 value of 11.1+/-3.6 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Percentages of intrinsic clearances of MDPPP by specific CYPs were calculated using the relative activity factor (RAF) approach with (S)-mephenytoin-4'-hydroxylation or bufuralol-1'-hydroxylation as index reactions for CYP2C19 or CYP2D6, respectively. MDPPP, di-HO-PPP and the standard 4'-methyl-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (MPHP) were separated and analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The CYP2D6-specific chemical inhibitor quinidine (3 microM) significantly (p<0.001) inhibited di-HO-PPP formation by 75.8%+/-1.7% (mean+/-standard error of the mean) in incubation mixtures with HLM and 2 microM MDPPP. It can be concluded from the data obtained from kinetic and inhibition studies that polymorphically expressed CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 are almost equally responsible for MDPPP demethylenation.

  17. In vitro metabolism of canagliflozin in human liver, kidney, intestine microsomes, and recombinant uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the effect of genetic variability of UGT enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in humans.

    PubMed

    Francke, Stephan; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Solanki, Bhavna; Scheers, Ellen; Jadwin, Andrew; Favis, Reyna; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-09-01

    O-glucuronidation is the major metabolic elimination pathway for canagliflozin. The objective was to identify enzymes and tissues involved in the formation of 2 major glucuronidated metabolites (M7 and M5) of canagliflozin and subsequently to assess the impact of genetic variations in these uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) on in vivo pharmacokinetics in humans. In vitro incubations with recombinant UGTs revealed involvement of UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 in the formation of M7 and M5, respectively. Although M7 and M5 were formed in liver microsomes, only M7 was formed in kidney microsomes. Participants from 7 phase 1 studies were pooled for pharmacogenomic analyses. A total of 134 participants (mean age, 41 years; men, 63%; white, 84%) were included in the analysis. In UGT1A9*3 carriers, exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 11%; AUCτ,ss , 45%) increased relative to the wild type. An increase in exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 21%; AUCt,ss , 18%) was observed in participants with UGT2B4*2 genotype compared with UGT2B4*2 noncarriers. Metabolites further delineate the role of both enzymes. The pharmacokinetic findings in participants carrying the UGT1A9*3 and UGT2B4*2 allele implicate that UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 are involved in the metabolism of canagliflozin to M7 and M5, respectively.

  18. Second-hand smoke and human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been growing concern about potential health consequences of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). Despite SHS being established as a risk factor for lung cancer development, the estimated risk has remained small yet somehow debatable. Human exposure to SHS is complicated because of temporal variabilities in source, composition, and concentration of SHS. The temporality of exposure to SHS is important for human lung carcinogenesis with a latency of many years. To explore the causal effect of SHS in lung carcinogenesis, exposure assessments should estimate chronic exposure to SHS on an individual basis. However, conventional exposure assessment for SHS relies on one-off or short-term measurements of SHS indices. A more reliable approach would be to use biological markers that are specific for SHS exposure and pertinent to lung cancer. This approach requires an understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which SHS could contribute to lung carcinogenesis. This Review is a synopsis of research on SHS and lung cancer, with special focus on hypothetical modes of action of SHS for carcinogenesis, including genotoxic and epigenetic effects. PMID:18598930

  19. TMEM45B, up-regulated in human lung cancer, enhances tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Fengqing; Xie, Xiao; Wang, Lei; Li, Guoqing; Qiao, Tong; Wang, Mingsong; Xiao, Haibo

    2016-09-01

    Transmembrane protein 45B (TMEM45B) is a member of TMEMs. Altered expression of TMEMs is frequently observed in a variety of human cancers, but the expression and functional roles of TMEM45B in lung cancer is not reported. In the present study, levels of mRNA expression of TMEM45B in lung cancer tissues were assessed using re-analyzing expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung cancer cohort and real-time PCR analysis on our own cohort. Lung cancer cells, A549 and NCI-H1975, infected with TMEM45B short hairpin RNA were examined in cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis, wound-healing, and cell invasion assays as well as mouse xenograft models. Here, we demonstrated that TMEM45B was overexpressed in lung cancer and its expression correlated with overall survival of patients. In addition, silencing of TMEM45B expression reduced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis, and blocked cell migration and invasion. Moreover, knockdown of TMEM45B significantly suppressed G1/S transition, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins (CDK2, CDC25A, and PCNA), cell apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl2, Bax, and Cleaved Caspase 3), and metastasis-related proteins (MMP-9, Twist, and Snail), respectively. Thus, TMEM45B is a potential prognostic marker and cancer-selective therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  20. Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk or infant formula into rabbits' lungs.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, B; Lerman, J; Endo, J; Cutz, E

    1996-06-01

    Recent interest in shortening the fasting interval after ingestion of milk products demonstrated large volumes of breast milk in the stomach 2 h after breastfeeding. Although aspiration is a rare event, if it were to occur with human breast milk, it is important to understand the extent of the lung injury that might occur. Therefore, the response to instillation of acidified breast milk and infant formula in the lungs of adult rabbits was studied. In 18 anesthetized adult rabbits, 1 of 3 fluids (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8, acidified with hydrochloric acid); saline, breast milk, or infant formula (SMA, Wyeth, Windsor, Ontario), was instilled into the lungs via a tracheotomy. The lungs were ventilated for 4 h after instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient and dynamic compliance were measured before and at hourly intervals after instillation. After 4 h, the rabbits were killed and the lungs were excised. Neutrophil infiltration was quantitated by a pathologist blinded to the instilled fluid. A histologic control group of four rabbits was ventilated under study conditions without any intratracheal fluid instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly during the 4 h after instillation of both breast milk and infant formula compared with baseline measurements and with saline controls (P < 0.05). The neutrophil counts in the lungs from the saline, breast milk, and formula rabbits were significantly greater than those in the control group. Instillation of acidified breast milk or infant formula (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8) into rabbits' lungs induces acute lung injury of similar intensity that lasts at least 4 h.

  1. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI of the Human Lung

    PubMed Central

    Mugler, John P.; Altes, Talissa A.

    2012-01-01

    By permitting direct visualization of the airspaces of the lung, MR imaging using hyperpolarized gases provides unique strategies for evaluating pulmonary structure and function. Although the vast majority of research in humans has been performed using hyperpolarized 3He, recent contraction in the supply of 3He and consequent increases in price have turned attention to the alternative agent, hyperpolarized 129Xe. Compared to 3He, 129Xe yields reduced signal due to its smaller magnetic moment. Nonetheless, taking advantage of advances in gas-polarization technology, recent studies in humans using techniques for measuring ventilation, diffusion, and partial pressure of oxygen have demonstrated results for hyperpolarized 129Xe comparable to those previously demonstrated using hyperpolarized 3He. In addition, xenon has the advantage of readily dissolving in lung tissue and blood following inhalation, which makes hyperpolarized 129Xe particularly attractive for exploring certain characteristics of lung function, such as gas exchange and uptake, which cannot be accessed using 3He. Preliminary results from methods for imaging 129Xe dissolved in the human lung suggest that these approaches will provide new opportunities for quantifying relationships among gas delivery, exchange, and transport, and thus show substantial potential to broaden our understanding of lung disease. Finally, recent changes in the commercial landscape of the hyperpolarized-gas field now make it possible for this innovative technology to move beyond the research lab. PMID:23355432

  2. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; ...

    2017-01-21

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase Imore » metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in this paper in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 μM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 μM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Finally, kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.« less

  3. Impact of Statins on Gene Expression in Human Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jérôme; van Eeden, Stephan F.; Obeidat, Ma’en; Sin, Don D.; Tebbutt, Scott J.; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S.; Laviolette, Michel; Paré, Peter D.; Bossé, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that alter the synthesis of cholesterol. Some studies have shown a significant association of statins with improved respiratory health outcomes of patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Here we hypothesize that statins impact gene expression in human lungs and may reveal the pleiotropic effects of statins that are taking place directly in lung tissues. Human lung tissues were obtained from patients who underwent lung resection or transplantation. Gene expression was measured on a custom Affymetrix array in a discovery cohort (n = 408) and two replication sets (n = 341 and 282). Gene expression was evaluated by linear regression between statin users and non-users, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and other covariables. The results of each cohort were combined in a meta-analysis and biological pathways were studied using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The discovery set included 141 statin users. The lung mRNA expression levels of eighteen and three genes were up-regulated and down-regulated in statin users (FDR < 0.05), respectively. Twelve of the up-regulated genes were replicated in the first replication set, but none in the second (p-value < 0.05). Combining the discovery and replication sets into a meta-analysis improved the significance of the 12 up-regulated genes, which includes genes encoding enzymes and membrane proteins involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Canonical biological pathways altered by statins in the lung include cholesterol, steroid, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. No genes encoding inflammatory, proteases, pro-fibrotic or growth factors were altered by statins, suggesting that the direct effect of statin in the lung do not go beyond its antilipidemic action. Although more studies are needed with specific lung cell types and different classes and doses of statins, the improved health outcomes and survival observed in statin

  4. Electrophilicity of pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, pyrimidine-2-carbonitrile, and pyridine-carbonitrile derivatives: a chemical model to describe the formation of thiazoline derivatives in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarmistha; Ahire, Deepak; Wagh, Santosh; Mullick, Dibakar; Sistla, Ramesh; Selvakumar, Kumaravel; Cortes, Janet Caceres; Putlur, Siva Prasad; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Johnson, Benjamin M

    2014-12-15

    Certain aromatic nitriles are well-known inhibitors of cysteine proteases. The mode of action of these compounds involves the formation of a reversible or irreversible covalent bond between the nitrile and a thiol group in the active site of the enzyme. However, the reactivity of these aromatic nitrile-substituted heterocycles may lead inadvertently to nonspecific interactions with DNA, protein, glutathione, and other endogenous components, resulting in toxicity and complicating the use of these compounds as therapeutic agents. In the present study, the intrinsic reactivity and associated structure-property relationships of cathepsin K inhibitors featuring substituted pyridazines [6-phenylpyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-p-tolylpyridazine-3-carbonitrile], pyrimidines [5-p-tolylpyrimidine-2-carbonitrile, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)pyrimidine-2-carbonitrile], and pyridines [5-p-tolylpicolinonitrile and 5-(4-fluorophenyl)picolinonitrile] were evaluated using a combination of computational and analytical approaches to establish correlations between electrophilicity and levels of metabolites that were formed in glutathione- and N-acetylcysteine-supplemented human liver microsomes. Metabolites that were characterized in this study featured substituted thiazolines that were formed following rearrangements of transient glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. Peptidases including γ-glutamyltranspeptidase were shown to catalyze the formation of these products, which were formed to lesser extents in the presence of the selective γ-glutamyltranspeptidase inhibitor acivicin and the nonspecific peptidase inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and aprotinin. Of the chemical series mentioned above, the pyrimidine series was the most susceptible to metabolism to thiazoline-containing products, followed, in order, by the pyridazine and pyridine series. This trend was in keeping with the

  5. Quantitative analysis of cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes by the combination of proteomics and chemical probe-based assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xidong; Hu, Lianghai; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Bo; Ning, Jing; Sun, Shixin; Yang, Ling; Pors, Klaus; Gu, Jingkai

    2014-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme families, which participates in the biotransformation of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Quantitative analysis of CYP expression levels is important when studying the efficacy of new drug molecules and assessing drug-drug interactions in drug development. At present, chemical probe-based assay is the most widely used approach for the evaluation of CYP activity although there are cross-reactions between the isoforms with high sequence homologies. Therefore, quantification of each isozyme is highly desired in regard to meeting the ever-increasing requirements for carrying out pharmacokinetics and personalized medicine in the academic, pharmaceutical, and clinical setting. Herein, an absolute quantification method was employed for the analysis of the seven isoforms CYP1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C19, and 2E1 using a proteome-derived approach in combination with stable isotope dilution assay. The average absolute amount measured from twelve human liver microsomes samples were 39.3, 4.3, 54.0, 4.6, 10.3, 3.0, and 9.3 (pmol/mg protein) for 1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C19, and 2E1, respectively. Importantly, the expression level of CYP3A4 showed high correlation (r = 0.943, p < 0.0001) with the functional activity, which was measured using bufalin-a highly selective chemical probe we have developed. The combination of MRM identification and analysis of the functional activity, as in the case of CYP3A4, provides a protocol which can be extended to other functional enzyme studies with wide application in pharmaceutical research.

  6. Studies to further investigate the inhibition of human liver microsomal CYP2C8 by the acyl-β-glucuronide of gemfibrozil.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S M; Zvyaga, T; Johnson, S R; Hurley, J; Wagner, A; Burrell, R; Turley, W; Leet, J E; Philip, T; Rodrigues, A D

    2011-12-01

    In previous studies, gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide, but not gemfibrozil, was found to be a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C8. To better understand whether this inhibition is specific for gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide or whether other glucuronide conjugates are potential substrates for inhibition of this enzyme, we evaluated several pharmaceutical compounds (as their acyl glucuronides) as direct-acting and metabolism-dependent inhibitors of CYP2C8 in human liver microsomes. Of 11 compounds that were evaluated as their acyl glucuronide conjugates, only gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide exhibited mechanism-based inhibition, indicating that CYP2C8 mechanism-based inhibition is very specific to certain glucuronide conjugates. Structural analogs of gemfibrozil were synthesized, and their glucuronide conjugates were prepared to further examine the mechanism of inhibition. When the aromatic methyl groups on the gemfibrozil moiety were substituted with trifluoromethyls, the resulting glucuronide conjugate was a weaker inhibitor of CYP2C8 and mechanism-based inhibition was abolished. However, the glucuronide conjugates of monomethyl gemfibrozil analogs were mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP2C8, although not as potent as gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide itself. The ortho-monomethyl analog was a more potent inhibitor than the meta-monomethyl analog, indicating that CYP2C8 favors the ortho position for oxidation and potential inhibition. Molecular modeling of gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide in the CYP2C8 active site is consistent with the ortho-methyl position being the favored site of covalent attachment to the heme. Moreover, hydrogen bonding to four residues (Ser100, Ser103, Gln214, and Asn217) is implicated.

  7. Metabolic profiling of five flavonoids from Dragon's Blood in human liver microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Rui; Wei, Lizhong; Deng, Yulin; Ren, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Although much is known about the pharmacological activities of Dragon's Blood (DB, a traditional Chinese herb), its metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes has not been studied. This study aims to identify the metabolic profile of five flavonoids (loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone) from DB in HLMs as well as the CYP enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of them. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the structures of their metabolites and 10 cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were used to verify which isozymes mediate in the metabolism of the metabolites. Totally, 29 metabolites including 10 metabolites of loureirin A, 10 metabolites of loureirin B, 4 metabolites of loureirin C, 2 metabolites of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 3 metabolites of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone were elucidated and identified on the basis of the high-resolution MS(n) data. The metabolic profile of the five flavonoids in HLMs involved hydroxylation, oxidation and demethylation. Among them, hydroxylation was the predominant biotransformation of the five flavonoids in HLMs, occurring in combination with other metabolic reactions. Assay with recombinant P450s revealed that CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 played an important role in the hydroxylation of flavonoids in HLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vitro evaluation of the metabolic profile of loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone in HLMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucuronidation of paracetamol by human liver microsomes in vitro / enzyme kinetic parameters and interactions with short-chain aliphatic alcohols and opiates.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Petra; Rothschild, Markus A; Kaeferstein, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    In this study, glucuronidation of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) by human liver microsomes and the effects of aliphatic alcohols and opiates were investigated. Paracetamol glucuronidation was optimised for various incubation conditions. Ten different aliphatic alcohols and the opiates morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine were analysed as inhibitors of paracetamol glucuronidation. Furthermore, the effects of paracetamol on morphine-3 and codeine glucuronidation were investigated. Enzyme kinetic analysis was carried out via determination of the parameters Km, Vmax, Ki and the type of inhibition. Except for methanol and ethanol, all Investigated alcohols inhibited glucuronidation of paracetamol. Ki values ranged between 4.59 mmol/l (n-pentanol) and 340.54 mmol/l (2-propanol). Extent of inhibition strongly depended on the structure and clearly increased with the length of the alkyl chain. All tested opiates inhibited paracetamol glucuronidation with Ki values between 4.02 mmol/l (dihydrocodeine) and 11.44 mmol/l (morphine). Paracetamol itself turned out to be an inhibitor of opiate glucuronidation. The apparent Ki values were 4.62 mmol/l (inhibition of morphine-3 glucuronidation) and 9.44 mmol/l (inhibition of codeine glucuronidation). A mixed inhibition type was determined for all substances. The in vitro studies show a great inhibition potential for the analysed substances. Transferring the results to the in vivo situation, a higher liver toxicity of paracetamol can be assumed, if concomitantly a lot of alcoholic beverages with congener alcohols--e.g. fruit schnapps or whisky--are drunk or if opiates--as analgesics or narcotics--are taken in higher doses.

  9. Application of the fluorescent probe 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate to the measurement of the nonspecific binding of drugs to human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    McLure, James A; Birkett, Donald J; Elliot, David J; Williams, J Andrew; Rowland, Andrew; Miners, John O

    2011-09-01

    The fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) is altered by drugs that bind nonspecifically to the lipid bilayer. The present study characterized the relationship between the nonspecific binding (NSB) of drugs to HLMs as measured by equilibrium dialysis and the magnitude of the change in baseline ANS fluorescence. Fraction unbound in incubations of HLMs (f(u(mic))) was determined for 16 drugs (12 bases, 3 acids, and 1 neutral) with log P values in the range 0.1 to 6.7 at three concentrations (100, 200, and 500 μM). Changes in ANS fluorescence induced by each of the drugs in the presence of HLMs were measured by spectrofluorometry. Values of f(u(mic)) determined by equilibrium dialysis ranged from 0.08 to 1.0. Although NSB of the basic drugs tended to increase with increasing log P, exceptions occurred. Basic drugs generally caused an increase in ANS fluorescence, whereas the acidic and neutral drugs resulted in a decrease in ANS fluorescence. There were highly significant (p < 0.001) linear relationships between the modulus (absolute value) of the increment/decrement in ANS fluorescence and both f(u(mic)) (r = 0.90 to 0.96) and log(1 - f(u(mic))/f(u(mic))) (r = 0.85 to 0.92) at the three drug concentrations. Agreement between measured f(u(mic)) and that predicted by ANS fluorescence was very good (<10% variance) for a validation set of six compounds. The ANS fluorescence method provides an accurate measure of the NSB of drugs to HLMs. Physicochemical determinants other than log P and charge type influence the NSB of drugs to HLMs.

  10. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Chai, Swee Fen; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In the present study, the objectives were to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify 3-KCA and apply it to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent LCA 3-oxidation assay. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC C18 column (50×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient system consisting of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water (solvent A) and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The retention time was 3.73min for 3-KCA and 2.73min for cortisol (internal standard). Positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify 3-KCA (m/z 375.4→135.2) and cortisol (m/z 363.5→121.0). The limit of detection of 3-KCA was 10μM, the lower limit of quantification was 33.3μM, and the calibration curve was linear from 0.05-10μM with r(2)>0.99. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <13.7%. The quality control samples were stable when assessed after 4h at room temperature, 24h at 4°C, 14days at -20°C, and three freeze-thaw cycles. The liver microsomal matrix did not affect 3-KCA quantification. The amount of KCA formed in the human liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation assay was linear with respect to the amount of microsomal protein (up to 40μg) and incubation time (5-30min). Enzyme kinetics experiment indicated that LCA 3-oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten model with an apparent Km of 26±7μM and Vmax of 303±50pmol/min/mg protein. This novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying 3-KCA offers a specific, sensitive, and fast approach to determine liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance Images
    T. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  12. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance Images
    T. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  13. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS. Jung-il Choi*, Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; C. S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711

    Partic...

  14. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS. Jung-il Choi*, Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; C. S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711

    Partic...

  15. Asbestos fibers in human lung: forensic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, T.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1981-03-01

    Asbestos is a fibrous mineral which, because of its unique properties, has innumerable applications in many industries and is used in a large variety of consumer products. It has become ubiquitous and is woven, literally and figuratively, into the fabric of our present-day civilization. However, its presence is sometimes unknown and unsuspected by those who are exposed to asbestos by virtue of occupation or environment and inhale its fibers. Exposed workers and even urban dwellers may have a variable lung burden of asbestos fibers. There is indisputable clinical, pathological, experimental and epidemiological proof that, after varying periods of latency, asbestos may cause benign and malignant disease often leading to disability or death. Forensic investigation of suspected asbestos-related deaths includes a life-time occupational history, a complete autopsy, and identification of the asbestos fiber tissue burden. The latter usually requires special procedures.

  16. Inhibition of Baicalin on Metabolism of Phenacetin, a Probe of CYP1A2, in Human Liver Microsomes and in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Na; Qi, Bing; Liu, Fang-jun; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Jia, Lin-jing; Qiao, Hai-ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin has been used as mainly bioactive constituent of about 100 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 should be paid more attention because baicalin was used widely. The aim of this study was to investigate whether baicalin could inhibit CYP1A2 in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in rats in vivo and the gene polymorphisms could affect inter-individual variation in IC50 in 28 human livers. Phenacetin was used as probe of CYP1A2. Kinetic parameter of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 to each sample were measured and the common CYP1A2 polymorphisms (−3860G>A and −163C>A) were genotyped. The results showed that baicalin exhibited a mixed-type inhibition in pooled HLMs, with a Ki value of 25.4 µM. There was substantial variation in Km, Vmax, CLint of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 (3∼10-fold). The range was from 26.6 to 114.8 µM for Km, from 333 to 1330 pmol·min−1·mg−1protein for Vmax and from 3.8 to 45.3 µL·min−1·mg−1 protein for CLint in HLMs (n = 28). The Mean (range) value of IC50 in 28 HLMs was 36.3 (18.9 to 56.1) µM. The genotypes of −3860G>A and −163C>A had no significant effect on the inhibition of baicalin on CYP1A2. The animal experiment results showed that baicalin (450 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the Cmax and CL of phenacetin, and increased C60 min, t1/2, Vd and AUC (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between percentage of control in C60 min, t1/2, CL, AUC of phenacetin and Cmax of baicalin in 11 rats (P<0.05). Protein binding experiments in vitro showed that baicalin (0–2000 mg/L) increased the unbound phenacetin from 14.5% to 28.3%. In conclusion, baicalin can inhibit the activity of CYP1A2 in HLMs and exhibit large inter-individual variation that has no relationship with gene polymorphism. Baicalin can change the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin in rats. PMID:24587011

  17. The effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and its main flavonolignans on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Frye, Reginald F; Markowitz, John S

    2017-06-01

    Milk thistle is a widely-consumed botanical used for an array of purported health benefits. The primary extract of milk thistle is termed silymarin, a complex mixture that contains a number of structurally-related flavonolignans, the flavonoid, taxifolin, and a number of other constituents. The major flavonolignans present in most extracts are silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin and isosilychristin. Silymarin itself has been reported to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in vitro, but the effect of the individual flavonolignans on this enzyme has not been studied. To investigate the effects of milk thistle extract and its main flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B) on CYP2C8 activity at relevant concentrations, the effect of milk thistle extract and the flavonolignans on CYP2C8 enzyme activity was studied in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLM) incorporating an enzyme-selective substrate for CYP2C8, amodiaquine. Metabolite formation was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The concentration causing 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50) was used to express the degree of inhibition. Isosilibinin, a mixture of the diastereoisomers isosilybin A and isosilybin B, was found to be the most potent inhibitor, followed by isosilybin B with IC50 values (mean ± SE) of 1.64 ± 0.66 μg/mL and 2.67 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The rank order of observed inhibitory potency after isosilibinin was silibinin > isosilybin A > silybin A > milk thistle extract > and silybin B. These in vitro results suggest a potentially significant inhibitory effect of isosilibinin and isosilybin B on CYP2C8 activity. However, the observed IC50 values are unlikely to be achieved in humans supplemented with orally administered milk thistle extracts due to the poor bioavailability of flavonolignans documented with most commercially available formulations. Copyright © 2017

  18. Glucuronidation of fenamates: kinetic studies using human kidney cortical microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and 2B7.

    PubMed

    Gaganis, Paraskevi; Miners, John O; Knights, Kathleen M

    2007-05-15

    Mefenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is used commonly to treat menorrhagia. This study investigated the glucuronidation kinetics of flufenamic, mefenamic and niflumic acid using human kidney cortical microsomes (HKCM) and recombinant UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Using HKCM Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics were observed for mefenamic (K(m)(app) 23 microM) and niflumic acid (K(m)(app) 123 microM) glucuronidation, while flufenamic acid exhibited non-hyperbolic (atypical) glucuronidation kinetics. Notably, the intrinsic renal clearance of mefenamic acid (CL(int) 17+/-5.5 microL/minmg protein) was fifteen fold higher than that of niflumic acid (CL(int) 1.1+/-0.8 microL/minmg protein). These data suggest that renal glucuronidation of mefenamic acid may result in high intrarenal exposure to mefenamic acyl-glucuronide and subsequent binding to renal proteins. Diverse kinetics were observed for fenamate glucuronidation by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Using UGT2B7 MM kinetics were observed for flufenamic (K(m)(app) 48 microM) and niflumic acid (K(m)(app) 135 microM) glucuronidation and atypical kinetics with mefenamic acid. Similarity in K(m)(app) between HKCM and UGT2B7 suggests that UGT2B7 may be the predominant renal UGT isoform catalysing niflumic acid glucuronidation. In contrast, UGT1A9 glucuronidation kinetics were characterised by negative cooperativity with mefenamic (S(50) 449 microM, h 0.4) and niflumic acid (S(50) 7344 microM, h 0.4) while atypical kinetics were observed with flufenamic acid. Additionally, potent inhibition of the renal glucuronidation of the UGT substrate 'probe' 4-methylumbelliferone by flufenamic, mefenamic and niflumic acid was observed. These data suggest that inhibitory metabolic interactions may occur between fenamates and other substrates metabolised by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9 in human kidney.

  19. Modeling of the Nitric Oxide Transport in the Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Karamaoun, Cyril; Van Muylem, Alain; Haut, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    In the human lungs, nitric oxide (NO) acts as a bronchodilatator, by relaxing the bronchial smooth muscles and is closely linked to the inflammatory status of the lungs, owing to its antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the molar fraction of NO in the exhaled air has been shown to be higher for asthmatic patients than for healthy patients. Multiple models have been developed in order to characterize the NO dynamics in the lungs, owing to their complex structure. Indeed, direct measurements in the lungs are difficult and, therefore, these models are valuable tools to interpret experimental data. In this work, a new model of the NO transport in the human lungs is proposed. It belongs to the family of the morphological models and is based on the morphometric model of Weibel (1963). When compared to models published previously, its main new features are the layered representation of the wall of the airways and the possibility to simulate the influence of bronchoconstriction (BC) and of the presence of mucus on the NO transport in lungs. The model is based on a geometrical description of the lungs, at rest and during a respiratory cycle, coupled with transport equations, written in the layers composing an airway wall and in the lumen of the airways. First, it is checked that the model is able to reproduce experimental information available in the literature. Second, the model is used to discuss some features of the NO transport in healthy and unhealthy lungs. The simulation results are analyzed, especially when BC has occurred in the lungs. For instance, it is shown that BC can have a significant influence on the NO transport in the tissues composing an airway wall. It is also shown that the relation between BC and the molar fraction of NO in the exhaled air is complex. Indeed, BC might lead to an increase or to a decrease of this molar fraction, depending on the extent of the BC and on the possible presence of mucus. This should be confirmed experimentally and might

  20. 2-Diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate-HCl (SKF525A) revisited: comparative cytochrome P450 inhibition in human liver microsomes by SKF525A, its metabolites, and SKF-acid and SKF-alcohol.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michael R; Hathaway, Laura B

    2008-12-01

    When incubated with human liver microsomes, 2-diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate-HCl (SKF525A) undergoes cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent oxidative N-deethylation to the secondary amine metabolite 2-ethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate (SKF8742). P450-selective inhibitors indicated CYP3As catalyzed this reaction, and the deethylation rate correlated best with the CYP3A activity across a range of human liver microsomes. SKF525A and its metabolite and primary amine analog all inhibited CYP2B6-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A-selective reactions to varying degrees but had little effect on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 reactions. Only the inhibition of CYP3A showed major enhancement when the inhibitors were preincubated with NADPH-fortified microsomes, and the extent of metabolic intermediate (MI) complex formation approximated typical CYP3A content. Two "lost with time" SKF525A derivatives devoid of the ethylamine moiety, 2,2-diphenylpropylethanol (SKF-Alcohol) and 2,2-diphenylpropylacetic acid (SKF-Acid) did not form an MI complex and were identified as selective inhibitors of CYP2C9. Although without detectable metabolism, their CYP2C9 inhibition fitted best with a competitive mechanism. Thus, not all the human P450s are inhibited by SKF525A and related compounds, and the mechanisms contributing to those that are inhibited vary with the isoform. P450 MI-complex formation only seems to play a role with CYP3As.

  1. Effects of green tea catechins on cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activities in human liver and intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Misaka, Shingen; Kawabe, Keisuke; Onoue, Satomi; Werba, José Pablo; Giroli, Monica; Tamaki, Sekihiro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Junko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of green tea catechins on the main drug-metabolizing enzymatic system, cytochrome P450 (CYP), have not been fully elucidated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE, total catechins 86.5%, w/w) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A in vitro, using pooled human liver and intestinal microsomes. Bupropion hydroxylation, amodiaquine N-deethylation, (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, dextromethorphan O-demethylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation were assessed in the presence or absence of various concentrations of GTE and EGCG to test their effects on CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities, respectively. Each metabolite was quantified using UPLC/ESI-MS, and the inhibition kinetics of GTE and EGCG on CYP enzymes was analyzed. In human liver microsomes, IC50 values of GTE were 5.9, 4.5, 48.7, 25.1 and 13.8 µg/mL, for CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A, respectively. ECGC also inhibited these CYP isoforms with properties similar to those of GTE, and produced competitive inhibitions against CYP2B6 and CYP2C8, and noncompetitive inhibition against CYP3A. In human intestinal microsomes, IC50 values of GTE and EGCG for CYP3A were 18.4 µg/mL and 31.1 µM, respectively. EGCG moderately inhibited CYP3A activity in a noncompetitive manner. These results suggest that green tea catechins cause clinically relevant interactions with substrates for CYP2B6 and CYP2C8 in addition to CYP3A.

  2. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS-based determination of metabolism of several new illicit drugs, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, QUPIC, 5F-QUPIC and α-PVT, by human liver microsome.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Mayu; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-06-01

    The metabolism by human liver microsomes of several new illicit drugs, that is, N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3- carboxamide (ADB-FUBINACA), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1- (4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA), quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-(1H-indole)-3-carboxylate (QUPIC), quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-(1H-indole)-3-carboxylate (5 F-QUPIC) and α-pyrrolidinovalerothiophenone (α-PVT), which have indole, indazole, quinolinol ester and thiophene structures, was investigated using reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry. The present method is based upon the oxidation by cytochrome p450 superfamily enzymes in the microsomes. The oxidation of ADB-FUBINACA and AB-FUBINACA mainly occurred on the N-(1-amino-alkyl-1-oxobutan) moiety. However, the oxidation of AB-PINACA seemed to occur on the 1-pentyl moiety. On the other hand, QUPIC and 5 F-QUPIC, which have a quinolinol ester structure, predominantly underwent a cleavage reaction to produce indoleacetic acid type metabolites. In contrast, the metabolism reaction of α-PVT was different from that of the other tested drugs, and various oxidation products were observed on the chromatograms. The obtained metabolites are not in conflict with the results predicted by MetaboLynx software. However, the exact structures of the metabolites, except for 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (QUPIC metabolite) and 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (5 F-QUPIC metabolite), are currently not proven, because we have no authentic compounds for comparison. The proposed approach using human liver microsome seems to provide a new technology for the prediction of possible metabolites occuring in humans.

  3. Thyroid hormone metabolism and the developing human lung.

    PubMed

    Hume, R; Richard, K; Kaptein, E; Stanley, E L; Visser, T J; Coughtrie, M W

    2001-05-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of fetal lung development, and maturation is accelerated in animal models by antepartum exposure to raised concentrations of the receptor-active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine and glucocorticoids. It is essential that the nature of the regulation of the spatial and temporal metabolism of iodothyronines in the human fetus and infant is known before effective therapies can be developed to modify human lung maturation. Thyroid hormone bioavailability to the human fetus is regulated in part by enzymatic deiodination and reversible sulfation of iodothyronines, with contributions from other factors such as fetomaternal and fetoamniotic hormone transfers, fetal thyroid gland production, and the activities of plasma membrane transporters mediating uptake of iodothyronines from plasma into tissues. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Activated protooncogenes in human lung tumors from smokers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S H; Anna, C K; Brown, K C; Wiest, J S; Beattie, E J; Pero, R W; Iglehart, J D; Anderson, M W

    1991-02-15

    Fourteen primary human lung tumor DNAs from smokers were analyzed for transforming activity by two DNA transfection assays. Activated protooncogenes were detected in 3 of 11 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 focus assay, whereas activated protooncogenes were detected in 11 of 13 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 cotransfection-nude mouse tumorigenicity assay. K- or NRAS genes activated by point mutation at codons 12 or 61 were detected in a large cell carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 adenocarcinomas. An HRAS oncogene activated by a different mechanism was detected in an epidermoid carcinoma. One adenocarcinoma was found to contain an activated RAF gene. Two unidentified transforming genes were detected in a squamous cell carcinoma DNA and two adenocarcinoma DNAs. Eight of 10 lung adenocarcinomas that had formed metastases at the time of surgery were found to contain RAS oncogenes. No significant increase in metastasis was observed in the lung adenocarcinomas that contained one or more 6-kilobase EcoRI alleles of the LMYC gene. Overall, 12 of 14 (86%) of the lung tumor DNAs from smokers were found to contain activated protooncogenes. RAS oncogenes appear to play a role in the development of metastases in lung adenocarcinomas.

  5. Human lung morphology models for particle deposition studies.

    PubMed

    Martonen, T B; Schroeter, J D; Hwang, D; Fleming, J S; Conway, J H

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of human lung morphology is of paramount importance in calculating deposition patterns of inhaled particulate matter (PM) to be used in the definition of ambient air quality standards. Due to the inherently complex nature of the branching structure of the airway network, practical assumptions must be made for modeling purposes. The most commonly used mathematical models reported in the literature that describe PM deposition use Weibel's model A morphology. This assumes the airways of the lung to be a symmetric, dichotomously branching system. However, computer simulations of this model, when compared to scintigraphy images, have shown it to lack physiological realism (Martonen et al., 1994a). Therefore, a more physiologically realistic model of the lung is needed to improve the current PM dosimetry models. Herein, a morphological model is presented that is based on laboratory data from planar gamma camera and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Key elements of this model include: The parenchymal wall of the lung is defined in mathematical terms, the whole lung is divided into distinct left and right components, a set of branching angles is derived from experimental measurements, and the branching network is confined within the discrete left and right components (i.e., there is no overlapping of airways). In future work, this new, more physiologically realistic morphological model can be used to calculate PM deposition patterns for risk assessment protocols.

  6. Nucleotide excision repair is not induced in human embryonic lung fibroblasts treated with environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Mrhalkova, Andrea; Uhlirova, Katerina; Spatova, Milada; Rossnerova, Andrea; Libalova, Helena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J

    2013-01-01

    The cellular response to genotoxic treatment depends on the cell line used. Although tumor cell lines are widely used for genotoxicity tests, the interpretation of the results may be potentially hampered by changes in cellular processes caused by malignant transformation. In our study we used normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells) and tested their response to treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) collected in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollution. We analyzed multiple endpoints associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the levels of bulky DNA adducts and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) response [expression of XPE, XPC and XPA genes on the level of mRNA and proteins, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS)]. EOMs were collected in the winter and summer of 2011 in two Czech cities with different levels and sources of air pollution. The effects of the studied compounds were analyzed in the presence (+S9) and absence (-S9) of the rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were highest after treatment with B[a]P, followed by winter EOMs; their induction by summer EOMs was weak. The induction of both mRNA and protein expression was observed, with the most pronounced effects after treatment with B[a]P (-S9); the response induced by EOMs from both cities and seasons was substantially weaker. The expression of DNA repair genes was not accompanied by the induction of UDS activity. In summary, our results indicate that the tested compounds induced low levels of DNA damage and affected the expression of NER genes; however, nucleotide excision repair was not induced.

  7. Nucleotide Excision Repair Is Not Induced in Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts Treated with Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Rossner, Pavel; Spatova, Milada; Rossnerova, Andrea; Libalova, Helena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular response to genotoxic treatment depends on the cell line used. Although tumor cell lines are widely used for genotoxicity tests, the interpretation of the results may be potentially hampered by changes in cellular processes caused by malignant transformation. In our study we used normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells) and tested their response to treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) collected in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollution. We analyzed multiple endpoints associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the levels of bulky DNA adducts and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) response [expression of XPE, XPC and XPA genes on the level of mRNA and proteins, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS)]. EOMs were collected in the winter and summer of 2011 in two Czech cities with different levels and sources of air pollution. The effects of the studied compounds were analyzed in the presence (+S9) and absence (–S9) of the rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were highest after treatment with B[a]P, followed by winter EOMs; their induction by summer EOMs was weak. The induction of both mRNA and protein expression was observed, with the most pronounced effects after treatment with B[a]P (–S9); the response induced by EOMs from both cities and seasons was substantially weaker. The expression of DNA repair genes was not accompanied by the induction of UDS activity. In summary, our results indicate that the tested compounds induced low levels of DNA damage and affected the expression of NER genes; however, nucleotide excision repair was not induced. PMID:23894430

  8. Smoking increases carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Goldman, R; Enewold, L; Pellizzari, E; Beach, J B; Bowman, E D; Krishnan, S S; Shields, P G

    2001-09-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major source of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentration of PAHs in lung tissue would reflect an individual's dose, and its variation could perhaps reflect cancer risk. Eleven PAHs were measured in 70 lung tissue samples from cancer-free autopsy donors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. There were 37 smokers and 33 nonsmokers as estimated by serum cotinine concentration. The sum of PAH concentrations was higher in smokers (P = 0.01), and there was a dose-response relationship for greater smoking (P < 0.01). Smoking increased the concentration of five PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene, which increased approximately 2-fold. The risk for increasing carcinogenic PAHs (odds ratio, 8.20; 95% confidence interval, 2.39-28.09) was 3-fold compared with noncarcinogenic PAHs (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-9.12). A higher concentration of PAHs was detected in the lung tissue of males, although the estimated smoking was similar in males and females. Race was not associated with PAH concentrations overall, but PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in African-American males than in any other group. Age was weakly correlated with an increase in fluoranthene and pyrene. The measurement of PAHs in human lung tissue can be used to estimate the actual dose to the target organ.

  9. Discrimination and quantification of autofluorescence spectra of human lung cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Mahya; Khani, Mohammad Mehdi; Khazaei Koohpar, Zeinab; Molik, Paria

    2016-10-01

    To study laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy of the human lung cell line, we evaluated the native fluorescence properties of cancer QU-DB and normal MRC-5 human lung cells during continuous exposure to 405 nm laser light. Two emission bands centered at ~470 nm and ~560 nm were observed. These peaks are most likely attributable to mitochondrial fluorescent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and riboflavin fluorophores, respectively. This article highlights lung cell autofluorescence characterization and signal discrimination by collective investigation of different spectral features. The absolute intensity, the spectral shape factor or redox ratio, the full width of half-maximum and the full width of quarter maximum was evaluated. Moreover, the intensity ratio, the area under the peak and the area ratio as a contrast factor for normal and cancerous cells were also calculated. Among all these features it seems that the contrast factor precisely and significantly discriminates the spectral differences of normal and cancerous lung cells. On the other hand, the relative quantum yield for both cell types were found by comparing the quantum yield of an unknown compound with known fluorescein sodium as a reference solution.

  10. Aerosol Deposition in the Human Lung in Reduced Gravity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The deposition of aerosol in the human lung occurs mainly through a combination of inertial impaction, gravitational sedimentation, and diffusion. For 0.5- to 5-μm-diameter particles and resting breathing conditions, the primary mechanism of deposition in the intrathoracic airways is sedimentation, and therefore the fate of these particles is markedly affected by gravity. Studies of aerosol deposition in altered gravity have mostly been performed in humans during parabolic flights in both microgravity (μG) and hypergravity (∼1.6G), where both total deposition during continuous aerosol mouth breathing and regional deposition using aerosol bolus inhalations were performed with 0.5- to 3-μm particles. Although total deposition increased with increasing gravity level, only peripheral deposition as measured by aerosol bolus inhalations was strongly dependent on gravity, with central deposition (lung depth<200 mL) being similar between gravity levels. More recently, the spatial distribution of coarse particles (mass median aerodynamic diameter≈5 μm) deposited in the human lung was assessed using planar gamma scintigraphy. The absence of gravity caused a smaller portion of 5-μm particles to deposit in the lung periphery than in the central region, where deposition occurred mainly in the airways. Indeed, 5-μm-diameter particles deposit either by inertial impaction, a mechanism most efficient in the large and medium-sized airways, or by gravitational sedimentation, which is most efficient in the distal lung. On the contrary, for fine particles (∼1 μm), both aerosol bolus inhalations and studies in small animals suggest that particles deposit more peripherally in μG than in 1G, beyond the reach of the mucociliary clearance system. PMID:24870702

  11. Aerosol deposition in the human lung in reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Darquenne, Chantal

    2014-06-01

    The deposition of aerosol in the human lung occurs mainly through a combination of inertial impaction, gravitational sedimentation, and diffusion. For 0.5- to 5-μm-diameter particles and resting breathing conditions, the primary mechanism of deposition in the intrathoracic airways is sedimentation, and therefore the fate of these particles is markedly affected by gravity. Studies of aerosol deposition in altered gravity have mostly been performed in humans during parabolic flights in both microgravity (μG) and hypergravity (~1.6G), where both total deposition during continuous aerosol mouth breathing and regional deposition using aerosol bolus inhalations were performed with 0.5- to 3-μm particles. Although total deposition increased with increasing gravity level, only peripheral deposition as measured by aerosol bolus inhalations was strongly dependent on gravity, with central deposition (lung depth<200 mL) being similar between gravity levels. More recently, the spatial distribution of coarse particles (mass median aerodynamic diameter≈5 μm) deposited in the human lung was assessed using planar gamma scintigraphy. The absence of gravity caused a smaller portion of 5-μm particles to deposit in the lung periphery than in the central region, where deposition occurred mainly in the airways. Indeed, 5-μm-diameter particles deposit either by inertial impaction, a mechanism most efficient in the large and medium-sized airways, or by gravitational sedimentation, which is most efficient in the distal lung. On the contrary, for fine particles (~1 μm), both aerosol bolus inhalations and studies in small animals suggest that particles deposit more peripherally in μG than in 1G, beyond the reach of the mucociliary clearance system.

  12. Comparative Pathobiology of Environmentally Induced Lung Cancers in Humans and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in humans worldwide. Environmental factors play an important role in the epidemiology of these cancers. Rodents are the most common experimental model to study human lung cancers and are frequently used in bioassays to identify environmental exposure hazards associated with lung cancer. Lung tumors in rodents are common, particularly in certain strains of mice. Rodent lung tumors are predominantly bronchioloalveolar carcinomas and usually follow a progressive continuum of hyperplasia to adenoma to carcinoma. Human lung cancers are phenotypically more diverse and broadly constitute 2 types: small cell lung cancers or non-small cell lung cancers. Rodent lung tumors resulting from exposure to environmental agents are comparable to certain adenocarcinomas that are a subset of human non-small cell lung cancers. Human pulmonary carcinomas differ from rodent lung tumors by exhibiting greater morphologic heterogeneity (encompassing squamous cell, neuroendocrine, mucinous, sarcomatoid, and multiple cell combinations), higher metastatic rate, higher stromal response, aggressive clinical behavior, and lack of a clear continuum of proliferative lesions. In spite of these differences, rodent lung tumors recapitulate several fundamental aspects of human lung tumor biology at the morphologic and molecular level especially in lung cancers resulting from exposure to environmental carcinogens. PMID:25351923

  13. Stereo-selective metabolism of methadone by human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s: a reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Fang, Wenfang B; Lin, Shen-Nan; Moody, David E

    2011-01-01

    In vitro metabolism of methadone was investigated in cytochrome P450 (CYP) supersomes and phenotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) to reconcile past findings on CYP involvement in stereo-selective metabolism of methadone. Racaemic methadone was used for incubations; (R)- and (S)-methadone turnover and (R)- and (S)-EDDP formation were determined using chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CYP supersome activity for methadone use and EDDP formation ranked CYP2B6 > 3A4 > 2C19 > 2D6 > 2C18, 3A7 > 2C8, 2C9, 3A5. After abundance scaling, CYP3A4, 2B6 and 2C19 accounted for 63-74, 12-32 and 1. 4-14% of respective activity. CYP2B6, 2D6 and 2C18 demonstrated a preference for (S)-EDDP formation; CYP2C19, 3A7 and 2C8 for (R)-EDDP; 3A4 none. Correlation analysis with 15 HLMs supported the involvement of CYP2B6 and 3A. The significant correlation of S/R ratio with CYP2B6 activity confirmed its stereo-selectivity. CYP2C19 and 2D6 inhibitors and monoclonal antibody (mAb) did not inhibit EDDP formation in HLM. Chemical and mAb inhibition of CYP3A in high 3A activity HLM reduced EDDP formation by 60-85%; inhibition of CYP2B6 in 2B6 high-activity HLM reduced (S)-EDDP formation by 80% and (R)-EDDP formation by 55%. Inhibition changed methadone metabolism in a stereo-selective manner. When CYP3A was inhibited, 2B6 mediated (S)-EDDP formation predominated; S/R stereo-selectivity increased. When 2B6 was inhibited (S)-EDDP formation fell and stereo-selectivity decreased. The results confirmed the primary roles of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6 in methadone metabolism; CYP2C8 and 2C9 did not appear involved; 2C19 and 2D6 have minimal roles. CYP2B6 is the primary determinant of stereo-selective metabolism; stereo-selective inhibition might play a role in varied plasma concentrations of the two enantiomers.

  14. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction.

  15. A predominate role of CYP1A2 for the metabolism of nabumetone to the active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Miia; Hofmann, Ute; Klein, Kathrin; Mürdter, Thomas; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2009-05-01

    Nabumetone, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, requires biotransformation into 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), a close structural analog to naproxen, to achieve its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite its wide use, the enzymes involved in metabolism have not been identified. In the present study, several in vitro approaches were used to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for 6-MNA formation. In human liver microsomes (HLMs) 6-MNA formation displayed monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent K(m) and V(max) values (mean +/- S.D.) of 75.1 +/- 15.3 microM and 1304 +/- 226 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively, and formation rate of 6-MNA varied approximately 5.5-fold (179-983 pmol/min/mg protein). 6-MNA activity correlated strongly with both CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation activity and CYP1A2 protein content (r = 0.85 and 0.74, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both). Additional correlations were found with model activities of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Of 11 cDNA-expressed recombinant P450s used, recombinant CYP1A2 was the major form catalyzing the 6-MNA formation with an apparent K(m) of 45 microM and V(max) of 8.7 pmol/min/pmol P450. Minor fractions were catalyzed by recombinant P450s CYP1A1, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. Experiments with P450-selective chemical inhibitors and monoclonal anti-P450 antibodies showed that furafylline, a mechanism-based inhibitor CYP1A2, and anti-CYP1A2 antibody markedly inhibited 6-MNA formation, whereas inhibitors for other P450s did not show significant inhibitory effects. Taken together, these studies indicate that the formation of the active metabolite of nabumetone, 6-MNA, is predominantly catalyzed by CYP1A2 in HLMs with only minor contribution of other P450s.

  16. Metabolism of the new anxiolytic agent, a pyrido[1,2-]benzimidazole (PBI) analog (RWJ-53050), in rat and human hepatic S9 fractions, and in dog; identification of cytochrome p450 isoforms mediated in the human microsomal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wu-Nan; McKown, Linda A; Reitz, Allen B

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo metabolism of RWJ-53050, an anxiolytic agent, was investigated after incubation with rat and human hepatic S9 fractions, and human microsomes and 7 microsomes containing individual human CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in the presence of NADPH-generating system, and a single oral dose administration to dogs (30 mg/kg). Unchanged RWJ-53050 (> or = 74% of the sample in vitro; < or = 13% in vivo) plus 16 metabolites were profiled, quantified and tentatively identified based on the API-MS and MS/MS data. The formation of RWJ-53050 metabolites are via the 5 pathways: 1. N/O-demethylation, 2. phenylhydroxylation, 3. pyrido-oxidation, 4. dehydration, and 5. conjugation. Pathway 1 formed O-desmethyl-phenyl-RWJ-53050 (M1, < 1-12% in vitro & in vivo), O-desmethyl-benzimidazole-RWJ-53050 (M2), and N-desmethyl-RWJ-53050 (M3) (M2 & M3, < or = 3% in vitro & in vivo). Pathway 2 generated hydroxy-benzimidazole-RWJ-53050 (M4), hydroxy-phenyl-RWJ-53050 (M5), and hydroxy-phenyl-M4 (M9) (< or = 3% in vitro & in vivo). Pathway 3 formed 2 trace oxidized metabolites, hydroxy-pyrido-RWJ-53050 (M6, < or = 1% in vitro) and oxo-pyrido-RWJ-53050 (M8, < 1% in vitro) and in conjunction with pathway 1 produced 2 trace dioxidized metabolites, OH-benzimidazole-M6 (M10) and OH-benzimidazole-M8 (M11) (in vitro). Pathway 4 formed a minor dehydrated metabolite of M6 (M7, 3%, in vitro). Pathway 5 produced 3 in vivo conjugates, M1-glucuronide (M14, 17%), M5-glucuronide (M15, 50%), and M5-sulfate (M16, 10%). RWJ-53050 is substantially metabolized in vitro in the rat and human, and extensively metabolized in vivo in the dog. CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are responsible for the formation of oxidized metabolites, M1, M2, M4, M5 and M9.

  17. Human Lung Small Airway-on-a-Chip Protocol.

    PubMed

    Benam, Kambez H; Mazur, Marc; Choe, Youngjae; Ferrante, Thomas C; Novak, Richard; Ingber, Donald E

    2017-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are microfluidic cell culture devices created using microchip manufacturing techniques that contain hollow microchannels lined by living cells, which recreate specialized tissue-tissue interfaces, physical microenvironments, and vascular perfusion necessary to recapitulate organ-level physiology in vitro. Here we describe a protocol for fabrication, culture, and operation of a human lung "small airway-on-a-chip," which contains a differentiated, mucociliary bronchiolar epithelium exposed to air and an underlying microvascular endothelium that experiences fluid flow. First, microengineering is used to fabricate a multilayered microfluidic device that contains two parallel elastomeric microchannels separated by a thin rigid porous membrane; this requires less than 1 day to complete. Next, primary human airway bronchiolar epithelial cells isolated from healthy normal donors or patients with respiratory disease are cultured on the porous membrane within one microchannel while lung microvascular endothelial cells are cultured on the opposite side of the same membrane in the second channel to create a mucociliated epithelium-endothelium interface; this process take about 4-6 weeks to complete. Finally, culture medium containing neutrophils isolated from fresh whole human blood are flowed through the microvascular channel of the device to enable real-time analysis of capture and recruitment of circulating leukocytes by endothelium under physiological shear; this step requires less than 1 day to complete. The small airway-on-a-chip represents a new microfluidic tool to model complex and dynamic inflammatory responses of healthy and diseased lungs in vitro.

  18. C-reactive protein modulates human lung fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuhiko; Kohyama, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kato, Jun; Takami, Kazutaka; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Desaki, Masashi; Nagase, Takahide; Rennard, Stephen I; Takizawa, Hajime

    2009-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been classically used as a marker of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CRP on migration of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) to human plasma fibronectin (HFn). Using the blindwell chamber technique, CRP inhibited HFL-1 migration in a dose-dependent fashion (at 1 microg/mL, inhibition: 32.5% +/- 7.1%; P < .05). Western blot analysis showed that CRP inhibited the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the presence of HFn. Moreover, the MAPK inhibitors SB202190 (25 microM) and SB203580 (25 microM) inhibited HFn-induced cell migration, suggesting an important role of p38 MAPK in HFn-induced migration. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of CRP is mediated by blocking MAPK. In summary, this study demonstrates that CRP directly modulates human lung fibroblasts migration. Thus, CRP may contribute to regulation of wound healing and may be endogenous antifibrotic factor acting on lung fibrosis.

  19. Human lung small-cell carcinoma contains bombesin.

    PubMed Central

    Erisman, M D; Linnoila, R I; Hernandez, O; DiAugustine, R P; Lazarus, L H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of immunoreactive bombesin in a human lung small-cell carcinoma grown in nude mice was established by several criteria: (i) Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts for bombesin revealed approximately 6.5 pmol/g of tissue; (ii) bombesin was found in 12-14% of the tumor cells by immunohistochemical localization; (iii) gel filtration of small-cell carcinoma extract on Sephadex G-75 and Bio-Gel P-4 gave only a single peak of immunoreactivity, which occurred at the elution volume of bombesin; and (iv) reverse-phase HPLC of acid-solubilized extracts separated the immunoreactive material into three discrete peaks, one of which eluted with a retention time identical to that of synthetic bombesin. The presence of bombesin may represent the ectopic expression of this peptide in small-cell carcinoma, because immunoreactive bombesin was found in human fetal and neonatal lung but apparently not in adult lung tissue [Wharton, J., Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., Ghatei, M. A., Solcia, E., Brown, M. R. & Pearse, A. G. E. (1978) Nature (London) 273, 769-770]. The immunoreactive bombesin previously found in mammalian tissues is considerably larger than amphibian bombesin; these data substantiate the presence of a mammalian form of bombesin in a human tumor that may have a structure similar to that of the amphibian peptide. Images PMID:6285381

  20. Radiation-enhanced lung cancer progression in a transgenic mouse model of lung cancer is predictive of outcomes in human lung and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Oliver; Batten, Kimberly G; Richardson, James A; Xie, Xian-Jin; Gazdar, Adi F; Kaisani, Aadil A; Girard, Luc; Behrens, Carmen; Suraokar, Milind; Fasciani, Gail; Wright, Woodring E; Story, Michael D; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Minna, John D; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-03-15

    Carcinogenesis is an adaptive process between nascent tumor cells and their microenvironment, including the modification of inflammatory responses from antitumorigenic to protumorigenic. Radiation exposure can stimulate inflammatory responses that inhibit or promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of radiation exposure on lung cancer progression in vivo and assess the relevance of this knowledge to human carcinogenesis. K-ras(LA1) mice were irradiated with various doses and dose regimens and then monitored until death. Microarray analyses were performed using Illumina BeadChips on whole lung tissue 70 days after irradiation with a fractionated or acute dose of radiation and compared with age-matched unirradiated controls. Unique group classifiers were derived by comparative genomic analysis of three experimental cohorts. Survival analyses were performed using principal component analysis and k-means clustering on three lung adenocarcinoma, three breast adenocarcinoma, and two lung squamous carcinoma annotated microarray datasets. Radiation exposure accelerates lung cancer progression in the K-ras(LA1) lung cancer mouse model with dose fractionation being more permissive for cancer progression. A nonrandom inflammatory signature associated with this progression was elicited from whole lung tissue containing only benign lesions and predicts human lung and breast cancer patient survival across multiple datasets. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that tumor cells drive predictive signature. These results demonstrate that radiation exposure can cooperate with benign lesions in a transgenic model of cancer by affecting inflammatory pathways, and that clinically relevant similarities exist between human lung and breast carcinogenesis. ©2014 AACR.

  1. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  2. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  3. Expression of Formyl-peptide Receptors in Human Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Guerra, Germano; Parisi, Melania; Lucariello, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; De Rosa, Nicolina; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Bianco, Andrea; Ammendola, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) are expressed in several tissues and cell types. The identification of markers involved in cell growth may further allow for molecular profiling of lung cancer. We investigated the possible role of FPRs as molecular markers in several types of lung carcinomas which is the main cause of cancer death worldwide. Tumor tissue samples were collected from six patients affected by lung cancer. Biopsies were analyzed for expression of FPR isoforms both in tumoral and peritumoral tissue by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that FPR expression is lower in types of human lung cancer tissues when compared to the surrounding peritumoral tissues. The study of the mechanistic basis for the control of FPR expression in normal peritumoral versus tumoral tissues could provide the basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Proteogenomic Analysis of Human Chromosome 9-Encoded Genes from Human Samples and Lung Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jung-Mo; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Yong-In; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Lee, Sun Hee; Paik, Young-Ki; Pandey, Akhilesh; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) was recently initiated as an international collaborative effort. Our team adopted chromosome 9 (Chr 9) and performed a bioinformatics and proteogenomic analysis to catalog Chr 9-encoded proteins from normal tissues, lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues. Approximately 74.7% of the Chr 9 genes of the human genome were identified, which included approximately 28% of missing proteins (46 of 162) on Chr 9 compared with the list of missing proteins from the neXtProt master table (2013-09). In addition, we performed a comparative proteomics analysis between normal lung and lung cancer tissues. Based on the data analysis, 15 proteins from Chr 9 were detected only in lung cancer tissues. Finally, we conducted a proteogenomic analysis to discover Chr 9-residing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and mutations described in the COSMIC cancer mutation database. We identified 21 SNPs and 4 mutations containing peptides on Chr 9 from normal human cells/tissues and lung cancer cell lines, respectively. In summary, this study provides valuable information of the human proteome for the scientific community as part of C-HPP. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD. PMID:24274035

  5. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis Organisms Isolated from Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.; Amit, Zunika; Chandra, Jyotsna; Baughman, Robert P.; Contini, Carlo; Lundgren, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting mammalian lungs. The dominant sterol present in the organism is cholesterol (which is believed to be scavenged from the host), but other sterols in P. carinii carinii have an alkyl group at C-24 of the sterol side chain (C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols) and a double bond at C-7 of the nucleus. Recently, pneumocysterol (C32), which is essentially lanosterol with a C-24 ethylidene group, was detected in lipids extracted from a formalin-fixed human P. carinii-infected lung, and its structures were elucidated by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were performed. Several of the same distinct sterols (e.g., fungisterol and methylcholest-7-ene-3β-ol) previously identified in P. carinii carinii were also present in organisms isolated from human specimens. Pneumocysterol was detected in only some of the samples. PMID:10548595

  6. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoceptors in asthmatic human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Spina, D.; Rigby, P.J.; Paterson, J.W.; Goldie, R.G. )

    1989-11-01

    The autoradiographic distribution and density of beta-adrenoceptors in human non-diseased and asthmatic bronchi were investigated using (125I)iodocyanopindolol (I-CYP). Analysis of the effects of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on I-CYP binding demonstrated that betaxolol (20 nM, beta 1-selective) had no significant effect on specific grain density in either nonasthmatic or asthmatic human bronchus, whereas ICI-118551 (20 nM, beta 2-selective) inhibited I-CYP binding by 85 +/- 9% and 89 +/- 3%, respectively. Thus, homogeneous populations of beta 2-adrenoceptors existed in bronchi from both sources. Large populations of beta-adrenoceptors were localized to the bronchial epithelium, submucosal glands, and airway smooth muscle. Asthmatic bronchial tissue featured epithelial damage with exfoliated cells associated with luminal mucus plugs. A thickened basement membrane and airway smooth muscle hyperplasia were also evident. High levels of specific I-CYP binding were also detected over asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle, as assessed by autoradiography and quantitation of specific grain densities. Isoproterenol and fenoterol were 10- and 13-fold less potent, respectively, in bronchi from asthmatic lung than in those from nonasthmatic lung. However, this attenuated responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor agonists was not caused by reduced beta-adrenoceptor density in asthmatic airways. A defect may exist in the coupling between beta-adrenoceptors and postreceptor mechanisms in severely asthmatic lung.

  7. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have characterized the muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung membranes using the selective muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) and the classical muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate. High-affinity binding with pharmacologic specificity was demonstrated for both radioligands. The high affinity Kd for (/sup 3/H)PZ binding determined from saturation isotherms was 5.6 nM, and the Kd for (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was 14.3 pM. Approximately 62% of the total muscarinic binding sites in human peripheral lung bind (/sup 3/H)PZ with high affinity. There was no significant effect of the guanine nucleotide, guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate, on the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinyclidinyl benzilate binding by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in peripheral lung membranes. If the muscarinic receptor with high affinity for PZ has an important role in bronchoconstriction, its characterization could result in the development of more selective bronchodilators.

  8. A numerical study of gas transport in human lung models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2005-04-01

    Stable Xenon (Xe) gas has been used as an imaging agent for decades in its radioactive form, is chemically inert, and has been used as a ventilation tracer in its non radioactive form during computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hyperpolarized Helium (He) gas and Xe has also emerged as a powerful tool to study regional lung structure and function. However, the present state of knowledge regarding intra-bronchial Xe and He transport properties is incomplete. As the use of these gases rapidly advances, it has become critically important to understand the nature of their transport properties and to, in the process, better understand the role of gas density in general in determining regional distribution of respiratory gases. In this paper, we applied the custom developed characteristic-Galerkin finite element method, which solves the three-dimensional (3D) incompressible variable-density Navier-Stokes equations, to study the transport of Xe and He in the CT-based human lung geometries, especially emulating the washin and washout processes. The realistic lung geometries are segmented and reconstructed from CT images as part of an effort to build a normative atlas (NIH HL-064368) documenting airway geometry over 4 decades of age in healthy and disease-state adult humans. The simulation results show that the gas transport process depends on the gas density and the body posture. The implications of these results on the difference between washin and washout time constants are discussed.

  9. Rewiring of human lung cell lineage and mitotic networks in lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Jin; Quigley, David; To, Minh D.; Pham, Patrick; Lin, Kevin; Jo, Brian; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Raz, Dan; Kim, Jae; Mao, Jian-Hua; Jablons, David; Balmain, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in normal tissues and their perturbations in tumors can help to identify the functional roles of oncogenes or tumor suppressors and identify potential new therapeutic targets. Here, gene expression correlation networks were derived from 92 normal human lung samples and patient-matched adenocarcinomas. The networks from normal lung show that NKX2-1 is linked to the alveolar type 2 lineage, and identify PEBP4 as a novel marker expressed in alveolar type 2 cells. Differential correlation analysis shows that the NKX2-1 network in tumors includes pathways associated with glutamate metabolism, and identifies Vaccinia-related kinase (VRK1) as a potential drug target in a tumor-specific mitotic network. We show that VRK1 inhibition cooperates with inhibition of PARP signaling to inhibit growth of lung tumor cells. Targeting of genes that are recruited into tumor mitotic networks may provide a wider therapeutic window than that seen by inhibition of known mitotic genes. PMID:23591868

  10. Sex-specific Differences in Hyperoxic Lung Injury in Mice: Implications for Acute and Chronic Lung Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO2>0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC-MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. CytochromeP450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F>M) and VEGF (M>F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. PMID:23792423

  11. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael; Borg, Zachary; Parsons, Charles; Brooks, Elice M.; Platz, Joseph; Khalpey, Zain; Hoganson, David M.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying Wai; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de- and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼1–3cm3) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. PMID:24411675

  12. 3-D segmentation of human sternum in lung MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Pazokifard, Banafsheh; Sowmya, Arcot

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic novel algorithm is presented for accurate 3-D segmentation of the human sternum in lung multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. The segmentation result is refined by employing active contours to remove calcified costal cartilage that is attached to the sternum. For each dataset, costal notches (sternocostal joints) are localized in 3-D by using a sternum mask and positions of the costal notches on it as reference. The proposed algorithm for sternum segmentation was tested on 16 complete lung MDCT datasets and comparison of the segmentation results to the reference delineation provided by a radiologist, shows high sensitivity (92.49%) and specificity (99.51%) and small mean distance (dmean=1.07 mm). Total average of the Euclidean distance error for costal notches positioning in 3-D is 4.2 mm.

  13. [Air distribution in the bronchial tree of human lungs].

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-04-01

    A three-element model of lumped parameter based on the statistic data of Weible's symmetric model and on the reference anatomic figures of the bronchial tree of the lungs has been proposed using the fluid network theory. It was assumed that the upper five or seven generations of the twenty-four generations of the respiratory airway are asymmetric, while the rest are symmetric. GEAR method was used to solve the ordinary differential equations. The pressure and flow rate distributions in different positions of the lungs during normal respiration and partial bronchial obstruction were compared, respectively. This model has great significance in finding out the air distribution in the human bronchial tree under various physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. In vivo quantification of human lung dose response relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Walter; Wang, Peng; Liu, Haisong; Fuller, David; Schell, Michael C.; Okunieff, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To implement a new non-invasive in-vivo assay to compute the dose-response relationship following radiation-induced injury to normal lung tissue, using computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. Methods and Materials: Follow-up volumetric CT scans were acquired in patients with metastatic tumors to the lung treated using stereotactic radiation therapy. The images reveal a focal region of fibrosis corresponding to the high-dose region and no observable long-term damage in distant sites. For each pixel in the follow-up image the treatment dose and the change in apparent tissue density was compiled. For each of 12 pre-selected dose levels the average pixel tissue density change was computed and fit to a two-parameter dose-response model. The sensitivity of the resulting fits to registration error was also quantified. Results: Complete in vivo dose-response relationships in human normal lung tissue were computed. Increasing radiation sensitivity was found with larger treatment volume. Radiation sensitivity increased also over time up to 12 months, but decreased at later time points. The time-course of dose response correlated with the time-course of levels of circulating IL-1α, TGFβ and MCP-1. The method was found to be robust to registration errors up to 3 mm. Conclusions: This approach for the first time enables the quantification of the full range dose response relationship in human subjects. The method may be used to assess quantitatively the efficacy of various agents thought to illicit radiation protection to the lung.

  15. HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide as new T-2 toxin metabolite: enzymatic synthesis, analysis, and species specific formation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides by rat, mouse, pig, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanja; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-10-10

    Glucuronides of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin and its phase I metabolite HT-2 toxin are important phase II metabolites under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Since standard substances are essential for the direct quantitation of these glucuronides, a method for the enzymatic synthesis of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides employing liver microsomes was optimized. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry revealed that besides T-2 toxin glucuronide and HT-2 toxin 3-glucuronide also the newly identified isomer HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide was formed. Glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in liver microsomes of rat, mouse, pig, and human was compared and metabolites were analyzed directly by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A distinct, species specific pattern of glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin was observed with interesting interindividual differences. Until recently, glucuronides have frequently been analyzed indirectly by quantitation of the aglycone after enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides by β-glucuronidase. Therefore, the hydrolysis efficiencies of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides using β-glucuronidases from Helix pomatia, bovine liver, and Escherichia coli were compared.

  16. Determination of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine as a metabolite of methamphetamine in rats and human liver microsomes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether methamphetamine (MA) is metabolized to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), which is known as the main metabolite of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). After MA was intravenously administered to rats, the plasma, urine, and bile were collected periodically. HMMA together with MA and its main metabolites, amphetamine and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, were detected in the rat plasma, urine, and bile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, HMMA was produced when MA was incubated with human liver microsomes. HMMA may be produced as a metabolite of MA when humans have consumed MA, although the amount of HMMA would be small compared with that of MA, amphetamine, or 4-hydroxymethamphetamine. The results of the present study will be helpful in determining the type of drug used.

  17. Decellularization of human and porcine lung tissues for pulmonary tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, John D; Anfang, Rachel; Anandappa, Annabelle; Costa, Joseph; Javidfar, Jeffrey; Wobma, Holly M; Singh, Gopal; Freytes, Donald O; Bacchetta, Matthew D; Sonett, Joshua R; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The only definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is orthotopic transplantation. Lung extracellular matrix (LECM) holds great potential as a scaffold for lung tissue engineering because it retains the complex architecture, biomechanics, and topologic specificity of the lung. Decellularization of human lungs rejected from transplantation could provide "ideal" biologic scaffolds for lung tissue engineering, but the availability of such lungs remains limited. The present study was designed to determine whether porcine lung could serve as a suitable substitute for human lung to study tissue engineering therapies. Human and porcine lungs were procured, sliced into sheets, and decellularized by three different methods. Compositional, ultrastructural, and biomechanical changes to the LECM were characterized. The suitability of LECM for cellular repopulation was evaluated by assessing the viability, growth, and metabolic activity of human lung fibroblasts, human small airway epithelial cells, and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells over a period of 7 days. Decellularization with 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) showed the best maintenance of both human and porcine LECM, with similar retention of LECM proteins except for elastin. Human and porcine LECM supported the cultivation of pulmonary cells in a similar way, except that the human LECM was stiffer and resulted in higher metabolic activity of the cells than porcine LECM. Porcine lungs can be decellularized with CHAPS to produce LECM scaffolds with properties resembling those of human lungs, for pulmonary tissue engineering. We propose that porcine LECM can be an excellent screening platform for the envisioned human tissue engineering applications of decellularized lungs. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential Localization of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase (FMO) Isoforms 1, 3, and 4 in Rat Liver and Kidney and Evidence for Expression of FMO4 in Mouse, Rat, and Human Liver and Kidney Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Rachel M.; Mitzey, Ann M.; Brownfield, Mark S.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) play significant roles in the metabolism of drugs and endogenous or foreign compounds. In this study, the regional distribution of FMO isoforms 1, 3, and 4 was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rat liver and kidney using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat FMO1 and FMO4, developed using anti-peptide technology, and commercial anti-human FMO3 antibody were used; specificities of the antibodies were verified using Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and IHC. In liver, the highest immunoreactivity for FMO1 and FMO3 was detected in the perivenous region, and immunoreactivity decreased in intensity toward the periportal region. In contrast, FMO4 immunoreactivity was detected with the opposite lobular distribution. In the kidney, the highest immunoreactivity for FMO1, -3, and -4 was detected in the distal tubules. FMO1 and FMO4 immunoreactivity was also detected in the proximal tubules with strong staining in the brush borders, whereas less FMO3 immunoreactivity was detected in the proximal tubules. Immunoreactivity for FMO3 and FMO4 was detected in the collecting tubules in the renal medulla and the glomerulus, whereas little FMO1 immunoreactivity was detected in these regions. The FMO1 antibody did not react with human liver or kidney microsomes. However, the FMO4 antibody reacted with male and female mouse and human tissues. These data provided a compelling visual demonstration of the isoform-specific localization patterns of FMO1, -3, and -4 in the rat liver and kidney and the first evidence for expression of FMO4 at the protein level in mouse and human liver and kidney microsomes. PMID:19307449

  19. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W.; Basse, Per H.; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  20. GENETIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HUMAN CHITINASES AND LUNG FUNCTION IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aminuddin, F.; Akhabir, L.; Stefanowicz, D.; Paré, P.D.; Connett, J.E.; Anthonisen, N.R.; Fahy, J.V.; Seibold, M.A.; Burchard, E.G.; Eng, C.; Gulsvik, A.; Bakke, P.; Cho, M. H.; Litonjua, A.; Lomas, D.A.; Anderson, W. H.; Beaty, T.H.; Crapo, J.D.; Silverman, E.K.; Sandford, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two primary chitinases have been identified in humans – acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Mammalian chitinases have been observed to affect the host’s immune response. The aim of this study was to test for association between genetic variation in the chitinases and phenotypes related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Polymorphisms in the chitinase genes were selected based on previous associations with respiratory diseases. Polymorphisms that were associated with lung function level or rate of decline in the Lung Health Study (LHS) cohort were analyzed for association with COPD affection status in four other COPD case-control populations. Chitinase activity and protein levels were also related to genotypes. In the Caucasian LHS population, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was significantly different between the AA and GG genotypic groups of the AMCase rs3818822 polymorphism. Subjects with the GG genotype had higher AMCase protein and chitinase activity compared with AA homozygotes. For CHIT1 rs2494303, a significant association was observed between rate of decline in FEV1 and the different genotypes. In the African American LHS population, CHIT1 rs2494303 and AMCase G339T genotypes were associated with rate of decline in FEV1. Although a significant effect of chitinase gene alleles was found on lung function level and decline in the LHS, we were unable to replicate the associations with COPD affection status in the other COPD study groups. PMID:22200767

  1. Human papillomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Hirayasu, T; Iwamasa, T; Kamada, Y; Koyanagi, Y; Usuda, H; Genka, K

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung in Okinawa with that in Niigata on the mainland. METHODS: All patients presenting with SCC of the lung in Okinawa and Niigata in 1993 were included in the study. Diagnoses were confirmed by conventional histological examination of paraffin wax sections. Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for the E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern and dot blotting. RESULTS: The incidence of well differentiated SCC of the lung was high in patients from Okinawa compared with moderately and poorly differentiated types, and compared with the incidence of SCC in patients from Niigata. This is despite similar patterns of age, sex (predominatly male), and smoking habit. More patients from Okinawa, however, were positive for HPV DNA by PCR (79%) and NISH (53%). Many patients haboured HPV types 6, 16, and 18. Only 30% of patients from Niigata were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and 20% by NISH. These patients all harboured one HPV type only. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly large numbers of patients from Okinawa were positive for HPV DNA. The detection of HPV DNA was strongly associated with well differentiated SCC. This was particularly true for HPV types 6 and 16. There was no correlation between either smoking and detection of HPV DNA, or smoking and histological differentiation. Images PMID:8943746

  2. Implications for Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibodies After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziwei; Chen, Dong-Feng; Reinsmoen, Nancy L.; Finlen-Copeland, C. Ashley; Davis, W. Austin; Zaas, David W.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term survival after lung transplant is limited by the development of chronic and progressive airflow obstruction, a condition known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). While prior studies strongly implicate cellular rejection as a strong risk factor for BOS, less is known about the clinical significance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and donor HLA-specific antibodies in long-term outcomes. Methods: A single-center cohort of 441 lung transplant recipients, spanning a 10-year period, was prospectively screened for HLA antibodies after transplant using flow cytometry-based methods. The prevalence of and predictors for HLA antibodies were determined. The impact of HLA antibodies on survival after transplant and the development of BOS were determined using Cox models. Results: Of the 441 recipients, 139 (32%) had detectable antibodies to HLA. Of these 139, 54 (39%) developed antibodies specific to donor HLA. The detection of posttransplant HLA antibodies was associated with BOS (HR, 1.54; P = .04) and death (HR, 1.53; P = .02) in multivariable models. The detection of donor-specific HLA antibodies was associated with death (HR, 2.42; P < .0001). The detection of posttransplant HLA antibodies was associated with pretransplant HLA-antibody detection, platelet transfusions, and the development of BOS and cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of lung transplant recipients have detectable HLA antibodies, which are associated with a worse prognosis regarding graft function and patient survival. PMID:23328795

  3. [The lungs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    PubMed

    Barić, D; Vrkić, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a case of two patients who were admitted to the Zadar hospital and according to clinical symptoms directed to the Department of Lung Diseases. Both patients were temporarily employed abroad. It has been established that they were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). One of the patients has been moved to the Department of Infectious Diseases and later to Zagreb, while the other has returned abroad. On admission to the hospital of the Zadar Medical Center none of them answered the question about being engaged in risky behavior. In 1990 there were 699 registered patients hospitalized and 745 registered in the protocol of the Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Lung Diseases. 0.069% of patients were HIV-1-infected. In 1991, there were 520 hospitalized and 453 outpatients, whereas 0.102% were HIV-1-infected and registered subjects. It must be pointed out that these are only numbers of registration and not subjects, because there were patients who were examined or hospitalized twice or more times during the corresponding calendar year. The aim of this study was to point to a new differentially-diagnostic problem present especially at the Department of Lung Diseases after AIDS has become part of our reality. There still remains a problem in regard to detection of HIV-1 seropositivity in patients at departments with opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis.

  4. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-09-01

    One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Steen Solution on Human Lung Spheroids and Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pagano, F; Nocella, C; Sciarretta, S; Fianchini, L; Siciliano, C; Mangino, G; Ibrahim, M; De Falco, E; Carnevale, R; Chimenti, I; Frati, G

    2017-07-01

    Respiratory diseases represent a major healthcare burden worldwide. Lung transplantation (LTx) is the "gold standard" for end-stage patients, strongly limited by shortage of available/suitable donor lungs. Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has significantly increased the number of lungs suitable for transplantation. Steen solution is used for EVLP, but the mechanisms involved in its beneficial properties remain to be clarified. We investigated the effects of Steen solution in an in vitro protocol of cold starvation and normothermic recovery on human lung spheroids, named pneumospheres (PSs), containing epithelial/basal cells, and on endothelial human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Steen solution significantly preserved the viability of PSs, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by PSs and HUVECs, decreased NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity in PSs, and reduced inflammatory cytokines expression levels in HUVECs. Steen solution was able to specifically reduce NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) isoform activation, particularly in PSs, as detected by soluble-NOX2 peptide and p47-phosphorylation. Interestingly, a specific NOX2 inhibitor could partly mimic the pro-survival effect of Steen on PSs. We provide the first evidence that Steen solution can preserve lung epithelial/progenitor cells viability partially through NOX2 downregulation, and exert antioxidant effects on parenchymal cells, with consequent ROS reduction. These results suggest that NOX2 inhibition might be an additional strategy to reduce cellular damage during LTx procedures. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P < 1E(-16)). Neutrophil signatures are enriched in both animal and human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  7. Radiographic Comparison of Human Lung Shape During Normal Gravity and Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, D. B.; Friedman, P. J.; West, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Chest radiographs in five seated normal volunteers at 1 G and 0 G were made with a view toward comparing human lung shape during normal gravity and weightlessness. Lung shape was assessed by measuring lung heights and widths in upper, middle and lower lung regions. No significant differences were found between any of the 1-G and 0-G measurements, although there was a slight tendency for the lung to become shorter and wider at 0 G. The evidence that gravity causes regional differences in ventilation by direct action on the lung is consistent with the theoretical analysis of West and Matthews (1972).

  8. CYP2J2 and CYP2C19 Are the Major Enzymes Responsible for Metabolism of Albendazole and Fenbendazole in Human Liver Microsomes and Recombinant P450 Assay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhexue; Lee, Doohyun; Joo, Jeongmin; Shin, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Wonku; Oh, Sangtaek; Lee, Do Yup; Lee, Su-Jun; Yea, Sung Su; Lee, Hye Suk

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are broad-spectrum anthelmintics that undergo extensive metabolism to form hydroxyl and sulfoxide metabolites. Although CYP3A and flavin-containing monooxygenase have been implicated in sulfoxide metabolite formation, the enzymes responsible for hydroxyl metabolite formation have not been identified. In this study, we used human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450s (P450s) to characterize the enzymes involved in the formation of hydroxyalbendazole and hydroxyfenbendazole from albendazole and fenbendazole, respectively. Of the 10 recombinant P450s, CYP2J2 and/or CYP2C19 was the predominant enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of albendazole and fenbendazole. Albendazole hydroxylation to hydroxyalbendazole is primarily mediated by CYP2J2 (0.34 μl/min/pmol P450, which is a rate 3.9- and 8.1-fold higher than the rates for CYP2C19 and CYP2E1, respectively), whereas CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 contributed to the formation of hydroxyfenbendazole from fenbendazole (2.68 and 1.94 μl/min/pmol P450 for CYP2C19 and CYP2J2, respectively, which are rates 11.7- and 8.4-fold higher than the rate for CYP2D6). Correlation analysis between the known P450 enzyme activities and the rate of hydroxyalbendazole and hydroxyfenbendazole formation in samples from 14 human liver microsomes showed that albendazole hydroxylation correlates with CYP2J2 activity and fenbendazole hydroxylation correlates with CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 activities. These findings were supported by a P450 isoform-selective inhibition study in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, our data for the first time suggest that albendazole hydroxylation is primarily catalyzed by CYP2J2, whereas fenbendazole hydroxylation is preferentially catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP2J2. The present data will be useful in understanding the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of albendazole and fenbendazole in vivo. PMID:23959307

  9. Evaluation of metabolism dependent inhibition of CYP2B6 mediated bupropion hydroxylation in human liver microsomes by monoamine oxidase inhibitors and prediction of potential as perpetrators of drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Mohammed, Abdul Rasheed; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh

    2015-03-25

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the metabolism dependent inhibition of CYP2B6 catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in human liver microsomes by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and to predict the drug-drug interaction potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors as perpetrators of drug interaction. Human liver microsomal CYP2B6 activities were investigated using bupropion hydroxylation as probe substrate marker. The results from single point time dependent inhibition and shift assays suggest that clorgyline, pargyline, phenelzine, and selegiline were metabolism based inhibitors of CYP2B6. In IC50 shift assays, clorgyline, pargyline, phenelzine and selegiline are metabolism based inhibitors of CYP2B6 with fold shit of 3.0-, 3.7-, 2.9-, and 11.4-fold respectively. The inactivation of clorgyline was characterized by KI value of 2.5 ± 0.3 and k(inact) value of 0.045 ± 0.001 min(-1). Phenelzine inactivated CYP2B6 with KI and k(inact) values of 44.9 ± 6.9 μM and 0.085 ± 0.003 min(-1) respectively. Inactivation of selegiline was characterized with KI and k(inact) values of 22.0 ± 3.3 and 0.074 ± 0.002 min(-1) respectively. The inactivation caused by these inhibitors was not reversed by dialysis indicating irreversible inhibition. Based on the mechanistic static model, selegiline showed an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) of efavirenz and bupropion by 1.01-fold. Phenelzine predicted to cause an increase in the AUC of efavirenz and bupropion by 9.4- and 2.4-fold respectively considering unbound hepatic inlet concentrations of phenelzine. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrated that MAO inhibitors can inactivate human liver microsomal CYP2B6. The likelihood of drug interaction when selegiline co-administered with CYP2B6 substrates is remote. Caution is required while co-administering phenelzine with substrates that are exclusively metabolized by CYP2B6 enzyme and substrates that have narrow therapeutic index. Copyright © 2015

  10. CYP2J2 and CYP2C19 are the major enzymes responsible for metabolism of albendazole and fenbendazole in human liver microsomes and recombinant P450 assay systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhexue; Lee, Doohyun; Joo, Jeongmin; Shin, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Wonku; Oh, Sangtaek; Lee, Do Yup; Lee, Su-Jun; Yea, Sung Su; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Taeho; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-11-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are broad-spectrum anthelmintics that undergo extensive metabolism to form hydroxyl and sulfoxide metabolites. Although CYP3A and flavin-containing monooxygenase have been implicated in sulfoxide metabolite formation, the enzymes responsible for hydroxyl metabolite formation have not been identified. In this study, we used human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450s (P450s) to characterize the enzymes involved in the formation of hydroxyalbendazole and hydroxyfenbendazole from albendazole and fenbendazole, respectively. Of the 10 recombinant P450s, CYP2J2 and/or CYP2C19 was the predominant enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of albendazole and fenbendazole. Albendazole hydroxylation to hydroxyalbendazole is primarily mediated by CYP2J2 (0.34 μl/min/pmol P450, which is a rate 3.9- and 8.1-fold higher than the rates for CYP2C19 and CYP2E1, respectively), whereas CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 contributed to the formation of hydroxyfenbendazole from fenbendazole (2.68 and 1.94 μl/min/pmol P450 for CYP2C19 and CYP2J2, respectively, which are rates 11.7- and 8.4-fold higher than the rate for CYP2D6). Correlation analysis between the known P450 enzyme activities and the rate of hydroxyalbendazole and hydroxyfenbendazole formation in samples from 14 human liver microsomes showed that albendazole hydroxylation correlates with CYP2J2 activity and fenbendazole hydroxylation correlates with CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 activities. These findings were supported by a P450 isoform-selective inhibition study in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, our data for the first time suggest that albendazole hydroxylation is primarily catalyzed by CYP2J2, whereas fenbendazole hydroxylation is preferentially catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP2J2. The present data will be useful in understanding the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of albendazole and fenbendazole in vivo.

  11. Cancer-associated loss of TARSH gene expression in human primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Kunihiko; Shimada, Junichi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Maruyama, Mitsuo; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    We have previously identified mouse Tarsh as one of the cellular senescence-related genes and showed the loss of expression of TARSH mRNA in four human lung cancer cell lines. TARSH is a presumptive signal transduction molecule interacting with NESH, which is implicated to have some roles in lung cancer metastasis. The amplification of complete ORF-encoding TARSH cDNA was done with reverse transcription-PCR. Northern blotting was carried out using TARSH cDNA probes. To clarify the relationship between TARSH and lung cancer, we quantified TARSH mRNA expression in 15 human lung cancer cell lines and 32 primary non-small cell lung cancers. We first determined the complete ORF-encoding cDNA sequence which is expressed in the human lung. On the Northern hybridization analysis, TARSH was strongly expressed in the human lung. The expression of TARSH mRNA is remarkably downregulated in all the lung cancer cell lines examined. Furthermore, TARSH expression was significantly low in all of the tumor specimens when compared to the expression in corresponding non-neoplastic lung tissue specimens. The cancer-associated transcriptional inactivation of TARSH suggests that TARSH could be used as a biomarker for lung cancer development as well as a molecular adjunct for lung carcinogenesis in human.

  12. Effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activities of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 in primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Zapletalova, Michaela Kopecna; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacherova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-22

    Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins are pharmacologically active constituents of various berry fruits, such as blueberry and cranberry. These compounds are also contained in massively used nutritional supplements based on extracts or dry matter from berry fruits. The current study evaluated the effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. Expression of mRNA was quantified by qRT-PCR. Expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting and immunochemiluminescence. The catalytic activity of CYP enzymes was measured by HPLC using specific enzyme substrates. Tested anthocyanidins (6) and anthocyanins (21) did not induce the expression of mRNA and protein of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genes in human hepatocytes. Catalytic activities of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 enzymes were inhibited by all anthocyanidins to different extents (e.g., delphinidin inhibits CYP3A4 by >90% at 100 μM with IC50 = 32 μM). Of 21 anthocyanins tested, only cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside (CYP3A4 by >75% at 100 μM with IC50 = 44 μM) and two glycosides of delphinidin significantly inhibited examined cytochromes P450. It may be concluded that in the ranges of common ingestion of either food or dietary supplement an induction or significant inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 activity is most probably not expected.

  13. Naphthalene cytotoxicity in microsomal epoxide hydrolase deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Carratt, SA; Morin, D; Buckpitt, AR; Edwards, PC; Van Winkle, LS

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-dihydrodiol) is a major metabolite of NA generated by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). To investigate the role of the NA-dihydrodiol and subsequent metabolites (ie 1,2-naphthoquinone) in cytotoxicity, we exposed both male and female wild type (WT) and mEH null mice (KO) to NA by inhalation (5, 10, 20 ppm for 4 hours). NA-dihydrodiol was ablated in the KO mice. High-resolution histopathology was used to study site-specific cytotoxicity, and formation of naphthalene metabolites was measured by HPLC in microdissected airways. Swollen and vacuolated airway epithelial cells were observed in the intra- and extrapulmonary airways of all mice at and below the current OSHA standard (10 ppm). Female mice may be more susceptible to this acute cytotoxicity. In the extrapulmonary airways, WT mice were more susceptible to damage than KO mice, indicating that the metabolites associated with mEH-mediated metabolism could be partially responsible for cytotoxicity at this site. The level of cytotoxicity in the mEH KO mice at all airway levels suggests that non-mEH metabolites are contributing to NA cellular damage in the lung. Our results indicate that the apparent contribution of mEH-dependent metabolites to toxicity differs by location in the lung. These studies suggest that metabolites generated through the mEH pathway may be of minor importance in distal airway toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis from NA exposure. PMID:26840748

  14. Naphthalene cytotoxicity in microsomal epoxide hydrolase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carratt, S A; Morin, D; Buckpitt, A R; Edwards, P C; Van Winkle, L S

    2016-03-30

    Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-dihydrodiol) is a major metabolite of NA generated by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). To investigate the role of the NA-dihydrodiol and subsequent metabolites (i.e. 1,2-naphthoquinone) in cytotoxicity, we exposed both male and female wild type (WT) and mEH null mice (KO) to NA by inhalation (5, 10, 20 ppm for 4h). NA-dihydrodiol was ablated in the KO mice. High-resolution histopathology was used to study site-specific cytotoxicity, and formation of naphthalene metabolites was measured by HPLC in microdissected airways. Swollen and vacuolated airway epithelial cells were observed in the intra- and extrapulmonary airways of all mice at and below the current OSHA standard (10 ppm). Female mice may be more susceptible to this acute cytotoxicity. In the extrapulmonary airways, WT mice were more susceptible to damage than KO mice, indicating that the metabolites associated with mEH-mediated metabolism could be partially responsible for cytotoxicity at this site. The level of cytotoxicity in the mEH KO mice at all airway levels suggests that non-mEH metabolites are contributing to NA cellular damage in the lung. Our results indicate that the apparent contribution of mEH-dependent metabolites to toxicity differs by location in the lung. These studies suggest that metabolites generated through the mEH pathway may be of minor importance in distal airway toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis from NA exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IMP3 Predicts Invasion and Prognosis in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinhai; Wei, Qingzhu; Jian, Wenjing; Qiu, Bo; Wen, Jing; Liu, Jianghuan; Fu, Bo; Zhou, Xinhua; Zhao, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein associated with several aggressive and advanced cancers. Whether IMP3 can predict invasion, and prognosis in patients with human lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains unclear. Ninety-five LAC and 75 non-tumor lung tissue samples were included in a tissue microarray. IMP3 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical examination. Correlation between IMP3 expression levels, clinicopathological characteristics, and overall prognosis was evaluated. In a separate in vitro study, RNA interference method was applied for knockdown of IMP3 gene in human LAC cell lines. Invasive potential of LAC cells was then evaluated by transwell migration assay. IMP3 immunoreactivity was observed in 39 out of 95 (41.1 %) LAC patients, but not in non-tumor lung tissues. IMP3 expression levels were closely associated with histological grade (P = 0.037), TNM stage (P = 0.034), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.011). Patients presenting with positive IMP3 expression (P = 0.000), an advanced TNM stage (P = 0.000), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001) had a worse overall survival, compared to those lacking these characteristics. Both IMP3 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.310; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.192-4.476; P = 0.013) and TNM stage (HR 2.338; 95 % CI 1.393-3.925; P = 0.001) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. The invasive potential of LAC cells was significantly inhibited by IMP3 knockdown. IMP3 appears to play an important role in tumor invasion in patients with LAC and may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker in these patients.

  16. In vitro metabolism of two heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A(alpha)C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyridol2,3-b]indole (MeA(alpha)C) in human and rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Frandsen, Henrik

    2002-03-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A(alpha)C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA(alpha)C) are two mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed during ordinary cooking. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro metabolism of tritium-labelled A(alpha)C and MeA(alpha)C in hepatic microsomes from human pools, rats induced with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (Aroclor 1254) and control rats. The microsomes were incubated with A(alpha)C and MeAaC and the detoxified and activated metabolites of A(alpha)C and MeA(alpha)C were separated and characterised by HPLC-MS. A(alpha)C is metabolised to two major and three minor detoxified metabolites, while MeA(alpha)C is metabolised to three major and one minor detoxified metabolites. Some A(alpha)C and MeA(alpha)C are activated by oxidation to the reactive metabolites N2-OH-A(alpha)C and N2-OH-MeA(alpha)C, respectively. These reactive N2-OH-metabolites react partially in the incubation system with formation of protein adducts, dimers and the parent compound by reduction of the N2-OH-metabolites. The distribution between the detoxified and activated metabolites in the different types of hepatic microsomes showed same pattern for both A(alpha)C and MeA(alpha)C. In PCB-induced rat microsomes, the major part of the metabolites are detoxified, only a little amount is activated. In control rat microsomes there is a fifty-fifty distribution between detoxification and activation, while the major part of the metabolites from the human microsomes are activated and reacts to form dimers and protein adducts. These data show that, in human hepatic microsomes compared to rat hepatic microsomes, a major part of A(alpha)C and MeA(alpha)C are metabolically activated to the reactive N2-OH-A(alpha)C and N2-OH-MeA(alpha)C.

  17. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Godin, Lindsay M; Sandri, Brian J; Wagner, Darcy E; Meyer, Carolyn M; Price, Andrew P; Akinnola, Ifeolu; Weiss, Daniel J; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs) and lung fibroblasts (hLFs). Native aged (1 year) lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week) lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases.

  18. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Lindsay M.; Sandri, Brian J.; Wagner, Darcy E.; Meyer, Carolyn M.; Price, Andrew P.; Akinnola, Ifeolu; Weiss, Daniel J.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs) and lung fibroblasts (hLFs). Native aged (1 year) lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week) lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases. PMID:26954258

  19. Metabolism kinetics of beclomethasone propionate esters in human lung homogenates.

    PubMed

    Foe, K; Cutler, D J; Brown, K F; Seale, J P

    2000-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterize the kinetics of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and its 17-monopropionate ester (17-BMP) in human lung 1000g supernatant (HLu) at 37 degrees C, and to analyze the interindividual variability in the metabolism of BDP in HLu. The concentrations of BDP and its metabolites were determined by HPLC with UV detection at 242 nm. Kinetics of BDP and 17-BMP decomposition were characterized by least-squares fitting of rate equations. The active metabolite 17-BMP was rapidly formed following the incubation of BDP in HLu. Kinetics of BDP and 17-BMP in HLu were nonlinear owing to product inhibition and enzyme saturation. A model taking into account the product inhibition provides a kinetic basis for understanding the in vivo behavior of BDP and its metabolites in human lung. There was approximately a 3.5-fold difference in the initial half-life of BDP in HLu observed in seven subjects. An effective activation of BDP was demonstrated in HLu through the rapid formation of 17-BMP. Kinetics of BDP and 17-BMP in HLu were well characterized by the nonlinear kinetic model. Interindividual difference in the initial half-life of BDP was due mainly to esterase metabolizing activity rather than binding affinity.

  20. Benzylmorpholine analogs as selective inhibitors of lung cytochrome P450 2A13 for the chemoprevention of lung cancer in tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Blake, Linda C; Roy, Anuradha; Neul, David; Schoenen, Frank J; Aubé, Jeffrey; Scott, Emily E

    2013-09-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), one of the most prevalent and procarcinogenic compounds in tobacco, is bioactivated by respiratory cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A13, forming DNA adducts and initiating lung cancer. CYP2A13 inhibition offers a novel strategy for chemoprevention of tobacco-associated lung cancer. Twenty-four analogs of a 4-benzylmorpholine scaffold identified by high throughput screening were evaluated for binding and inhibition of both functional human CYP2A enzymes, CYP2A13 and the 94%-identical hepatic CYP2A6, whose inhibition is undesirable. Thus, selectivity is a major challenge in compound design. A key feature resulting in CYP2A13-selective binding and inhibition was substitution at the benzyl ortho position, with three analogs being >25-fold selective for CYP2A13 over CYP2A6. Two such analogs were negative for genetic and hERG toxicities and metabolically stable in human lung microsomes, but displayed rapid metabolism in human liver and in mouse and rat lung and liver microsomes, likely due to CYP2B-mediated degradation. A specialized knockout mouse mimicking the human lung demonstrates compound persistence in lung and provides an appropriate test model. Compound delivered by inhalation may be effective in the lung but rapidly cleared otherwise, limiting systemic exposure.

  1. Benzylmorpholine Analogs as Selective Inhibitors of Lung Cytochrome P450 2A13 for the Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer in Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Linda C.; Roy, Anuradha; Neul, David; Schoenen, Frank J.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), one of the most prevalent and procarcinogenic compounds in tobacco, is bioactivated by respiratory cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A13, forming DNA adducts and initiating lung cancer. CYP2A13 inhibition offers a novel strategy for chemoprevention of tobacco-associated lung cancer. Methods Twenty-four analogs of a 4-benzylmorpholine scaffold identified by high throughput screening were evaluated for binding and inhibition of both functional human CYP2A enzymes, CYP2A13 and the 94%-identical hepatic CYP2A6, whose inhibition is undesirable. Thus, selectivity is the major challenge in compound design. Results A key feature resulting in CYP2A13-selective binding and inhibition was substitution at the benzyl ortho position, with three analogs being >25-fold selective for CYP2A13 over CYP2A6. Conclusions Two such analogs were negative for genetic and hERG toxicities and metabolically stable in human lung microsomes, but displayed rapid metabolism in human liver and in mouse and rat lung and liver microsomes, likely due to CYP2B-mediated degradation. A specialized knockout mouse mimicking the human lung demonstrates compound persistence in lung and provides an appropriate test model. Compound delivered by inhalation may be effective in the lung but rapidly cleared otherwise, limiting systemic exposure. PMID:23756756

  2. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

  3. The Role of Serotonin Transporter in Human Lung Development and in Neonatal Lung Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sen, P.; Parks, W. T.; Langston, C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Failure of the vascular pulmonary remodeling at birth often manifests as pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and is associated with a variety of neonatal lung disorders including a uniformly fatal developmental disorder known as alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV). Serum serotonin regulation has been linked to pulmonary vascular function and disease, and serotonin transporter (SERT) is thought to be one of the key regulators in these processes. We sought to find evidence of a role that SERT plays in the neonatal respiratory adaptation process and in the pathomechanism of ACD/MPV. Methods. We used histology and immunohistochemistry to determine the timetable of SERT protein expression in normal human fetal and postnatal lungs and in cases of newborn and childhood PHT of varied etiology. In addition, we tested for a SERT gene promoter defect in ACD/MPV patients. Results. We found that SERT protein expression begins at 30 weeks of gestation, increases to term, and stays high postnatally. ACD/MPV patients had diminished SERT expression without SERT promoter alteration. Conclusion. We concluded that SERT/serotonin pathway is crucial in the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling/adaptation at birth and plays a key role in the pathobiology of ACD/MPV. PMID:28316463

  4. Radiation-enhanced Lung Cancer Progression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Lung Cancer is Predictive of Outcomes in Human Lung and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Oliver; Batten, Kimberly G.; Richardson, James A.; Xie, Xian-Jin; Gazdar, Adi F.; Kaisani, Aadil A.; Girard, Luc; Behrens, Carmen; Suraokar, Milind; Fasciani, Gail; Wright, Woodring E.; Story, Michael D.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Carcinogenesis is an adaptive process between nascent tumor cells and their microenvironment including the modification of inflammatory responses from anti-tumorigenic to pro-tumorigenic. Radiation exposure can stimulate inflammatory responses that inhibit or promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of radiation exposure on lung cancer progression in vivo and assess the relevance of this knowledge to human carcinogenesis. Experimental Design K-rasLA1 mice were irradiated with various doses and dose regimens and then monitored till death. Microarray analyses were performed using Illumina® BeadChips on whole lung tissue 70 days post-irradiation with a fractionated or acute dose of radiation and compared to age-matched unirradiated controls. Unique group classifiers were derived by comparative genomic analysis of three experimental cohorts. Survival analyses were performed using principal component analysis and k-means clustering on three lung adenocarcinoma, three breast adenocarcinoma, and two lung squamous carcinoma annotated microarray datasets. Results Radiation exposure accelerates lung cancer progression in the K-rasLA1 lung cancer mouse model with dose fractionation being more permissive for cancer progression. A non-random inflammatory signature associated with this progression was elicited from whole lung tissue containing only benign lesions and predicts human lung and breast cancer patient survival across multiple datasets. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that tumor cells drive predictive signature. Conclusions These results demonstrate that radiation exposure can cooperate with benign lesions in a transgenic model of cancer by impacting inflammatory pathways, and that clinically relevant similarities exist between human lung and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:24486591

  5. Growth suppressive efficacy of human lak cells against human lung-cancer implanted into scid mice.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, S; Kyoizumi, S; Suzuki, T; Yamakido, M; Akiyama, M

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of immunotherapy using human lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells against a human-lung squamous-cell carcinoma cell line (RERF-LC-AI) implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. A statistically significant growth suppressive effect on RERF-LC-AI implanted into SCID mice was observed when human LAK cells were administered into the caudal vein of the mice treated with a continuous supply (initiated prior to LAK cells injection) of rIL-2. The human LAK cells stained with PKH 2, a fluorescent dye, for later detection using flow cytometry were administered into the caudal vein of RERF-LC-AI bearing SCID mice; the cells persisted for 7 days in the implanted lung cancer tissue and in the mouse peripheral blood, but for 5 days in the mouse spleen. The number of infiltrated human LAK cells in each tissue increased dose-dependently with the number of injected cells. The results indicate that the antitumor effect most likely occurred during the early implantation period of the human LAK cells. These results demonstrate the applicability of this model to the in vivo study of human lung cancer therapy.

  6. Microsome composition-based model as a mechanistic tool to predict nonspecific binding of drugs in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Haddad, Sami

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the microsome composition-based model to predict the unbound fraction determined in vitro in microsomal incubation system (fuinc ). Another objective was to make a comparative assessment between the proposed mechanistic method and three empirical methods published in the literature, namely the models of Austin et al. (2002, Drug Metab Dispos 30:1497-1503), Turner et al. [2007, Drug Metab Rev 38(S1):162], and Halifax and Houston (2006, Drug Metab Rev 34:724-726), which are based solely on physicochemical properties. The assessment was confined by the availability of measured fuinc data in rat and human at diverse microsomal protein concentrations for 132 compounds. The proposed microsome composition-based model can be viewed as a combination of two distinct processes, namely the nonspecific binding to neutral lipids and the ionic binding to acidic phospholipids. Across methods, the maximum success rate in predicting fuinc of all compounds was 98%, 91%, and 84% with predictions falling within threefold, twofold, and 1.5-fold error of the observed fuinc , respectively. The statistical analyses suggest that the prediction models are more effective at computing fuinc (i) for rat as compared with human, and (ii) for acids and neutral drugs as compared with strong basic drugs. In addition, on the basis of the comparisons made using all datasets, the method that made use of microsome composition data compares well with those methods that relied solely on physicochemistry. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated the importance of the compound properties and physiological parameters reflective of specific mechanistic determinants relevant to prediction of fuinc values of drugs. Overall, the results obtained with our proposed model demonstrate a significant step toward the development of a generic and mechanistic model of fuinc for liver microsomes, which should provide rationale extrapolation procedures of hepatic

  7. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Zheng, Tongzhang; Pierce Wise, John

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt is a toxic metal used in various industrial applications leading to adverse lung effects by inhalation. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells, especially normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in normal primary human lung epithelial cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble and particulate cobalt induced similar cytotoxicity while soluble cobalt was more genotoxic than particulate cobalt. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung epithelial cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Red cell pulmonary transit times through the healthy human lung.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, G S; Walley, K R; Russell, J A

    2003-03-01

    It has previously been postulated that rapid red cell capillary transit through the human lung plays a role in the mechanism of diffusion limitation in some endurance athletes. Methodological limitations currently prevent researchers from directly measuring pulmonary capillary transit times in humans during exercise; however, first pass radionuclide cardiography allows direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) transit times through the whole lung at various exercise intensities. We examined the relationship between mean whole lung red cell pulmonary transit times (cardiopulmonary transit times or CPTT) and different levels of flow in 88 healthy humans (76 males, 12 females) from several studies (mean age 31 years). The pooled data suggest that the relationship between CPTT and cardiac index (CI), beginning at rest and progressing through to maximum exercise demonstrates that CPTT reaches its minimum value when CI is about 8.1 l m2 x min(-1) (2.5-3 times the CI value at rest), and does not significantly change with further increases in CI. Cardiopulmonary blood volume (CPBV) index also does not change significantly until CI reaches 2.5 to 3 times the CI value at rest and then increases roughly linearly after that point. Consequently, the systematic increase in CPBV index with increasing pulmonary blood flow between 8.1 and 20 l m2 x min(-1) displays an adaptive response of the cardiopulmonary system by augmenting CPBV (and perhaps pulmonary capillary blood volume through distension and recruitment) to offset the reduction in CPTT, as no significant difference in mean CPTT is observed between these levels of flow (P > 0.05). Therefore, these data demonstrate that CPBV does not reach maximum capacity during strenuous or maximum exercise. This does not support the principle of quarter-power allometric scaling for flow when explaining modifications during exercise. Therefore, we speculate that the observed relationships between CPTT, CBPV index and flow may prevent

  9. Establishment of a human lung cancer cell line with high metastatic potential to multiple organs: gene expression associated with metastatic potential in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Kawashima, Osamu; Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Kakegawa, Seiichi; Sugano, Masayuki; Ibe, Takashi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Kaira, Kyoichi; Sunaga, Noriaki; Ohtaki, Youichi; Atsumi, Jun; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2012-11-01

    Convenient and reliable multiple organ metastasis model systems might contribute to understanding the mechanism(s) of metastasis of lung cancer, which may lead to overcoming metastasis and improvement in the treatment outcome of lung cancer. We isolated a highly metastatic subline, PC14HM, from the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, PC14, using an in vivo selection method. The expression of 34,580 genes was compared between PC14HM and parental PC14 by cDNA microarray analysis. Among the differentially expressed genes, expression of four genes in human lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues were compared using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Although BALB/c nude mice inoculated with parental PC14 cells had few metastases, almost all mice inoculated with PC14HM cells developed metastases in multiple organs, including the lung, bone and adrenal gland, the same progression seen in human lung cancer. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 981 genes were differentially (more than 3-fold) expressed between the two cell lines. Functional classification revealed that many of those genes were associated with cell growth, cell communication, development and transcription. Expression of three upregulated genes (HRB-2, HS3ST3A1 and RAB7) was higher in human cancer tissue compared to normal lung tissue, while expression of EDG1, which was downregulated, was lower in the cancer tissue compared to the normal lung. These results suggest that the newly established PC14HM cell line may provide a mouse model of widespread metastasis of lung cancer. This model system may provide insights into the key genetic determinants of widespread metastasis of lung cancer.

  10. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Menelaou, Andrew; Foster, David J R; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2004-01-01

    Aim To determine the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of hydrocodone metabolism to its O- and N-demethylated products, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone, to determine the individual cytochrome P450 enzymes involved, and to predict the in vivo hepatic intrinsic clearance of hydrocodone via these pathways. Methods Liver microsomes from six CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and one CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (PM) were used to determine the kinetics of hydromorphone and norhydrocodone formation. Chemical and antibody inhibitors were used to identify the cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyzing these pathways. Expressed recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes were used to characterize further the metabolism of hydrocodone. Results Hydromorphone formation in liver microsomes from CYP2D6 EMs was dependent on a high affinity enzyme (Km = 26 µm) contributing 95%, and to a lesser degree a low affinity enzyme (Km = 3.4 mm). In contrast, only a low affinity enzyme (Km = 8.5 mm) formed this metabolite in the liver from the CYP2D6 PM, with significantly decreased hydromorphone formation compared with the livers from the EMs. Norhydrocodone was formed by a single low affinity enzyme (Km = 5.1 mm) in livers from both CYP2D6 EM and PM. Recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 formed only hydromorphone and only norhydrocodone, respectively. Hydromorphone formation was inhibited by quinidine (a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity), and monoclonal antibodies specific to CYP2D6. Troleandomycin, ketoconazole (both CYP3A4 inhibitors) and monoclonal antibodies specific for CYP3A4 inhibited norhydrocodone formation. Extrapolation of in vitro to in vivo data resulted in a predicted total hepatic clearance of 227 ml h−1 kg−1 and 124 ml h−1 kg−1 for CYP2D6 EM and PM, respectively. Conclusions The O-demethylation of hydrocodone is predominantly catalyzed by CYP2D6 and to a lesser extent by an unknown low affinity cytochrome P450 enzyme. Norhydrocodone formation was attributed to CYP3A4. Comparison of

  11. Evaluation of a New Ultrasound Thoracoscope for Localization of Lung Nodules in Ex Vivo Human Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Hideki; Kato, Tatsuya; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Hasan, Suhaib; Patel, Priya; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Fujino, Kosuke; Hwang, David M; Cypel, Marcelo; de Perrot, Marc; Pierre, Andrew; Darling, Gail; Waddell, Thomas K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Localization of small, nonvisible and nonpalpable nodules is challenging during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We evaluated the feasibility of using a new ultrasound thoracoscope to localize nodules in resected ex vivo human lungs. The tumor was localized and measured in its greatest dimension with a prototype ultrasound thoracoscope (XLTF-UC180; Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at different frequencies (5.0 to 12.0 MHz) and different lung specimen states (deflated, semiinflated). Measured tumor size and depth from lung surface were compared and correlated to the true diameter and depth from lung surface acquired from pathologic morphology. Ex vivo evaluation was performed on 16 solid nodules and nine part solid ground-glass nodules. All tumors were successfully localized in the deflated lung specimens (average size, 13.7 ± 5.2 mm). The tumor boundaries were best evaluated with an ultrasound frequency of 10 MHz. Solid nodules were more easily visualized than ground-glass nodules. Part solid ground-glass nodules were not easily detected in the semiinflated specimen owing to peritumoral air surrounding the tumor. Tumor boundaries were also difficult to identify in deeply situated tumors and in lungs with underlying disease. A strong positive correlation existed between the ultrasound measurement and true measurement of tumor size (R(2) = 0.89, p < 0.001). The ultrasound thoracoscope can be used to localize nodules in resected human lungs. The clarity of the tumor boundaries is influenced by the tumor type and depth and the underlying pulmonary disease. Complete lung deflation and the use of 10 MHz ultrasound frequency optimize the visualization of target tumors. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  13. Comparison of human lung tissue mass measurements from ex vivo lungs and high resolution CT software analysis.

    PubMed

    Henne, Erik; Anderson, Joseph C; Lowe, Norma; Kesten, Steven

    2012-05-14

    Quantification of lung tissue via analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is increasingly common for monitoring disease progression and for planning of therapeutic interventions. The current study evaluates the quantification of human lung tissue mass by software analysis of a CT to physical tissue mass measurements. Twenty-two ex vivo lungs were scanned by CT and analyzed by commercially available software. The lungs were then dissected into lobes and sublobar segments and weighed. Because sublobar boundaries are not visually apparent, a novel technique of defining sublobar segments in ex vivo tissue was developed. The tissue masses were then compared to measurements by the software analysis. Both emphysematous (n = 14) and non-emphysematous (n = 8) bilateral lungs were evaluated. Masses (Mean ± SD) as measured by dissection were 651 ± 171 g for en bloc lungs, 126 ± 60 g for lobar segments, and 46 ± 23 g for sublobar segments. Masses as measured by software analysis were 598 ± 159 g for en bloc lungs, 120 ± 58 g for lobar segments, and 45 ± 23 g for sublobar segments. Correlations between measurement methods was above 0.9 for each segmentation level. The Bland-Altman analysis found limits of agreement at the lung, lobe and sublobar levels to be -13.11% to -4.22%, -13.59% to 4.24%, and -45.85% to 44.56%. The degree of concordance between the software mass quantification to physical mass measurements provides substantial evidence that the software method represents an appropriate non-invasive means to determine lung tissue mass.

  14. MiRNA molecular profiles in human medical conditions: connecting lung cancer and lung development phenomena.

    PubMed

    Aghanoori, Mohamad-Reza; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Tavallaei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are endogenous, single stranded ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and mediate negative post-transcriptional gene regulation through binding to 3'untranslated regions (UTR), possibly open reading frames (ORFs) or 5'UTRs of target mRNAs. MiRNAs are involved in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, so dysregulation may be associated with diseases like cancer, and neurodegenerative, heart and other disorders. Among all cancers, lung cancer, with high incidence and mortality worldwide, is classified into two main groups: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Recent promising studies suggest that gene expression profiles and miRNA signatures could be a useful step in a noninvasive, low-cost and repeatable screening process of lung cancer. Similarly, every stage of lung development during fetal life is associated with specific miRNAs. Since lung development and lung cancer phenomena share the same physiological, biological and molecular processes like cell proliferation, development and shared mRNA or expression regulation pathways, and according to data adopted from various studies, they may have partially shared miRNA signature. Thus, focusing on lung cancer in relation to lung development in miRNA studies might provide clues for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  15. Comparative Biochemistry and Metabolism: Part 2. Naphthalene Lung Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-14

    Formation of Naphthalene Glutathione-Adducts in Rat Lung Microsomal Incubations Nmoles/Mg Proteina Incubation Time Conjugate 1 Conjugate 2 Conjugate 3 1...protein. Table 4 Linearity of Formation of Polar Naphthalene Metabolites with Rat Lung Microsomal Proteina Nmoles/Min Mg Micro Prot Dihydrodiol Conj

  16. Transcription of the human microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1) is regulated by an HNF-4α/CAR/RXR/PSF complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Zhu, Qin-Shi; Zhong, Shuping; Levy, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a bifunctional protein that plays a central role in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics as well as mediating the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes where they are involved in cholesterol excretion and metabolism, lipid digestion and regulating numerous signaling pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated the critical role of GATA-4 and a C/EBPα-NF/Y complex in the regulation of the mEH gene (EPHX1). In this study we show that HNF-4α and CAR/RXR also bind to the proximal promoter region and regulate EPHX1 expression. Bile acids, which inhibit the expression of HNF-4α also decrease the expression of EPHX1. Studies also established that the binding of HNF-4α was essential for the activation of EPHX1 activity by CAR suggesting the formation of a complex between these adjacent factors. The nature of this regulatory complex was further explored using a biotinylated oligonucleotide of this region in conjunction with BioMag beads and mass spectrometric analysis which demonstrated the presence of an additional inhibitory factor (PSF), confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP analyses, which interacted with DNA-bound CAR/RXR/HNF-4α forming a 4-component regulatory complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose-dependent acute liver injury with hypersensitivity features in humans due to a novel microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Regev, Arie; Kam, Jeanelle; Phipps, Krista; Smith, Claire; Henck, Judith; Campanale, Kristina; Hu, Leijun; Hall, D Greg; Yang, Xiao Yan; Nakano, Masako; McNearney, Terry Ann; Uetrecht, Jack; Landschulz, William

    2017-09-02

    LY3031207, a novel microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitor, was evaluated in a multiple ascending dose study after nonclinical toxicology studies and a single ascending dose study demonstrated an acceptable toxicity, safety, and tolerability profile. Healthy subjects were randomised to receive LY3031207 (25, 75, and 275 mg), placebo, or celecoxib (400 mg) once daily for 28 days. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of LY3031207 were evaluated. The study was terminated when two subjects experienced drug-induced liver injury (DILI) after they had received 225 mg LY3031207 for 19 days. Liver biopsy from these subjects revealed acute liver injury with eosinophilic infiltration. Four additional DILI cases were identified after LY3031207 dosing had been stopped. All six DILI cases shared unique presentations of hepatocellular injury with hypersensitivity features and demonstrated a steep dose-dependent trend. Prompt discontinuation of the study drug and supportive medical care resulted in full recovery. Metabolites from metabolic activation of the imidazole ring were observed in plasma and urine samples from all subjects randomized to LY3031207 dosing. This study emphasised the importance of careful safety monitoring and serious adverse events management in phase I trials. Metabolic activation of the imidazole ring may be involved in the development of hepatotoxicity of LY3031207. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Micro FT-IR Characterization Of Human Lung Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Enzo; Teodori, L.; Vergamini, Piergiorgio; Trinca, M. L.; Mauro, F.; Salvati, F.; Spremolla, Giuliano

    1989-12-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has opened up a new approach to the analytical study of cell transformation. Investigations carried out in normal and leukemic lymphocytes have evidenced an increase in DNA with respect to proteic components in neoplastic cells.(1) The evaluation of the ratio of the integrated areas(A) of the bands at 1080 cm-1 (mainly DNA) and at 1540 cm-1 (proteic components) has allowed us to establish a parameter which indicates, for values above 1.5, the neoplastic nature of cells. Recently, this approach has been applied to the study of human lung tumor cells. Several monocellular suspension procedures of the tissue fragment (mechanical and/or chemical) were tested to obtain reproducible and reliable spectra able to differentiate clearly between normal and patological cells. Chemical treatment (EDTA, Pepsin, Collagenase, etc.) produced additional bands in the spectra of the cells causing distortion of the profiles of some absorptions, and as a result, mechanical treatment was preferred. The normal and neoplastic cells homogeneously distributed by cytospin preparation on BaF2 windows were examined by means of FT-IR microscopy. An examination of several microareas of each sample yielded reproducible spectra, with values of the A 1080 cm-1 / A 1540 cm-1 parameter within a very narrow range for each sample, even if certain differences still remained among the different cases, in good agreement with the results obtained for leukemic cells.(1) The value of this parameter was found to be lower for cells isolated from the normal area of lung, than in the case of those corresponding to the tumoral area, meaning that an increase occurs in DNA with respect to the proteic components. These insights, which provide a basis to obtain indications at the molecular level, can open up new possibilities in clinical practice, in order to obtain diagnosis confirmation, to detect early stages of disease and to offer additional indications in cases of dubious interpretation.

  19. Frizzled-8 as a putative therapeutic target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua-qing; Xu, Mei-lin; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Cong-hua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fzd-8 is over-expressed in human lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 inhibits proliferation and Wnt pathway in lung cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down of Fzd-8 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knock-down Fzd-8 sensitizes lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is necessary to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer in order to develop more effective therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Recent reports have shown that Wnt signaling pathway is important in a number of cancer types including lung cancer. However, the role of Frizzled-8 (Fzd-8), one of the Frizzled family of receptors for the Wnt ligands, in lung cancer still remains to be elucidated. Here in this study we showed that Fzd-8 was over-expressed in human lung cancer tissue samples and cell lines. To investigate the functional importance of the Fzd-8 over-expression in lung cancer, we used shRNA to knock down Fzd-8 mRNA in lung cancer cells expressing the gene. We observed that Fzd-8 shRNA inhibited cell proliferation along with decreased activity of Wnt pathway in vitro, and also significantly suppressed A549 xenograft model in vivo (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that knocking down Fzd-8 by shRNA sensitized the lung cancer cells to chemotherapy Taxotere. These data suggest that Fzd-8 is a putative therapeutic target for human lung cancer and over-expression of Fzd-8 may be important for aberrant Wnt activation in lung cancer.

  20. Nanoparticle diffusion in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Benjamin S.; Suk, Jung Soo; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    A major role of respiratory mucus is to trap inhaled particles, including pathogens and environmental particulates, to limit body exposure. Despite the tremendous health implications, how particle size and surface chemistry affect mobility in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease is not known. We prepared polymeric nanoparticles densely coated with low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to minimize muco-adhesion, and compared their transport to that of uncoated particles in human respiratory mucus, which we collected from the endotracheal tubes of surgical patients with no respiratory comorbidities. We found that 100 and 200 nm diameter PEG-coated particles rapidly penetrated respiratory mucus, at rates exceeding their uncoated counterparts by approximately 15- and 35-fold, respectively. In contrast, PEG-coated particles ≥ 500 nm in diameter were sterically immobilized by the mucus mesh. Thus, even though respiratory mucus is a viscoelastic solid at the macroscopic level (as measured using a bulk rheometer), nanoparticles that are sufficiently small and muco-inert can penetrate the mucus as if it were primarily a viscous liquid. These findings help elucidate the barrier properties of respiratory mucus and provide design criteria for therapeutic nanoparticles capable of penetrating mucus to approach the underlying airway epithelium. PMID:23384790

  1. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael J; Borg, Zachary D; Parsons, Charles S; Brooks, Elice M; Platz, Joseph J; Khalpey, Zain I; Hoganson, David M; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying W; Oldinski, Rachael A; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼ 1-3 cm(3)) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor regulates human fetal lung development via CFTR.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah C; Wilkinson, William J; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Finney, Brenda; Monk, Bethan; Dibble, Holly; Quilliam, Samantha; Warburton, David; Galietta, Luis J; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2016-02-25

    Optimal fetal lung growth requires anion-driven fluid secretion into the lumen of the developing organ. The fetus is hypercalcemic compared to the mother and here we show that in the developing human lung this hypercalcaemia acts on the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR, to promote fluid-driven lung expansion through activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR. Several chloride channels including TMEM16, bestrophin, CFTR, CLCN2 and CLCA1, are also expressed in the developing human fetal lung at gestational stages when CaSR expression is maximal. Measurements of Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion in organ explant cultures show that pharmacological CaSR activation by calcimimetics stimulates lung fluid secretion through CFTR, an effect which in humans, but not mice, was also mimicked by fetal hypercalcemic conditions, demonstrating that the physiological relevance of such a mechanism appears to be species-specific. Calcimimetics promote CFTR opening by activating adenylate cyclase and we show that Ca(2+)-stimulated type I adenylate cyclase is expressed in the developing human lung. Together, these observations suggest that physiological fetal hypercalcemia, acting on the CaSR, promotes human fetal lung development via cAMP-dependent opening of CFTR. Disturbances in this process would be expected to permanently impact lung structure and might predispose to certain postnatal respiratory diseases.

  3. Kinome sequencing reveals RET G691S polymorphism in human neuroendocrine lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Hong, Seung-Keun; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors comprise 20–25% of all invasive lung malignancies. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure these tumors, and it is necessary to identify a molecular alteration(s) that characterizes NE lung tumor cells. We aimed to identify a kinase mutation(s) associated with NE lung tumor by screening 517 kinase-encoding genes in human lung cancer cell lines. Our next-generation sequencing analysis of six NE lung tumor cell lines (four small cell lung cancer lines and two non-small cell lung cancer lines) and three non-NE lung tumor lines revealed various kinase mutations, including a nonsynonymous mutation in the proto-oncogene RET (c.2071G>A; p.G691S). Further evaluation of the RET polymorphism in total 15 lung cancer cell lines by capillary sequencing suggested that the frequency of the minor allele (A-allele) in NE lung tumor lines was significantly higher than its frequency in a reference population (p = 0.0001). However, no significant difference between non-NE lung tumor lines and a reference group was detected (p = 1.0). Nevertheless, neither RET expression levels were correlated with the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker, nor vandetanib and cabozantinib, small molecule compounds that inhibit RET, affected NSE levels in lung cancer cells. Our data suggest a potential association of G691S RET polymorphism with NE lung tumor, proposing the necessity of more thorough evaluation of this possibility. The dataset of kinase mutation profiles in this report may help choosing cell line models for study of lung cancer. PMID:25530832

  4. Application of a Neutral Community Model To Assess Structuring of the Human Lung Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Arvind; Bassis, Christine M.; Beck, James M.; Young, Vincent B.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  DNA from phylogenetically diverse microbes is routinely recovered from healthy human lungs and used to define the lung microbiome. The proportion of this DNA originating from microbes adapted to the lungs, as opposed to microbes dispersing to the lungs from other body sites and the atmosphere, is not known. We use a neutral model of community ecology to distinguish members of the lung microbiome whose presence is consistent with dispersal from other body sites and those that deviate from the model, suggesting a competitive advantage to these microbes in the lungs. We find that the composition of the healthy lung microbiome is consistent with predictions of the neutral model, reflecting the overriding role of dispersal of microbes from the oral cavity in shaping the microbial community in healthy lungs. In contrast, the microbiome of diseased lungs was readily distinguished as being under active selection. We also assessed the viability of microbes from lung samples by cultivation with a variety of media and incubation conditions. Bacteria recovered by cultivation from healthy lungs represented species that comprised 61% of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Importance  Neutral distribution of microbes is a distinguishing feature of the microbiome in healthy lungs, wherein constant dispersal of bacteria from the oral cavity overrides differential growth of bacteria. No bacterial species consistently deviated from the model predictions in healthy lungs, although representatives of many of the dispersed species were readily cultivated. In contrast, bacterial populations in diseased lungs were identified as being under active selection. Quantification of the relative importance of selection and neutral processes such as dispersal in shaping the healthy lung microbiome is a first step toward understanding its impacts on host health. PMID:25604788

  5. Homo-timeric structural model of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and characterization of its substrate/inhibitor binding interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Li; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Frazier, Ronald B.; Davies, Michael S.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Weinberg, Robin A.; Gierse, James K.; Caspers, Nicole; Carter, Jeffrey S.; McDonald, Joseph J.; Moore, William M.; Vazquez, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Inducible, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1), the terminal enzyme in the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthetic pathway, constitutes a promising therapeutic target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. To elucidate structure-function relationships and to enable structure-based design, an mPGES-1 homology model was developed using the three-dimensional structure of the closest homologue of the MAPEG family (Membrane Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid and Glutathione metabolism), mGST-1. The ensuing model of mPGES-1 is a homo-trimer, with each monomer consisting of four membrane-spanning segments. Extensive structure refinement revealed an inter-monomer salt bridge (K26-E77) as well as inter-helical interactions within each monomer, including polar hydrogen bonds (e.g. T78-R110-T129) and hydrophobic π-stacking (F82-F103-F106), all contributing to the overall stability of the homo-trimer of mPGES-1. Catalytic co-factor glutathione (GSH) was docked into the mPGES-1 model by flexible optimization of both the ligand and the protein conformations, starting from the initial location ascertained from the mGST-1 structure. Possible binding site for the substrate, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), was identified by systematically probing the refined molecular structure of mPGES-1. A binding model was generated by induced fit docking of PGH2 in the presence of GSH. The homology model prescribes three potential inhibitor binding sites per mPGES-1 trimer. This was further confirmed experimentally by equilibrium dialysis study which generated a binding stoichiometric ratio of approximately three inhibitor molecules to three mPGES-1 monomers. The structural model that we have derived could serve as a useful tool for structure-guided design of inhibitors for this emergently important therapeutic target.

  6. Differential response of the epithelium and interstitium in developing human fetal lung explants to hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Bustani, Porus; Hodge, Rachel; Tellabati, Ananth; Li, Juan; Pandya, Hitesh; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2006-03-01

    Hyperoxia is closely linked with the development of chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), but the exact mechanisms whereby hyperoxia alters the lung architecture in the developing lung remain largely unknown. We developed a fetal human lung organ culture model to investigate (a) the morphologic changes induced by hyperoxia and (b) whether hyperoxia resulted in differential cellular responses in the epithelium and interstitium. The effects of hyperoxia on lung morphometry were analyzed using computer-assisted image analysis. The lung architecture remained largely unchanged in normoxia lasting as long as 4 d. In contrast, hyperoxic culture of pseudoglandular fetal lungs resulted in significant dilatation of airways, thinning of the epithelium, and regression of the interstitium including the pulmonary vasculature. Although there were no significant differences in Ki67 between normoxic and hyperoxic lungs, activated caspase-3 was significantly increased in interstitial cells, but not epithelial cells, under hyperoxic conditions. These changes show that exposure of pseudoglandular lungs to hyperoxia modulates the lung architecture to resemble saccular lungs.

  7. In vitro immunological degranulation of human basophils is modulated by lung histamine and Apis mellifica.

    PubMed Central

    Poitevin, B; Davenas, E; Benveniste, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of high dilutions of two homeopathic drugs Lung histamine (Lung his) and Apis mellifica (Apis mel) used for the treatment of allergic diseases has been assessed on in vitro human basophil degranulation. Experiments were conducted blind. 2. Basophil degranulation induced by 1.66 X 10(-9) M anti-IgE antibody was significantly inhibited in the presence of 5 Lung his (5th centesimal dilution of Lung his) and 15 Lung his (15th centesimal dilution of Lung his) by 28.8% and 28.6% respectively and by 65.8% in the presence of 9 Apis mel (9th centesimal dilution of Apis mel). Basophil degranulation induced by 1.66 X 10(-16) to 1.66 X 10(-18) M anti-IgE antibody was also inhibited by high dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel with an inhibition of nearly 100% with 18 Lung his (18th centesimal dilution of Lung his) and 10 Apis mel (10th centesimal dilution of Apis mel). An alternance of inhibition, inactivity and stimulation was observed when basophils were incubated in the presence of serial dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel. 3. The investigation of the clinical efficacy of high dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel should be envisaged in allergic diseases in parallel with in vitro and ex vivo biological assays. PMID:3382588

  8. Lung Beractant Increases Free Cytosolic Levels of Ca2+ in Human Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Silva, Alejandro; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Vargaz-Guadarrama, Ajelet; Flores-Flores, Marycruz; Pezzat Said, Elias; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Tanzi, Franco; Moccia, Francesco; Berra-Romani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Beractant, a natural surfactant, induces an antifibrogenic phenotype and apoptosis in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). As intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been related to programmed cell death, we aimed to assess the effect of beractant on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in NHLF in vitro. Cultured NHLF were loaded with Fura-2 AM (3 μM) and Ca2+ signals were recorded by microfluorimetric techniques. Beractant causes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a EC50 of 0.82 μg/ml. The application of beractant, at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which has been shown to exert an apoptotic effect in human fibroblasts, elicited different patterns of Ca2+ signals in NHLF: a) a single Ca2+ spike which could be followed by b) Ca2+ oscillations, c) a sustained Ca2+ plateau or d) a sustained plateau overlapped by Ca2+ oscillations. The amplitude and pattern of Ca2+ transients evoked by beractant were dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that beractant activates a Ca2+ signal through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and Ca2+ influx via a store-operated pathway. Moreover, beractant-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by preventing membrane depolarization upon removal of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+. Finally, the inhibition of store-operated channels prevented beractant-induced NHLF apoptosis and downregulation of α1(I) procollagen expression. Therefore, beractant utilizes SOCE to exert its pro-apoptotic and antifibrinogenic effect on NHLF. PMID:26230503

  9. CD11b immunophenotyping identifies inflammatory profiles in the mouse and human lungs.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Steinfort, D P; Smallwood, D; Hew, M; Chen, W; Ernst, M; Irving, L B; Anderson, G P; Hibbs, M L

    2016-03-01

    The development of easily accessible tools for human immunophenotyping to classify patients into discrete disease endotypes is advancing personalized therapy. However, no systematic approach has been developed for the study of inflammatory lung diseases with often complex and highly heterogeneous disease etiologies. We have devised an internally standardized flow cytometry approach that can identify parallel inflammatory alveolar macrophage phenotypes in both the mouse and human lungs. In mice, lung innate immune cell alterations during endotoxin challenge, influenza virus infection, and in two genetic models of chronic obstructive lung disease could be segregated based on the presence or absence of CD11b alveolar macrophage upregulation and lung eosinophilia. Additionally, heightened alveolar macrophage CD11b expression was a novel feature of acute lung exacerbations in the SHIP-1(-/-) model of chronic obstructive lung disease, and anti-CD11b antibody administration selectively blocked inflammatory CD11b(pos) but not homeostatic CD11b(neg) alveolar macrophages in vivo. The identification of analogous profiles in respiratory disease patients highlights this approach as a translational avenue for lung disease endotyping and suggests that heterogeneous innate immune cell phenotypes are an underappreciated component of the human lung disease microenvironment.

  10. Evidence against a role for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Dusty; De Las Heras, Marcelo; Yu, Jingyou; Zhang, Fushun; Liu, Shan-Lu; Vaughan, Andrew E; Vaughan, Thomas L; Rosadio, Raul; Rocca, Stefano; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Goedert, James J; Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2017-01-20

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a specific cell-surface receptor, Hyal2. Unlike almost all other retroviruses, the JSRV Env protein is also a potent oncoprotein and is responsible for lung cancer in animals. Of concern, Hyal2 is a functional receptor for JSRV in humans. We show here that JSRV is fully capable of infecting human cells, as measured by its reverse transcription and persistence in the DNA of cultured human cells. Several studies have indicated a role for JSRV in human lung cancer while other studies dispute these results. To further investigate the role of JSRV in human lung cancer, we used highly-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against JSRV Env to test for JSRV expression in human lung cancer. JSRV Env expression was undetectable in lung cancers from 128 human subjects, including 73 cases of bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC; currently reclassified as lung invasive adenocarcinoma with a predominant lepidic component), a lung cancer with histology similar to that found in JSRV-infected sheep. The BAC samples included 8 JSRV DNA-positive samples from subjects residing in Sardinia, Italy, where sheep farming is prevalent and JSRV is present. We also tested for neutralizing antibodies in sera from 138 Peruvians living in an area where sheep farming is prevalent and JSRV is present, 24 of whom were directly exposed to sheep, and found none. We conclude that while JSRV can infect human cells, JSRV plays little if any role in human lung cancer.

  11. Effect of a New Prokinetic Agent DA-9701 Formulated with Corydalis Tuber and Pharbitidis Semen on Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hye Young; Liu, Kwang Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Dae-Young; Shim, Hyun Joo; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2012-01-01

    DA-9701 is a new botanical drug composed of the extracts of Corydalis tuber and Pharbitidis semen, and it is used as an oral therapy for the treatment of functional dyspepsia in Korea. The inhibitory potentials of DA-9701 and its component herbs, Corydalis tuber and Pharbitidis semen, on the activities of seven major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and four UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in human liver microsomes were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DA-9701 and Corydalis tuber extract slightly inhibited UGT1A1-mediated etoposide glucuronidation, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 188 and 290 μg/mL, respectively. DA-9701 inhibited CYP2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation with an inhibition constant (Ki) value of 6.3 μg/mL in a noncompetitive manner. Corydalis tuber extract competitively inhibited CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation, with a Ki value of 3.7 μg/mL, whereas Pharbitidis semen extract showed no inhibition. The volume in which the dose could be diluted to generate an IC50 equivalent concentration (volume per dose index) value of DA-9701 for inhibition of CYP2D6 activity was 1.16 L/dose, indicating that DA-9701 may not be a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor. Further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the in vivo extent of the observed in vitro interactions. PMID:22548118

  12. Characterizing human lung tissue microbiota and its relationship to epidemiological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Gail, Mitchell H; Consonni, Dario; Carugno, Michele; Humphrys, Michael; Pesatori, Angela C; Caporaso, Neil E; Goedert, James J; Ravel, Jacques; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-28

    The human lung tissue microbiota remains largely uncharacterized, although a number of studies based on airway samples suggest the existence of a viable human lung microbiota. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of lung microbiota in 165 non-malignant lung tissue samples from cancer patients. We show that the lung microbiota is distinct from the microbial communities in oral, nasal, stool, skin, and vagina, with Proteobacteria as the dominant phylum (60 %). Microbiota taxonomic alpha diversity increases with environmental exposures, such as air particulates, residence in low to high population density areas, and pack-years of tobacco smoking and decreases in subjects with history of chronic bronchitis. Genus Thermus is more abundant in tissue from advanced stage (IIIB, IV) patients, while Legionella is higher in patients who develop metastases. Moreover, the non-malignant lung tissues have higher microbiota alpha diversity than the paired tumors. Our results provide insights into the human lung microbiota composition and function and their link to human lifestyle and clinical outcomes. Studies among subjects without lung cancer are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2011-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells expressed surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and surfactant proteins associated with ATII cells, such as CD90 and pro-surfactant protein-C (pro-SP-C), respectively. Microarray analyses indicated that transcripts associated with lung development were enriched in the pro-SP-C+/CD90+ cells compared with bone marrow-MSCs. Furthermore, pathological evaluation indicated that pro-SP-C and CD90 double-positive cells were present within alveolar walls in normal lungs, and significantly increased in ATII cell hyperplasias contributing to alveolar epithelial repair in damaged lungs. Our findings demonstrated that adult human lungs contain a progenitor population for ATII cells. This study is a first step toward better understanding of stem cell biology in adult human lung alveoli. PMID:21079581

  14. [Pathomorphology of lung changes caused by gramoxone poisoning. Human pathologic and animal experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Vadnay, I; Haraszti, A

    1988-01-01

    An account is given in this paper of changes caused by Gramoxone, a week killer, to the human lung as well as to experimental material. The process of damage was found to depend on the amount of toxic substance involved and on the route of uptake. Fibrosis, eventually, is the greatest danger. Intraperitoneal application leads to squamous epithelium metaplasia in the lung.

  15. Spatial Variation in the Healthy Human Lung Microbiome and the Adapted Island Model of Lung Biogeography.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Freeman, Christine M; McCloskey, Lisa; Beck, James M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    The lung microbiome is spatially heterogeneous in advanced airway diseases, but whether it varies spatially in health is unknown. We postulated that the primary determinant of lung microbiome constitution in health is the balance of immigration and elimination of communities from the upper respiratory tract (URT; "adapted island model of lung biogeography"), rather than differences in regional bacterial growth conditions. To determine if the lung microbiome is spatially varied in healthy adults. Bronchoscopy was performed on 15 healthy subjects. Specimens were sequentially collected in the lingula and right middle lobe (by bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]), then in the right upper lobe, left upper lobe, and supraglottic space (by protected-specimen brush). Bacterial 16S ribosmal RNA-encoding genes were sequenced using MiSeq (Illumina, San Diego, CA). There were no significant differences between specimens collected by BAL and protected-specimen brush. Spatially separated intrapulmonary sites, when compared with each other, did not contain consistently distinct microbiota. On average, intrasubject variation was significantly less than intersubject variation (P = 0.00003). By multiple ecologic parameters (community richness, community composition, intersubject variability, and similarity to source community), right upper lobe microbiota more closely resembled those of the URT than did microbiota from more distal sites. As predicted by the adapted island model, community richness decreased with increasing distance from the source community of the URT (P < 0.05). In healthy lungs, spatial variation in microbiota within an individual is significantly less than variation across individuals. The lung microbiome in health is more influenced by microbial immigration and elimination (the adapted island model) than by the effects of local growth conditions on bacterial reproduction rates, which are more determinant in advanced lung diseases. BAL of a single lung segment is an

  16. Quantitative Characterization of Major Hepatic UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes: Comparison of Two Proteomic Methods and Correlation with Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Achour, Brahim; Dantonio, Alyssa; Niosi, Mark; Novak, Jonathan J; Fallon, John K; Barber, Jill; Smith, Philip C; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Goosen, Theunis C

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is valuable in glucuronidation reaction phenotyping, predicting metabolic clearance and drug-drug interactions using extrapolation exercises based on pharmacokinetic modeling. Different quantitative proteomic workflows have been employed to quantify UGT enzymes in various systems, with reports indicating large variability in expression, which cannot be explained by interindividual variability alone. To evaluate the effect of methodological differences on end-point UGT abundance quantification, eight UGT enzymes were quantified in 24 matched liver microsomal samples by two laboratories using stable isotope-labeled (SIL) peptides or quantitative concatemer (QconCAT) standard, and measurements were assessed against catalytic activity in seven enzymes (n = 59). There was little agreement between individual abundance levels reported by the two methods; only UGT1A1 showed strong correlation [Spearman rank order correlation (Rs) = 0.73, P < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.30; n = 24]. SIL-based abundance measurements correlated well with enzyme activities, with correlations ranging from moderate for UGTs 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15 (Rs = 0.52-0.59, P < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.34-0.58; n = 59) to strong correlations for UGTs 1A1, 1A3, 1A4, and 2B7 (Rs = 0.79-0.90, P < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.69-0.79). QconCAT-based data revealed generally poor correlation with activity, whereas moderate correlations were shown for UGTs 1A1, 1A3, and 2B7. Spurious abundance-activity correlations were identified in the cases of UGT1A4/2B4 and UGT2B7/2B15, which could be explained by correlations of protein expression between these enzymes. Consistent correlation of UGT abundance with catalytic activity, demonstrated by the SIL-based dataset, suggests that quantitative proteomic data should be validated against catalytic activity whenever possible. In addition, metabolic reaction phenotyping exercises should consider spurious abundance

  17. Toxicity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheng, Lin; Huang, Yue-wern; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Ma, Yinfa

    2006-12-31

    With the fast development of nanotechnology, the nanomaterials start to cause people's attention for potential toxic effect. In this paper, the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by 20-nm cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in cultured human lung cancer cells was investigated. The sulforhodamine B method was employed to assess cell viability after exposure to 3.5, 10.5, and 23.3 μg/ml of CeO2 nanoparticles for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability decreased significantly as a function of nanoparticle dose and exposure time. Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species, glutathione, malondialdehyde, α-tocopherol, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed. It is concluded from the results that free radicals generated by exposure to 3.5 to 23.3 μg/ml CeO2 nanoparticles produce significant oxidative stress in the cells, as reflected by reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels; the toxic effects of CeO2 nanoparticles are dose dependent and time dependent; elevated oxidative stress increases the production of malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, which are indicators of lipid peroxidation and cell membrane damage, respectively.

  18. Expression of inducible nitric oxide in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R A; Barnes, P J; Springall, D R; Warren, J B; Kwon, O J; Buttery, L D; Wilson, A J; Geller, D A; Polak, J M

    1994-08-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of subjects with several airway disorders. To determine if cytokines could stimulate epithelial cells accounting for the increased NO, the capacity of the proinflammatory cytokines (cytomix: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interferon-gamma) to increase inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated in A549 and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Cytomix induced a time-dependent increase in nitrite levels in culture supernatant fluids (p < 0.05). Increased numbers of cells stained for iNOS and increased iNOS mRNA was detected in the cytokine-stimulated cells compared to control (p < 0.05). Dexamethasone diminished the cytokine-induced increase in nitrite, iNOS by immunocytochemistry, and iNOS mRNA. These data demonstrate that cytokines, such as those released by mononuclear cells, can induce lung epithelial iNOS expression and NO release, and that this is attenuated by dexamethasone.

  19. Human metapneumovirus in lung transplant recipients: characteristics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Fabian; Huber, Lars C; Benden, Christian; Schuurmans, Macé M

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes serious respiratory tract infections in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). We evaluated the characteristics and adverse drug reactions (ADR) of oral ribavirin therapy for hMPV infections in LTRs. LTRs with respiratory symptoms or suspected infection of unknown origin were routinely sampled with nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for virological and bacteriological analysis as part of a diagnostic workup. Medical records of hMPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive LTRs at the University Hospital of Zurich were reviewed retrospectively. Between January 2012 and June 2014, 12 (80%) of 15 consecutive patients with documented hMPV infection received oral ribavirin therapy (800 mg/d, after 48 h: 400 mg/d). Mean duration of therapy was 28.6 days (range: 11-54). Mean duration of viral shedding was 16.3 days (range: 5-48). In general, oral ribavirin was well tolerated in LTRs. The most common ADR was moderate anaemia. All patients recovered from infection without immediate serious sequelae within 3 months of infection.

  20. Deposition of sulfate acid aerosols in the developing human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Zhang, Z.; Hester, J.

    1993-01-01

    Computations of aerosol deposition as affected by (1) aerosol hygroscopicity, (2) human age, and (3) respiratory intensity are accomplished using a validated mathematical model. The interactive effects are very complicated but systematic. Few general observations can be made; rather, the findings presented within should be addressed on a case-by-case basis. The behavior of inhaled H2SO4 particles subsequent to water vapor uptake significantly influences their total deposition values and relative spatial distribution patterns within tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways. These results must be accounted for in risk assessment protocols, since compartments of the lung have different clearance processes and sensitivities to toxic materials. There is a critical size in the 0.2-0.4 micrometer range: For larger particles the influence of hygroscopicity is to increase total deposition, whereas for smaller particles the opposite occurs. The dosimetric model was developed to provide a scientific basis for extrapolation modeling of factors (1), (2), and (3) in the hazard evaluation of airborne contaminants.

  1. Development of LC-QTOF-MS method for human lung tissue fingerprinting. A preliminary application to nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciborowski, Michal; Kisluk, Joanna; Pietrowska, Karolina; Samczuk, Paulina; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Kretowski, Adam; Niklinski, Jacek

    2017-09-01

    The major histologic subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Clinical trials of targeted agents and newer chemotherapy agents yielded differences in outcomes according to histologic subgroups providing a rationale for histology-based treatment in NSCLC. Currently, NSCLC subtyping is performed based on histopathological examinations and immunohistochemistry. However available methods leave about 10% of NSCLC cases as not otherwise specified. The purpose of this study was development of an LC-QTOF-MS method for human lung tissue metabolic fingerprinting that could discriminate NSCLC histological subtypes and propose biomarkers candidates that could support proper NSCLC diagnosis. Metabolites were extracted with acetonitrile or methanol/ethanol and different chromatographic conditions were tested. In the final method 10 mg of lung tissue was homogenized with 50% methanol and metabolites were extracted with acetonitrile. Metabolites were separated on C8-RP and HILIC columns. About 3500 and 2000 of metabolic features (in both ion modes) were detected with good repeatability (CV < 20%) by RP and HILIC methods, respectively. Lung tumor and control tissue samples obtained from NSCLC patients were analyzed with developed methodology. Acylcarnitines, fatty acids, phospholipids, and amino acids were found more abundant in tumor as compared to control tissue. Acylcarnitines, lysophospholipids, creatinine, creatine, and alanine were identified as potential targets enabling classification of NSCLC subtypes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Myeloid Cells in Human Blood, Bronchoalveolar Lavage, and Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Malakhau, Yuryi; Volker, Ellen; Ghio, Andrew J.; Noble, Paul W.; Kraft, Monica; Hollingsworth, John W.; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Clear identification of specific cell populations by flow cytometry is important to understand functional roles. A well-defined flow cytometry panel for myeloid cells in human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a flow cytometry–based panel for human BAL and lung tissue. We obtained and performed flow cytometry/sorting on human BAL cells and lung tissue. Confocal images were obtained from lung tissue using antibodies for cluster of differentiation (CD)206, CD169, and E cadherin. We defined a multicolor flow panel for human BAL and lung tissue that identifies major leukocyte populations. These include macrophage (CD206+) subsets and other CD206− leukocytes. The CD206− cells include: (1) three monocyte (CD14+) subsets, (2) CD11c+ dendritic cells (CD14−, CD11c+, HLA-DR+), (3) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD14−, CD11c−, HLA-DR+, CD123+), and (4) other granulocytes (neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils). Using this panel on human lung tissue, we defined two populations of pulmonary macrophages: CD169+ and CD169− macrophages. In lung tissue, CD169− macrophages were a prominent cell type. Using confocal microscopy, CD169+ macrophages were located in the alveolar space/airway, defining them as alveolar macrophages. In contrast, CD169− macrophages were associated with airway/alveolar epithelium, consistent with interstitial-associated macrophages. We defined a flow cytometry panel in human BAL and lung tissue that allows identification of multiple immune cell types and delineates alveolar from interstitial-associated macrophages. This study has important implications for defining myeloid cells in human lung samples. PMID:26267148

  3. Identification of CCDC6-RET fusion in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, LC-2/ad.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Daisuke; Kanai, Yoshihiko; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Ohara, Shiori; Yoshimoto, Taichiro; Sakatani, Takashi; Oguni, Sachiko; Tamura, Tomoko; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Endo, Shunsuke; Murakami, Yoshinori; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Niki, Toshiro

    2012-12-01

    Rearranged during transfection (RET) fusions have been newly identified in approximately 1% of patients with primary lung tumors. However, patient-derived lung cancer cell lines harboring RET fusions have not yet been established or identified, and therefore, the effectiveness of an RET inhibitor on lung tumors with endogenous RET fusion has not yet been studied. In this study, we report identification of CCDC6-RET fusion in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LC-2/ad. LC-2/ad showed distinctive sensitivity to the RET inhibitor, vandetanib, among 39 non-small lung cancer cell lines. The xenograft tumor of LC-2/ad showed cribriform acinar structures, a morphologic feature of primary RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas. LC-2/ad cells could provide useful resources to analyze molecular functions of RET-fusion protein and its response to RET inhibitors.

  4. Direct demonstration of 25- and 50-microm arteriovenous pathways in healthy human and baboon lungs.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew T; Stickland, Michael K; Kelso, Amy J; Eldridge, Marlowe W

    2007-04-01

    Postmortem microsphere studies in adult human lungs have demonstrated the existence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways using nonphysiological conditions. The aim of the current study was to determine whether large diameter (>25 and 50 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in human and baboon lungs under physiological perfusion and ventilation pressures. We used fresh healthy human donor lungs obtained for transplantation and fresh lungs from baboons (Papio c. anubis). Lungs were ventilated with room air by using a peak inflation pressure of 15 cm H(2)O and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H(2)O. Lungs were perfused between 10 and 20 cm H(2)O by using a phosphate-buffered saline solution with 5% albumin. We infused a mixture of 25- and 50-microm microspheres (0.5 and 1 million total for baboons and human studies, respectively) into the pulmonary artery and collected the entire pulmonary venous outflow. Under these conditions, evidence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was found in baboon (n = 3/4) and human (n = 4/6) lungs. In those lungs showing evidence of arteriovenous pathways, 50-microm microspheres were always able to traverse the pulmonary circulation, and the fraction of transpulmonary passage ranged from 0.0003 to 0.42%. These data show that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways >50 microm in diameter are functional under physiological ventilation and perfusion pressures in the isolated lung. These pathways provide an alternative conduit for pulmonary blood flow that likely bypasses the areas of gas exchange at the capillary-alveolar interface that could compromise both gas exchange and the ability of the lung to filter out microemboli.

  5. Zinc transporters are differentially expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxuan; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignancies worldwide, but its oncogenesis process remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated that zinc (Zn) and Zn transporters were associated with the development and progression of human cancers. The role of Zn transporters including ZIPs and ZnTs in lung cancer, however, has never been evaluated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the expression levels of all human Zn transporters, including 14 ZIPs and 10 ZnTs, in eight different lung cancer cell lines and paired human tumor tissues. We observed great variations in ZIPs and ZnTs mRNA levels across cell lines and human lung cancer specimens. ZIPs showed a tendency to be upregulated, while ZnTs exhibited a downward expression trend. ZIP4 was overexpressed in six lung cancer cell lines and 59% (26/44) of tumor tissues, which was consistent with results from lung cancer datasets including TCGA database. Our results indicated that the dysregulation of Zn transporters may contribute to lung tumorigenesis. PMID:27611948

  6. Deficient retinoid-driven angiogenesis may contribute to failure of adult human lung regeneration in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ng-Blichfeldt, John-Poul; Alçada, Joana; Montero, M Angeles; Dean, Charlotte H; Griesenbach, Uta; Griffiths, Mark J; Hind, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema. The role of RA signalling in alveolar epithelial repair was investigated with a scratch assay using an alveolar cell line (A549) and primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells from resected lung, and the role in angiogenesis using a tube formation assay with human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). Localisation of RA synthetic (RALDH-1) and degrading (cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 A1 (CYP26A1)) enzymes in human lung was determined by immunofluorescence. Regulation of RA pathway components was investigated in emphysematous and control human lung tissue by quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis. RA stimulated HLMVEC angiogenesis in vitro; this was partially reproduced with a RAR-α agonist. RA induced mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFR2. RA did not modulate AT2 repair. CYP26A1 protein was identified in human lung microvasculature, whereas RALDH-1 partially co-localised with vimentin-positive fibroblasts. CYP26A1 mRNA and protein were increased in emphysema. RA regulates lung microvascular angiogenesis; the endothelium produces CYP26A1 which is increased in emphysema, possibly leading to reduced RA availability. These data highlight a role for RA in maintenance of the human pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Nedocromil sodium inhibits antigen-induced contraction of human lung parenchymal and bronchial strips, and the release of sulphidopeptide-leukotriene and histamine from human lung fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Napier, F. E.; Shearer, M. A.; Temple, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced release of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes and histamine from passively sensitized fragments of human lung, and on antigen-induced contraction of sensitized strips of human lung parenchyma and bronchus, have been studied. 2. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited leukotriene release from fragments of human lung by 30% and 38% respectively, and histamine release by 43% for both concentrations, but 10 microM was ineffective. The lung fragments, which were passively sensitized to house dust mite, Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus, in control experiments released leukotrienes (6.58 +/- 0.12 nmol equiv. leukotriene C4 per g, n = 6) and histamine (10.3 +/- 1.8 of total tissue histamine, n = 5) when challenged with house dust mite extract. 3. Isolated strips of human lung parenchyma, passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 40% of the maximal histamine response for each strip. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited these contractions by 50% and 70% of the control response, but 10 microM had no inhibitory effect. 4. Isolated rings from human bronchus, also passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 86% of the maximal histamine response. Nedocromil sodium 1 microM, but not 0.1 or 10 microM, inhibited contractions by 48% of the control response. 5. The therapeutic effects of nedocromil sodium in allergic asthma may depend, partly, on its inhibition of antigen-induced release of leukotrienes and histamine in human lung and its consequent inhibition of antigen-induced contractions of parenchymal and bronchial tissue. PMID:1696152

  8. Endogenous Semaphorin-7A Impedes Human Lung Fibroblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Esnault, Stephane; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Bernau, Ksenija; Johansson, Mats W.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Sandbo, Nathan; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2017-01-01

    Semaphorin-7A is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, initially characterized as an axon guidance protein. Semaphorin-7A also contributes to immune cell regulation and may be an essential pro-fibrotic factor when expressed by non-fibroblast cell types (exogenous). In mouse models, semaphorin-7A was shown to be important for TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary fibrosis characterized by myofibroblast accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition, but the cell-specific role of semaphorin-7A was not examined in fibroblasts. The purpose of this study is to determine semaphorin-7A expression by fibroblasts and to investigate the function of endogenously expressed semaphorin-7A in primary human lung fibroblasts (HLF). Herein, we show that non-fibrotic HLF expressed high levels of cell surface semaphorin-7A with little dependence on the percentage of serum or recombinant TGF-ß1. Semaphorin-7A siRNA strongly decreased semaphorin-7A mRNA expression and reduced cell surface semaphorin-7A. Reduction of semaphorin-7A induced increased proliferation and migration of non-fibrotic HLF. Also, independent of the presence of TGF-ß1, the decline of semaphorin-7A by siRNA was associated with increased α-smooth muscle actin production and gene expression of periostin, fibronectin, laminin, and serum response factor (SRF), indicating differentiation into a myofibroblast. Conversely, overexpression of semaphorin-7A in the NIH3T3 fibroblast cell line reduced the production of pro-fibrotic markers. The inverse association between semaphorin-7A and pro-fibrotic fibroblast markers was further analyzed using HLF from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 6) and non-fibrotic (n = 7) lungs. Using these 13 fibroblast lines, we observed that semaphorin-7A and periostin expression were inversely correlated. In conclusion, our study indicates that endogenous semaphorin-7A in HLF plays a role in maintaining fibroblast homeostasis by preventing up-regulation of pro-fibrotic genes. Therefore

  9. Resident Tissue-Specific Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Contribute to Fibrogenesis in Human Lung Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Natalie; Badri, Linda; Wettlaufer, Scott; Flint, Andrew; Sajjan, Uma; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Lama, Vibha N.

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic obliteration of the small airways leading to progressive airflow obstruction, termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), is the major cause of poor outcomes after lung transplantation. We recently demonstrated that a donor-derived population of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of human lung transplant recipients. Herein, we study the organ specificity of these cells and investigate the role of local mesenchymal progenitors in fibrogenesis after lung transplantation. We demonstrate that human lung allograft–derived MSCs uniquely express embryonic lung mesenchyme–associated transcription factors with a 35,000-fold higher expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor forkhead box (FOXF1) noted in lung compared with bone marrow MSCs. Fibrotic differentiation of MSCs isolated from normal lung allografts was noted in the presence of profibrotic mediators associated with BOS, including transforming growth factor-β and IL-13. MSCs isolated from patients with BOS demonstrated increased expression of α-SMA and collagen I when compared with non-BOS controls, consistent with a stable in vivo fibrotic phenotype. FOXF1 mRNA expression in the BAL cell pellet correlated with the number of MSCs in the BAL fluid, and myofibroblasts present in the fibrotic lesions expressed FOXF1 by in situ hybridization. These data suggest a key role for local tissue-specific, organ-resident, mesenchymal precursors in the fibrogenic processes in human adult lungs. PMID:21641374

  10. Resident tissue-specific mesenchymal progenitor cells contribute to fibrogenesis in human lung allografts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Natalie; Badri, Linda; Wettlaufer, Scott; Flint, Andrew; Sajjan, Uma; Krebsbach, Paul H; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G; Peters-Golden, Marc; Lama, Vibha N

    2011-06-01

    Fibrotic obliteration of the small airways leading to progressive airflow obstruction, termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), is the major cause of poor outcomes after lung transplantation. We recently demonstrated that a donor-derived population of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of human lung transplant recipients. Herein, we study the organ specificity of these cells and investigate the role of local mesenchymal progenitors in fibrogenesis after lung transplantation. We demonstrate that human lung allograft-derived MSCs uniquely express embryonic lung mesenchyme-associated transcription factors with a 35,000-fold higher expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor forkhead box (FOXF1) noted in lung compared with bone marrow MSCs. Fibrotic differentiation of MSCs isolated from normal lung allografts was noted in the presence of profibrotic mediators associated with BOS, including transforming growth factor-β and IL-13. MSCs isolated from patients with BOS demonstrated increased expression of α-SMA and collagen I when compared with non-BOS controls, consistent with a stable in vivo fibrotic phenotype. FOXF1 mRNA expression in the BAL cell pellet correlated with the number of MSCs in the BAL fluid, and myofibroblasts present in the fibrotic lesions expressed FOXF1 by in situ hybridization. These data suggest a key role for local tissue-specific, organ-resident, mesenchymal precursors in the fibrogenic processes in human adult lungs. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two mathematical models for predicting dispersion of particles in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Ganser, G H; Christie, I; McCawley, M A

    2007-02-01

    The dispersion of particles in the human lung is modeled as a series of virtual mixing tanks. Using the experimental results of Scherer et al. (1975, J. Appl. Physiol., 38(4), pp. 719-723) for a five-generation glass lung model, it is shown that each generation of the glass lung behaves like an independent virtual mixing tank. The corresponding resident time distribution is shown to have a variance approximately equal to the square of the average time a particle spends in the generation. By assuming that each generation of the human lung behaves as an independent virtual mixing tank, the realistic lung data provided by Weibel (1963, Morphometry of the Human Lung, Spinger-Verlag, New York) are used to validate this assumption in two ways. First, the half-width of the exhaled particle concentration profile is obtained. Second, a system of differential equations, with the concentration of particles in each mixing tank as its solution, is derived and solved numerically. This gives the exhaled concentration profile. Both techniques yield similar results to each other, and both give excellent agreement with the experimental data. The virtual mixing tank approach allows the complex mixing that occurs in the branching pathways of the lung to be more simply modeled. The model, thereby derived, is simple to change and could lead to enhancements in the understanding of the underlying processes contributing to the ventilation of the lung in health and disease.

  12. DEPOSITION DISTRICUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEPOSITION DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE. Chong S. Kim*, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711; Z. Zhang and C. Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North C...

  13. DEPOSITION DISTRICUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEPOSITION DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE. Chong S. Kim*, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711; Z. Zhang and C. Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North C...

  14. The roles of diol epoxide and o-quinone pathways in mouse lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human lung carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is sufficient epidemiological evidence supported by experimental data that some PAH-containing complex environmental mixtures pose risks to human health by increasing lung cancer incidence. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that human respirator...

  15. The roles of diol epoxide and o-quinone pathways in mouse lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human lung carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is sufficient epidemiological evidence supported by experimental data that some PAH-containing complex environmental mixtures pose risks to human health by increasing lung cancer incidence. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that human respirator...

  16. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.

  17. Microvesicles Derived From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Human Lungs Rejected for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gennai, S; Monsel, A; Hao, Q; Park, J; Matthay, M A; Lee, J W

    2015-09-01

    The need to increase the donor pool for lung transplantation is a major public health issue. We previously found that administration of mesenchymal stem cells "rehabilitated" marginal donor lungs rejected for transplantation using ex vivo lung perfusion. However, the use of stem cells has some inherent limitation such as the potential for tumor formation. In the current study, we hypothesized that microvesicles, small anuclear membrane fragments constitutively released from mesenchymal stem cells, may be a good alternative to using stem cells. Using our well established ex vivo lung perfusion model, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells increased alveolar fluid clearance (i.e. ability to absorb pulmonary edema fluid) in a dose-dependent manner, decreased lung weight gain following perfusion and ventilation, and improved airway and hemodynamic parameters compared to perfusion alone. Microvesicles derived from normal human lung fibroblasts as a control had no effect. Co-administration of microvesicles with anti-CD44 antibody attenuated these effects, suggesting a key role of the CD44 receptor in the internalization of the microvesicles into the injured host cell and its effect. In summary, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells were as effective as the parent mesenchymal stem cells in rehabilitating marginal donor human lungs. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Regulation of cytochrome P4501A1 expression by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines: Implications for hyperoxic lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Bhakta, Kushal Y. Jiang, Weiwu; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Fazili, Inayat S.; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2008-12-01

    Supplemental oxygen, used to treat pulmonary insufficiency in newborns, contributes to t